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Sample records for argentinean subtropical andean

  1. Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoppido, Gisela; Parreño, Viviana; Vilá, Bibiana

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (Ab) to rotavirus (RV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and influenza A virus equine (EIV). Samples were collected in Cieneguillas Province of Jujuy, in northern Argentina. Feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate RV shedding. Llamas (Lama glama) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) from the area studied also were tested for antibodies to these viruses. Antibodies against RV (100%) and BPIV-3 (37%) were detected in the vicuñas sampled. No RV antigen was detected in any of the fecal samples tested. One vicuña was positive for Ab to BHV-1 (0.8%) and another for BVDV-1 (0.8%). The Ab prevalences detected in llamas were: 100% (16/16) for RV, 47% (8/17) for BPIV-3, 17.6% (3/17) for BHV-1, and 5.9% (1/17) for BVDV-1. However, domestic cattle had high antibody prevalences for RV and BPIV-3, 100% (13/13) and 73% (11/15), respectively, but were negative for Ab to BHV-1 and BVDV. No antibodies against FMDV, BTV, EHV-1, or EIV were detected in wild vicuñas or domestic species. Because no data of viral circulation on wild vicuñas are available, this report represents the first evidence of viral infection in wild vicuñas from the Argentinean Andean Puna.

  2. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  3. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    , social, and cultural concerns. Set in the highland town of Recuay in Ancash, the book traces the ways in which water affects political and ecological relations as glaciers recede. By looking at the shared waterways of four villages located in the foothills of Cordillera Blanca, it addresses pertinent......Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political...

  4. Genomic continuity of Argentinean Mennonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Llull, Cintia; Berardi, Gabriela; Gómez, Andrea; Andreatta, Fernando; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Toscanini, Ulises; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Mennonites are Anabaptist communities that originated in Central Europe about 500 years ago. They initially migrated to different European countries, and in the early 18th century they established their first communities in North America, from where they moved to other American regions. We aimed to analyze an Argentinean Mennonite congregation from a genome-wide perspective by way of investigating >580.000 autosomal SNPs. Several analyses show that Argentinean Mennonites have European ancestry without signatures of admixture with other non-European American populations. Among the worldwide datasets used for population comparison, the CEU, which is the best-subrogated Central European population existing in The 1000 Genome Project, is the dataset showing the closest genome affinity to the Mennonites. When compared to other European population samples, the Mennonites show higher inbreeding coefficient values. Argentinean Mennonites show signatures of genetic continuity with no evidence of admixture with Americans of Native American or sub-Saharan African ancestry. Their genome indicates the existence of an increased endogamy compared to other Europeans most likely mirroring their lifestyle that involve small communities and historical consanguineous marriages. PMID:27824108

  5. Qochas on Andean highlands

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    On the Andean highlands, the "qochas" are lakes or ponds of natural or artificial origin. An ancient agricultural technique is based on their use. Linked together by a network of canals, qochas form a system of water and soil management, alternately used for crops or pasture. The concave structure of qochas controls the strong evaporation produced by solar radiation and wind blowing. Qochas can be observed in the satellite imagery of Google Maps.

  6. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  7. Influence of precipitation pulses on long-term Prosopis ferox dynamics in the Argentinean intermontane subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mariano S; Villalba, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Biological processes in arid communities are associated with episodic precipitation pulses. We postulate that annual to decadal-scale precipitation pulses modulate the dynamics of the intermontane Prepuna woodlands. To study this hypothesis, we have assessed the influence of precipitation pulses on the rates of growth and survival of Prosopis ferox in the Prepuna woodlands during the past century. Tree ages from several P. ferox stands were used to reconstruct the establishment patterns at each sampling site. Ring-width chronologies provided the basis to assess the influence of annual versus multiannual precipitation pulses on radial growth and establishment over time. Both the radial growth and the stand dynamics of P. ferox at the regional scale were found to be largely modulated by climate, with precipitation the dominant factor influencing interannual variations in P. ferox ring-widths. Our analysis of dendrochronological dating data on 885 individuals of P. ferox revealed a period of abundant establishment from the mid-1970s to beginning of 1990 s, which is coincident with an interval of remarkable above-average precipitation. However, tree-growth and establishment patterns at the local scale in the Prepuna also reflected land-use changes, particularly long-term variations in livestock intensity. The P. ferox dynamics documented here substantiates the hierarchical concept of "resource-pulse" in dry ecosystems, with precipitation pulses of different lengths modulating distinct dynamic processes in the P. ferox woodlands. Interannual variations in precipitation influence year-to-year patterns of P. ferox radial growth, whereas multiannual oscillations in rainfall influence episodic events of tree establishment. The long-term interval considered in this study enabled us to disentangle the roles of natural versus human controls on P. ferox dynamics in the region.

  8. Identificación de áreas de homogeneidad estadística para los caudales de ríos andinos argentinos y su relación con la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar Identification of statistical homogeneous areas for argentinean andean river flows and their relationship with the atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa H. Compagnucci

    2005-12-01

    include: I the area from the Neuquén River to the Senguer River and II the area from the Jachal River to the Colorado River. Region I shows a double maximum regime of flow in winter-spring, whereas Region II is characterized by a maximum in summer. The last one would be closely related to the El Niño / Southern Oscillation patterns. The most relevant differences in the associated circulation to volume extremes of the Regions I and whit respect to the Region II would be: 1 the displacement of the circulation systems towards higher latitudes, 2 the greater relevance of the middle latitude systems, 3 the smaller importance of the systems located on the Drake Passage and 4 the presence at 500 hPa of a smaller longitude stationary waves train that crosses the continent at subtropical latitudes coming from the central Pacific in NW-SE direction.

  9. Chagas disease in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guhl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Countries' Initiative (ACI for controlling Chagas disease was officially created in 1997 within the framework of the Hipolito Unanue Agreement (UNANUE between the Ministries of Health of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its objective was to interrupt transmission via vector and transfusion in the region, taking into account that there are 12.5 million people at risk in the four Andean countries forming the initiative in the area and around 3 million people are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The progress of control activities for the vector species present in the Andean sub-region, for different reasons, has been slow and control interventions have still not been installed in all geographical areas occupied by the target species. This has been partly due to lack of knowledge about these vector populations' biological characteristics, and consequent uncertainty about which are the appropriate control measures and strategies to be implemented in the region. The main vector species present important similarities in Venezuela and Colombia and in Ecuador and Northern Peru and they can be approached in a similar way throughout the whole regions, basing approaches on and adapting them to the current strategies being developed in Venezuela during the 1960s which have been progressively adopted in the Southern Cone and Central-American region. Additional measures are needed for keeping endemic areas free from Rhodnius prolixus silvatic populations, widely spread in the Orinoco region in Colombia and Venezuela. Regarding aetiological treatment, it is worth mentioning that (with the exception of Colombia none of the other countries forming the ACI have registered medicaments available for treating infected young people. There are no suitable follow-up programmes in the sub-region or for treating cases of congenital Chagas disease. An integral and integrated programme encompassing all the aspects including transmission by transfusion which

  10. Zinc poisoning associated with separation anxiety in an Argentinean bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoa, A; Fidalgo, L E; Suárez, M L; Espino, L; Pérez-López, M; Santamarina, G

    2002-02-01

    Separation anxiety in dogs is a complex behavioral syndrome produced by many causes. A hunter 4y-old male Argentinean Bulldog had dental disturbances and gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms due to high plasma zinc and low copper and calcium plasma concentration. His behavior made him bite galvanized wire fences in his cage and bunk that contained his food, both of a Zn-containing material. Specific treatment resulted in complete recovery.

  11. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique

    2013-01-01

    One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrat...

  12. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed

  13. Phylogenetic insights into Andean plant diversification

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    Federico eLuebert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Andean orogeny is considered as one of the most important events for the developmentof current plant diversity in South America. We compare available phylogenetic studies anddivergence time estimates for plant lineages that may have diversified in response to Andeanorogeny. The influence of the Andes on plant diversification is separated into four major groups:The Andes as source of new high-elevation habitats, as a vicariant barrier, as a North-Southcorridor and as generator of new environmental conditions outside the Andes. Biogeographicalrelationships between the Andes and other regions are also considered. Divergence timeestimates indicate that high-elevation lineages originated and diversified during or after the majorphases of Andean uplift (Mid-Miocene to Pliocene, although there are some exceptions. Asexpected, Andean mid-elevation lineages tend to be older than high-elevation groups. Mostclades with disjunct distribution on both sides of the Andes diverged during Andean uplift.Inner-Andean clades also tend to have divergence time during or after Andean uplift. This isinterpreted as evidence of vicariance. Dispersal along the Andes has been shown to occur ineither direction, mostly dated after the Andean uplift. Divergence time estimates of plant groupsoutside the Andes encompass a wider range of ages, indicating that the Andes may not benecessarily the cause of these diversifications. The Andes are biogeographically related to allneighbouring areas, especially Central America, with floristic interchanges in both directionssince Early Miocene times. Direct biogeographical relationships between the Andes and otherdisjunct regions have also been shown in phylogenetic studies, especially with the easternBrazilian highlands and North America. The history of the Andean flora is complex and plantdiversification has been driven by a variety of processes, including environmental change,adaptation, and biotic interactions

  14. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  15. Subtropical Storm Andrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The circling clouds of an intense low-pressure system sat off the southeast coast of the United States on May 8, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. By the following morning, the storm developed enough to be classified as a subtropical storm, a storm that forms outside of the tropics, but has many of the characteristics--hurricane-force winds, driving rains, low pressure, and sometimes an eye--of a tropical storm. Although it arrived several weeks shy of the official start of the hurricane season (June 1), Subtropical Storm Andrea became the first named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm has the circular shape of a tropical cyclone in this image, but lacks the tight organization seen in more powerful storms. By May 9, the storm's winds reached 75 kilometers per hour (45 miles per hour), and the storm was not predicted to get any stronger, said the National Hurricane Center. Though Subtropical Storm Andrea was expected to remain offshore, its strong winds and high waves pummeled coastal states, prompting a tropical storm watch. The winds fueled wild fires (marked with red boxes) in Georgia and Florida. The wind-driven flames generated thick plumes of smoke that concentrated in a gray-brown mass over Tampa Bay, Florida. Unfortunately for Georgia and Florida, which are experiencing moderate to severe drought, Subtropical Storm Andrea was not predicted to bring significant rain to the region right away, according to reports on the Washington Post Website.

  16. Along-Strike Variations in Focal Mechanisms of Central Andean Crustal Earthquakes: Northern Peru through the Argentina Sierras Pampeanas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.

    2003-12-01

    120 shallow focal mechanisms in the crust above the subducted Nazca plate were assembled from the Harvard CMT catalog and published studies covering over 40 years of seismicity. The study area included the Andes crust above three major segments of the subducted plate, the Peruvian and Argentinean flat-slab segments and the intervening segment where the subducted Nazca plate dips more steeply. The most seismically active regions continue to be the thick-skinned foreland thrust belts in the eastern Andes of Peru and the Sierras Pampeanas. The earthquakes there are clearly associated with youthful tectonic structures with strong topographic signatures as revealed by the new 90 m SRTM digital elevation models. The mechanisms are dominantly of the thrust type but include a minority of strike-slip orientations. However the P axes remain consistent. The thin-skinned thrust belts east of the central Andean Plateau show significant activity only near Santa Cruz, Bolivia and northern Argentina; most of the Sub-Andean thrust belt of Bolivia and southern Peru remains aseismic. The central Andean plateau itself also remains aseismic except for the region of southern Peru and two earthquakes in the Puna. The crustal seismicity in southern Peru is largely concentrated on the western side of the plateau. The focal mechanisms show a strong grouping of T axes in a horizontal, north-south orientation. Both normal and strike-slip mechanisms occur in this region, with no obvious correlation with elevation or surface structures. Remarkably, with the exception of one normal fault type mechanism near the Cusco basin, the earthquakes occur in regions of the western parts of the Altiplano that do not exhibit topographic evidence of substantial crustal deformation. These results are consistent with a model in which the Altiplano of southern Peru, with a trend most oblique to the overall direction of convergence, manifests a left-lateral shearing component across the orogen.

  17. Personality disorders, depression, and coping styles in Argentinean bulimic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.

  18. The tangible and intangible Processes of Internationalization: the Argentinean SMEs

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    Christian Keen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the concepts of tangible and intangible internationalization using a data from Argentinean SMEs. The findings suggest that managers may have to make a strategic commitment to upgrade and expand firms’ resources and capabilities to achieve long term internationalization. The results offer evidence that becoming an international company is not only about having a physical presence in a foreign market. It is important to re-focus the firms’ outlook from competing in a protected domestic market to competing in markets with a strong presence of international companies. In addition, managers may have to shift their focus from short-term rent and profit seeking to long-term internationalization. This research also contributes to the study of internationalization of SMEs as it further expands the concept of internationalization by including a long-term perspective where the company can be international without having a physical presence in a foreign market

  19. Argentinean species of Chalarus Walker (Diptera: Pipunculidae): new records and description of Chalarus tani n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H C; Rafael, J A; Virla, E G

    2012-04-01

    The Argentinean species of Chalarus Walker were studied. Pipunculidae adults belonging to four species, C halarus chilensis Collin, Chalarus triramosus Rafael, Chalarus absonus Rafael and Chalarus tani n. sp. were described based on two male specimens collected in the La Rioja and Tucuman Provinces, northwestern region of Argentina. Chalarus absonus is recorded for the first time in Argentina. New distributional data and an identification key to the adult males of the Argentinean representatives are provided including figures.

  20. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

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    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  1. Evolving Regional Security in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    security forces or judicial systems reduces the effectiveness of regional cooperation. Past efforts to achieve consensus among the Andean states have...Trimestre 2001. Nuñez, Joseph. Una Arquitectura para la Seguridad del Siglo XXI par alas Américas: Cooperación Multilateral, Paz y Poder Flexible

  2. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  3. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

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    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  4. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, Marina, E-mail: mrecalde@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) - Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET), 12 de Octubre 1198 piso 7, B8000CTX Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: > This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. > There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. > It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. > A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. > Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  5. Circadian Typology and Personality Styles in Argentinean University Women

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    María Pilar Sánchez López

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the differential personality profiles of subjects according to their circadian typology (Mornigness- Eveningness. The CS Scale (Smith, Reilly y Midkinff, 1989 and the Millon Inventory of Styles of Personality (Millon, 1994 have been applied to 120 Argentinean University Women (AUW. The results point out that all AUW with high scores in morningness (M are more organised to gather and elaborate the information of the environment. On the other hand, women characterised by Eveningness (E are more creative and risky, more disappointed with routines and predictable facts and look for original and unexpected results. Furthermore, Intermediate group of woman (not clearly M or V is studied; some new findings arise: Intermediate, as compared with W tend to behave in a more adequate and formal way in social contexts and they express their emotions or act spontaneously more unlikely. Through that method we have a better picture of the differential patterns of personality, according to the Mornigness-Eveningness features of the subjects. Generally speaking, the findings open the way for future research in which specific variables of personalities will be included. 

  6. Improving glacier volume-area scaling to better quantify tropical Andean glacial water resources from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A. G.; Kincaid, J. L.; Dobreva, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an important component of the water budget for high-altitude catchments in much of the central Andes. The majority of tropical Andean glaciers are small, but it has been suggested that because of their numbers the volume of water they contain is significant. Unfortunately, the ice volume measurements needed to inform decision makers have been made for only a handful of tropical glaciers. In August 2012, with the assistance of the Instituto Geográfico Militar in Bolivia, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) measurements were collected along transects totaling 3,189 m in length on the Charquini SE cirque glacier. This small cirque glacier which is located in the southern portion of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia had an approximate surface area in 2012 of 02.42 square kilometers. Our initial observations indicate that the GPR survey was able to adequately capture the ice bedrock interface. Ordinary Kriging was used to develop maps of surface and subsurface topography from the dGPS and GPR observations. In 2012, the Charquini SE glacier contained a minimum of 3,900,000 cubic meters of ice. This information, along with other recent volume measurements for tropical and sub-tropical Andean glaciers, was used to update earlier volume-area scaling relationships established for these glaciers. This relationship will then be applied to determine the volume of water currently stored in tropical Andean glaciers based on previous research on glaciers areas using remote sensing.

  7. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  8. Volcanism and associated hazards: The Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  9. Tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin, offshore the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin development, located offshore the Argentinean margin, was carried out. This was achieved through the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles, spanning a dense grid on the shelf and the upper-slope of the basin. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement and deepens gradually southwards. U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) fills regional depressions, onlapping the basement, and it thickens and deepens southwards. U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults, which have a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have been developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions. (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic) and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the opening of the South Atlantic during Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Some syn-rift faults continue into the Cretaceous. Sedimentation in this unit is mainly derived from the north and during Mid-Cretaceous also from the northeast, as documented by the presence of a southwestward prograding sedimentary fan located in the northeast of the basin. U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformly U3 and thickens to the south. Sediment input decreases dramatically during that time and only a thin sedimentary succession was deposited over the entire basin. Although a regional compressional regime is established from late Cretaceous to Cenozoic due to the Andean orogenesis, an extensional regime

  10. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent

  11. Genetic and biochemical studies in Argentinean patients with variegate porphyria

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    Giudice Jimena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A partial deficiency in Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX produces the mixed disorder Variegate Porphyria (VP, the second acute porphyria more frequent in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt VP is absolutely important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. Methods We have studied at molecular level 18 new Argentinean patients biochemically diagnosed as VP. PPOX gene was amplified in one or in twelve PCR reactions. All coding exons, flanking intronic and promoter regions were manual or automatically sequenced. For RT-PCR studies RNA was retrotranscripted, amplified and sequenced. PPOX activity in those families carrying a new and uncharacterized mutation was performed. Results All affected individuals harboured mutations in heterozygous state. Nine novel mutations and 3 already reported mutations were identified. Six of the novel mutations were single nucleotide substitutions, 2 were small deletions and one a small insertion. Three single nucleotide substitutions and the insertion were at exon-intron boundaries. Two of the single nucleotide substitutions, c.471G>A and c.807G>A and the insertion (c.388+3insT were close to the splice donor sites in exons 5, 7 and intron 4 respectively. The other single nucleotide substitution was a transversion in the last base of intron 7, g.3912G>C (c.808-1G>C so altering the consensus acceptor splice site. However, only in the first case the abnormal band showing the skipping of exon 5 was detected. The other single nucleotide substitutions were transversions: c.101A>T, c.995G>C and c.670 T>G that result in p.E34V, p.G332A and W224G aminoacid substitutions in exons 3, 10 and 7 respectively. Activity measurements indicate that these mutations reduced about 50% PPOX activity and also that they co-segregate with this reduced activity value. Two

  12. Where and When did High Andean Relief Emerge?: Insights From Molecular Phylogenies of Andean Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, T.; Picard, D.; Plantard, O.

    2006-05-01

    Emergence of mountains along the Andean margin created new ecosystems and thus triggered a variety of adaptive biotic radiations, to the point that the Andes are to-day one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots. The rising Andes came to serve as a rain barrier: cloud forests developed along their eastern side due to orographic concentration of the westward-moving Amazonian moisture, and environments became drier in the west, with highland steppes extending above ~2-3 km. Relevant biologic data concerning Andean taxa adapted to these environments might therefore shed some light on the issue of Andean orogeny and surface uplift. Phylogeography (the analysis of phylogenetic trees in terms of biogeographic distributions) and phylochronology (the use of phylogenetic trees as molecular clocks) can be employed to reconstruct syn- orogenic radiations and estimate their timing, respectively. We use published molecular phylogenies that inform on the evolution of a variety of Andean animal and plant taxa, and therefore provide indirect means to assess and approximately date the acquisition of altitude. Phylogeographic analyses of 6 phylogenetic trees concerning unrelated Andean biota coincide in having their basal clades established in areas within the Central Andean Orocline (CAO), 5 of them clearly pointing to southern Peru and/or western Bolivia as the region of origin of the corresponding high-Andean taxa. A histogram of 9 phylochronologic estimates, based on trees concerning unrelated taxa (independently constructed and calibrated), suggests that the 2.0-2.5 km critical altitude was acquired during the 23-17 Ma or 26-16 Ma intervals (depending on the threshold used), confirming some geomorphic and geologic estimates (but conflicting with others). Although more data are needed, these results suggest that it was within the CAO and approximately during the early Miocene that the Andes acquired altitudes sufficient to trigger radiations of cold-adapted taxa, i.e. >~2 km

  13. A new orb-weaving spider from the Argentinean flooding pampas grasses: Aculepeira morenoae new species (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D; Izquierdo, Matías A; Piacentini, Luis N

    2013-02-14

    A new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Aculepeira Chamberling & Ivie 1942, A. morenoae new species, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens from the Argentinean natural flooding pampas grasses.

  14. The Andean Geotrail (2): An educational project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, O.; Sassier, C.; Vial, M.; Thiberge, P.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In the framework of the UNESCO International Year of Planet Earth, we performed an educational project in collaboration with primary, secondary and high schools in France and Norway. Geosciences are not usually studied in schools, but this project allowed more than 600 pupils (from 17 schools) aged 8 to 18 years old to share the geological discoveries of our popular science adventure The Andean Geotrail (see Sassier et al., this session). The main educational goal was to promote Geosciences by illustrating in the field what geology is. Our natural laboratory was the spectacular Andean Cordillera. The secondary goal was to promote careers in geology and highlight their variety by allowing the pupils to meet geologists through portraits of geologists. The teachers of the partner schools used our project as a dynamic complement to their theoretical lessons. To set up this partnership, we obtained the support of the pedagogic supervisors of the French Ministry of National Education. The pedagogical project consisted of three steps: (1) Before the expedition (Oct.-Nov. 2008), we visited the pupils of each partner school to present the project, establish personal contact and engage the pupils in our adventure. (2) During The Andean Geotrail itself (Nov. 2008-Aug. 2009), we continuously documented our

  15. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  16. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  17. Large scale features associated with strong frontogenesis in equivalent potential temperature in the South American subtropics east of the Andes

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    J. M. Arraut

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available South American subtropics east of the Andes exhibit a region of intense climatological frontogenesis in equivalent potential temperature (EPT in the December to March season, mostly produced by deformation of the wind field. The goal of this paper is to investigate the large scale features associated with intense and weak frontogenesis by deformation (FGD in EPT in the region where it attains its climatological maximum. This can be approximately delimited by 32–42° S and 66–69° W, which is small enough as to contain only one synoptic perturbation at a time. The spatial average of the positive values of frontogenesis at 850 hPa over the whole region (DFG+ is used to represent the strength of the perturbation. ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis data set is used to calculate DFG+ at six hour intervals for 21 seasons (1981–2002. Compositing analysis is carried out for strong (above the 0.75 quantile and weak (below the 0.25 quantile events. For strong events the geopotential field at 850 hPa exhibits the North Argentinean Low (NAL, a transient trough and the Low Pressure Tongue East of the Andes (LPT. Upon comparison with the composite field of FGD it can be observed that FGD exhibits a strong maximum over the Argentinean Col (AC which separates the NAL and the trough. These features are absent in the weak frontogenesis composite, which exhibits a stronger South Pacific Subtropical High close to the continent. At 250 hPa the strong FGD composite exhibits a trough over the Andes with a wind speed maximum to its east. Both of these features are associated with the deepening of the NAL in the literature. These are not present in the weak FGD composites. Strong events show an intense quasi meridional corridor of water vapor transport from the Amazon to the subtropics that encounters westerly flow in the neighborhood of the AC. This is absent in weak events. A preliminary analysis of precipitation is carried out using the GPCP daily data set. An intense

  18. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle.

  19. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  20. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-09-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  1. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  2. Variability of subtropical upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Ryoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS measurements for five northern winters shows significant longitudinal variations in subtropical upper tropospheric relative humidity (RH, not only in the climatological mean values but also in the local distributions and temporal variability. The largest climatological mean values in the northern subtropics occur over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, where there is also large day-to-day variability. In contrast, there are smaller mean values, and smaller variability that occurs at lower frequency, over the Indian and western Pacific oceans. These differences in the distribution and variability of subtropical RH are related to differences in the key transport processes in the different sectors. The large variability and intermittent high and low RH over the Eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to a smaller extent over the Indian ocean, are due to intrusions of high potential vorticity air into the subtropics. Intrusions seldom occur over the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, and here the subtropical RH is more closely linked to the location and strength of subtropical anticyclones. In this region there are eastward propagating features in the subtropical RH that are out of phase with the tropical RH, and are caused by modulation of the subtropical anticyclones by the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  3. Capitalist agriculture between countryside and the city A study of two cases in Argentinean Pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ivan Bober

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes transformations in agriculture, agrarian structure and population dynamics in the context of economic expansion in Argentinean Pampas in recent decades. Increase of crops va­lues, new technology packages available and local dynamics generate changes and new relationships between rural and urban areas. The study is a comparison of two different cases: one, is an example of processes of soybean production at Pampas region and the other exposes diversified dynamics of agriculture and urban expansion. 

  4. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  5. The Red de Monitoreo de BosquesAndinos: A communication platform for science and policy in the Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.

    2013-05-01

    Colombia to Argentina, some of them monitored since 1990. The initial results indicate that warmer, wetter, and more seasonal forests had higher rates of turnover of individuals, and biomass. Most of these patterns held for both, tropical and subtropical forest plots. The study will be completed in 2013, and will be the first study of forest dynamics and carbon content for the countries in the region. Finally, it is the aim of the Andean Forest Network to bring together scientists and policy-makers interested in research, management and conservation of the Andean forest. The creation of the network and the development of its first two products have been possible thanks to the financial support of the Swiss Agency of International Cooperation (COSUDE) through the CIMA project, the Dutch Technical Agency (GIZ), and the endorsement of the Secretaría General de Naciones (SG-CAN). The coordination of the network is currently held by Selene Báez, at CONDESAN (selene.baez@condesan.org). Please contact us if you need more information or if you are interested in becoming part of the network.

  6. Postmodern Anthropology: Reflections from Andean Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The postmodern perspective, which began its influence on studies of Prehispanic Peru in the 1980s, has resulted —as chief positive effect— in reflection and debate concerning the written sources for apprehending such cultural otherness, the so-called “Chronicles of the West Indies”: a perspective accompanied by new editions of these texts. The author of the present article expresses his own reflection on such change in theory and method. He argues that, with regard to self-reflectivity on its epistemological foundations, the new perspective is not entirely original in the long history of Andean ethnohistory; in effect, this approach is almost as old as the field itself. What is indeed original is the cognitive relativism that surfaced in some extreme forms of the discussion. It was an unfortunate development, however: when not denying, as a matter of principle, the very possibility of understanding that cultural otherness, arguments masked actual interpretations or explanations of its features that were protected, ipso facto, from a rigorous process of validation.

    La perspectiva posmoderna, que empezó a ser influyente en los estudios del Perú prehispánico en la década de 1980, ha tenido como principal efecto positivo la reflexión y el debate sobre las fuentes originales de conocimiento de esa alteridad cultural, las llamadas genéricamente “Crónicas de Indias”: una perspectiva acompañada de nuevas ediciones de tales textos. El autor del presente artículo hace aquí su propia reflexión sobre este cambio teórico y metodológico. Plantea que, en lo que tiene de discusión sobre sus bases epistemológicas, no es del todo original en la larga historia de la etnohistoria peruanista. Es, de hecho, casi tan antiguo como ella. Lo que sí ha sido original es el relativismo cognitivo que ha acompañado a algunas expresiones extremas de la discusión. Pero fue ésta una novedad desafortunada: cuando no negaba por principio la

  7. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  8. The astronomy of Andean myth: The history of a cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William F.

    It is shown that Andean myth, on one level, represents a technical language recording astronomical observations of precession and, at the same time, an historical record of simultaneous social and celestial transformations. Topographic and architectural terms of Andean myth are interpreted as a metaphor for the organization of and locations on the celestial sphere. Via ethoastronomical date, mythical animals are identified as stars and placed on the celestial sphere according to their topographical location. Tested in the planetarium, these arrays generate cluster of dates - 200 B.C. and 650 A.D. Analysis of the names of Wiraqocha and Manco Capac indicates they represent Saturn and Jupiter and that their mythical meeting represents their conjunction in 650 A.D. The astronomy of Andean myth is then used as an historical tool to examine how the Andean priest-astronomers recorded the simultaneous creation of the avllu and of this distinctive astronomical system about 200 B.C. The idea that the agricultural avllu, with its double descent system stressing the importance of paternity, represents a transformation of society from an earlier matrilineal/horticultural era is examined in light of the sexual imagery employed in myth. Wiraqocha's androgyny and the division of the celestial sphere into male (ecliptic) and female (celestial equator = earth) are interpreted as cosmological validations of the new social structure.

  9. Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Girardin, C.; Doughty, C.E.; Cahuana, N.; Arenas, C.E.; Oliver, V.; Huaraca Huasco, W.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning

  10. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  11. Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2015-11-27

    In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students.

  12. Potential To Increase Productivity And Sustainability In Argentinean Agriculture With Controlled Traffic Farming: A Short Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antille Diogenes L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drivers for and potential barriers against adoption of controlled traffic farming (CTF systems in Argentina are reviewed. Traffic compaction is one of the main factors affecting crop productivity within Argentinean agriculture, and has significant although less quantified impacts on the whole-of-farm system. This suggests that the benefits of no-tillage (NT, which represents the dominant form of cropping in Argentina, are not fully realised. Conservative estimates indicate that crop yields could be improved by at least 15% if NT is used in conjunction with CTF. Cost-benefit analyses of available options for compaction management are required. Despite this, and based on reported evidence internationally, a shift toward increased uptake of CTF within Argentinean agriculture is likely to: (1 improve productivity and farm profitability, (2 enhance environmental performance, and (3 maintain competitiveness of the agricultural sector. Appropriate technical advice and support is a key requirement to drive adoption of CTF. Therefore, the adoption process will benefit from collaboration developed with well-established research and extension organisations in Australia and the United Kingdom, and active engagement of machinery manufacturers.

  13. Andean Uplift in the Context of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Louise; Poulsen, Chris; Ehlers, Todd; Insel, Nadja

    2010-05-01

    The two primary causes of South American climate change over the last 40 million years are global climate change and the uplift of the Andes Mountains. Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in climate over the duration of Andean surface uplift is necessary for interpreting palaeoclimate, erosion and palaeoelevation records from the region. This study utilises an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to investigate the magnitude and relative importance of 1) global climate and 2) Andean surface uplift to South American climate during the last 40Ma. Combined with knowledge from the geologic record, the results constrain the controls on, and timing of, landscape development. Three different atmospheric CO2 levels (1, 2 and 4x pre-industrial levels - 280ppm) are used to simulate the range of global climate since the early Cenozoic. Surface uplift of the Andes is examined with simulations at three different Andean elevations (100%, 50% and 5% of modern heights). The importance of feedbacks associated with global climate change is assessed with additional simulations incorporating 1) no Antarctic Ice Sheet and 2) an equilibrium vegetation model coupled to the climate model. Initial results show that the elevation of the Andes exerts a much stronger control on South American precipitation than does the atmospheric CO2 level. The presence of the Andes leads to an increase in annual average precipitation rates of up to 8 mm/day at 20⁰S on the eastern flanks of the mountain range. An increase in CO2 levels from 1x to 4x pre-industrial levels increases the intensity of the global hydrological cycle with annual average precipitation rates increasing by up to 5mm/day. At 50% and 5% Andean elevation, precipitation patterns over South America are independent of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, at 100% Andean elevation South American precipitation is sensitive to high (4x) CO2 levels. Most large-scale circulation patterns over South America are consistent

  14. Seasonal variation of temporal niche in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco: a matter of masking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkert, Hans G; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Rotundo, Marcelo; Scheideler, Angelika

    2012-07-01

    Among the more than 40 genera of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans), only the South American owl monkeys, genus Aotus, are nocturnal. However, the southernmostly distributed species, Aotus azarai azarai, of the Gran Chaco may show considerable amounts of its 24-h activity during bright daylight. Due to seasonal changes in the duration of photophase and climatic parameters in their subtropical habitat, the timing and pattern of their daily activity are expected to show significant seasonal variation. By quantitative long-term activity recordings with Actiwatch AW4 accelerometer data logger devices of 10 wild owl monkeys inhabiting a gallery forest in Formosa, Argentina, the authors analyzed the seasonal variation in the temporal niche and activity pattern resulting from entrainment and masking of the circadian activity rhythm by seasonally and diurnally varying environmental factors. The owl monkeys always displayed a distinct bimodal activity pattern, with prominent activity bouts and peaks during dusk and dawn. Their activity rhythm showed distinct lunar and seasonal variations in the timing and daily pattern. During the summer, the monkeys showed predominantly crepuscular/nocturnal behavior, and a crepuscular/cathemeral activity pattern with similar diurnal and nocturnal activity levels during the cold winter months. The peak times of the evening and morning activity bouts were more closely related to the times of sunset and sunrise, respectively, than activity-onset and -offset. Obviously, they were better circadian markers for the phase position of the entrained activity rhythm than activity-onset and -offset, which were subject to more masking effects of environmental and/or internal factors. Total daily activity was lowest during the two coldest lunar months, and almost twice as high during the warmest months. Nighttime (21:00-06:00 h) and daytime (09:00-18:00 h) activity varied significantly across the year, but in an opposite manner. Highest

  15. Subtropical grass pollen allergens are important for allergic respiratory diseases in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Janet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen allergens are a major cause of allergic respiratory disease but traditionally prescribing practice for grass pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy has favoured pollen extracts of temperate grasses. Here we aim to compare allergy to subtropical and temperate grass pollens in patients with allergic rhinitis from a subtropical region of Australia. Methods Sensitization to pollen extracts of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum, Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon as well as the temperate Ryegrass (Lolium perenne were measured by skin prick in 233 subjects from Brisbane. Grass pollen-specific IgE reactivity was tested by ELISA and cross-inhibition ELISA. Results Patients with grass pollen allergy from a subtropical region showed higher skin prick diameters with subtropical Bahia grass and Bermuda grass pollens than with Johnson grass and Ryegrass pollens. IgE reactivity was higher with pollen of Bahia grass than Bermuda grass, Johnson grass and Ryegrass. Patients showed asymmetric cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity with subtropical grass pollens that was not blocked by temperate grass pollen allergens indicating the presence of species-specific IgE binding sites of subtropical grass pollen allergens that are not represented in temperate grass pollens. Conclusions Subtropical grass pollens are more important allergen sources than temperate grass pollens for patients from a subtropical region. Targeting allergen-specific immunotherapy to subtropical grass pollen allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in subtropical regions could improve treatment efficacy thereby reducing the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  16. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology: Brief history and main scientific contributions to the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F; Acosta, Gabriela B

    2016-07-01

    Argentina Biomedical Science has been historically strong. The development of Human and Veterinary Pharmacology in our country as a pivotal discipline has been acknowledged worldwide because of the quality of its contributions. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology (SAFE) is a non- profit association whose research fields include Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. SAFE main goals are described as follow (a) To meet active researchers for studying concerns regarding Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (b) To launch an initiative for development of the discipline in mainly our country and other collaborative countries worldwide (c) To spread the pharmacological know-how obtained from different research teams (d) To strengthen relations between pharmacologists (e) To facilitate the presentation and discussion of scientific papers. This current article shows the SAFE's more important scientific contribution to pharmacology through its former research scientists to the present.

  17. Incomplete hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentinean children with bloody diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E L; Contrini, M M; Devoto, S; de Rosa, M F; Graña, M G; Aversa, L; Gómez, H F; Genero, M H; Cleary, T G

    1995-09-01

    Argentina has an exceptionally high frequency of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We sought to define prospectively the role of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins [SLTs]) in 254 Argentinean children with grossly bloody diarrhea during spring and summer. Free fecal SLTs (I/II) and/or DNA probe-positive isolates were found in 99 (39%) of the children. During the follow-up period, HUS developed in 6 patients (4 with evidence of recent SLT infection based on stool studies); another 14 patients had some, but not all, of the abnormalities seen in typical HUS. The development of HUS or incomplete HUS in these children was significantly associated with recent SLT-Escherichia coli infection (p = 0.024). The high incidence of SLT-associated bloody diarrhea in Argentina explains, at least partially, the unusually high frequency of HUS. Our data indicate that incomplete forms of HUS may be common in patients with SLT-associated bloody diarrhea.

  18. Organophilic bentonites based on Argentinean and Brazilian bentonites: part 2: potential evaluation to obtain nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of composites of polypropylene and organophilic bentonites based on Brazilian and Argentinean bentonites. During the processing of the samples in a twin screw microextruder, torque and pressures of the extruder were accompanied and the viscosity values were calculated. No significant changes in the torque, pressure and viscosity were found for composites prepared with different bentonites. The samples were characterized by XRD and TEM to evaluate the structure and dispersion of the organophilic bentonites. Composites with exfoliated, partially exfoliated and intercalated structures were obtained and correlations between the intrinsic properties of the sodium clays and organophilic bentonites and their influence on the composites were studied. The cation exchange capacity of the sodium bentonites and the swelling capacity of the organophilic bentonites were the most important properties to obtain exfoliated structures in composites. All bentonites showed the potential to obtain polymer nanocomposites, but the ones from Argentina displayed the best results.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Antiprotozoal and Antiviral Activities of Extracts from Argentinean Mikania Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Laurella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of four Argentinean Mikania species. The organic and aqueous extracts of Mikania micrantha, M. parodii, M. periplocifolia, and M. cordifolia were tested on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, and dengue virus type 2. The organic extract of M. micrantha was the most active against T. cruzi and L. braziliensis exhibiting a growth inhibition of 77.6±4.5% and 84.9±6.1%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. The bioguided fractionation of M. micrantha organic extract led to the identification of two active fractions. The chromatographic profile and infrared analysis of these fractions revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones. None of the tested extracts were active against dengue virus type 2.

  20. Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  1. Dynamics and genesis of calcic accumulations in soils and sediments of the Argentinean Pampa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alsu Kuznetsova; Olga Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    abstract Micromorphology of calcic accumulations (calcite, whewellite and gypsum) and geochemical indices were considered as indicators of genesis and evolution of pedogenic accumulations in soils and paleosediments of the Argentinean Pampa. Two groups of separate and independent calcic accumula-tions were studied using scanning electron microscopy:(i) in situ Argiudolls, reflecting the current soil formation; (ii) in the layers of calcrete (locally named tosca), reflecting the past environments and conditions of these layers sedimentation. New pedogenic gypsum accumulations in Argiudolls were described and possible ways of their formation were suggested. Combined analyses of morphology of carbonate accumulations and geochemical indices in different horizons of Argiudolls and layers of tosca showed that the tosca is paleopedocomplex with complicated formation history. Influence of current environment on tosca morphology is absent, so it is possible to use these pedofeatures for paleor-econstructions in further studying.

  2. Technical analysis of four archaeological andean painted textiles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the materials and manufacturing techniques used to create four archaeological Andean painted textiles in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. The textiles are attributed to Peru but have minimal provenience. Building on previous work by other scholars on similar archaeological textiles, the materials and manufacturing techniques are identified and characterized by observation, documentation, and scientific analysis. S...

  3. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  4. State dilemmas in applying the Previous Consultation Law in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrio de Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian government enacted a new law granting consultation rights to indigenous peoples as a mechanism to enhance social inclusion in the country. The law generated debates about the criteria to identify indigenous population in the Andean region. Why does this law have problems granting consultation rights to Andean people? This paper aims to answer the question by reviewing historically the different Andean identities and analyzing the current international debate on indigenity. Our main argument is that the government intrying to apply the law is structuring a restrictive model that is hardlyable to grasp the complexity and dynamism of Andean identities.

  5. Lithospheric evolution of the Andean fold thrust belt, Bolivia, and the origin of the central Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Horton, Brian K.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2005-04-01

    We combine geological and geophysical data to develop a generalized model for the lithospheric evolution of the central Andean plateau between 18° and 20° S from Late Cretaceous to present. By integrating geophysical results of upper mantle structure, crustal thickness, and composition with recently published structural, stratigraphic, and thermochronologic data, we emphasize the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of the central Andean plateau. Four key steps in the evolution of the Andean plateau are as follows. 1) Initiation of mountain building by ˜70 Ma suggested by the associated foreland basin depositional history. 2) Eastward jump of a narrow, early fold-thrust belt at 40 Ma through the eastward propagation of a 200-400-km-long basement thrust sheet. 3) Continued shortening within the Eastern Cordillera from 40 to 15 Ma, which thickened the crust and mantle and established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau. Removal of excess mantle through lithospheric delamination at the Eastern Cordillera-Altiplano boundary during the early Miocene appears necessary to accommodate underthrusting of the Brazilian shield. Replacement of mantle lithosphere by hot asthenosphere may have provided the heat source for a pulse of mafic volcanism in the Eastern Cordillera and Altiplano at 24-23 Ma, and further volcanism recorded by 12-7 Ma crustal ignimbrites. 4) After ˜20 Ma, deformation waned in the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone and began to be transferred into the Subandean zone. Long-term rates of shortening in the fold-thrust belt indicate that the average shortening rate has remained fairly constant (˜8-10 mm/year) through time with possible slowing (˜5-7 mm/year) in the last 15-20 myr. We suggest that Cenozoic deformation within the mantle lithosphere has been focused at the Eastern Cordillera-Altiplano boundary where the mantle most likely continues to be removed through piecemeal delamination.

  6. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SUMMER SUBTROPICAL HIGH AND SST AND PREDICTION OF SUBTROPICAL HIGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Most of the study on correlation between the subtropical high and SST focus on the location or intensity of the former versus the latter. It is worthwhile to work on links other than what is usually addressed to identify guidelines in the prediction of the subtropical high. Based on the analysis of subtropical high in west Pacific summer and its correlation with SST in equatorial and north Pacific from previous December to subsequent November, correlation between the area index, west-extending point, location of the subtropical high ridge and SST is discussed. It is conducted by looking into the confidence level of gridpoints and their percentage in the total and examining how they vary with time. From the point of intensity and movement/expansion, feedbacks from the subtropical high to SST are also studied. The SST affects the subtropical high just as the subtropical high affects the SST. A linkage model is thus set up to assist the making of summer rainfall prediction in China's raining seasons.

  7. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE THREE PATHWAYS TO WELL-BEING SCALE IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF ARGENTINEAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Vanesa C; Castro Solano, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    The Authentic Happiness Theory considers that well-being can be reached by three main pathways: a pleasant life, an engaged life, or a meaningful life. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale in Argentinean adolescents and compares that to prior results for Argentinean adults. A sample of 255 Argentinean adolescent students (110 boys, 145 girls) aged between 13 and 18 years (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.6) was used in this study. The participants completed the Spanish versions of the Three Pathways to Well-being scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Confirmatory factor analyses verified the three-factor structure of the test, accounting for 46% of the variance. The internal consistencies were α = .76 for the pleasant life, α = .80 for the engaged life, and α = .70 for the meaningful life. Concurrent validity was examined with the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Personal Wellbeing Index, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the engaged life was the pathway most strongly associated with the positive related measures.

  8. Metals and altitude drive genetic diversity of chironomids in Andean streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza-Muro, R.A.; de Baat, M.; Palomino, E.J.; Kuperus, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Breeuwer, H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Andean streams cover steep altitude gradients and locally leach metal-rich bedrock, creating highly selective habitat conditions. Chironomids are among the few dominant insect taxa present under the harshest conditions in Andean high altitude streams, but it remains unclear whether their dominanc

  9. Integration, migration and sustainable development in the Andean group of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R; Kratochwil, H

    1993-04-01

    This paper, which was presented at the 1993 meeting of the International Organization for Migration, summarizes past and recent progress in Andean integration and migration arrangements. Changes in the strategy of the Andean group of nations (GAN) have occurred in the adjustment to prevailing conditions at the subregional and international level. GAN includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The Andean Pact originated with the signing of the Cartegena Agreement in 1969. Members approved the Andean Strategic Design in 1989, which loosened up trade integration and the movement of capital, services, and persons across shared borders. The Strategic Design also addressed issues resulting from economic and social integration. A statement of migratory patterns among GAN, Andean integration during 1969-89, and the goals and operation of the Andean Strategic Design and integration are discussed in some detail. The Galapagos Declaration and the La Paz Statement of 1990 are also described. The present situation with Andean integration is based on the following meetings of Andean nations: the First Meeting of Migration Officials of the Andean Group of Nations in March 1991, the Second Meeting of Migration Officials in September 1991, and bilateral agreements between Andean nations. Seven basic conclusions are drawn: 1) the strategy is an institutional, deliberate, programmed process; 2) integration within GAN is the culmination of a joint, coordinated directive of achievement of sustainable development in the subregion which aims to reduce the economic gaps between the North and the South, to lessen the impact of protected markets of the North and their migration barriers, and to improve the possibility of development of technologically sophisticated human capital; 3) subregional policies are more sensitive to short-term change in domestic politics; 4) integration and migration can be sustained better with deliberate planning; 5) implementation is dependent on

  10. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders.

  11. Contribuciones argentinas originales a la Radiología Argentinean original contributions to the Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gotta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta publicación es describir algunas de las innovaciones realizadas por médicos argentinos en el campo de la radiología que merecen una repercusión universal. Para lograr este objetivo, asumimos que contribuciones originales son aquellas que significan en ese momento un real progreso clínico o técnico. Su importancia se mide en relación con el nivel de los conocimientos de la época, aunque, a veces, el ulterior progreso médico haya invalidado o relegado sus conclusiones.The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the innovations introduced by Argentinean physicians in the field of radiology that deserve a universal repercussion. To achieve this objective we acknowledge that original contributions are those that meant in that moment a real clinical or technical progress. Their importance is measured in connection with the level of knowledge of its time, although sometimes the ulterior medical progress has invalidated or relegated its conclusions.

  12. Argentinean adaptation of the Social Skills Inventory IHS-Del-Prette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry.

  13. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  14. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.

  15. Integrating Critical Pedagogy theory and practice: classroom experiences in Argentinean EFL teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelmira Álvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Argentinean ESL teacher education presupposes an understanding of the past and present world role of English. Thus, the curriculum of the ESL Teacher Education Program at Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata includes subjects dealing with historical, cultural, and social questions concerning English-cultures worldwide. This paper explains how some of these issues are addressed in activities carried out in the sophomore course Overall Communication. They involve critical and postcolonial analysis of the film Slumdog millionaire (2008 and the story “The free radio” (Rushdie, 1994. Activities aim at making student-teachers aware of their need to critically address concepts related to race, ethnicity, class, religion, education, and language to unveil the political, economic, and social issues underlying the teaching and learning of English. The choice of materials and authors also aims at listening to English-speaking voices other than those stemming from (former imperial centers. Activities involve research and discussions of problematics such as oppression, exclusion, and illiteracy. This paper will analyze sample written productions by students working collaboratively among themselves and cooperatively with their teachers. In short, this is an experience that strives at showing how Critical Pedagogy can become a site for raising questions concerning power and EFL teaching and learning.

  16. A cross-sectional model of eating disorders in Argentinean overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizathe, Luciana Soledad; Arana, Fernán Guido; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-09-27

    Despite the fact that past research identified childhood obesity as an antecedent of eating disorders, not all obese children further develop this pathology. With this regard, our first purpose was to isolate which characteristics differentiate overweight children who have an eating disorder from those who have not. Second, considering that there is little evidence collected in Latin American countries, we provided overweight children data from an Argentinean sample. Specifically, we investigated if weight-teasing, perfectionism, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction are related to the occurrence of an eating disorder in 100 school-aged overweight/obese children (37 girls and 63 boys; mean age 10.85, SD 0.88). Participants completed self-report instruments and were interviewed between 1 and 2 months later to confirm the presence of eating disorders. Seventeen percent participants confirmed to have an eating disorder. Further, the multivariate logistic analysis revealed that perfectionism (Exp β = 1.19) and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (Exp β = 4.78) were jointly associated with the presence of an eating disorder. These results were maintained even when the overall model was adjusted for covariates such as age, gender, body mass index, and school type. Weight-teasing and body image dissatisfaction did not contribute to the multivariate model. Prevalence rates of ED and model findings were discussed.

  17. Elemental and isotopic fingerprint of Argentinean wheat. Matching soil, water, and crop composition to differentiate provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Natalia S; Baroni, María V; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2013-04-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate if elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean wheat can be used to develop a reliable fingerprint to assess its geographical provenance. For this pilot study we used wheat cultivated at three different regions (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Entre Ríos), together with matching soil and water. Elemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C and δ(15)N were measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, while (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Wheat samples from three sampling sites were differentiated by the combination of 11 key variables (K/Rb, Ca/Sr, Ba, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Co, Mo, Zn, Mn, Eu, δ(13)C, and Na), demonstrating differences among the three studied regions. The application of generalized Procrustes analysis showed 99.2% consensus between cultivation soil, irrigation water, and wheat samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the elemental and isotopic profiles of wheat and those corresponding to both soil and water (r(2) = 0.97, p wheat samples using different statistical methods, showing that wheat elemental and isotopic compositions are mainly related to soil and irrigation water characteristics of the site of growth.

  18. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes.

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    Neal Michelutti

    Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  19. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  20. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, M.

    2007-11-12

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  1. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-01-01

    Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  2. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Filipowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic B. uniflora (Pohl D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and B. uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  3. APPLICATION OF A QUASI-2D HYDRO-MORPHOLOGICAL MODEL TO THE ARGENTINEAN PARAN(A) RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro A.BASILE; Gerardo A.RICCARDI

    2002-01-01

    Herein a simplified quasi-two dimensional horizontal hydro-morphological mathematical model is presented. The governing equations for the quasi-2D horizontal time-depending flow field are represented by the well-known approach of interconnected cells. New discharge laws between cells are incorporated. The model is capable of predicting temporal changes in water depth, velocity distribution,sediment transport, bed elevation, as well as water and suspended sediment exchanges between main stream and flood plains. An application of the model to the middle reach of the Argentinean Parana River is presented. Satisfactory results were obtained during model calibration, validation and application.

  4. Scleractinian corals recorded in the Argentinean Antarctic expeditions between 2012 and 2014, with comments on Flabellum (Flabellum areum Cairns, 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schejter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we provide a list of the scleractinian corals recorded during the Argentinean Antarctic expeditions on board the oceanographic vessel Puerto Deseado (Argentina in the austral summers in 2012, 2013 and 2014. The identified taxa consist of six solitary species (Flabellum impensum, F. flexuosum, F. areum, Caryophyllia antarctica, Paraconotrochus antarcticus and Javania antarctica, recorded from 19 sampling sites located off the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland and South Orkney islands. We also update the information of F. areum, previously known only from south-west Atlantic waters, extending its distribution range to Antarctic waters and its upper bathymetric range to 218 m.

  5. mtDNA diversity in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Baiduc, Caitlin A; Gagneux, Pascal; Evans, Sian; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-10-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) inhabit much of South America yet represent an enigmatic evolutionary branch among primates. While morphological, cytogenetic, and immunological evidence suggest that owl monkey populations have undergone isolation and diversification since their emergence in the New World, problems with adjacent species ranges, and sample provenance have complicated efforts to characterize genetic variation within the genus. As a result, the phylogeographic history of owl monkey species and subspecies remains unclear, and the extent of genetic diversity at the population level is unknown. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) variation in a population of wild Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) living in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome from one individual (16,585 base pairs (bp)) and analyzed 1,099 bp of the hypervariable control region (CR) and 696 bp of the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene in 117 others. In addition, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome (16,472 bp) of one Nancy Ma's owl monkey (A. nancymaae). Based on the whole mtDNA and COII data, we observed an ancient phylogeographic discontinuity among Aotus species living north, south, and west of the Amazon River that began more than eight million years ago. Our population analyses identified three major CR lineages and detected a high level of haplotypic diversity within A. a. azarai. These data point to a recent expansion of Azara's owl monkeys into the Argentinean Chaco. Overall, we provide a detailed view of owl monkey mtDNA variation at genus, species, and population levels.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar; Albornoz, Ana [Agencia Rio Negro Cultura, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Hajduk, Adam [CONICET, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Elkin, Dolores [CONICET Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de febrero 1378 (C1426AEL) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown.

  7. Split liver transplantation: Report of right and left graft outcomes from a multicenter Argentinean group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Esteban; Dip, Marcelo; Quiñonez, Emilio; Alvarez, Fernando; Espinoza, Johana Leiva; Romero, Pablo; Nievas, Franco; Maurette, Rafael; Luque, Carlos; Matus, Daniel; Surraco, Paz; Fauda, Martin; McCormack, Lucas; Mattera, Francisco J; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Imventarza, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Grafts from split livers (SLs) constitute an accepted approach to expand the donor pool. Over the last 5 years, most Argentinean centers have shown significant interest in increasing the use of this technique. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the outcomes of right-side grafts (RSGs) and left-side grafts (LSGs) from a multicenter study. The multicenter retrospective study included data from 111 recipients of SL grafts from between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Incidence of surgical complications, patient and graft survival, and factors that affected RSG and LSG survival were analyzed. Grafts types were 57 LSG and 54 RSG. Median follow-up times for LSG and RSG were 46 and 42 months, respectively. The 36-month patient and graft survivals for LSG were 83% and 79%, respectively, and for RSG were 78% and 69%, respectively. Retransplantation rates for LSG and RSG were 3.5% and 11%, respectively. Arterial complications were the most common cause of early retransplantation (less than 12 months). Cold ischemia time (CIT) longer than 10 hours and the use of high-risk donors (age ≥ 40 years or body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 or ≥ 5 days intensive care unit stay) were independent factors for diminished graft survival in RSG. None of the analyzed variables were associated with worse graft survival in LSG. Biliary complications were the most frequent complications in both groups (57% in LSG and 33% in RSG). Partial grafts obtained from liver splitting are an excellent option for patients in need of liver transplantation and have the potential to alleviate the organ shortage. Adequate donor selection and reducing CIT are crucial for optimizing results.

  8. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieters, Evie A; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km) and local (10's m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against spatial variability

  9. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  10. Forward modeling of δ18O in Andean ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M.; Hardy, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    Tropical ice core archives are among the best dated and highest resolution from the tropics, but a thorough understanding of processes that shape their isotope signature as well as the simulation of observed variability remain incomplete. To address this, we develop a tropical Andean ice core isotope forward model from in situ hydrologic observations and satellite water vapor isotope measurements. A control simulation of snow δ18O captures the mean and seasonal trend but underestimates the observed intraseasonal variability. The simulation of observed variability is improved by including amount effects associated with South American cold air incursions, linking synoptic-scale disturbances and monsoon dynamics to tropical ice core δ18O. The forward model was calibrated with and run under present-day conditions but can also be driven with past climate forcings to reconstruct paleomonsoon variability. The model is transferable and may be used to render a (paleo)climatic context at other ice core locations.

  11. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

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    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  12. An Outbreak of Bartonella bacilliformis in an Endemic Andean Community.

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    Nuria Sanchez Clemente

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited.Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003.The majority of cases (65% were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths.Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control.

  13. Climate Change Impacts in a Colombian Andean Tropical Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N

  14. Spatial random downscaling of rainfall signals in Andean heterogeneous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, A.; Duffaut Espinosa, L. A.; Yarlequé, C.; Carbajal, M.; Heidinger, H.; Carvalho, L.; Jones, C.; Quiroz, R.

    2015-07-01

    Remotely sensed data are often used as proxies for indirect precipitation measures over data-scarce and complex-terrain areas such as the Peruvian Andes. Although this information might be appropriate for some research requirements, the extent at which local sites could be related to such information is very limited because of the resolution of the available satellite data. Downscaling techniques are used to bridge the gap between what climate modelers (global and regional) are able to provide and what decision-makers require (local). Precipitation downscaling improves the poor local representation of satellite data and helps end-users acquire more accurate estimates of water availability. Thus, a multifractal downscaling technique complemented by a heterogeneity filter was applied to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 gridded data (spatial resolution ~ 28 km) from the Peruvian Andean high plateau or Altiplano to generate downscaled rainfall fields that are relevant at an agricultural scale (spatial resolution ~ 1 km).

  15. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Hussam; Arredondo, Juan C; Valencia, Jorge H; Arbeláez, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Altamirano-Benavides, Marco

    2014-04-04

    We describe a new species of Philodryas from the highlands of southern Ecuador. The new species is distinguished from all known species of Philodryas by a unique combination of coloration, scalation, and hemipenial characters. The new species resembles Philodryas simonsii in color pattern. However, they differ notoriously by their hemipenial morphology. The three other trans-Andean members of the genus (Philodryas simonsii, Philodryas chamissonis, and Philodryas tachymenoides), along with the new species, compose a probably monophyletic group that may be characterized by the presence of ungrooved postdiastemal teeth in the maxilla. Unlike most species of the genus Philodryas, the new species shows a restricted distribution, being apparently endemic to a small region of high-altitude (3150-4450m) grasslands in the southern Andes of Ecuador.

  16. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

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    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  17. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  18. [Elaboration and evaluation of infant food based on Andean crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Carrasco, R; Hoyos, N L

    1993-06-01

    The Andes mountain range of South America is one of the most important centres for crop domestication, potato, corn, and lesser known grains such as quinua, cañihua, kiwicha and tarwi are indigenous of these highlands. These Andean grains have adapted perfectly to the climatic and geographical conditions present, whereas other grains have not been able to survive. In addition to their hardiness, they also have a high nutritional value. Bearing in mind on one hand, the high nutritional value of these indegenous products, and on the other hand the high rate of child malnutrition prevalent in the population, it was considered important to look for new variations in their processing which would facilitate their consumption by the poor working classes, especially the children. Accordingly three different flour mixtures were developed based on these Andean grains, the mixtures were then subjected to bromatological and biological analysis. The three new flour mixtures were: Quinua-Cañihua-Broad Bean (Q-C-B), Quinua-Kiwicha-Bean (Q-K-B) and Kiwicha-Rice (K-R). The protein content of these mixtures varied between 11.35-15.46 g/100g, the mixture K-R having the lowest protein level and the Q-C-B having the highest. The Q-K-B mixture had the highest chemical score, PER and NPU value. This PER value of 2.59 was higher than the value of casein which was 2.50. In addition this mixture had a chemical score of 0.94 and a NPU value of 59.38. The Q-C-B mixture had a chemical score of 0.88 and its PER, NPU and Digestibility values were 2.36, 47.24 and 79.2 respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 78 FR 21002 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Andean.... The original ATPA allowed Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru to be considered as beneficiary... November 25, 2008, the President determined that Bolivia no longer satisfied the eligibility...

  20. Cloud Variations under Subtropical High Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The cloud variations under subtropical high(STH) conditions during summers over a ten-year period are studied using combined data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.The results reveal that clouds mainly experience an isolated evolution in the STHs,which is designated in this study by the 1540 gpm geopotential lines at 850 hPa.In the STH domain throughout the Northern Hemisphere,the average amount of total clouds exceeds 30%.Low clouds dominate in the STH domain,contributing over 60%of total cloud amount within the Pacific subtropical high and over 40%within the Atlantic subtropical high.The prevalence of low clouds in above regions is determined by the circulation pattern around 150°-180°E and 850 hPa,which suppresses both the upward development of the cloud tops and the water vapor divergences near the surface.Furthermore,clouds present great geographical incoherence within the STH domain.In the eastern STHs,the amount of middle and low clouds increases to peak in the early morning and decreases to a trough in the afternoon,while the amount of high clouds remains stable throughout the day.Conversely,in the western STHs,the diurnal amplitude of low and middle clouds is less than three,while high clouds dramatically reach the maximum in the afternoon and drop to the minimum in the evening.Among the nine cloud categories,stratocumulus clouds with greater optical thickness account for the most under STH conditions,no matter their occurrence or amount,causing more shortwave cloud radiative forcing to cool the local atmosphere and surface as a consequence.

  1. Cloud Variations under Subtropical High Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sha; LIU Qi; FU Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The cloud variations under subtropical high (STH) conditions during summers over a ten-year period are studied using combined data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The results reveal that clouds mainly experience an isolated evolution in the STHs, which is designated in this study by the 1540 gpm geopotential lines at 850 hPa. In the STH domain throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the average amount of total clouds exceeds 30%. Low clouds dominate in the STH domain, contributing over 60% of total cloud amount within the Pacific subtropical high and over 40% within the Atlantic subtropical high. The prevalence of low clouds in above regions is determined by the circulation pattern around 150°-180°E and 850 hPa, which suppresses both the upward development of the cloud tops and the water vapor divergences near the surface. Furthermore, clouds present great geographical incoherence within the STH domain. In the eastern STHs, the amount of middle and low clouds increases to peak in the early morning and decreases to a trough in the afternoon, while the amount of high clouds remains stable throughout the day. Conversely, in the western STHs, the diurnal amplitude of low and middle clouds is less than three, while high clouds dramatically reach the maximum in the afternoon and drop to the minimum in the evening. Among the nine cloud categories, stratocumulus clouds with greater optical thickness account for the most under STH conditions, no matter their occurrence or amount, causing more shortwave cloud radiative forcing to cool the local atmosphere and surface as a consequence.

  2. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T.; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A.; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  3. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ben Guerrero

    Full Text Available Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

  4. Intercultural Bilingual Educational Policies for Transnational Indigenous Communities: School Experiences of the Wichí-Weenhayek People on the Argentinean-Bolivian Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Zaynab; Román, Diego X.; del Rosal, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing Ruiz's (1984, 1995) language orientation and language policy work, this ethnographic study compared two intercultural bilingual education (IBE) schools located in two Wichí-Weenhayek communities on both sides of the Argentinean-Bolivian border. We examined Wichí-Weenhayek and non-Indigenous teachers' profiles, teacher-student…

  5. Impact of polar ozone depletion on subtropical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S M; Polvani, L M; Fyfe, J C; Sigmond, M

    2011-05-20

    Over the past half-century, the ozone hole has caused a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we argue that these extratropical circulation changes, resulting from ozone depletion, have substantially contributed to subtropical precipitation changes. Specifically, we show that precipitation in the southern subtropics in austral summer increases significantly when climate models are integrated with reduced polar ozone concentrations. Furthermore, the observed patterns of subtropical precipitation change, from 1979 to 2000, are very similar to those in our model integrations, where ozone depletion alone is prescribed. In both climate models and observations, the subtropical moistening is linked to a poleward shift of the extratropical westerly jet. Our results highlight the importance of polar regions for the subtropical hydrological cycle.

  6. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  7. Mechanisms of O2 transport in Andean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, N; Cruz, J; Bustinza, J

    1975-04-01

    Using previously inserted catheters, 11 dogs native to high altitude (7.5-23 kg bwt) were studied standing and unsedated in Cerro de Pasco, Peru at 4350 meters. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), O2 and CO2 contents, PO2, PCO2 and pH were measured in simultaneously obtained arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Blood pressures were measured in the pulmonary artery and the left ventricle and cardiac output (Q) was determined by dye dilution. Moderately higher values for Hb and Hct were found in these dogs. Hb-O2 affinity was no different than that found in sea level dogs: the P50 in the Andean dogs was 31.6 mm Hg at 38 degrees C and pH of 7.4. Because of the low barometric pressure at 4350 m (458 mmHg) the partial pressures of oxygen in inspired and in alveolar air were lower than at sea level: 84.3 and 56.4 mm Hg, respectively. PAO2 and PVO2, were 55.5 and 32.9 mm Hg while the SAO2 and SVO2 were 79.5 and 50.7%, respectively. Marked hyperventilation was observed (PACO2, 25.6 mm Hg) however, pH was normal. Cardiac output was normal (average 162 plus or minus 39 ml/min/kg). Moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the presence of normal left ventricular end diastolic pressure suggesting increased pulmonary vascular resistance.

  8. Cerebral vasoreactivity in Andeans and headache at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, O; Passino, C; Roach, R; Gamboa, J; Gamboa, A; Bernardi, L; Bonfichi, M; Malcovati, L

    2004-04-15

    Headache is common in Cerro de Pasco (CP), Peru (altitude 4338 m) and was present in all patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in CP reported here. Forty-seven percent of inhabitants report headache. Twenty-four percent of men have migraine with aura, with an average of 65 attacks a year. We assessed vasoreactivity of the cerebral vessels to CO2 by rebreathing and to NO by the administration of isosorbite dinitrate (IDN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in natives of CP, some of whom suffered from CMS. We repeated the measurements in Lima (altitude 150 m) in the same subjects within 24 h of arrival. Vasodilatation in the middle cerebral artery supply territory in response to CO2 and NO, both physiologic vasodilators, is defective in Andean natives at altitude and in the same subjects at sea level. Incapacitating migraine can occur with impaired cerebral vasoreactivity to physiologic vasodilators. We propose that susceptibility to migraine might depend in part on gene expression with consequent alterations of endothelial function.

  9. Risk assessment on an Argentinean road with a dynamic traffic simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna

    2014-05-01

    The National Route 7 in Argentina is one of the most important corridors crossing the Andean Cordillera. It concentrates most of the traffic related to the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), it also connects Mendoza city (the fourth most populated in Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (the Chile capital city), and is used by tourists to access to the Aconcagua National park, Puente del Inca natural monument, skiing resorts, and to local displacements for the villages along the Mendoza valley. The road crosses the Andes through the Mendoza river valley at an elevation between 2'000 and 3'000 m. The traffic (2500 vehicles/day) is composed of motorcycles, cars and pickup trucks, trucks without trailer, buses, and semi-trailer trucks. Debris flows developed along tributaries of the Mendoza River, and due to remobilization of talus materials, impact frequently the road, causing traffic disruptions, bridges damages, etc. Rock falls detached from highly fractured outcrops also impact frequently the road, causing sometimes casualties. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk along sections of the National Road 7 develop along the Mendoza river, using a dynamic traffic simulator based on MATLAB© routine. The dynamic traffic simulator developed for natural hazards events on roads consider different scenarios based on traffic speeds, vehicle types, interactions types, road properties and natural processes. Here we show that vehicle types and traffic variations may influence the risk estimation. The analyzed risk on several critical sections of the National Route 7 demonstrates that risk may significantly increase: 1) on sinuous sections, steep sections and because of road conditions changes (exit of tunnel, bridges, road width, etc.) because of decreasing vehicle speed, particularly with semi-trailer trucks; 2) when an event, such a debris flow, occurs and generates a vehicle tailback increasing their duration presence in the risk area.

  10. Andean subduction orogeny: feedbacks between tectonics, relief evolution and global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando; Coudurier-Curveur, Aurélie; Carrizo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Andean subduction margin, largest tectonic relief on the Earth (13 km vertically from the trench to the Altiplano) has a stepped morphology, which results of the evolution over the past 50 Myr of two parallel flat-ramp thrust systems, at the - previously unidentified - West Andean Thrust (WAT), and at the subduction interface. The evolution of those thrusts appears concomitant with increasing aridity in the Atacama Desert, which keeps a large-scale record of interplaying tectonics and Cenozoic climate change. The coastal morphology is dominated by the Atacama Bench, a giant uplifted terrace at 1-2km asl. Geomorphic and climatic data, numerical experiments of drainage formation are consistent with the development of a flat Atacama morphology close to sea level, interrupted at ≤10 Ma by tectonic uplift prevailing to the present. This suggests recent trench-ward relief growth by incorporation of the coastal Atacama Bench to the Andes reliefs. Thrust splay structures and other complexities above the subduction interface may explain this relief growth, as well as the distribution of asperities under the oceanward forearc, and the down-dip segmentation of coupling and seismicity on the megathrust. Combining those results with geological knowledge at the scale of the whole Central Andes, we show that the Andean orogeny results from protracted processes of bivergent crustal shortening in a wide region squeezed between the rigid Marginal Block and the S America Plate. The overall growth curve of Andean orogeny over the past 50 Myr appears synchronous with the onset of the "ramp-shaped" temperature decrease since the Early Eocene climatic optimum. Andean growth and global cooling may have operated under the same forcing mechanism at plate-scale, involving viscous flow in the mantle. But Andean growth appears modulated by climatic feedbacks causative of stepwise reductions of erosive power over the Andean margin. The first of such events is coeval with Late Eocene

  11. Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Juan; Gardner, Beth; Lucherini, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) is one of the most endangered, yet least known, felids. Although the Andean cat is considered at risk of extinction, rigorous quantitative population studies are lacking. Because physical observations of the Andean cat are difficult to make in the wild, we used a camera-trapping array to photo-capture individuals. The survey was conducted in northwestern Argentina at an elevation of approximately 4,200 m during October–December 2006 and April–June 2007. In each year we deployed 22 pairs of camera traps, which were strategically placed. To estimate detection probability and density we applied models for spatial capture–recapture using a Bayesian framework. Estimated densities were 0.07 and 0.12 individual/km2 for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Mean baseline detection probability was estimated at 0.07. By comparison, densities of the Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), another poorly known felid that shares its habitat with the Andean cat, were estimated at 0.74–0.79 individual/km2 in the same study area for 2006 and 2007, and its detection probability was estimated at 0.02. Despite having greater detectability, the Andean cat is rarer in the study region than the Pampas cat. Properly accounting for the detection probability is important in making reliable estimates of density, a key parameter in conservation and management decisions for any species.

  12. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit: an interdisciplinary study on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governa

  13. Brain blood flow in Andean and Himalayan high-altitude populations: evidence of different traits for the same environmental constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F.A. Jansen; B. Basnyat

    2011-01-01

    Humans have populated the Tibetan plateau much longer than the Andean Altiplano. It is thought that the difference in length of occupation of these altitudes has led to different responses to the stress of hypoxia. As such, Andean populations have higher hematocrit levels than Himalayans. In contras

  14. Transference of some microsatellite molecular markers from Fabaceae family to Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze transferibility of 15 microsatellite primers from Fabaceae family to Lupinus mutabilis Sweet "andean lupine" chosen to present transferability between species and genera, by its high rate of polymorphic content (PIC and high degree of observed and expected heterozygosity. DNA was extracted of 300 andean lupines plants, PCR conditions were standardized by gradients of master mix components. Primers for screening were run on 3% agarose gel with some samples. Finally population was amplified and run on 6% polyacrylamide gel for its highest resolution. Only 6.67% of primers were amplified, but they were monomorphic, so they cannot be used for molecular characterization. We proposed eight microsatellite primers for andean lupin wich should be probed in laboratory conditions.

  15. How widely is the Andean type of continental margin represented in the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Application of the principle of uniformitarianism to the Archean was discussed in a search for evidence of Archean-type continental margins in Archean rocks. The author cautioned that Archean rocks represent only 2 percent of the current exposure of the continents, half of which is in the North American Superior Province. Care must be taken in interpreting the global tectonic significance of relatively small exposures of Archean rocks, such as South India. Andean margins were characterized by their elongate shape, magmatic associations, and isotopic signatures. Although the compositional evidence alone will always be ambiguous, it was suggested that supporting structural evidence may aid in the identification of Archean Andean margins. Andean margin remains have been recognized in the Superior Province of Canada by these criteria, and the author suggested that the Closepet granite of South India may represent another example.

  16. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  17. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  18. Diverging Responses of Tropical Andean Biomes under Future Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%–17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for

  19. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Altrock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris.

  20. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    of Ecuadorian dry inter-Andean valleys vegetation, including information related to the physical settings as well as to the vegetation and flora of the valleys. 2) This chapter unveils the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature in shaping species composition and occurrence. We found...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...

  1. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  2. Decadal changes in salinity in the oceanic subtropical gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Bryce A.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal salinity trends in five subtropical gyre regions over the past six decades using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis with a focus on the subsurface salinity of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Our results indicate an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a salinity decrease at depths greater than 200 m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years, of which each individual gyre was analyzed in further detail. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically integrated advection and entrainment of salt. Our analysis of decadal variability of fluxes into and out of the gyres reveals little change in the strength of the mean currents through this region despite an increase in the annual export of salt in all subtropical gyres, with the meridional component dominating the zonal. This study reveals that the salt content of E-P maximum waters advected into the subtropical gyres is increasing over time. A combination of increasing direct evaporation over the regions with increasing remote evaporation over nearby E-P maxima is believed to be the main driver in increasing salinity of the subtropical oceans, suggesting an intensification of the global water cycle over decadal time scales.

  3. Sequence-modified primers for the differential RT-PCR detection of Andean potato latent and Andean potato mild mosaic viruses in quarantine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Renate; Ziebell, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    To enable the differential PCR detection of Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV) strains, sense primers were designed that correspond to regions directly upstream of the coat protein genes. Their differentiating power was increased by A->C or T->C replacements in their 3'-terminal parts. Together with the broad-specificity antisense primer EM3, primer AL-a-mod3C detected all APLV strains tested, but none of the APMMV strains. Primer AM-a-mod4C yielded PCR products with all APMMV preparations, but also with some APLV preparations. Sequence analysis revealed that this was not due to a lack of primer specificity, but to the sensitive detection of contaminating APMMV in some of our APLV preparations.

  4. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2011, the Eighteenth Edition of the Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and Seventh Clinical Engineering Meeting were held in Mar del Plata, Argetina. The Mar del Plata SABI Regional and the School of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata invited All bioengineers, engineers, physicists, mathematicians, biologists, physicians and health professionals working in the field of Bioengineering to participate in this event. The overall objectives of the Conference were: To provide discussion of scientific research results in Bioengineering and Clinical Engineering. To promote technological development experiences. To strengthen the institutional and scientific communication links in the area of Bioengineering, mainly between Universities of Latin America. To encourage students, teachers, researchers and professionals to establish exchanges of experiences and knowledge. To provide biomedical engineering technology solutions to the society and contributing ideas for low cost care. Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SABI 2011 Chair Dra Virginia L Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Co-Chair Dra Teresita R Cuadrado Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Local Comittee Dr Gustavo Abraham Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Josefina Ballarre Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Eduardo Blotta Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Agustina Bouchet Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Marcel Brun Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Silvia Ceré Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Mariela Azul Gonzalez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Lucia Isabel Passoni Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Juan Ignacio Pastore Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Adriana Scandurra Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE

  5. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  6. Allantoplacental ultrastructure of an Andean population of Mabuya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; De Pérez, Gloria; Carreño-Escobar, J Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Mabuya species are highly matrotrophic viviparous lizards with Type IV epitheliochorial allantoplacenta. The allantoplacenta of an Andean population of this genus, currently assigned to Mabuya sp., possesses specializations related to histotrophic nutrition at the embryonic hemisphere (placentome, paraplacentome, and chorionic areolas), while at the abembryonic hemisphere it has a mixed function: histotrophic transfer (absorptive plaques) and hemotrophic nutrition (gas exchange in respiratory segments). These placental specializations were studied using high-resolution light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and were compared with those found in other squamate reptiles and eutherian mammals. Cytological features of the placentome suggest that this is an important region for nutritional provision; the paraplacentome also shows characteristics for nutrient transfer, especially lipids. Chorionic areolas allow the absorption of glandular products, as well as uterine and chorionic cellular debris produced by lysis of some cells of both epithelia during areola formation. In the absorptive plaques both uterine and chorionic epithelia are firmly attached and their cellular apices exhibit electron-dense granules that could be related to autocrine and paracrine functions. The short interhemal distance found in the respiratory segments confirms their role in gas exchange. A common feature of all regional specializations in the Mabuya sp. allantoplacenta is the presence of lipids in the interacting chorionic and uterine epithelia, suggesting that lipids are transferred throughout the entire embryonic chamber; placental transfer of lipids may be the principal fetal energy and lipid source in this species. In spite of this feature, each one of the specialized areas of the allantoplacenta has different features suggesting particular functions in the transfer of nutrients (as ions, lipids, proteins, amino acids, sugar, water, and gases), and in the possible

  7. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  8. Andean uplift and Neogene climate change in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J. A.; Currie, B. S.; Jordan, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Today the Andean Cordillera and Altiplano provide a major obstacle to atmospheric circulation over South America. The Altiplano Plateau prevents moist air masses from the Amazon Basin from reaching the Atacama Desert, causing the Atacama to be one of the driest places on Earth. Although Neogene sedimentary records from the western flank of the Andes should record the dramatic shift to hyperaridity that resulted from the growth of the Altiplano Plateau, the climatic implications of many sedimentary sequences have been difficult to decipher. The causes of the difficulties are complex, such as the relative influences of tectonics and active volcanism versus climate, and the roles of local as well as regional precipitation on groundwater and on the deposition of paludal sediments in basin centers. Over the last few years our research group has focused on using paleosols and the isotopic composition of palustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin (22°S) to try to identify a local precipitation signal and determine the onset of extreme hyperaridity as a consequence of the growth of the Altiplano. We have determined the soil morphological characteristics, salt chemistry, and mass independent fractionation anomalies (Δ17O values) in dated paleosols to reconstruct a Middle Miocene climatic transition from semi-aridity to extreme hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. Paleosols along the southeastern margin of the Calama Basin change from calcic Vertisols with root traces, slickensides, and gleyed horizons to an extremely mature salic Gypsisol with pedogenic nitrate. We interpret this transition, which occurred between 19 and 13 Ma, to represent a change in precipitation from >200 mm/yr to Calama Basin also show a marked change during this time period. δ13C values of palustrine carbonates increase from -7 to +7? VPDB and δ18O values increases from -7 to +1? VPDB over the late to Middle Miocene time. This major trend towards more positive values is likely the result of several

  9. Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendt, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal.

  10. The electronic procurement in the framework of the Andean Community. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William David Hernández Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is structured as a brief survey of the academic and policy approach on the unification or harmonization of regulations about electronic commerce, specifically relating the electronic contracts, in Latin America, with special emphasis on the Andean Community of Nations as a proposed work on the development of modern trends of international trade law.

  11. Taxonomic and functional assignment of cloned sequences from high Andean forest soil metagenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montaña, José Salvador; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Angel, Tatiana; Hernández, Mónica; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Total metagenomic DNA was isolated from high Andean forest soil and subjected to taxonomical and functional composition analyses by means of clone library generation and sequencing. The obtained yield of 1.7 μg of DNA/g of soil was used to construct a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clon

  12. A novel cold active esterase derived from Colombian high Andean forest soil metagenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Alvarez, Diana; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    In order to search new lipolytic enzymes and conduct bioprospecting of microbial communities from high Andean forest soil, a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clones was constructed in Escherichia coli using plasmid p-Bluescript II SK+. The library covered 80 Mb of the metagenomic DNA main

  13. Forests of the tropical eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárdenas, M.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Pennington, R.T.; Poole, I.; Sherlock, S.C.; Mothes, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inter-bedded volcanic and organic sediments from Erazo (Ecuador) indicate the presence of four different forest assemblages on the eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene. Radiometric dates (40Ar-39Ar) obtained from the volcanic ash indicate that deposition occurred between 620,000 and 19

  14. Persistence of chironomids in metal polluted Andean high altitude streams: does melanin play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza Muro, R.A.; Marticorena-Ruíz, J.K.; Palomino, E.J.; Merritt, C.; de Baat, M.L.; van Gemert, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    In high altitude Andean streams an intense solar radiation and coinciding metal pollution allow the persistence of only a few specialized taxa, including chironomids. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the mechanisms underlying the persistence of chironomids under these multiple

  15. 77 FR 24555 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...., provides trade benefits for eligible Andean countries. The original Act allowed only Bolivia, Ecuador... Bolivia no longer satisfies the eligibility criteria related to counternarcotics and suspended...

  16. 75 FR 19669 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... eligible Andean countries. In Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, the President designated Bolivia... President determined that Bolivia no longer satisfies the eligibility criteria related to...

  17. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights a

  18. Institutional reform in the Andean irrigation sector: enabling policies for strengthening local rights and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, L.; Ooijevaar, M.; Boelens, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, local and indigenous water rights and rules in the Andean region have been largely neglected and discriminated against. The process of undermining local communities' water access and control rights continues up to today and not only is it headed by powerful local, national and interna

  19. The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Condamine, Fabien L; Antonelli, Alexandre; Mulch, Andreas; Davis, Charles C

    2016-06-01

    The tropical Andes of South America, the world's richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for its direct incorporation of geological data on Andean uplift into a macroevolutionary model. We show that speciation and extinction are differentially influenced by abiotic factors: speciation rates rose concurrently with Andean elevation, while extinction rates decreased during global cooling. Pollination syndrome and fruit type, both biotic traits known to facilitate mutualisms, played an additional role in driving diversification. These abiotic and biotic factors resulted in one of the fastest radiations reported to date: the centropogonids, whose 550 species arose in the last 5 million yr. Our study represents a significant advance in our understanding of plant evolution in Andean cloud forests. It further highlights the power of combining phylogenetic and Earth science models to explore the interplay of geology, climate, and ecology in generating the world's biodiversity.

  20. The Rise and Fall of Andean Empires: El Nino History Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on El Nino and the methods for investigating ancient climate record. Traces the rise and fall of the Andean empires focusing on the climatic forces that each empire (Tiwanaku, Wari, Moche, and Inca) endured. States that modern societies should learn from the experiences of these ancient civilizations. (CMK)

  1. 10Be surface exposure dating reveals strong active deformation in the central Andean backarc interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Morabito, Ezequiel; Terrizzano, Carla; Zech, Roland; Willett, Sean; Yamin, Marcela; Haghipour, Negar; Wuethrich, Lorenz; Christl, Marcus; María Cortes, José; Ramos, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the deformation associated with active thrust wedges is essential to evaluate seismic hazard. How is active faulting distributed throughout the wedge, and how much deformation is taken up by individual structures? We address these questions for our study region, the central Andean backarc of Argentina. We combined a structural and geomorphological approach with surface exposure dating (10Be) of alluvial fans and strath terraces in two key localities at ~32° S: the Cerro Salinas, located in the active orogenic front of the Precordillera, and the Barreal block in the interior of the Andean mountain range. We analysed 22 surface samples and 6 depth profiles. At the thrust front, the oldest terrace (T1) yields an age of 100-130 ka, the intermediate terrace (T2) between 40-95 ka, and the youngest terrace (T3) an age of ~20 ka. In the Andean interior, T1´ dates to 117-146 ka, T2´ to ~70 ka, and T3´ to ~20 ka, all calculations assuming negligible erosion and using the scaling scheme for spallation based on Lal 1991, Stone 2000. Vertical slip rates of fault offsets are 0.3-0.5 mm/yr and of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr at the thrust front and in the Andean interior, respectively. Our results highlight: i) fault activity related to the growth of the Andean orogenic wedge is not only limited to a narrow thrust front zone. Internal structures have been active during the last 150 ka, ii) deformation rates in the Andean interior are comparable or even higher that those estimated and reported along the emerging thrust front, iii) distribution of active faulting seems to account for unsteady state conditions, and iv) seismic hazards may be more relevant in the internal parts of the Andean orogen than assumed so far. References Lal, D., 1991: Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: In situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104: 424-439. Stone, J.O., 2000: Air pressure and cosmogenic isotope production. Journal of Geophysical

  2. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  3. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  4. Reconciling Local and Global Agendas in Sustainable Development: Participatory Research with Indigenous Andean Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E. Rhoades; Virginia Nazarea

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses participatory research in the Andes and presents a case study in Cotacachi, Ecuador, where sustainability scientists and indigenous people seek common ground in their respective but drastically different research and social agendas. Participatory research based on Andean experiences pre-dated and inspired much of the later international movement in agriculture, health, and conservation. Andean communities have a long history in demanding that outsiders address the needs of the community as a condition for carrying out scientific or applied activities. What an Andean community, however, sees as relevant may or may not practiced throughout much of the world. In fact,overzealous participatory researchers are just as bothersome as their predecessors bearing long questionnaires. More important to Andean people is an equitable relationship with researchers and developers in which exchanges of value are made. A research is drawn. In the case of the SANREM project in Cotacachi, Ecuador, scientists carried out enriching research activities of interest to local people as a way to generate social capital for conducting basic research which does not have an obvious, immediate local benefit. The requested research did not have a conventional participatory methodology but provided valuable products (educational opportunity,germplasm, community visualization tools, and information) to the indigenous community in exchange for time and resources to conduct research on more basic natural resource questions. We argue that in the Andean context the key to reconciling the needs of scientists and of local needs is seeking new forms of equitable collaboration which reach beyond the present and now somewhat tired discourse of ‘participation'.

  5. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Naveda-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  6. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  7. Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest-pasture-urban gradient in Andean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Rausche, Sirkka; Cueva, Augusta; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Espinosa, Carlos; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites. Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf-shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected. In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species (Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera) on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of

  8. Chronic hypoxia in Andeans; are there lessons for neurology at sea level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, Otto; Minko, Tamara; Qualls, Clifford; Pozharov, Vitaly; Gamboa, Jorge; Gamboa, Alfredo; Pakunlu, Rafica I

    2006-08-15

    Hypoxia is implicated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We posited that changes in gene expression induced by ambient hypoxia at altitude may be neuroprotective to natives of these regions. We studied 30 men. Twenty natives of Cerro de Pasco (CP), altitude 4,338 m were examined in CP; then transported within 6 h to Lima (150 m-sea level) and examined 1 h after arrival. They were assessed by a Chronic Mountain Sickness-score (CMS-sc) in CP, 10 were normal Andeans and 10 had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a sudden inexplicable loss of adaptation to their native environment. RNA was extracted from venous blood white cells. The Andeans were compared to 10 normal US men living at 1500 m using RT-PCR. We focused on the cyto-neuro-protective genes, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX 1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), heat shock protein-90 (HSP-90), and the neuroprotective enzyme, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nnmat 1). CMS patients had significantly higher levels of gene expression (HMOX-1, HSP-70, ATM) than Andean controls in CP. HSP-90 and Nmnat 1, however, were higher in Andean controls in all locations. Significant reductions of all gene products, within an hour of arriving in normoxia in Lima, were found. In Andean controls, the gene products in Lima fell to levels approaching US controls. Correlation and regression methods showed men with high expression of all gene products had an average CMS-sc=19.8; those with low expression a normal score (9.4, P=0.02). ATM expression was related to age (P<0.001). The natural experiment that unfolds in the mountainous regions of the world provides opportunities to study neuroprotection in intact humans.

  9. Transcriptional Response of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after the Infection with Different Argentinean Mycobacterium bovis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Caimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of bovines with Mycobacterium bovis causes important financial hardship in many countries presenting also a risk for humans. M. bovis is known to be adapted to survive and thrive within the intramacrophage environment. In spite of its relevance, at present the information about macrophage expression patterns is scarce, particularly regarding the bovine host. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was used to detect genes differentially expressed in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at early stages of infection with two Argentinean strains of M. bovis, a virulent and an attenuated strains. The results showed that the number of differentially expressed genes in the cells infected with the virulent strain (5 was significantly lower than those in the cells infected with the attenuated strain (172. Several genes were more strongly expressed in infected macrophages. Among them, we detected encoding transcription factors, anthrax toxin receptor, cell division and apoptosis regulator, ankyrin proteins, cytoskeleton proteins, protein of cell differentiation, and regulators of endocytic traffic of membrane. Quantitative real-time PCR of a selected group of differentially expressed genes confirmed the microarrays results. Altogether, the present results contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in the early interaction of M. bovis with the bovine macrophage.

  10. Fingerprints for main varieties of argentinean wines: terroir differentiation by inorganic, organic, and stable isotopic analyses coupled to chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola-Naranjo, Romina D; Baroni, Maria V; Podio, Natalia S; Rubinstein, Hector R; Fabani, Maria P; Badini, Raul G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Hector A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gallegos, Ernesto; Gautier, Eduardo; Peral-Garcia, Pilar; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2011-07-27

    Our main goal was to investigate if robust chemical fingerprints could be developed for three Argentinean red wines based on organic, inorganic, and isotopic patterns, in relation to the regional soil composition. Soils and wines from three regions (Mendoza, San Juan, and Córdoba) and three varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, and Syrah) were collected. The phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-MS/MS and multielemental composition by ICP-MS; (87)Sr/(86)Sr and δ(13)C were determined by TIMS and IRMS, respectively. Chemometrics allowed robust differentiation between regions, wine varieties, and the same variety from different regions. Among phenolic compounds, resveratrol concentration was the most useful marker for wine differentiation, whereas Mg, K/Rb, Ca/Sr, and (87)Sr/(86)Sr were the main inorganic and isotopic parameters selected. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) using two studied matrices (wine and soil) shows consensus between them and clear differences between studied areas. Finally, we applied a canonical correlation analysis, demonstrating significant correlation (r = 0.99; p soil and wine composition. To our knowledge this is the first report combining independent variables, constructing a fingerprint including elemental composition, isotopic, and polyphenol patterns to differentiate wines, matching part of this fingerprint with the soil provenance.

  11. Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, A J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ∑HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ∑Drins, ∑DDT, ∑Heptachlor, and ∑Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ∑DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species.

  12. La representación social de la democracia de adolescentes argentinos (The social representation of democracy of Argentinean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late twentieth century, several studies have shown the distancing and dissatisfaction of citizens of different ages in relation to political parties, which has led to the phenomenon known as a crisis of political representation. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the social representations of democracy of Argentinean adolescents. A study was conducted using intentional sampling that included 376 participants between the ages of 16 and 18 years (M=16.87, SD=0.734. The participants were administered the word association technique with the word “democracy” as the inductor term. The results show that the central core of the participants’ social representation of democracy consisted of the following terms: “vote, freedom, equality, rights, people, freedom of expression, participation, and opinion”. In conclusion, the participants thought of democracy in terms of values and operating mechanisms inherent to the representative democracy political system, although they did not associate it with politics or a government institution.

  13. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  14. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim

    2011-04-09

    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  15. Varying mechanical coupling along the Andean margin: Implications for trench curvature, shortening and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Convergent margins often exhibit spatial and temporal correlations between trench curvature, overriding plate shortening and topography uplift that provide insights into the dynamics of subduction. The Andean system, where the Nazca plate plunges beneath continental South America, is commonly regarded as the archetype of this class of tectonics systems. There is distinctive evidence that the degree of mechanical coupling between converging plates, i.e. the amount of resistive force mutually transmitted in the direction opposite to their motions, may be at the present-day significantly higher along the central Andean margin compared to the northern and southern limbs. However quantitative estimates of such resistance are still missing and would be desirable. Here we present laboratory models of subduction performed to investigate quantitatively how strong lateral coupling variations need to be to result in trench curvature, tectonic shortening and distribution of topography comparable to estimates from the Andean margin. The analogue of a two-layers Newtonian lithosphere/upper mantle system is established in a silicone putty/glucose syrup tank-model where lateral coupling variations along the interface between subducting and overriding plates are pre-imposed. Despite the simplicity of our setup, we estimate that coupling in the central margin as large as 20% of the driving force is sufficient to significantly inhibit the ability of the experimental overriding plate to slide above the subducting one. As a consequence, the central margin deforms and shortens more than elsewhere while the trench remains stationary, as opposed to the advancing lateral limbs. This causes the margin to evolve into a peculiar shape similar to the present-day trench of the Andean system.

  16. Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Biondich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.

  17. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  18. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  19. Three-dimensional density model of the Nazca plate and the Andean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassara, AndréS.; GöTze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Hackney, Ron

    2006-09-01

    We forward modeled the Bouguer anomaly in a region encompassing the Pacific Ocean (85°W) and the Andean margin (60°W) between northern Peru (5°S) and Patagonia (45°S). The three-dimensional density model that reproduces the gravity field is a continental-scale representation of density structure to 410 km depth that characterizes the mantle and crust of the oceanic Nazca plate, subducted slab and continental margin with a minimum number of bodies. We predefined the density of each body after studying the dependency of density on composition of crustal and mantle materials and pressure-temperature conditions appropriate for the Andean setting. A database of independent geophysical information constrains the geometry of the top of the subducted slab, locally the Moho of the oceanic and continental crusts and, indirectly, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary underneath the continental plate. Other boundaries, notably the intracrustal density discontinuity separating upper from lower crust below the continent, were not constrained and their geometry is the result of fitting the observed and calculated Bouguer anomaly during forward modeling. This contribution presents the model to the Andean geoscientific community and contains some tools, like a sensitivity analysis, that helps potential users of the model to interpret its results. We describe and discuss some of these results in order to illustrate the application of the model to the study of a wide range of phenomena (e.g., modification of oceanic plate structure by hot spots, shape of the subducted slab, thermal structure of the continental lithosphere, compensation mechanism and formation of orogenic relieve, causes of Andean segmentation).

  20. Large Differences in Bacterial Community Composition among Three Nearby Extreme Waterbodies of the High Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Pablo; Acosta, Eduardo; Dorador, Cristina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (Altiplano peatland ponds represent a hitherto unknown source of microbial diversity.

  1. Invertebrate metacommunity structure and dynamics in an andean glacial stream network facing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, Sophie; Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    theory as a conceptual framework to better understand how river network structure influences the spatial organization of aquatic communities in glacierized catchments. At 51 stream sites in an Andean glacierized catchment (Ecuador), we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, measured physico...... community variation. Overland spatial variables based on geographical and altitudinal distances significantly affected community variation. Watercourse spatial variables based on glaciality distances had a unique significant effect on community variation. Within alpine catchment, glacial meltwater affects...

  2. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  3. Equine arteritis virus: a new isolate from the presumable first carrier stallion in Argentina and its genetic relationships among the four reported unique Argentinean strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Germán E; Serena, María S; Ocampos, Giselle Martín; Panei, Carlos J; Fernandez, Verónica L; Echeverría, María G

    2008-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated from a testicle of the presumable first stallion infected with EAV in Argentina. This virus isolate (named LT-LP-ARG) was confirmed by GP5-specific PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The PCR product was sequenced, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the LT-LP-ARG strain of EAV forms a monophyletic group, together with other strains previously isolated in our laboratory (LP02 group). However, all Argentinean EAV strains belong to a polyphyletic group. We believe that the virus isolate presented in this report could be the origin of EAV infection in our country.

  4. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Peruvian Andean hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Morey-Vargas, Oscar L; Bolaños-Salazar, Juan F; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Postigo-MacDowall, Mauricio; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Valdivia-Ascuña, Zoila; Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina; Paredes-Díaz, Sheyla; Villalobos-Tapia, Paola; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Goldberg, Ronald B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2007-11-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MTS) in Andean populations are limited. We evaluated the prevalence of MTS according to American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria among 1878 subjects in the PREVENCION study in Peru. In women, the most common component was low HDL cholesterol (60.9%) followed by abdominal obesity (36.9%). In men, the most common component was elevated triglycerides (52.0%) followed by low HDL cholesterol (32.5%), whereas the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 14%. Abnormal fasting glucose was the least common component in men (5.4%) and women (5.0%). The prevalence of MTS was significantly higher in women compared to men (23.2% versus 14.3%) and increased steeply with age, particularly in women (por=30kg/m2) instead of waist circumference as a component of the MTS lead to equivalent prevalence estimates of MTS in men but significantly underestimated the prevalence in women. The MTS is highly prevalent among Peruvian Andeans, particularly in older women. The pattern of MTS components in this Andean population is characterized by a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and a relatively low prevalence of elevated fasting glucose. Further studies are required to characterize genetic and environmental determinants of these patterns.

  6. Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Clerici

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments.

  7. [Diversity and dynamics of a high sub-Andean forest from Northern Andes, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez; Maniguaje, Nancy Lorena; Duque, Alvaro Javier

    2012-06-01

    The sub-Andean forests are characterized by a high biodiversity, but little is known about their natural dynamics. In order to generate new information, this study assessed two permanent plots of one hectare each, in the Northern Andean area of the Western Cordillera, Colombia. Methodology included the evaluation of diversity patterns, above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics, and mortality and recruitment rates. Besides, we used the Fisher's Alpha index to calculate species diversity. Forest dynamics and AGB were evaluated in both plots by means of three censuses carried out within a nine years period. In total, we found 1 664 individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH)> or =10cm belonging to 222 species, 113 genera and 60 families. Mean species richness was of 156 species/ha and a mean Fisher's Alpha index of 56.2/ha. The mortality rate was 0.88% and recruitment was 1.16%, which did not allow to lay any external effect of global warming or climate change on individual forest dynamics. However, the mean AGB was 243.44+/-9.82t/ha, with an annual average increase of 2.9t/ha, a higher value than the one reported in other studies of high sub-Andean forests, which suggests that equilibrium in terms of the AGB have not yet been reached. Besides, according to field observations, a recovery process, from a disturbance that occurred in the past, might be on his way.

  8. Andean uplift promotes lowland speciation through vicariance and dispersal in Dendrocincla woodcreepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jason T; Price, Momoko

    2011-11-01

    Andean uplift contributed importantly to the build-up of high Neotropical diversity. Final uplift of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia separated once-contiguous lowland faunas east and west of the Andes between 5 and 3.5 million years ago (Ma hereafter). We used DNA sequences from several moderate- to fast-evolving mitochondrial and two slow-evolving nuclear genes to generate a well-supported phylogeny of Dendrocincla woodcreepers, a genus with multiple species endemic to lowland regions both east and west of the Andes. A time-calibrated phylogeny and dispersal-vicariance analysis indicated that uplift of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia resulted in the initial vicariant separation of a widespread lowland form east and west of the Andes at c. 3.6 Ma. This was followed by two separate east-to-west dispersal events over or around the completed Andes, each producing a genetically distinct lineage. Our analysis suggests that Andean uplift promoted the build-up of biodiversity in lowland Neotropical faunas both through vicariance-based speciation during uplift and through dispersal-based speciation following uplift. In contrast to the multiple colonizations of the trans-Andean region by Dendrocincla, the Atlantic Forest was colonized from the Amazon only once, followed by in situ diversification.

  9. Introduction and Establishment of Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, V A; Gomez, C A; La Manna, L; Roux, G; Lanteri, A A; Vallejos, N C; Marvaldi, A E

    2016-02-01

    The pine weevils that occur in plantations of Pinus spp. in Andean Patagonia of Argentina belong to the species Pissodes castaneus (De Geer), a Eurasian endemic species, according to the identification based on molecular and morphological characters. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear genes (28 S rDNA and ITS2) were obtained for individuals of 13 afforestations, covering the entire distribution area of the established populations in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina. Sequence comparison with representative species of the genus (European, North American, and Chinese species) shows that Patagonian specimens are conspecific to those of P. castaneus sequenced from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all terminals from Patagonia form a monophyletic unit without evident subclades, eliminating the possibility of existence of more than one species of Pissodes Germar in this area, including cryptic ones. Moreover, the very low genetic divergence between the Patagonian populations suggests that it is plausible that P. castaneus was introduced into Patagonia from just one location. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that Patagonian terminals group together with a French haplotype and are clearly separated from other P. castaneus individuals represented in our sample, and reveal that established populations in Andean Patagonia originated via a limited introduction.

  10. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  11. A regional perspective on the diversity and conservation of tropical Andean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2011-02-01

    The tropical Andes harbor an extraordinarily varied concentration of species in a landscape under increasing pressure from human activities. Conservation of the region's native plants and animals has received considerable international attention, but the focus has been on terrestrial biota. The conservation of freshwater fauna, particularly the conservation of fishes, has not been emphasized. Tropical Andean fishes are among the most understudied vertebrates in the world. We estimate that between 400 and 600 fish species inhabit the diverse aquatic environments in the region. Nearly 40% of these species are endemic. Tropical Andean fishes are vulnerable to ongoing environmental changes related to deforestation, water withdrawals, water pollution, species introductions, and hydropower development. Additionally, their distributions and population dynamics may be affected by hydrologic alterations and warmer water temperatures associated with projected climate change. Presently, at least three species are considered extinct, some populations are endangered, and some species are likely to decline or disappear. The long-term persistence of tropical Andean fishes will depend on greater consideration of freshwater systems in regional conservation initiatives.

  12. Argentinean species of the Faltala leafhopper group (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae Las especies argentinas del grupo Faltala (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Marino de Remes Lenicov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available All four species of the Faltala Oman leafhopper group occurring in Argentina, Faltala brachyptera Oman, F. furcipennis Cheng, Clorindaia hecaloides Linnavuori and C. brasileira Zahniser & Webb, are reviewed. The female of Faltala furcipennis is described for the first time and some additional traits for the male and female genitalia of F. brachyptera, F. furcipennis and Clorindaia brasileira are included. A key to identify the four Argentinean species, based on male and female genitalia - including the specific differences in microsculpturing of the first valvulae- and the external morphology is presented. Further information on the geographical distribution of these grass-specialists is reported and Faltala furcipennis and Clorindaia brasileira are recorded as new in Argentina.Se tratan las cuatro especies del grupo Faltala Oman, presentes en la Argentina: Faltala brachyptera Oman, F. furcipennis Cheng, Clorindaia hecaloides Linnavuori y C. brasileira Zahniser & Webb. Se describe e ilustra por primera vez la hembra de Faltala furcipennis, se incluyen algunos caracteres adicionales de la genitalia del macho y de la hembra de F. brachyptera, F. furcipennis y Clorindaia brasileira y se establecen patrones morfológicos en la microescultura de las valvas I de las hembras, para su diferenciación interespecífica. A los efectos de facilitar la identificación de las cuatro especies argentinas, se presenta una clave sobre la base de caracteres morfológicos externos y de la genitalia de ambos sexos. Además, se registran Faltala furcipennis y Clorindaia brasileira como nuevas para la fauna Argentina y se adiciona información acerca de la distribución geográfica.

  13. Bordetella pertussis isolates from Argentinean whooping cough patients display enhanced biofilm formation capacity compared to Tohama I reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eArnal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines since the 1950´s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  14. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I; Serra, Diego O; Mooi, Frits R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  15. Distribution of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, the vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, at different altitudes on the Andean slope of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas.

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics at the paramo and puna highlands in the Andean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Mermut, Ahmet R.; Zornoza, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Mountains and uplands represent the most diverse and fragile ecosystems in the world, cover about 20% of the terrestrial surface and are distributed across all continents and major ecoregions. The Andean Plateau is the main mountain range of the American continent and one of the largest in the world with more than 7,500 km. The soil organic matter is a corner stone in the fertility management of the Andean agriculture as well as in the erosion control. However, its role is still much unknown in these ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of current global climatic change on soil organic C reservoirs and dynamics is still not clearly understood. The aim of this work was to review the soil C dynamics and the implication of the soil organic matter in the fertility management, erosion control, conservation of biodiversity and global climate change to improve the knowledge on the mountain Andean highlands. Climate, landscape, soil C pools, biomass and management were studied. In general, the Andean climate is affected by three main factors: ocean currents, winds and orography characterized by an abrupt topography. The entire Andean belt is segmented into the Northern, Central and Southern Andes. Northern Andes are called paramo and are characterized by humid climate while Central and Southern Andes dryer zones are called puna. Most of the region is tectonically and volcanically active. Sedimentary rocks predominated in the paramo while sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic ones prevailed in the puna. The most common soils were Andosols, Regosols, Umbrisols and Histosols. The cold and wet climate and the low atmospheric pressure favored organic matter accumulation in the soil. The accumulation of organic matter is further enhanced by the formation of organomineral complexes strongly resistant to the microbial breakdown mainly in the paramo. High organic C contents were observed in the paramo (10%) oppositely to the low contents found in the dryer puna (1%). The C/N ratio

  17. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  18. Influence of cranial deformation on facial morphology among prehistoric South Central Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Matthew P; Arriaza, Bernardo T

    2006-08-01

    Calculating biodistances among South American populations using cranial measurements is often hindered, as many available skeletal collections exhibit deformation. Acknowledging vault modifications, researchers have sought measurements in other regions which are unaffected by deformation. In the 1970s, a set of 10 "relatively" unaffected facial measurements was identified in Argentinean crania that later became the basis of numerous South American biodistance studies. These measurements include: minimum frontal breadth, bizygomatic breadth, orbit height, orbit breadth, palate breath, palate length, upper facial height, basion-prosthion length, nasal height, and nasal breadth. Palate length was excluded from the present analysis due to considerable measurement error. The suitability of these measurements in populations other than Argentineans has not been rigorously tested. Using a sample of 350 prehistoric crania from the Museo Arqueológico San Miguel de Azapa (MASMA, Arica, Chile), this project tested the hypothesis that these measurements are unaffected by either annular or tabular deformation. Results obtained from MANOVA analysis indicate this hypothesis cannot be fully supported. Among males, only 3 of the 9 measurements are unaffected by either form of deformation (palate breadth, basion-prosthion length, and nasal breadth), while analysis of females indicates that 4 of the 9 measurements remain unaltered (minimum frontal breadth, orbit breadth, basion-prosthion length, and nasal breadth). Additionally, analogous to the vault, facial measurements display patterns consistent with the deformation applied. Two implications can be drawn from this research: 1) previous studies using these measurements must be interpreted cautiously, and 2) researchers using these measurements must explicitly test their suitability in each population.

  19. Molecular analysis of HEXA gene in Argentinean patients affected with Tay-Sachs disease: possible common origin of the prevalent c.459+5A>G mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Stefania; Montalvo, Annalisa; Blanco, Mariana; Zanin, Irene; Amartino, Hernan; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Pittis, Gabriela; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2012-05-15

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the deficient activity of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the HEXA gene. Up to date there is no information regarding the molecular genetics of TSD in Argentinean patients. In the present study we have studied 17 Argentinean families affected by TSD, including 20 patients with the acute infantile form and 3 with the sub-acute form. Overall, we identified 14 different mutations accounting for 100% of the studied alleles. Eight mutations were novel: 5 were single base changes leading to drastic residue changes or truncated proteins, 2 were small deletions and one was an intronic mutation that may cause a splicing defect. Although the spectrum of mutations was highly heterogeneous, a high frequency of the c.459+5G>A mutation, previously described in different populations was found among the studied cohort. Haplotype analysis suggested that in these families the c.459+5G>A mutation might have arisen by a single mutational event.

  20. Relationship among subtropical anticyclone, drought and earth rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming; OuYang Shoucheng; Fei Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    The deep reason of severe disaster weather with the relationship among the earth nutation,rotation and atmos-pheric change is explored based on the effective results about the disaster weather prediction of the long term made by the variation of the earth rotation in near 10 years.It is discussed the relationship between the subtropical anticyclone and subtropical ensterlies to aim at the problem of high temperature and drought in the globe,further more,the compari-son analysis has been made to the earth nutation and the variation of rotation.The research results show that the reasons of severe disaster weather not only are due to atmosphere itself,but have some variation information of earth movement which could be used for the weather forecast.

  1. The effect of subtropical aerosol loading on equatorial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, G.; Chemke, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cloud-aerosol interactions are considered as one of the largest sources of uncertainties in the study of climate change. Here another possible cloud-aerosol effect on climate is proposed. A series of large eddy simulations (LES) with bin microphysics reveal a sensitivity of the total atmospheric water vapor amount to aerosol concentration. Under polluted conditions the rain is suppressed and the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases with time compared to clean precipitating conditions. Theoretical examination of this aerosol effect on water vapor transport from the subtropics to the tropics, and hence on the equatorial rain and Hadley circulation, is conducted using an idealized general circulation model (GCM). It is shown that a reduction in the subtropical rain amount results in increased water vapor advection to the tropics and enhanced equatorial rain and Hadley circulation. This joins previously proposed mechanisms on the radiative aerosol effect on the general circulation.

  2. Water use in the tropics and subtropics and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Manoel Gonçalves; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Centro Universitário da Cidade; Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Bahé, Jackeline Maria Cardoso de França; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental degradation and its effects in the human health particularly related to the use of water of the tropics and subtropics areas on Earth. In this conception towards a healthy society a continuous investing in basic and environmental sanitation is very important and simultaneously less expensive than dealing with illnesses. In order to improve a better and friendly society linked to Sustainable Development with a good population life ...

  3. ROOT ALLOMETRY OF TWO SUBTROPICAL PLANT COMMUNITIES OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo de los Ríos-Carrasco; José de Jesús Návar-Cháidez

    2010-01-01

    This research work aimed at the study of the root allometry in sub-tropical Tamaulipan thornscrub and pine forest communities of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. By excavating each individual root of each of 20 trees per plant community, we developed root allometric equations for biomass, volume, total length and diameter. Covariance analysis, ancova, was employed to determine the statistical difference of these variables between plant communities. Results indicate that pine plant trees have larger root v...

  4. Response of regional climate and glacier ice proxies to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the subtropical Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dietze

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is an important element of earth's ocean-climate system. To further understand its past variability, proxy records from climate archives need to be studied. Ice cores from high alpine glaciers may contain high resolution ENSO proxy information, given the glacier site is climatologically sensitive to ENSO. We investigated signals of ENSO in the climate of the subtropical Andes in the proximity of Cerro Tapado glacier (30°08' S, 69°55' W, 5550 m a.s.l., where a 36 m long ice core was drilled in 1999 (Ginot, 2001. We used annual and semi-annual precipitation and temperature time series from regional meteorological stations and interpolated grids for correlation analyses with ENSO indices and ice core-derived proxies (net accumulation, stable isotope ratio δ18O, major ion concentrations. The total time period investigated here comprises 1900 to 2000, but varies with data sets. Only in the western, i.e. Mediterranean Andes precipitation is higher (lower during El Niño (La Niña events, especially at higher altitudes, due to the latitudinal shift of frontal activity during austral winters. However, the temperature response to ENSO is more stable in space and time, being higher (lower during El Niño (La Niña events in most of the subtropical Andes all year long. From a northwest to southeast teleconnection gradient, we suggest a regional water vapour feedback triggers temperature anomalies as a function of ENSO-related changes in regional pressure systems, Pacific sea surface temperature and tropical moisture input. Tapado glacier ice proxies are found to be predominantly connected to eastern Andean summer rain climate, which contradicts previous studies and the modern mean spatial boundary between subtropical summer and winter rain climate derived from the grid data. The only ice core proxy showing a response to ENSO is the major ion concentrations, via local temperature indicating

  5. Ocean-to-Ocean Dissimilarities of Salty Subtropical Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Each ocean basin displays its own 'personality', reflecting its degree of isolation or connectivity to the global ocean, its place in the interocean exchange network and associated ocean overturning circulation systems, as well as regional circulation and air-sea exchange patterns. While dissimilarities are most notable in the northern hemisphere (the salty North Atlantic vs the fresher North Pacific; as well as the salty Arabian and the fresher Bay of Bengal, a miniature Atlantic/Pacific analog?) far removed from the grand equalizing interocean link of the circum-Antarctic belt, and where large continental blocks impose contrasting forcing, the southern hemisphere ocean basins also display differences. Ocean to ocean dissimilarities are evident in the dry subtropical climate belt, marked by deserts on land and salty surface ocean water. The subtropical sea surface salinity maximum (SSS-max) patterns of 5 the subtropical regimes (the North and South Atlantic, North and South Pacific, and the southern Indian Ocean) display significant dissimilarities in their relative position within their ocean basin, in the structure and seasonality of the SSS-max pattern. The near synoptic coverage of Aquarius and Argo profilers are further defining interannual variability. The South Atlantic SSS-max is pressed against the western boundary, whereas in the other regimes the SSS-max falls within the eastern half of the ocean basin, though the western South Pacific displays a secondary SSS-max. For further details see: A. Gordon, C. Giulivi, J. Busecke, F. Bingham, submitted to the SPURS Oceanography special issue.

  6. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean Back-arc of Western Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando, I.R.; Aragón, E.; Frei, R.; González, P.D.; Spakman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit cald

  7. 'Andean-centred' genera in the short-branch clade of Annonaceae: testing biogeographical hypotheses using phylogeny reconstruction and molecular dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mols, J.B.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Oosterhof, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim We test biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin of Andean-centred plant groups by reconstructing phylogeny in the short-branch clade (SBC) of Annonaceae, and estimating the timing of diversifications in four apparently Andean-centred genera: Cremastosperma R.E.Fr., Klarobelia Chatrou, Ma

  8. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  9. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigham Abigail W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-altitude environments (>2,500 m provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.

  10. Prevalence and patterns of hypertension in Peruvian Andean Hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Morey-Vargas, Oscar L; Bolaños-Salazar, Juan F; Postigo-Macdowall, Mauricio; Paredes-Díaz, Sheyla; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Valdivia-Ascuña, Zoila; Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina; Villalobos-Tapia, Paola; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Raij, Leopoldo; Chirinos, Julio A

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Population-based data regarding the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in Andean Hispanic populations are scarce. The authors performed a population-based study that included 1878 Peruvian Andean adults to determine: (1) the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension and (2) the relative frequency of hypertension subtypes (systolic vs. diastolic). The prevalence of hypertension was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0%-17.4%), did not differ by gender, and increased steeply with age, particularly in women. Awareness, treatment, and control rates were 47.9%, 39.5%, and 14%, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure increased until age 50 years and reached a plateau thereafter, whereas mean arterial pressure continued to increase with age even after age 50 years. Furthermore, in sharp contrast with the United States population, the predominant type of hypertension was systodiastolic (41.7%; 95% CI, 35.1%-48.5%). Isolated systolic hypertension accounted for only 29.3% of cases (95% CI, 23.9%-35.4%) and was responsible for a minority of cases in all age groups before age 70 years. Hypertension subtypes in this Andean population seem to differ significantly from those present in the United States population, with a much larger proportion of systodiastolic and diastolic hypertension even with advanced age. These differences result from interactions between hemodynamic and structural factors, and further studies aimed at characterizing their genetic and environmental determinants and implications in end-organ damage and prognosis in this population may contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension.

  11. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  12. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  13. Analysis of the drought resilience of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iñiguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l. known as "páramo" offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. Most important is the water supply – of excellent quality – to many cities and villages established in the lowlands of the inter-Andean valleys and to the coast. However, the páramo ecosystem is under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this paper we study the resilience of its soils for drought periods during the period 2007–2013. In addition, field measurements and hydrological conceptual modelling at the catchment-scale are comparing two contrasting catchments in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Both were intensively monitored during two and a half years (2010–2012 in order to analyse the temporal variability of the soil moisture storage. A typical catchment on the páramo at 3500 m a.s.l. was compared to a lower grassland one at 2600 m a.s.l. The main aim was to estimate the resilience capacity of the soils during a drought period and the recovery during a subsequent wet period. Local soil water content measurements in the top soil (first 30 cm through TDR were used as a proxy for the catchment's average soil moisture storage. The local measurements were compared to the average soil water storage as estimated by the probabilistic soil moisture (PDM model. This conceptual hydrological model with 5 parameters was calibrated and validated for both catchments. The study reveals the extraordinary resilience capacity of this type of shallow organic soils during the droughts in 2009 and 2010. During these droughts, the soil water content dropped from a normal value of about 0.80 to ~ 0.60 cm3 cm−3, while the recovery time was only two to three months.

  14. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS pa...

  15. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  16. [Decriminalizing traditional Andean medicine: an interview with Walter Álvarez Quispe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  18. Role of carbon and climate in forming the Páramo, an Andean evolutionary hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    According to a number of genetic diversification measures the Páramo grasslands of the high equatorial Andes show the greatest rates of speciation on the planet. This is probably driven by contrasting ranges of the ecosystem between glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. During the warm interglacial periods the treeline is high in the Andes restricting the Páramos to the highest regions of the Andean mountain chain, while in the cool glacial periods the Páramo areas expand and probably coalesce, bringing isolated populations into contact with each other. The origin of the Páramo ecosystem is placed close to the end of the Pliocene and has been related to the finale of regional Andean mountain building. However, this formation date is also coincident with the global cooling at the end of the Pliocene, as Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the bipolar Pleistocene ice ages begin. Furthermore, it is estimated that atmospheric CO2 concentrations dropped from the 400 ppmv typical of the Pliocene to values more typical of the Pleistocene at around this time. Global climate model simulations, coupled with a high resolution biome model, give us the opportunity to test these competing hypotheses for the formation of the Páramo ecosystem. A series of HadCM3 climate model simulations are presented here varying the height of the highest altitude Andes and the global climate from its pre-industrial state to the Pliocene. The climate are topographic changes are varied both independently and together. These climatologies are then used to drive a high-resolution biome model, BIOME4, and simulate the impact on Andean vegetation. These models seem to reproduce the observed changes in high altitude grassland biomes during the Pliocene. The climate and biome modelling presented here show that the climate changes associated with the Plio-Pleistocene boundary are the primary cause of the initial formation of this unique and important ecosystem. Although the reduction

  19. Environmental effect of vegetation restoration on degraded ecosystem in low subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The environmental effect of degraded ecosystem's vegetation restoration in low subtropical China was studied. Results indicated thatthe vegetation recovery on degraded lands significantly ameliorates surrounding environment, increases species diversity, improves soilstructure, raises soil fertility, enhances productivity, and promotes regional agricultural production and social economic developmentdramatically. Through the combining engineering and biological measures, the restoration of degraded ecosystem in low subtropical area ispossible and economical. The restoration experience in Xiaoliang, Wuhua and other sites are valuable for other degraded subtropical area wasintroduced.

  20. Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

  1. Miocene tectonism and the separation of cis- and trans-Andean river basins: Evidence from Neotropical fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Crampton, William G. R.

    2006-03-01

    The fish fauna of trans-Andean river basins in northwestern South America is ancient and diverse, including 14% (558 of 4,085) of all Neotropical teleost species and representing 88% of the orders and 79% of the families. The evolutionary histories of these lineages provide many examples to test models of the tectonic uplift that isolated the trans-Andean basins. We report the results of two newly compiled data sets of phylogenetic and biogeographic information on the freshwater fishes of the region: (1) species-level phylogenies for 26 Neotropical freshwater teleost taxa, with a minimum of 37 cis-/trans-Andean clades and (2) species distributions for 641 genera of Neotropical freshwater teleosts, with a minimum of 140 cis-/trans-Andean clades. Although it provides only about one-quarter the total number of cis-/trans-Andean clades, species phylogeny preserves a more accurate record of the temporal sequence of basin isolation. Phylogenies using gene sequences also may provide estimates on the timing of lineage divergences. However, the great majority (70%) of available species phylogenies for Neotropical freshwater teleosts employ comparative morphology alone, partly because species-level sampling for most taxa requires collections over large spatial (10 3-10 4 km) scales, and collections of whole specimens for morphological study are readily available for many taxa from natural history museums. Fish species phylogenies are partially concordant with patterns of drainage basin isolation generated from geological data on the Miocene of northwestern South America, which associate the initial rise of the Eastern Cordillera (˜1 2 Ma) with the hydrological isolation of the Magdalena and Pacific Slope regions and the rise of the Merida Andes (˜8 Ma) with the isolation of the modern Maracaibo and Orinoco basins. Although some phylogenies unite taxa from the Maracaibo and cis-Andean Orinoco, a more common set of area relationships occurs between clades exclusive to the

  2. Two new trans-Andean species of Imparfinis Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ortega-Lara

    Full Text Available Two new species of Imparfinis are described from the trans-Andean region of Colombia. Imparfinis timana is diagnosed by having longer anal fin base (12.4-15.5% in SL, in combination with long adipose fin (24.6-31.3% in SL, 5-6 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 42-43 vertebrae and additional measurements. Imparfinis usmai is distinguished by the combination of first ray of dorsal fin longest, but not projected as a long filament, long adipose fin (21.1-27.0% in SL, maxillary barbel exceeding pelvic-fin base, 39-40 vertebrae, upper caudal-fin lobe pointed and longer than lower lobe, lower lobe rounded, 7-8 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, as well as additional measurements. Imparfinis timana is only known from río Guarapas, a small tributary of the upper course of the río Magdalena. Imparfinis usmai is broadly distributed in the upper basin of ríos Cauca and Magdalena, and in the lower Patía river basin. The restricted distribution of I. nemacheir to trans-Andean drainages (Atrato, Magdalena, and Lago de Maracaibo is also discussed.

  3. An Andean radiation: polyploidy in the tree genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N; Fuchs, J; Hertel, D; Hirsch, H; Toivonen, J; Kessler, M

    2010-11-01

    The Andean tree genus Polylepis (Rosaceae) is notorious for the high morphological plasticity of its species and the difficulty in their circumscription. The evolutionary mechanisms that have driven diversification of the genus are still poorly understood, with factors as diverse as ecological specialisation, reticulate evolution, polyploidisation and apomixis being proposed to contribute. In the present study, chromosome counts, flow cytometry and stomata guard cell size measurements were employed to document for the first time the presence of polyploidy in the genus and to infer ploidy levels for most species. Inferred ploidy levels show a clear progression from diploidy in cloud forest species to polyploidy (tetra- to octoploidy) in the morphologically and ecologically specialised incana group, indicating that polyploidisation may have played a major role in speciation processes and the colonisation of novel habitats during the Andean uplift. At least two species of Polylepis comprise populations with varying degrees of ploidy. More extensive studies are needed to obtain a better understanding of the prevalence and effects of intraspecific polyploidy in the genus.

  4. Composition and diversity of High Andean in the Fauna Production Reserve Chimborazo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study inquire the floristic diversity of 9 sampling in four plots of 1 m² of high andean in several locations in the “Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo”. For the development of this study, we used an adaptation of the method of plots “Gloria”. With coverage (% in each of the plots, Further the diversity indices and similarity with respective analysis were obtained. The data obtained reflect a diversity that can range from medium to low, believe that this is due to anthropogenic activities that have taken place in these ecosistems. With the presence mostly Calamagrostis intermedia, it could establish that the type of vegetation is herbaceous in high andean is higher percentage; is the species that is almost always present in most types of vegetation of the RPF Chimborazo and high dominance that influences the results of low floristic diversity indices was found in the analysis. As a result the most abundant family Asteraceae is well Poaceae.

  5. Biomonitoring of TBT contamination and imposex incidence along 4700 km of Argentinean shoreline (SW Atlantic: from 38S to 54S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatti, Gregorio; Primost, Mónica A; Cledón, Maximiliano; Averbuj, Andrés; Theobald, Norbert; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Arntz, Wolf; Morriconi, Elba; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E

    2009-05-01

    The imposex incidence and TBT pollution were investigated along 4,700km of Argentinean coast, including city harbors and proximal zones without marine traffic. We analyzed 1805 individuals from 12 gastropod species, including families Volutidae, Muricidae, Nassariidea, Calyptraidae, Marginellidae, and Buccinidae, and found the imposex phenomenon for the first time in six species. In high marine traffic zones, TBT pollution was registered and the percentage of imposex was high, while these occurrences were null in areas without boat traffic. The species that best reflect the degree of imposex were those inhabiting sandy/muddy or mixed bottoms. TBT determination and imposex incidence indicate that pollution was focused only in ports with high marine traffic or in areas where ship hulls are painted. This is the first report of an imposex-sediment approach to evaluate organotin contamination along the coast of a South American country.

  6. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  7. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as nat

  8. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape...

  9. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  10. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the U

  11. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trénel, Philipp; Hansen, Michael M; Normand, Signe; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the role of landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and divergence is essential for understanding patterns of biogeography and diversity. This is particularly relevant for the Andes region, a major biodiversity hotspot of relatively recent origin. We examined the phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape-Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual-based Bayesian clustering (BC) identified a northeastern, southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern cluster, with areas of genetic discontinuity coinciding with the Andes and the Giron-Paute deflection. F-statistics derived from BC suggested an east-to-west dispersal history. Population-based analyses revealed strong genetic structuring at both small and large geographic scales. Interpopulation relationships and Mantel tests strongly supported the cline model with cross-Andean dispersal in the AHZ. Along the cline, gene flow measured as F(ST) was mainly limited by distance, with less but significant impact of climatic friction. Coalescent analysis revealed that cross-Andean divergence took place during the Quaternary. Significant historical isolation (R(ST) > F(ST)) was found in the southwestern population. The current study illustrates a joint effect of founder dynamics, divergence by distance and historical isolation on patterns of Andean diversity and distribution.

  12. Two new cis-Andean species of the South American catfish genus Megalonema allied to trans-Andean Megalonema xanthum, with description of a new subgenus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available A revised diagnosis of the pimelodid catfish genus Megalonema is given based on synapomorphic features of the Weberian complex and gas bladder. Megalonema xanthum from the Magdalena River is redescribed. Two new cis-Andean species of Megalonema are described, M. amaxanthum n. sp. from the Amazon River basin, and M. orixanthum n. sp. from the Orinoco River basin. These three species are differentially diagnosed by shape and size of the supraoccipital posterior process, adipose-fin shape, vertebral counts, eye size, premaxillary bone shape and dentition, length of the anal-fin base, width between the posterior nostrils and presence/absence of dentations on the pectoral spine. Eretmomegalonema new subgenus is established for M. xanthum, M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum and supported by the uniquely synapomorphic paddle-like structure of its pelvic fin and hypertrophied basipterygium. Unambiguous synapomorphies indicate a sister-group relationship between M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum, with M. xanthum basal to this pair. This topology is congruent with the Neogene origins of separate Magdalena, Amazon and Orinoco basins suggesting vicariant control of diversification of Eretmomegalonema.

  13. The South Pacific Subtropical Mode Water in the Tasman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Haibo; LIU Qinyu; LIN Xiaopei; LIU Wei

    2007-01-01

    From the synopical CTD sections in the WOCE PR11 repeated cruises, the South Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (SPSTMW) has been identified in the region of the Tasman Front Extension (TFE) around 29S to the east of Australia. In the depth range of 150-250 m, the SPSTMW appears as a thermostad with vertical temperature gradient lower than 1.6 ℃ (100 m)-1 and a tem perature range of 16.5-19.5 ℃ and as a pycnostad with PV lower than 2 × 10-10 m-1 s-1 and a potential density range of 25.4-26.0 kg m-3. Like the subtropical mode waters in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, the formation of the SPSTMW is associated with the convective mixing during the austral wintertime as manifested from the time series of the Argo floats. And cold water entrains into the mixed layer with the deepening mixed layer from September to the middle of October. During the wintertime formation process, mesoscale eddies prevailing in the TFE region play an important role in the SPSTMW formation, and have a great effect on the SPSTMW distribution in the next year. The deeper (shallower) mixed layer in wintertime, consistent with the depressed (uplifted) permanent thermocline, is formed by the anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies, and the substantial mode water thicker than 50m is mainly found in the region of the anticyclonic eddies where the permanent thermocline is deeper than 450 m.

  14. Summertime Subtropical Countercurrent on isopycnals in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Circulations on isopycnals (σrθ) in the western North Pacific were investigated by using P-vector method;the data were taken from the U.S. Navy's climatological temperature and salinity dataset (public domain) with 1/2°×1/2° resolution. Results not only show the main circulation systems on isopycnals in the western North Pacific such as the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Kuroshio and Kuroshio Countercurrent, but also reveal the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) clearly. In this note we pay attention to discussing the distribution of STCC in summer (in June).The STCC flows eastward along a winding road; on shallow isopycnals, the STCC originates from the area east of Bashi Strait at about 122.5°E; with the isopycnals increasing, the origin and flow core of STCC move to north and east, but the main part of STCC is still between 18° and 23.5°N, i.e.near the Tropic of Cancer. There exists STCC on all isopycnals between the sea surface and 25.8 σθThe current vectors of STCC on isopycnais are shown for the first time, and the distribution of the potential vorticity indicates that STCC is just overlying the southern boundary of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW).``

  15. Model Evidence for Interdecadal Pathway Changes in the Subtropics and Tropics of the South Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong-Hua; WANG Zhanggui

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations using a version of the GFDL/NOAA Modular Ocean Model (MOM 3) are analyzed to demonstrate interdecadal pathway changes from the subtropics to the tropics in the South Pacific Ocean.After the 1976-77 climate shift,the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific underwent significant changes,characterized by a slowing down in its circulation and a southward displacement of its center by about 5°-10° latitude on the western side.The associated circulation altered its flow path in the northwestern part of the subtropical gyre,changing from a direct pathway connecting the subtropics to the tropics before the shift to a more zonal one after.This effectively prevented some subtropical waters from directly entering into the western equatorial Pacific.Since waters transported onto the equator around the subtropical gyre are saline and warm,such changes in the direct pathway and the associated reduction in equatorward exchange from the subtropics to the tropics affected water mass properties downstream in the western equatorial Pacific,causing persisted freshening and cooling of subsurface water as observed after the late 1970s.Previously,changes in gyre strength and advection of temperature anomalies have been invoked as mechanisms for linking the subtropics and tropics on interdecadal time scales.Here we present an additional hypothesis in which geographic shifts in the gyre structure and location (a pathway change) could play a similar role.

  16. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  17. Imaging variations in the central Andean mantle and the subducting Nazca slab with teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scire, Alissa

    The Nazca-South America convergent margin is marked by the presence of the Andean mountain belt, which stretches along the 8000-km long western margin of the South American plate. The subduction zone is characterized by significant along-strike changes in both upper plate structure and slab geometry that make it an ideal region to study the relationship between the subducting slab, the surrounding mantle, and the overriding plate. This dissertation summarizes the results of three finite frequency teleseismic tomography studies of the central Nazca-South America subduction zone which improve our understanding of how along-strike variations in the Andean mountain belt and the subducting Nazca plate interact with each other and with the surrounding mantle. This is accomplished by first focusing on two smaller adjacent regions of the central Andes to explore upper mantle variations and then by using a combined dataset, which covers a larger region, to image the deeply subducted Nazca slab to investigate the fate of the slab. The first study focuses on the central Andean upper mantle under the Altiplano-Puna Plateau where normally dipping subduction of the Nazca plate is occurring (18° to 28°S). The shallow mantle under the Eastern Cordillera is generally fast, consistent with either underthrusting of the Brazilian cratonic lithosphere from the east or a localized "curtain" of delaminating material. Additional evidence for delamination is seen in the form of high amplitude low velocities under the Puna Plateau, consistent with proposed asthenospheric influx following lithospheric removal. In the second study, we explore the transition between normal and flat subduction along the north edge of the Altiplano Plateau (8° to 21°S). We find that the Peruvian flat slab extends further inland along the projection of the Nazca Ridge than was previously proposed and that when re-steepening of the slab occurs, the slab dips very steeply (˜70°) down through the mantle

  18. Peculiar seismotectonic characteristics of Nazca's subducted slab, in the Andean region: Why do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, J.; Fernandes, C.

    2007-05-01

    The peculiar morphology of Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) beneath Andean region presents controversial seismotectonic characteristics of the subducting Nazca plate beneath South American plate: WBZ with an almost flat behaviour under Central-Northern Peru region, and beneath Central Chile region, intercalated with steeply portion of the slab; the almost completely aseismic portion between 300 and 500 km of depth; the existence of deep earthquakes in South American and their controversial focal mechanism. There are several hypotheses trying to explain a suitable origin for those deep earthquakes that occur in depths between 500 and almost 700 km, where the occurrence of brittle failure is improbable to exist due to the presence of high temperature and pressure conditions at those depths. We propose in this work - based mainly in the spatial distribution of relocated hypocentres, and in the joint interpretation with recent published results related to seismotectonic aspects of Andean region - a top-to- northwest shear of the portion of Nazca subducting plate between 24°S and 01°S, in such an amount that its deepest corresponding extremes, at around 600 km of depth, seem to be presently, under latitudes between 29°S and 06°S, respectively. The proposed northwestern displacement of South American plate may be provoking that shear process of Nazca slab, which should be larger at shallower depths of the slab, and limited to those latitudes below the Andean region. The NW displacement of Nazca slab could explain the existence of flat subduction beneath Central-Northern Peru region as a consequence of a probable northwards migration of the buoyant Nazca ridge after subduction under South American plate in around 15°S. Similar explanation could be used for the flat WBZ beneath Central Chile and the Juan Fernandez ridge. This hypothesis permits to infer for some very deep South American earthquakes shear, planar mechanisms at high pressure, some times as almost horizontal

  19. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  20. Integración regional andina en salud Health in Andean regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Agudelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar su historia compartida, los países de la Región Andina presentan una diversidad social y política que genera realidades sanitarias heterogéneas y procesos de integración complejos. Se han dado por décadas procesos generales, como la Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración, o de alcance regional como la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, la Comunidad del Caribe y el Mercado Común Centroamericano. En el campo específico de la salud se cuenta con un instrumento en la Región Andina, el Convenio Hipólito Unánue, creado en 1971. Estos procesos de integración se han concentrado en los aspectos económicos, con base en acuerdos de preferencias arancelarias, los cuales han generado, en el largo plazo, un intercambio comercial apreciable. En el campo de la salud se ha avanzado menos, en términos de procesos que ponen en común experiencias nacionales, conocimientos y capacidades. El análisis de las experiencias de integración en salud muestra que esta depende de las fortalezas de cada país y, en gran parte, de los procesos políticos nacionales.Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of

  1. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  2. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Andean region of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flórez, Mauricio; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Colombia and map high-risk municipalities. The study area was the Colombian Andean region, comprising 715 rural and urban municipalities. We used 10 years of CL surveillance: 2000-2009. We used spatial-temporal analysis - conditional autoregressive Poisson random effects modelling - in a Bayesian framework to model the dependence of municipality-level incidence on land use, climate, elevation and population density. Bivariable spatial analysis identified rainforests, forests and secondary vegetation, temperature, and annual precipitation as positively associated with CL incidence. By contrast, livestock agroecosystems and temperature seasonality were negatively associated. Multivariable analysis identified land use - rainforests and agro-livestock - and climate - temperature, rainfall and temperature seasonality - as best predictors of CL. We conclude that climate and land use can be used to identify areas at high risk of CL and that this approach is potentially applicable elsewhere in Latin America. PMID:27355214

  3. [Possibilities of Lupinus mutabolis and Lupinus albus in the Andean countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; von Baer, E

    1977-12-01

    Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis may achieve importance among the andean countries in which soy bean can not grow due to ecological reasons. Both lupin varieties are outstanding because of their high protein and oil content. Its alkaloid content limits the lupins usage; however the bitter substances can be eliminated by means of genetic selection or technological processing. Beside the intoxication caused by alkaloids exists the lupinosis, which is caused by a micotoxin. This disease can be observed when animals pasture forages which suffered under a secundary attack of fungus. According to the results obtained up to date other antimetabolic substances present in the legums have no significant importance. The lupin seed flour is adequate for animal consumption, being used for this effect in different countries. Starting next year there exist the prospects of employing Lupinus mutabilis as an oil source in Peru and Lupinus albus as proteic flour in Chile.

  4. Temporal patterns of diversification in Andean Eois, a species-rich clade of moths (Lepidoptera, Geometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzenberger, P; Fiedler, K

    2011-04-01

    The timing of the origin of present day Neotropical animal diversity is still a matter of debate. For a long time, a preponderance of glacial (i.e. Pleistocene) radiations has been proposed. However, recent data from molecular clock studies indicate a preglacial origin for most of the examined taxa. We performed a fossil-calibrated molecular dating analysis of the genus Eois, which is a major component of one of the world's most diverse assemblages of herbivorous insects. We found that diversification of Eois took place in the Miocene following a pattern best explained by density-dependent diversification. A strong slowdown of diversification towards the present was detected. Diversification of Eois does overlap with increased Andean uplift and diversification of the most commonly used host plant genus Piper. These findings match the patterns found for the majority of Neotropical tetrapods and for three other unrelated, ecologically different lepidopteran genera.

  5. Invertebrate metacommunity structure and dynamics in an andean glacial stream network facing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, Sophie; Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andino, Patricio;

    2015-01-01

    theory as a conceptual framework to better understand how river network structure influences the spatial organization of aquatic communities in glacierized catchments. At 51 stream sites in an Andean glacierized catchment (Ecuador), we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, measured physico......-chemical and food resource conditions, and calculated geographical, altitudinal and glaciality distances among all sites. Using partial redundancy analysis, we partitioned community variation to evaluate the relative strength of environmental conditions (e.g., glaciality, food resource) vs. spatial processes (e.......g., overland, watercourse, and downstream directional dispersal) in organizing the aquatic metacommunity. Results revealed that both environmental and spatial variables significantly explained community variation among sites. Among all environmental variables, the glacial influence component best explained...

  6. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  7. ANDEAN COSMOLOGY AND RELIGION: A HISTORICAL DYNAMICS OF ENCOUNTERS, MISSED CONNECTIONS AND REUNIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelar Araujo Santos Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.

  8. How do subduction processes contribute to forearc Andean uplift? Insights from numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinod, J.; Regard, V.; Letourmy, Y.; Henry, H.; Hassani, R.; Baratchart, S.; Carretier, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present numerical models to study how changes in the process of subduction may explain the observed Quaternary uplift of the Andean forearc region. Indeed, most segments of the South American Pacific coasts between 16 and 32° S have been uplifting since the Lower Pleistocene, following a period of stability of the forearc region. Models confirm that local uplift is expected to occur above ridges, this phenomenon being predominant in central Peru where the Nazca Ridge is subducting. We investigate the effects of slab pull, interplate friction and convergence velocity on the vertical displacements of the overriding plate. We propose that the global tendency to coastal uplift is accompanying the deceleration of the Nazca-South America convergence that occurred in the Pleistocene. In contrast, forearc subsidence may accompany increasing convergence velocities, as suggested by the subsidence history of the South America active margin.

  9. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Tim; Graham, Eric A.; Stenzel, William; Rundel, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae) forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant. PMID:25802811

  10. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  11. An Environmental Watch System for the Andean countries: El Observatorio Andino

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Ángel G; Velasquez, Ramon; Monterrey, Luis; Leon, Gloria; Ruiz, Franklyn; Recalde, Cristina; Cadena, Jaime; Mejia, Raul; Paredes, Marcos; Bazo, Juan; Reyes, Carmen; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellon, Yaruska; Villarroel, Claudia; Quintana, Juan; Urdaneta, Avel

    2010-01-01

    An experimental Environmental Watch System, the so-called Observatorio Andino-OA (Observatorio Andino), has been implemented in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile over the past two years. The OA is a collaborative and regional network that aims to monitor several environmental variables and develop accurate forecasts based on different scientific tools. Its overall goal is to improve risk assessments, set up Early Warning Systems, support decision-making processes, and provide easily- and intuitively-understandable spatial maps to end-users. The initiative works under the scientific and logistic coordination of the Centro de Modelado Cient\\'ifico (CMC) at Zulia University, Venezuela, and the Centro Internacional para la Investigaci\\'on del Fen\\'omeno 'El Ni\\~no' (CIIFEN), and is operated at a local level by the National Weather Services (NWSs) of the aforementioned six Andean nations. The OA provides several freely-available model outputs including meteorological and hydrological forecasts...

  12. Dynamic Paleogeography of the Jurassic Andean Basin: pattern of regression and general considerations on main features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Vicente

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Following examination of the evolution of the Jurassic Andean retroarc basin at a global scale for the Central Andes, this paper analyses the pattern of the regressive process, and discusses some general features concerning Andean Jurassic Paleogeography. The early Upper Jurassic regression obeys to an exactly reverse pattern as the one evidenced for the Lower Jurassic transgressive process. Sectors with late transgressions become those with early regressions while those with early transgressions show later regressions. This fact may indicate that the Norte Chico Isthmus (29°S to 30°30'S was a precociously emerged zone from the Bajocian. This carries again a split up between the Tarapacá and Aconcagua-Neuquén basins until their complete drying up in the Late Oxfordian following their restricted circulation. This evaporitic late stage presents great analogy with the Mediterranean «Messinian crisis» and gives evidence of a general tectonic and magmatic control on the straits. The local transgressions observed on the cratonic margin of the central part of these shrinking basins were due to shifting of water masses resulting from the regressive process on the northern and southern margins. Comparison between the main stages of transgression and regression allows some quantification concerning velocities of displacement of coastlines, specifically lengthwise. The permanence of paleogeographic and structural features over the time argues for an indisputable tectonic heritage. In the dynamic framework of this typical barred retroarc basin where arc magmatic activity has contributed considerably to variation on sediment supply and changing bathymetry of the seaways connecting with the Pacific Ocean, evidence for an assumed global eustatic cycle remains questionable or very subordinated.

  13. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  14. DNA Barcoding of an Assembly of Montane Andean Butterflies (Satyrinae): Geographical Scale and Identification Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, M A; Cadavid, I C; Valdés, L; Álvarez, C F; Uribe, S I; Vila, R; Pyrcz, T W

    2017-01-23

    DNA barcoding is a technique used primarily for the documentation and identification of biological diversity based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Butterflies have received particular attention in DNA barcoding studies, although varied performance may be obtained due to different scales of geographic sampling and speciation processes in various groups. The montane Andean Satyrinae constitutes a challenging study group for taxonomy. The group displays high richness, with more of 550 species, and remarkable morphological similarity among taxa, which renders their identification difficult. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DNA barcodes in the identification of montane Andean satyrines and the effect of increased geographical scale of sampling on identification performance. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained from 104 specimens of 39 species and 16 genera, collected in a forest remnant in the northwest Andes. DNA barcoding has proved to be a useful tool for the identification of the specimens, with a well-defined gap and producing clusters with unambiguous identifications for all the morphospecies in the study area. The expansion of the geographical scale with published data increased genetic distances within species and reduced those among species, but did not generally reduce the success of specimen identification. Only in Forsterinaria rustica (Butler, 1868), a taxon with high intraspecific variation, the barcode gap was lost and low support for monophyly was obtained. Likewise, expanded sampling resulted in a substantial increase in the intraspecific distance in Morpho sulkowskyi (Kollar, 1850); Panyapedaliodes drymaea (Hewitson, 1858); Lymanopoda obsoleta (Westwood, 1851); and Lymanopoda labda Hewitson, 1861; but for these species, the barcode gap was maintained. These divergent lineages are nonetheless worth a detailed study of external and genitalic morphology variation, as well as ecological features, in order to determine the potential

  15. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  16. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoyos-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. Methods: CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. Results: A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp - townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia, while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni. A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. Interpretation & conclusion: The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.

  17. Hydrological connectivity of alluvial Andean valleys: a groundwater/surface-water interaction case study in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Anibas, Christian; Batelaan, Okke; Huysmans, Marijke; Wyseure, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Andean region is characterized by important intramontane alluvial and glacial valleys; a typical example is the Tarqui alluvial plain, Ecuador. Such valley plains are densely populated and/or very attractive for urban and infrastructural development. Their aquifers offer opportunities for the required water resources. Groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction generally entails recharge to or discharge from the aquifer, dependent on the hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater. Since GW-SW interaction in Andean catchments has hardly been addressed, the objectives of this study are to investigate GW-SW interaction in the Tarqui alluvial plain and to understand the role of the morphology of the alluvial valley in the hydrological response and in the hydrological connection between hillslopes and the aquifers in the valley floor. This study is based on extensive field measurements, groundwater-flow modelling and the application of temperature as a groundwater tracer. Results show that the morphological conditions of a valley influence GW-SW interaction. Gaining and losing river sections are observed in narrow and wide alluvial valley sections, respectively. Modelling shows a strong hydrological connectivity between the hillslopes and the alluvial valley; up to 92 % of recharge of the alluvial deposits originates from lateral flow from the hillslopes. The alluvial plain forms a buffer or transition zone for the river as it sustains a gradual flow from the hills to the river. Future land-use planning and development should include concepts discussed in this study, such as hydrological connectivity, in order to better evaluate impact assessments on water resources and aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  20. El mercado matrimonial de las familias tradicionales argentinas, 1900-1940: Algunas dimensiones y tendencias The Marriage Market of Traditional Argentinean Families, 1900-1940: Some Aspects and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Losada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia el mercado matrimonial de las familias tradicionales argentinas entre 1900 y 1940, a partir de una muestra de 550 casamientos y del análisis de sus pautas sociales y culturales. El periodo elegido incluye el momento de máximo esplendor de esas familias en la sociedad argentina (entre 1900 y mediados de la década de 1910 aproximadamente así como el arco temporal en que se produjo el ocaso de su gravitación (las décadas de 1920 y 1930. El propósito es pensar la relación entre las pautas matrimoniales y el ascenso y la declinación de la elite tradicional, un problema hasta el momento descuidado por la historiografía argentina.The article studies the marriage market of traditional Argentinean families between 1900 and 1940 on the basis of a study of 550 marriages and the analysis of their social and cultural patterns. The period chosen includes the florescence of these families in Argentinean society (approximately between 1900 and the middle of the 1910s as well as the are of time during which they declined (the 1920s and 1930s. The aim is to explore the link between marriage patterns and the rise and fall of the traditional elite, a problem that has so far been neglected by Argentinean historiography.

  1. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  2. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    CERN Document Server

    Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Lumpkin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report, for the first time, a tendency of satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys which have lost their sea anchors (drogues) to accumulate in the same regions of the world oceans that plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects.

  3. Alkalithermophilic actinomycetes in a subtropical area of Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R; Maldonado, M J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the alkalithermophilic actinomycete communities in the subtropical environment of Jujuy, Argentina, characterized by sugarcane crops. Laceyella putida, Laceyella sacchari, Thermoactinomyces intermedius, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Thermoflavimicrobium dichotomicum were isolated on the media with novobiocin, from sugar cane plants and renewal rhizospheres, and grass and wood soils. Soil pH was almost neutral or lightly alkaline, except for grass soil acidified by lactic liquor. A smaller number of actinomycetes was found on the living plants and bagasse (recently obtained or stored according to the Ritter method) with respect to decomposed leaves on the soil. Thermophilic species of Laceyella, Thermoactinomyces, Thermoflavimicrobium, Saccharomonospora, Streptomyces and Thermononospora were isolated on the media without novobiocin, from composted sugar cane residues. Air captured near composted bagasse piles, contained alkalithermophilic actinomycete spores.

  4. Subtropical freshwater event at the onset of Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, M.; Repschläger, J.; Balmer, S.; Schwab, C.; Andersen, N.; Blanz, T.; Sarnthein, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) (12.79-11.6 ka BP) cold spell during the last deglaciation is associated with a major breakdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the details of which are still controversial. Catastrophic events like a bolide impact or a major outflow of meltwater stored in the proglacial Lake Agassiz, which led to the capping of North Atlantic deep water convection sites, have been suggested to trigger the AMOC shutdown. However the geomorphological evidence for such a meltwater flood is not in agreement with the timing of the YD. Also, the YD was postulated to be part of a deglacial sequence of events generally characteristic of glacial terminations involving the displacement of major climatic zones and oceanographic fronts. We present detailed paleoceanographic records from sediment cores MD08-3180/ GEOFAR KF16 (38°N; 31.13°W, 3050 m w.d.) retrieved immediately east of the Mid Atlantic ridge south of the Azores Islands. At present, this site is located at the northern rim of the Azores Current, which delineates the subtropical gyre, recirculating warm waters of the North Atlantic Current. Due to its position at the boundary between temperate North East Atlantic waters and subtropical gyre waters, the site is ideally suited to trace past changes in the alternating influence of both water masses. Parallel stable-oxygen isotope records of surface water dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber w. (habitat depth 0-25m) and Globigerina bulloides (habitat depth 0-300m) may document the structure of surface waters. Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) were derived from the UK'37 index and from planktonic foraminifera (PF) assemblages using transfer functions. d18Ow-ice and Sea Surface Salinities were estimated using the d18O G.ruber w. record corrected for SST and changes in global ice volume. The d18O records of G.ruber w. and G.bulloides diverge between 13.4 ka and 12.95 ka BP. d18Ow data show a gradual increase in the freshening of

  5. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  6. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Walter, M. Todd; Boughton, Elizabeth H.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Groffman, Peter M.; Keel, Earl W.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response to global change. We investigated belowground CH4 dynamics in relation to surface fluxes using laboratory water table manipulations and compared these results to field-based eddy covariance measurements to link within-soil CH4 dynamics to ecosystem fluxes. Ecosystem CH4 fluxes lag flooding events, and this dynamic was replicated in laboratory experiments. In both cases, peak emissions were observed during water table recession. Flooding of surface organic soils and precipitation driven oxygen pulses best explained the observed time lags. Precipitation oxygen pulses likely delay CH4 emissions until groundwater dissolved oxygen is consumed, and emissions were temporally linked to CH4 production in surface soil horizons. Methane accumulating in deep soils did not contribute to surface fluxes and is likely oxidized within the soil profile. Methane production rates in surface organic soils were also orders of magnitude higher than in deep mineral soils, suggesting that over longer flooding regimes CH4 produced in deep horizons is not a significant component of surface emissions. Our results demonstrate that distinct CH4 dynamics may be stratified by depth and flooding of surface organic soils drives CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures. These results suggest that small changes in pasture water table dynamics can drive large changes in CH4 emissions if surface soils remain saturated over longer time scales.

  7. North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ruibin; LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The present climate simulation and future projection of the Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW) in the North Pacific are investigated based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (GFDL-ESM2M). Spatial patterns of the mixed layer depth (MLD) in the eastern subtropical North Pacific and the ESTMW are well simulated using this model. Compared with historical simulation, the ESTMW is produced at lighter isopycnal surfaces and its total volume is decreased in the RCP8.5 runs, because the subduction rate of the ESTMW decreases by 0.82×10−6 m/s during February–March. In addition, it is found that the lateral induction decreasing is approximately four times more than the Ekman pumping, and thus it plays a dominant role in the decreased subduction rate associated with global warming. Moreover, the MLD during February–March is banded shoaling in response to global warming, extending northeastward from the east of the Hawaii Islands (20°N, 155°W) to the west coast of North America (30°N, 125°W), with a max-imum shoaling of 50 m, and then leads to the lateral induction reduction. Meanwhile, the increased north-eastward surface warm current to the east of Hawaii helps strengthen of the local upper ocean stratification and induces the banded shoaling MLD under warmer climate. This new finding indicates that the ocean surface currents play an important role in the response of the MLD and the ESTMW to global warming.

  8. Nitrogen sink in a small forested watershed of subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laiming Huang; Jinling Yang; Ganlin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) emission and deposition have been increased rapidly due to massive mobilization of N which may have longreaching impacts on ecosystems. Many agricultural and forest ecosystems have been identified as secondary N sources. In the present study, the input-output budget of inorganic N in a small forested watershed of subtropical China was investigated. Inorganic N wet deposition and discharge by stream water were monitored from March, 2007 to February, 2009. The concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in wet precipitation and stream water and net retention of N were calculated. Global N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and N output by denitrification for forested watersheds elsewhere were reported as references to evaluate whether the studied forested watershed is a source or a sink for N. The results show that the inorganic N output by the stream water is mainly caused by NO3--N even though the input is dominated by NH4+-N. The mean flux of inorganic N input by wet precipitation and output by stream water is 1.672 and 0.537 g N/(m2·yr), respectively, which indicates that most of inorganic N input is retained in the forested watershed. Net retention of inorganic N reaches 1.135 g N/(m2·yr) considering wet precipitation as the main input and stream water as the main output. If N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and output by denitrification are taken into account, this subtropical forested watershed currently acts as a considerable sink for N, with a net sink ranging from 1.309 to 1.913 g N/(m2·yr)which may enhance carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem.

  9. Nitrogen sink in a small forested watershed of subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Laiming; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Ganlin

    2011-01-01

    Global nitrogen (N) emission and deposition have been increased rapidly due to massive mobilization of N which may have long-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Many agricultural and forest ecosystems have been identified as secondary N sources. In the present study, the input-output budget of inorganic N in a small forested watershed of subtropical China was investigated. Inorganic N wet deposition and discharge by stream water were monitored from March, 2007 to February, 2009. The concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N in wet precipitation and stream water and net retention of N were calculated. Global N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and N output by denitrification for forested watersheds elsewhere were reported as references to evaluate whether the studied forested watershed is a source or a sink for N. The results show that the inorganic N output by the stream water is mainly caused by NO3(-)-N even though the input is dominated by NH4(+)-N. The mean flux of inorganic N input by wet precipitation and output by stream water is 1.672 and 0.537 g N/(m2 x yr), respectively, which indicates that most of inorganic N input is retained in the forested watershed. Net retention of inorganic N reaches 1.135 g N/(m2 x yr) considering wet precipitation as the main input and stream water as the main output. If N input by dry deposition and biological fixation and output by denitrification are taken into account, this subtropical forested watershed currently acts as a considerable sink for N, with a net sink ranging from 1.309 to 1.913 g N/(m2 x yr) which may enhance carbon sequestration of the terrestrial ecosystem.

  10. The East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon:Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金海; 刘伯奇

    2016-01-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we fi rstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Pro ject), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land–sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the eff ect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land–sea thermal contrast and the infl uences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate diff erence between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its infl uential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  11. Analysis of Genetic Variability among thirty accessions of Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet using ISSR molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the genetic variability analysis among thirty accessions of andean lupine (L. mutabilis Sweet belonging to Agrarian Innovation National Institute (INIA Seed Bank. DNA was extracted from 300 plants and we made bulks. We standardized amplification protocol of Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR primers, we chose the most polymorphic primers to run in acrylamide gel. We found 255 ISSR loci with 8 primers. It was found high genetic variability of the samples under study by ISSR markers. Also observed relatively high polymorphism for autogamous species such as andean lupine. Finally phenograms showed a relationship with the geographical location, possibly due to in situ gene flow due to the exchange or sale of seeds in markets near the collection area.

  12. Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Genovese, Maria Ines; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-08-01

    The health-relevant functionality of 10 thermally processed Peruvian Andean grains (five cereals, three pseudocereals, and two legumes) was evaluated for potential type 2 diabetes-relevant antihyperglycemia and antihypertension activity using in vitro enzyme assays. Inhibition of enzymes relevant for managing early stages of type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia-relevant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase and hypertension-relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were assayed along with the total phenolic content, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) (cereal) exhibited high free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity (77%) and had the highest total phenolic content (8 +/- 1 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample weight) and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (51% at 5 mg of sample weight). The major phenolic compound in this cereal was protocatechuic acid (287 +/- 15 microg/g of sample weight). Pseudocereals such as Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) were rich in quercetin derivatives (1,131 +/- 56 and 943 +/- 35 microg [expressed as quercetin aglycone]/g of sample weight, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity (86% and 75%, respectively). Andean legumes (Lupinus mutabilis cultivars SLP-1 and H-6) inhibited significantly the hypertension-relevant ACE (52% at 5 mg of sample weight). No alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was found in any of the evaluated Andean grains. This in vitro study indicates the potential of combination of Andean whole grain cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes to develop effective dietary strategies for managing type 2 diabetes and associated hypertension and provides the rationale for animal and clinical studies.

  13. Stable isotope variations (δ18O and δD) in modern waters across the Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershaw, John; Saylor, Joel E.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Leier, Andrew; Sundell, Kurt E.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental parameters that influence the isotopic composition of meteoric water (δ18O and δD) are well characterized up the windward side of mountains, where orographic precipitation results in a predictable relationship between the isotopic composition of precipitation and elevation. The topographic and climatic evolution of the Andean Plateau and surrounding regions has been studied extensively by exploiting this relationship through the use of paleowater proxies. However, interpretation on the plateau itself is challenged by a poor understanding of processes that fractionate isotopes during vapor transport and rainout, and by the relative contribution of unique moisture sources. Here, we present an extensive dataset of modern surface water samples for the northern Andean Plateau and surrounding regions to elucidate patterns and causes of isotope fractionation in this continental environment. These data show a progressive increase in δ18O of stream water west of the Eastern Cordillera (∼1‰/70 km), almost identical to the rate observed across the Tibetan Plateau, attributed to a larger fraction of recycled water in precipitation and/or increased evaporative enrichment downwind. This may lead to underestimates of paleoelevation, particularly for sites deep into the rainshadow of the Eastern Cordilleran crest. That said, elevation is a primary control on the isotopic composition of surface waters across the entire Andean Plateau and its flanks when considering the most negative δ18O values, highlighting the need for sufficiently large datasets to distinguish minimally evaporated samples. There is a general increase in δ18O on the plateau from north to south, concomitant with an increase in aridity and decrease in convective moistening (amount effect). Lastly, stable isotope and seasonal precipitation patterns suggest easterlies provide the vast majority of moisture that falls as precipitation across the Andean Plateau and Western Cordillera, from Peru to

  14. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  15. Pediococcus argentinicus sp. nov. from Argentinean fermented wheat flour and identification of Pediococcus species by pheS, rpoA and atpA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyne, Katrien; Franz, Charles M A P; Vancanneyt, Marc; Schillinger, Ulrich; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2008-12-01

    A Gram-positive, small coccus-shaped lactic acid bacterium, strain LMG 23999(T), was isolated from Argentinean wheat flour. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the phylogenetic position of the novel strain was within the genus Pediococcus, with Pediococcus stilesii, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici as its closest relatives (97.7, 97.3 and 96.9 % gene sequence similarity, respectively). Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of whole genomes and whole-cell protein electrophoresis confirmed the unique taxonomic status of the novel strain. DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA G+C content determination, comparative sequence analysis of the pheS, rpoA and atpA genes and physiological and biochemical characterization demonstrated that strain LMG 23999(T) (=CCUG 54535(T)=CRL 776(T)) represents a novel species for which the name Pediococcus argentinicus sp. nov. is proposed. Multi-locus sequence analysis based on pheS, rpoA and atpA genes was found to be a suitable method for the identification of species of the genus Pediococcus.

  16. Genotypic Characterization of Azotobacteria Isolated from Argentinean Soils and Plant-Growth-Promoting Traits of Selected Strains with Prospects for Biofertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Julián Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity among 31 putative Azotobacter isolates obtained from agricultural and non-agricultural soils was assessed using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting and identified to species level by ARDRA and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. High diversity was found among the isolates, identified as A. chroococcum, A. salinestris, and A. armeniacus. Selected isolates were characterized on the basis of phytohormone biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. Indole-3 acetic-acid (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and zeatin (Z biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, and siderophore production were found in all evaluated strains, with variation among them, but no phosphate solubilization was detected. Phytohormones excreted to the culture medium ranged in the following concentrations: 2.2–18.2 μg IAA mL−1, 0.3–0.7 μg GA3 mL−1, and 0.5–1.2 μg Z mL−1. Seed inoculations with further selected Azotobacter strains and treatments with their cell-free cultures increased the number of seminal roots and root hairs in wheat seedlings. This latter effect was mimicked by treatments with IAA-pure solutions, but it was not related to bacterial root colonization. Our survey constitutes a first approach to the knowledge of Azotobacter species inhabiting Argentinean soils in three contrasting geographical regions. Moreover, this phenotypic characterization constitutes an important contribution to the selection of Azotobacter strains for biofertilizer formulations.

  17. Uma dama argentina em terras yankees: os Recuerdos de viaje, de Eduarda Mansilla An argentinean lady in yankee land: the travel memoirs of Eduarda Mansilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Scatena Franco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso o relato de viagem da escritora argentina Eduarda Mansilla aos Estados Unidos, intitulado Recuerdos de viaje (1882. Integrante de uma camada social privilegiada e oriunda de uma família tradicional pertencente à elite política argentina, a autora expõe um ponto de vista particular sobre as condutas das norte-americanas com quem conviveu em sua viagem, mostrando com isso sua própria concepção sobre os papéis sociais femininos.In this article I analyze the account of a journey the Argentinean writer Eduarda Mansilla made to the United States, which she called Travel Memoirs (1882. Eduarda Mansilla was part of a privileged social class and came from a traditional family belonging to the political elite in Argentina, she exposed a particular point of view on the behavior of the North Americans who she lived with during her travel, unveiling her own conceptions on female social roles.

  18. Dark Adaptation at High Altitude: An Unexpected Pupillary Response to Chronic Hypoxia in Andean Highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Katherine; Labrique, Alain B; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Danz, David; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-09-01

    Healy, Katherine, Alain B. Labrique, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, David Danz, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Luis Huicho, Fabiola León-Velarde, and William Checkley. Dark adaptation at high altitude: an unexpected pupillary response to chronic hypoxia in Andean highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 17:208-213, 2016.-Chronic mountain sickness is a maladaptive response to high altitude (>2500 m above sea level) and is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis and hypoxemia resulting from long-term hypobaric hypoxia. There is no known early predictor of chronic mountain sickness and the diagnosis is based on the presence of excessive erythrocytosis and clinical features. Impaired dark adaptation, or an inability to visually adjust from high- to low-light settings, occurs in response to mild hypoxia and may serve as an early predictor of hypoxemia and chronic mountain sickness. We aimed to evaluate the association between pupillary response assessed by dark adaptometry and daytime hypoxemia in resident Andean highlanders aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru. Oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was recorded using a handheld pulse oximeter. Dark adaptation was quantitatively assessed as the magnitude of pupillary contraction to light stimuli of varying intensities (-2.9 to 0.1 log-cd/m(2)) using a portable dark adaptometer. Individual- and stimulus-specific multilevel analyses were conducted using mixed-effect models to elicit the relationship between SpO2 and pupillary responsiveness. Among 93 participants, mean age was 54.9 ± 11.0 years, 48% were male, 44% were night blind, and mean SpO2 was 89.3% ± 3.4%. The magnitude of pupillary contraction was greater with lower SpO2 (p dark-adapted conditions was exaggerated with hypoxemia and may serve as an early predictor of chronic mountain sickness. This unexpected association is potentially explained as an excessive and unregulated sympathetic response to hypoxemia at altitude.

  19. Geochemical variations in the Quaternary Andean back-arc volcanism, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.; Dosseto, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) is located 450 km east of the Chile-Peru trench in central west Argentina, behind the Andean arc front, constituting the back-arc. In order to evaluate the influence of the subducting slab as well as the magmatic source of this region, two volcanic fields located at comparable distance to the trench, having abundant basaltic products and similar eruptive timeframes were chosen. The Llancanelo (LLVF) and the Payún Matrú (PMVF) volcanic fields are part of the PBP and exhibit abundant basaltic activity during the Pleistocene. The geochemical data suggest that the LLVF has some arc signatures which have been described as weak as they are not as pronounced as in the Andean arc. The weak arc signature is not derived from slab dehydration as high Th enrichment relative to U cannot be explained by this process. We relate the Th enrichment as well as the lack of large residual garnet signatures, to slab sediments in the source. In the case of the PMVF, no arc signature has been inferred despite being only 30 km south of the LLVF. However the PMVF has a composition similar to that of the local intraplate end member, represented by the Rio Colorado volcanic field. The two volcanic fields, LLVF and PMVF, show indications of lower crustal assimilation as they trend towards the lower continental crust end member in Nb/U vs Ce/Pb and Nb/Yb vs Th/Yb diagrams. The geochemical differences between the LLVF and the PMVF as well as between several volcanic fields are illustrated using spatial distribution maps of geochemical ratios. Using this new approach, the decrease in arc signature can be traced in the back-arc and the higher enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to large ion lithophile elements (LILE) in the PMVF compared to the LLVF is explicitly shown. These geospatial maps provide a graphical manner to illustrate the presence of two distinct types of volcanism (OIB-like and arc-like) occurring in the same Quaternary

  20. Climatic and lacustrine morphometric controls of diatom paleoproductivity in a tropical Andean lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, R.; Hernández, A.; Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Prego, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of lake dynamics with catchment biogeochemistry is considered the key element controlling primary production in mountain lakes at time scales of a few decades to millennia, yet little is known on the impacts of the morphometry of lakes throughout their ontogeny. As Lake Chungará (Central Andean Altiplano, northern Chile) experienced long-term lake-level fluctuations that strongly modified its area:volume ratio, it is an ideal system for exploring the relative roles that long-term climatic shifts and lake morphometry play on biosiliceous lacustrine productivity. In this paper, we review previous data on the percent contents of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, total biogenic silica, isotopic composition of organic matter, carbonates, and diatom frustules, as well as data on the abundance of the chlorophycean Botryococcus braunii in this lake for the period 12,400-1300 cal yr BP. We also include new data on organic carbon and biogenic silica mass accumulation rates and the diatom assemblage composition of an offshore core dated using 14C and U/Th. Biosiliceous productivity in Lake Chungará was influenced by shifts in allochthonous nutrient inputs related to variability in precipitation. Humid phases dated at approx. 12,400 to 10,000 and 9600 to 7400 cal yr BP coincide with periods of elevated productivity, whereas decreases in productivity were recorded during arid phases dated at approx. 10,000 to 9600 and 7400 to 3550 cal yr BP (Andean mid-Holocene Aridity Period). However, morphometry-related in-lake controls led to a lack of a linear response of productivity to precipitation variability. During the late Glacial to early Holocene, lowstands facilitated complete water column mixing, prompting episodic massive blooms of a large centric diatom, Cyclostephanos cf. andinus. Thus, moderate productivity could be maintained, regardless of aridity, by this phenomenon of morphometric eutrophy during the early history of the lake

  1. AN EAST ASIAN SUBTROPICAL SUMMER MONSOON INDEX DEFINED BY MOISTURE TRANSPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ping; TANG Xu; HE Jin-hai; CHEN Long-xun

    2008-01-01

    Using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset and observation rainfall data in China for the 1971- 2000 period, a subtropical summer monsoon index has been defined by meridional moisture transport of the total atmosphere column. Results show that the subtropical summer monsoon index defined by the difference of meridional moisture transport between South China and North China can be used to describe the intensity of the subtropical summer monsoon. High (low) index is corresponding to strong (weak) subtropical summer monsoon. And the new index is well related to the summer rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. In addition, the convergence of moisture transport from the west Pacific via the South China Sea and that from the North China may be responsible for the anomalously excessive summer rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River.

  2. A Climatological Investigation of the Activity of Summer Subtropical Vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhexian; DAI Kan

    2008-01-01

    By applying a new vortex detection method to the ECMWF 40-yr reanalysis (ERA40) data from 1985 to 2002, the climatology of summer vortices has been investigated in five subtropical regions, i.e., the northwestern Pacific, northeastern Pacific, northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, and Australia-South Pacific, followed by validation with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Results are as follows: (1) The spatial distributions of ERA40 vortex activities (VAC) were well consistent with those of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NRA) results in all regions, especially in northwestern Pacific. (2) Because of different model resolutions, both the number and intensity of vortices obtained from NRA were significantly weaker thanERA40's. (3) Vortices mainly cruised in coasts and the adjacent seas, from where to the land or the open sea vortex activities were gradually decreased. (4) There were two active centers in the northwestern Pacific:one was located in South China Sea and the other, as the largest center of the five regions, spread from the east side of the Philippines to Japan. (5) Over the northwestern Atlantic, most vortices occurred in Panama and its west-side offshore. (6) The spatial distributions of vortices were alike between the northeastern Pacific and northeastern Atlantic, both spreading from coasts to the west-side sea at 5°-20°N. (7) In the Anstralia-South Pacific, vortices were not as active as those in the other four regions, and mostly took place in the equator-side of near ocean areas. (8) Except the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variations in the other three regions were different between ERA40 and NRA data. (9)In the northwestern Pacific and northwestern Atlantic, the VAC interannual variation could be separated to several distinct stages. (10) Since the mid 1980s, mean vortex intensity was getting increased in the northwestern Pacific, which was most significant in the subtropical areas on a global basis. In the western

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of eastern Australia subtropical coral communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Dalton

    Full Text Available Despite increases in the frequency and intensity of disturbances on coral reefs over the past few decades, the response of subtropical coral assemblages to climate change is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap on Australian reefs and provide a baseline for future comparisons, we quantified spatial (10-100's of kilometres and temporal (decadal patterns of benthic assemblages across a latitudinal gradient along the east Australian coastline (23.5° S to 31.5° S. Benthic community composition was quantified at six locations from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland (Heron Reef, 23.5° S, 152° E to northern New South Wales (31° S, 153.1° E and at Lord Howe Island (31.5° S, 159.1° E. Our results indicate significant latitudinal differences in benthic assemblages, while community composition at some sites was more similar to those hundreds of kilometres away than to that of neighbouring reefs. A general trend was observed with decreasing cover of Acroporidae with increasing latitude, corresponding with an increasing cover of Pocilloporidae and Dendrophylliidae. Heron Reef comprised a high proportion of Acropora corals (43% total coral cover and coralline algae (44%. In contrast, high-latitude reefs were dominated by mixed coral assemblages (0-52% and high macroalgal cover (16-27%. Decadal comparisons of high-latitude reefs showed regional stability of benthic assemblages (9 out of 11 assemblages remained stable at > 75% similarity, during a period of warming oceans (0.15-0.24°C per decade. Such temporal stability suggests that eastern Australian subtropical communities may be more resistant than tropical reef communities that have experienced assembly shifts caused by perturbations associated with recent global climate change. Despite the clear differences in the structure of coral assemblages evident in our spatial surveys, we suggest that the temporal stability of high-latitude reefs may provide a limited refuge for

  4. SUBTROPICAL FOREST BIOMASS ESTIMATION USING AIRBORNE LiDAR AND HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Forests have complex vertical structure and spatial mosaic pattern. Subtropical forest ecosystem consists of vast vegetation species and these species are always in a dynamic succession stages. It is very challenging to characterize the complexity of subtropical forest ecosystem. In this paper, CAF’s (The Chinese Academy of Forestry) LiCHy (LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral) Airborne Observation System was used to collect waveform Lidar and hyperspectral data in Puer forest region, Yunnan province...

  5. CHARACTERISTICS AND CAUSE ANALYSIS OF WESTERN PACIFIC SUBTROPICAL HIGH DURING THE HUAIHE RIVER FLOODS IN 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Rong-hua; Jiao Mei-yan; Xu Jing; Qin Hua-feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION In summer, different assembly of the intensity,location and vertical structure of the subtropical high and the earlier/later time of its seasonal northwards jump bring about different precipitation patterns over China. Therefore, subtropical high activity and its cause during the occurrence of extreme climatic event over China and the cause of China drought/flood are studied to improve weather forecasting.

  6. Progress in the Study on the Formation of the Summertime Subtropical Anticyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹岷; 吴国雄

    2004-01-01

    The studies in China on the formation of the summertime subtropical anticyclone on the climate timescale are reviewed. New insights in resent studies are introduced. It is stressed that either in the free atmosphere or in the planetary boundary, the descending arm of the Hadley cell cannot be considered as a mechanism for the formation of the subtropical anticyclone. Then the theories of thermal adaptation of the atmosphere to external thermal forcing and the potential vorticity forcing are developed to understand the formation of the subtropical anticyclone in the three-dimensional domain. Numerical experiments are designed to verify these theories. Results show that in the boreal summer, the formation of the strong South Asian High in the upper troposphere and the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific in the middle and lower troposphere is, to a great extent, due to the convective latent heating associated with the Asian monsoon, but affected by orography and the surface sensible heating over the continents.On the other hand, the formation of the subtropical anticyclone at the surface over the northern Pacific and in the upper troposphere over North America is mainly due to the strong surface sensible heating over North America, but affected by radiation cooling over the eastern North Pacific. Moreover, in the real atmosphere such individual thermal forcing is well organized. By considering the different diabatic heating in synthesis, a quadruple heating pattern is found over each subtropical continent and its adjacent oceans in summer. A distinct circulation pattern accompanies this heating pattern. The global summer subtropical heating and circulation may be viewed as "mosaics" of such quadruplet heating and circulation patterns respectively. At last, some important issues for further research in understanding and predicting the variations of the subtropical anticyclone are raised.

  7. Distribution patterns of oceanic micronekton at seamounts and hydrographic fronts of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Rabea

    2004-01-01

    In the past the oceanic environment has often been compared with terrestrial deserts and until today relatively little is known about the ecology of the high seas. Within the present study pelagic oceanic communities of cephalopods and fish in the subtropical North Atlantic were investigated, and it was analysed at different spatial scales how these communities varied in response to physical gradients and hydrographic processes. First, the influence of the subtropical convergence zone in the ...

  8. Human impact on the hydrology of the Andean páramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Célleri, Rolando; De Bièvre, Bert; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Jozef; Hofstede, Robert

    2006-11-01

    This paper analyses the problems involved in the conservation and management of the hydrological system of the South American páramo. The páramo consists of a collection of neotropical alpine grassland ecosystems covering the upper region of the northern Andes. They play a key role in the hydrology of the continent. Many of the largest tributaries of the Amazon basin have their headwaters in the páramo. It is also the major water source for the Andean highlands and a vast area of arid and semi-arid lowlands, where páramo water is used for domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption, and the generation of hydropower. Recently, the páramo is increasingly used for intensive cattle grazing, cultivation, and pine planting, among others. These activities, as well as global phenomena such as climate change, severely alter the hydrological regime. A review on the state of knowledge of its hydrology is given in a first part. In a second part, the impact of human activities and climate change on the hydrology of the páramo is discussed.

  9. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R.; Tapia, Elicio E.; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R. Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W. Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450–1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis. PMID:28329011

  10. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Márquez, Roberto; Medina, Ricardo; Mejía-Vargas, Daniel; Kahn, Ted R; Suárez, Gustavo; Mazariegos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The poison frogs of the Colombian Andes, Pacific lowlands and Panama have been recently recognized as a new, monophyletic and well-supported genus: Andinobates. The species richness and distribution within Andinobates remain poorly understood due to the paucity of geographic, genetic and phenotypic data. Here we use a combination of molecular, bioacoustic and morphometric evidence to describe a new species of Andean poison frog: Andinobates cassidyhornae sp. nov. from the high elevation cloud forests of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the northwestern Andes. The new species is associated to the bombetes group and characterized by a unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Data on 1119 bp from two mitochondrial markers allowed us to reject the null hypotheses that A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. is part of the phenotypically similar and geographically less distant species: A. opisthomelas, A. virolinensis or A. bombetes. The best available phylogenetic trees and the genetic distance to other Andinobates species further support this decision. Altogether, the advertisement call parameters unambiguously separated A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. calls from the calls of the three closest species. The new species adds to a poorly known and highly endangered genus of poison frogs that requires further studies and urgent conservation measures.

  11. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  12. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  14. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  15. The Corregidores of the Colca Valley, Peru: Imperial Administration in an Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook, Noble David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of graft corrupted all but a handful of corregidores. The residencia did check some of those abuses.

    El gobernador García de Castro fue quien introdujo (1565 el corregidor de los indios en el virreinato del Perú. El corregimiento fue establecido para limitar el poder de los encomenderos y mejorar la administración y la justicia en los sitios rurales, y al mismo tiempo incrementar la colección del tributo. En este trabajo examinamos el impacto de las reformas en el corregimiento de los Collaguas situado en el hermoso valle del río Colca entre Arequipa y Cuzco. Aunque la corona fue más exitosa en debilitar la encomienda, la posibilidad de soborno corrompió a la mayoría de los corregidores.

  16. Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Andean Ajı′ (Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the importance of Andean Ajı′/Chilli (Capsicum baccatum L. mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which favors for green chemistry and escape us from the use of hazardous chemicals. UV–visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of AuNPs. Further, as synthesized AuNPs were characterized using Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and X-ray diffraction. It produced spherical AuNPs at λmax = 540 nm of average size 23.9 ± 9.7 nm without any aggregation. Ajı′ extract (aq was the good reducing and capping agent in terms of conversion to Au3+ to AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs, also enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (>50%, k = 1.9585 × 10−3 min−1 under direct solar light irradiation. In addition, the experimental approach is benign, ecofriendly, and inexpensive for industrial-scale production of nanoparticles using Aji extract as natural bioreductant.

  17. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  18. Karyotypic variation in the Andean rodent Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Novillo, Agustina; Ojeda, Agustina; Rodriguez, Daniela; Cuello, Pablo; Ojeda, Ricardo; Dardo Martí; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) is an Andean rodent endemic to South America. Despite its wide geographical distribution in Argentina, few individuals have been studied on the cytogenetic level and only through conventional staining. In this work, chromosome characterization of Argentine samples of this species was performed using solid staining, C-banding and base-specific fluorochromes. Twenty two specimens were analyzed, collected in the provinces of Jujuy, Catamarca, and the north and south of Mendoza. All studied specimens showed 2n=38, having mostly the bi-armed autosomes, metacentric or submetacentric. Fundamental Number varied between 70 and 72. These changes were due to the presence of chromosome heteromorphisms in individuals from southern Mendoza and Jujuy. C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in most chromosomes. Acrocentric chromosomes involved in heteromorphisms showed high variation in the amount of heterochromatin within and among populations. Additionally, banding with fluorochromes (DAPI and chromomycin A3) revealed homologous localization of AT and GC rich regions among chromosomes of the different populations analyzed. Comparisons among heteromorphic pairs suggested, however, that the variation might be the result of complex chromosome rearrangements, involving possibly amplifications and/or deletions of heterochromatic segments. These results are in accordance with molecular studies that indicate genetic variability within and among the populations of this taxon.

  19. Transplacental nutrient transfer during gestation in the Andean lizard Mabuya sp. (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.

  20. Receiver functions and crustal structure of the northwestern Andean region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Esteban; Monsalve, Gaspar; Vargas, Carlos Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We used the receiver function technique to deduce crustal thickness beneath the northwestern Andean system, using data from the permanent seismic network of Colombia, combined with some of the IRIS and CTBTO stations in Colombia and Ecuador. The estimation of crustal thickness was made using the primary P to s conversion and crustal reverberations. The bulk crustal VP/VS ratio was constrained using a crustal thickness versus VP/VS stacking method, in addition to estimations using a time to depth conversion technique based on results of a modified Wadati diagram analysis. We observed a wide range of crustal thicknesses, including values around 17 km beneath the Malpelo Island on the Pacific Ocean, 20 to 30 km at the coastal Pacific and Caribbean plains of Colombia, 25 to 40 km beneath the eastern plains and foothills, 35 km beneath the Western Cordillera, 45 km at the Magdalena River intermountain valley, 52 to 58 km under the northern Central Cordillera, and reaching almost 60 km beneath some of the volcanoes of the Southern Cordilleran system of Colombia; crustal thickness can be slightly greater than 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. The values of VP/VS are particularly high for some of the stations on the volcanic centers, reaching values above 1.79, probably related to the addition of mafic materials to the lower crust, and in the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota, where we speculate about the possibility of crustal seismic anisotropy associated with shear zones.

  1. Probabilistic estimation of glacier volume and glacier bed topography: the Andean glacier Huayna West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moya Quiroga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat will increase sea level and decrease fresh water availability. Glacier retreat will also induce morphologic and hydrologic changes due to the formation of glacial lakes. Hence, it is important not only to estimate glacier volume, but also to understand the spatial distribution of ice thickness. There are several approaches for estimating glacier volume and glacier thickness. However, it is not possible to select an optimal approach that works for all locations. It is important to analyse the relation between the different glacier volume estimations and to provide confidence intervals of a given solution. The present study presents a probabilistic approach for estimating glacier volume and its confidence interval. Glacier volume of the Andean glacier Huayna West was estimated according to different scaling relations. Besides, glacier volume and glacier thickness were estimated assuming plastic behaviour. The present study also analysed the influence of considering a variable glacier density due to ice firn densification. It was found that the different estimations are described by a lognormal probability distribution. Considering a confidence level of 90%, the estimated glacier volume is 0.0275 km3 ± 0.0052 km3. Considering a confidence level of 90%, the estimated glacier thickness is 24.98 m with a confidence of ±4.67 m. The mean basal shear stress considering plastic behaviour is 82.5 kPa. The reconstruction of glacier bed topography showed the future formation of a glacier lake with a maximum depth of 32 m.

  2. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

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    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs. Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

  3. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

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    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  4. Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: one or several species?

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    Patrick Blandin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov.  In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.

  5. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  6. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador.

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    Guayasamin, Juan M; Hutter, Carl R; Tapia, Elicio E; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450-1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis.

  7. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

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    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  8. Soil Erosion of Various Farming Systems in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBIN; ZHANGTAOLIN; 等

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimise land use systems,to prevent erosion-induced degradation and to restore the degraded red soils in subtropical China,five cropping systems and four agrforestry systems were conducted in red soils with a slope of 7° from 1993 to 1995,The results showed that erosion risk period occurred from Aproil to June,and the annual runoff and and the losses of soil and nutrients with sediment were alarming for two conventional farming systems,whereas they were negligible for the farming systems with ridge tillage.Enrichment ratios of the lost soils from erosion erer more than 1.20 for all nutrients with much higher values for hydrolysable N and organic matter.Compared with the control,the alley cropping systems also distinctly decreased runoff by 30% or 50%.However,the coverage of soil surface varied with alley cropping systems for the competition of nutrients and soil water,which made a profound difference in runoff.The cropping systems of sweet potato intercropped with soybean,the alley cropping systems and the measures of mulching and ridge tillage were the alternatives for red soil reclamation so as to prevent erosion-induced degradation.

  9. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone.

  10. Edge effect on vascular epiphytes in a subtropical Atlantic Forest

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    Juliana Santos Bianchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation affects biological communities by reducing habitat and increasing edges, thus reducing the effective size of the habitable zones. The subtropical atlantic Araucaria forest, typical on the southern Brazil, in some regions has been reduced to less than 1% of its original size lasting only in small isolated fragments. This study aimed to analyse the impact the edge has on vascular epiphyte ensemble in a remnant of Araucaria forest. We surveyed 40 host trees in four transects: one at the edge; and three at 15, 30 and 60 m from the edge. On each host tree we estimated the epiphyte biomass, using four size classes. We compared the transects using Jackknife estimator of absolute species number, diversity indices, non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and multi-response permutation procedure analysis. We recorded 85 epiphytes species. Absolute species richness and diversity were lower at the edge and higher at 60 m in from the edge. Shannon's evenness did not differ significantly among transects and Simpson's evenness values were inconsistent. The vascular epiphyte community under study was significantly altered by the edge.

  11. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou, jouben43@gmail.com

  12. Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood.

  13. Canopy leaching of subtropical mixed forests under acid rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjun XIANG; Liyuan CHAI; Xilin ZHANG; Gong ZHANG; Guifang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of major ions from acid precipitation in a subtropical forest was examined based on an experi-ment in four sample sites in Shaoshan City, Hunan Province, China, from January 2001 to June 2002. Results clearly show that when rain passed through the canopy, pH increased and the evidence of ion uptake was presented for SO42- , NO3-, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions, espe-cially of NH4+ and NO3-. The percentages of dissolved SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ show a decreasing trend with increasing rainfall. Percentages of leaching Ca2+, K+ and Cl- ions show an increasing trend as a function of increased pH values. The forest canopy in Shaoshan City has a strong effect on the uptake of SO42- and NO3- ions under acid rain conditions. The decreasing order of ions leaching in the forest canopy is as follows: K+> Ca2+ > Cl- > Mg2+ > SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Na+.

  14. U/Pb ages on detrital zircons in the southern central Andes Neogene foreland (36°-37°S): Constraints on Andean exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, Lucía; Bottesi, Germán; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.

    2011-12-01

    U/Pb dating on detrital zircons was performed in the Pampa de Carrizalito depocenter of the Late Miocene foreland basin associated with the Southern Central Andes orogenic front. This reveals Andean and pre-Andean components in magmatic derived zircons inhomogeneously distributed through the sequence. Andean, Grenville, Pampean, Famatinian and Gondwanic components reveal a complex source distribution from either the Main Andes, Coastal Cordillera and basement foreland areas. These are discussed showing different patterns in the context of the Andean orogenic cycle. Cretaceous and Jurassic components that are partly related to Mesozoic batholiths, developed at the western slope of the Andes at these latitudes, have a very contrasting behavior through the sequence: While Jurassic grains are represented from base to top, Cretaceous ones dilute upwardly. This is explained through the progressive uplift of the Southern Central Andes that could have created a barrier to Cretaceous and Jurassic detritus, while the older ones could have had either an alternative source area represented by the inverted rift system of the Huincul Ridge in the foreland area and the Cordillera del Viento in the hinterland area or the reworking of Jurassic sedimentary sequences of the Neuquén basin. Finally, a progressive enrichment in pre-Andean components to the top of the sequence is interpreted as related to the development of a broken foreland and the consequent rapid expansion of the orogenic front at the time of development of a slab shallowing setting in the region as shown by previous works.

  15. Development and application of a low-cost, portable DOAS system for stratospheric composition monitoring over the Argentinean Patagonia and Antarctic stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Marcelo; Jiménez, Rodrigo; Ristori, Pablo; Wolfram, Elian; Tocho, Jorge; Quel, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    A significant fraction of the Argentinean population is seasonally exposed to elevated UV radiation, particularly during severe stratospheric ozone destruction episodes in Antarctica. In order to provide early alert, global monitoring and to improve our understanding of these phenomena, various Argentinean and international organizations maintain stratospheric composition remote sensing sites from the southern tip of Argentina (Patagonia) to Antarctica. The understating of the ozone destruction dynamics will be significantly improved if more sites were available. For instance, the Laser and Applications Research Center, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET, Argentina) carries out systematic measurements of stratospheric ozone and tropospheric water vapor profiles at Rio Gallego (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W, 15 m asl) by means of LIDAR systems. Besides the active systems, the site possesses different passive instruments (GUV-541, UV-B and UV-A radiometers, SAOZ spectrometer, CIMEL sunphotometer) all of them working in synergy. The goal of this work is to present the design and development of a new compact atmospheric remote sensing system, able to determine the vertical column concentration in column (VCD) of multiple trace gases. We have developed a low-cost, portable passive DOAS system, ERO-DOAS, wich circumvents the cost limitations associated with new fixed monitoring sites. It is composed of commercial spectrophotometer (HR4000, Ocean Optics), a 400-μm core, 6-m long optic fiber, and a home-made automatic external shutter. We have developed a LabVIEW® based software for spectrometer/shutter control and data acquisition, and a MATLAB® based software for spectral data reduction. In the work we highlight the main characteristics of the system's components and we describe the visual interface implemented to controls the operation of the whole system, and the calculation algorithms to process the measured zenithal spectra, postulating the strategies implemented to solve the

  16. Un aporte de Carlos Guastavino y Lima Quintana al mundo de la Nueva Canción argentina Carlos Guastavino and Lima Quintana's contribution to the world of the Argentinean New Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Luz Mansilla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se refiere a la canción Hermano compuesta por el músico Carlos Guastavino sobre una poesía de Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicada al editor Rómulo Lagos, fue grabada por Mercedes Sosa en 1966. Incluida como pista inicial del disco de la cantante tucumana al cual le dio su nombre, la canción constituye una evidencia de la simpatía del compositor con los postulados centrales del Nuevo Cancionero argentino. El trabajo comprende una aproximación a la temática del poema, el análisis musical de la partitura, la puesta en contexto de las circunstancias de composición y difusión y la descripción de la versión grabada por Mercedes Sosa. Aplicando la noción "mundos del arte" de Howard BECKER (1982, se interpreta la red de personas ligadas a la editorial Lagos como un tejido cooperativo que funcionó con eficacia hasta mediados de la década de 1970. Un esbozo del contexto posterior, signado por la censura, permite inferir algunos factores que incidieron en el quiebre de esa red de colaboraciones. Aunque respecto de Guastavino, se habla aquí de vinculación y no de pertenencia.Study about the song Hermano by Argentinean composer Carlos Guastavino written after a poem by Hamlet Lima Quintana. Dedicated to the editor Rómulo Lagos, the song was recorded by the Argentinean singer Mercedes Sosa in 1966. Included as the first track in that record (to which it gave its name, the song constitutes an evidence of the composer's sympathy with the central postulates of the Argentinean New Song. This paper's perspective integrates the poem's subject, the score's musical analysis, the study of the context concerning with the composition and spreading circumstances and the description of the performance recorded by Mercedes Sosa. Applying the notion of "art worlds" by Howard BECKER (1982, we interpret the persons net connected with Lagos publishing, as a co-operative and interwoven fabric that effectively worked until the mid 1970s. A sketch of

  17. Initial validation of the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children and adolescents with chronic diseases: acceptability and comprehensibility in low-income settings

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    Bauer Gabriela

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To validate the Argentinean Spanish version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in Argentinean children and adolescents with chronic conditions and to assess the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on the instrument's comprehensibility and acceptability. Reliability, and known-groups, and convergent validity were tested. Methods Consecutive sample of 287 children with chronic conditions and 105 healthy children, ages 2–18, and their parents. Chronically ill children were: (1 attending outpatient clinics and (2 had one of the following diagnoses: stem cell transplant, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, end stage renal disease, complex congenital cardiopathy. Patients and adult proxies completed the PedsQL™ 4.0 and an overall health status assessment. Physicians were asked to rate degree of health status impairment. Results The PedsQL™ 4.0 was feasible (only 9 children, all 5 to 7 year-olds, could not complete the instrument, easy to administer, completed without, or with minimal, help by most children and parents, and required a brief administration time (average 5–6 minutes. People living below the poverty line and/or low literacy needed more help to complete the instrument. Cronbach Alpha's internal consistency values for the total and subscale scores exceeded 0.70 for self-reports of children over 8 years-old and parent-reports of children over 5 years of age. Reliability of proxy-reports of 2–4 year-olds was low but improved when school items were excluded. Internal consistency for 5–7 year-olds was low (α range = 0.28–0.76. Construct validity was good. Child self-report and parent proxy-report PedsQL™ 4.0 scores were moderately but significantly correlated (ρ = 0.39, p Conclusion Results suggest that the Argentinean Spanish PedsQL™ 4.0 is suitable for research purposes in the public health setting for children over 8 years old and parents of children over 5 years old

  18. The discovery of stromatolites developing at 3570 m above sea level in a high-altitude volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes.

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    María E Farías

    Full Text Available We describe stromatolites forming at an altitude of 3570 m at the shore of a volcanic lake Socompa, Argentinean Andes. The water at the site of stromatolites formation is alkaline, hypersaline, rich in inorganic nutrients, very rich in arsenic, and warm (20-24°C due to a hydrothermal input. The stromatolites do not lithify, but form broad, rounded and low-domed bioherms dominated by diatom frustules and aragonite micro-crystals agglutinated by extracellular substances. In comparison to other modern stromatolites, they harbour an atypical microbial community characterized by highly abundant representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus, Rhodobacteraceae, Desulfobacterales and Spirochaetes. Additionally, a high proportion of the sequences that could not be classified at phylum level showed less than 80% identity to the best hit in the NCBI database, suggesting the presence of novel distant lineages. The primary production in the stromatolites is generally high and likely dominated by Microcoleus sp. Through negative phototaxis, the location of these cyanobacteria in the stromatolites is controlled by UV light, which greatly influences their photosynthetic activity. Diatoms, dominated by Amphora sp., are abundant in the anoxic, sulfidic and essentially dark parts of the stromatolites. Although their origin in the stromatolites is unclear, they are possibly an important source of anaerobically degraded organic matter that induces in situ aragonite precipitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest altitude with documented actively forming stromatolites. Their generally rich, diverse and to a large extent novel microbial community likely harbours valuable genetic and proteomic reserves, and thus deserves active protection. Furthermore, since the stromatolites flourish in an environment characterized by a multitude of extremes, including high exposure to UV radiation, they can be an excellent model system for studying microbial

  19. Antibody response to Shiga toxins in Argentinean children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute and long-term follow-up periods.

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    Romina J Fernández-Brando

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Systemic Stx toxemia is considered to be central to the genesis of HUS. Distinct methods have been used to evaluate anti-Stx response for immunodiagnostic or epidemiological analysis of HUS cases. The development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blot (WB assay to detect the presence of specific antibodies to Stx has introduced important advantages for serodiagnosis of HUS. However, application of these methods for seroepidemiological studies in Argentina has been limited. The aim of this work was to develop an ELISA to detect antibodies against the B subunit of Stx2, and a WB to evaluate antibodies against both subunits of Stx2 and Stx1, in order to analyze the pertinence and effectiveness of these techniques in the Argentinean population. We studied 72 normal healthy children (NHC and 105 HUS patients of the urban pediatric population from the surrounding area of Buenos Aires city. Using the WB method we detected 67% of plasma from NHC reactive for Stx2, but only 8% for Stx1. These results are in agreement with the broad circulation of Stx2-expressing STEC in Argentina and the endemic behavior of HUS in this country. Moreover, the simultaneous evaluation by the two methods allowed us to differentiate acute HUS patients from NHC with a great specificity and accuracy, in order to confirm the HUS etiology when pathogenic bacteria were not isolated from stools.

  20. Antibody response to Shiga toxins in Argentinean children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute and long-term follow-up periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Brando, Romina J; Bentancor, Leticia V; Mejías, María Pilar; Ramos, María Victoria; Exeni, Andrea; Exeni, Claudia; Laso, María del Carmen; Exeni, Ramón; Isturiz, Martín A; Palermo, Marina S

    2011-04-29

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Systemic Stx toxemia is considered to be central to the genesis of HUS. Distinct methods have been used to evaluate anti-Stx response for immunodiagnostic or epidemiological analysis of HUS cases. The development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) assay to detect the presence of specific antibodies to Stx has introduced important advantages for serodiagnosis of HUS. However, application of these methods for seroepidemiological studies in Argentina has been limited. The aim of this work was to develop an ELISA to detect antibodies against the B subunit of Stx2, and a WB to evaluate antibodies against both subunits of Stx2 and Stx1, in order to analyze the pertinence and effectiveness of these techniques in the Argentinean population. We studied 72 normal healthy children (NHC) and 105 HUS patients of the urban pediatric population from the surrounding area of Buenos Aires city. Using the WB method we detected 67% of plasma from NHC reactive for Stx2, but only 8% for Stx1. These results are in agreement with the broad circulation of Stx2-expressing STEC in Argentina and the endemic behavior of HUS in this country. Moreover, the simultaneous evaluation by the two methods allowed us to differentiate acute HUS patients from NHC with a great specificity and accuracy, in order to confirm the HUS etiology when pathogenic bacteria were not isolated from stools.

  1. Gabinetes de partido único y democracias presidenciales. Indagaciones a partir del caso argentino Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

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    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los gabinetes presidenciales se ha focalizado predominantemente en las formaciones de coalición, distinguiendo a los ministros en función de su afiliación partidaria particularmente en los momentos de instauración y terminación del gabinete. Este artículo desplaza el foco de análisis hacia los gabinetes de partido único para indagar las modalidades de selección de ministros en situaciones donde el soporte legislativo de coalición pierde relevancia. Se propone un modelo de análisis que incluye la observación de afiliaciones extrapartidarias, capacidades técnicas individuales y vínculos personales con el presidente, y se lo aplica al estudio del caso argentino. Los resultados sugieren que presidentes bien posicionados tienden a aplicar estrategias de distribución de ministerios más cerradas, con grados de institucionalidad que dependen de la organización partidaria del presidente y su estilo de liderazgo.The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  2. An East Asian Subtropical Summer Monsoon Index and Its Relationship to Summer Rainfall in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; ZHOU Zijiang

    2009-01-01

    Using the monthly mean NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the monthly rainfall observations at 160 rain gauge stations of China during 1961-1999, and based on major characteristics of the atmospheric circulation over East Asia and the western Pacific, a simple index for the East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is defined. The relationship between this index and summer rainfall in China and associated circulation features are examined. A comparison is made between this index and other monsoon indices. The results indicate that the index defined herein is reflective of variations of both the thermal low pressure centered in Siberia and the subtropical ridge over the western Pacific. It epitomizes the intensity of the EASSM and the variability of summer rainfall along the Yangtze River. Analysis shows that the Siberian low has a greater effect on the rainfall than the subtropical ridge, suggesting that the summer rainfall variability over the eastern parts of China is to a large extent affected by anomalies of the atmospheric circulation and cold air development in the midlatitudes. Taking into account of the effects of both the Siberian low and the subtropical ridge can better capture the summer rainfall anomalies of China. The index exhibits interannual and decadai variabilities, with high-index values occurring mainly in the 1960s and 1970s and low-index values in the 1980s and 1990s. When the EASSM index is low, the Siberian low and the subtropical ridge are weaker, and northerly wind anomalies appear at low levels over the midlatitudes and subtropics of East Asia, whereas southwesterly wind anomalies dominate in the upper troposphere over the tropics and subtropics of Asia and the western Pacific. The northerly wind anomalies bring about frequent cold air disturbances from the midlatitudes of East Asia, strengthening the convergence and ascending motions along the Meiyu front, and result in an increase of summer rainfall over the Yangtze River.

  3. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  4. Nutrients retention in a small subtropical wetland (México

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    Martha B. Rendón-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas very few studies have analysed wetlands’ ability to control nutrients. We analysed the efficiency of the Pátzcuaro subtropical wetland in Mexico to retain nutrients (total phosphorus: TP; soluble reactive phosphorus: PO43-, nitrite: NO2- and nitrate: NO3- and total suspended solids (TSS and its temporal variability from November 2011 to October 2012, where two hydrological different periods (dry and wet periods were included. The results indicate that, annually, this wetland reduced TP, 30.4%; PO43-, 19.2%; NO2-, 2.5%; NO3-, 17.6%; and TSS, 14.7%. However, the reduction % rose to 55.3% for TP and to 47.3% for PO43- during the dry period and to 14.1 % for NO2-, 49% for NO3- and 44.5% for TSS during the rainy period. These results show dependence on the hydrological cycle, although P retention is also related with uptake by a dense macrophyte community and with organic matter accumulation. The results obtained suggest that removal of N is due mainly to denitrification. TSS retention seems to respond to low speed hydraulics and the resistance generated by macrophytes roots and floating plants. Like other studies in temperate environments, this wetland seems to remove more efficiently P than N. Unlike that  in temperate environments where the highest nutrient retention occurs in autumn, we found the highest retention values for both NO2- and NO3- during summer (rainy period, and the lowest for P, probably due to release of P for the senescence of wetland plants during this period.   

  5. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

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    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  6. Effects of landfill gas on subtropical woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, G. Y. S.; Wong, M. H.; Whitton, B. A.

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of the influence of landfill gas on tree growth in the field at Gin Drinkers' Bay (GDB) landfill, Hong Kong, and in the laboratory. Ten species ( Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, Litsea glutinosa, Machilus breviflora, Pinus elliottii, and Tristania conferta), belonging to eight families, were transplanted to two sites, one with a high concentration of landfill gas in the cover soil (high-gas site, HGS) and the other with a relatively low concentration of gas (low-gas site, LGS). Apart from the gaseous composition, the general soil properties were similar. A strong negative correlation between tree growth and landfill gas concentration was observed. A laboratory study using the simulated landfill gas to fumigate seedlings of the above species showed that the adventitious root growth of Aporusa chinensis, Bombax malabaricum, Machilus breviflora, and Tristania confera was stimulated by the gas, with shallow root systems being induced. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Litsea glutinosa were gas-tolerant, while root growth of Castanopsis fissa, Liquidambar formosana, and Pinus elliottii was inhibited. In most cases, shoot growth was not affected, exceptions being Bombax malabaricum, Liquidambar formosana, and Tristania conferta, where stunted growth and/or reduced foliation was observed. A very high CO2 concentration in cover soil limits the depth of the root system. Trees with a shallow root system become very susceptible to water stress. The effects of low O2 concentration in soil are less important than the effects of high CO2 concentration. Acacia confusa, Albizzia lebbek, and Tristania conferta are suited for growth on subtropical completed landfills mainly due to their gas tolerance and/or drought tolerance.

  7. Observation of new particle formation in subtropical urban environment

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    H. C. Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the new particle formation events in subtropical urban environment Southern Hemisphere. The study measured the number concentration of particles and its size distribution in Brisbane, Australia during 2009. The variation of particle number concentration and nucleation burst events were studied and the particle growth rate was characterised which was first reported in urban environment of Australia. The annual average NUFP, NAitken and Nnuc were 9.3×103, 3.7×103 and 5.6×103 cm−3, respectively. Weak seasonal variation in number concentration was observed. Local vehicle emission was major contributor of the pollution observed in the morning which was dominated by the Aitken mode particles, while particle formed by secondary formation process was contributed to the particle number concentration in the afternoon. 65 nucleation burst events were identified during the study period. Nucleation burst events were classified into two groups with and without particle growth after the burst of nucleation mode particles observed. Average particle growth rate of the nucleation events was 4.6 nm hr−1 (ranged from 1.79–7.78 nm hr−1. Case studies of the nucleation burst events were characterised including i the nucleation burst with particle growth which was associated with the particle precursor emitted from local vehicle emission, ii the nucleation burst without particle growth which was due to the transport of industrial emissions from the coast to Brisbane city, and iii interplay between the above two cases which demonstrated the impact of the vehicle and industrial emissions on the variation of particle number concentration and its size distribution during the same day.

  8. Sponge-rhodolith interactions in a subtropical estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Enrique; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    The interactions between sponges and red macroalgae have been widely documented in tropical and subtropical environments worldwide, and many of them have been documented as mutualistic associations. Sponges, however, have also been frequently described as part of the associated fauna of rhodolith habitats (aggregations of free-living non-geniculated coralline macroalgae). Nonetheless, the types of interaction they establish as well as the role of sponges in these habitats remain unknown. In this study, the associations between sponges and rhodoliths were investigated in an estuarine ecosystem of the Mexican Pacific based on qualitative and quantitative data. A total of 13 sponge species were identified in five newly discovered rhodolith beds dominated by the non-geniculate coralline macroalga Lithophyllum margaritae. The sponge assemblages were strongly restricted to rhodolith habitats. The best predictor of sponge abundance (from 5.1 to 51.7 ind m-2) and species richness (from 2.6 to 6.1 sponge species m-2) was the rhodolith density rather than other population descriptors assessed (e.g., average size, branch density and sphericity). The identified sponges included a variety of forms: massive (46 %), encrusting (23 %), excavating (15 %), cushion-shape (8 %) and digitate (8 %). Moreover, more than 50 % of sponge species recorded (mainly massive and encrusting forms) were frequently found overgrowing and binding rhodoliths. Halichondria cf. semitubulosa and Mycale cecilia were the most common binding agents; these species bind an average of 3.1 and 6.6 rhodoliths per sponge individual, respectively. These findings reveal the importance of rhodoliths as habitat forming species, since these seaweed beds notably increased the substrate complexity in soft bottom environments. In addition, the relatively high abundance of sponges and their capability to bind rhodoliths suggest that these associated organisms could have an important contribution to rhodolith bed stability.

  9. NO2 seasonal evolution in the North Subtropical free troposphere

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    M. Gil-Ojeda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three years of Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS measurements (2011–2013 have been used for estimating the NO2 mixing ratio along a horizontal line of sight from the high mountain Subtropical observatory of Izaña, at 2370 m a.s.l. (NDACC station, 28.3° N, 16.5° W. The method is based on horizontal path calculation from the O2–O2 collisional complex at the 477 nm absorption band which is measured simultaneously to the NO2, and is applicable under low aerosols loading conditions. The MAXDOAS technique, applied in horizontal mode in the free troposphere, minimizes the impact of the NO2 contamination resulting from the arrival of MBL airmasses from thermally forced upwelling breeze during central hours of the day. Comparisons with in-situ observations show that during most of measuring period the MAXDOAS is insensitive or very little sensitive to the upwelling breeze. Exceptions are found during pollution events under southern wind conditions. On these occasions, evidence of fast efficient and irreversible transport from the surface to the free troposphere is found. Background NO2 vmr, representative of the remote free troposphere, are in the range of 20–45 pptv. The observed seasonal evolution shows an annual wave where the peak is in phase with the solar radiation. Model simulations with the chemistry-climate CAM-Chem model are in good agreement with the NO2 measurements, and are used to further investigate the possible drivers of the NO2 seasonality observed at Izaña.

  10. Uncertainty in acquiring elemental fluxes from subtropical mountainous rivers

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    T. Y. Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous watersheds in high standing islands of the western tropical and subtropical Pacific have received great international attention regarding its high physical and chemical weathering rates caused by cyclone invasion, friable lithology and high tectonic activity. Since mountainous region is usually difficult to assess, particularly, during severe weather conditions, hydrological responses of elements against full-scale of water discharge (often >2 orders of magnitude are rarely reported. In this study, we conducted discrete sampling (~3 day interval throughout four seasons and intensive sampling (hourly during typhoon floods from three upstream watersheds in Taiwan during 2002–2005. These observations revealing various elemental responses are taken as complete dataset (i.e. reference flux to evaluate flux uncertainty among constituents caused by different sampling frequency, sample size and estimators. Five constituents are analyzed, including nitrate (NO3, sulfate (SO4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, calcium (Ca, and silicate (Si. Each has specific environmental and geological implications. Direct average, flow-weighted and rating curve methods were applied. Basing on statistical analyses, flow-weighted method is the most conservative method, and is recommended to use for all constituents if few samples are available. The rating curve method is suggested, only when water samples in high-flows are available. Direct average method is only appropriate for stable constituents, such as Si. These findings, such as concentration-discharge variation, sampling frequency effect, and flux estimator assessment, offer fundamental knowledge while estimating geochemical fluxes from small mountainous rivers in Oceania region.

  11. Distribution and prevalence of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in temperate and subtropical eco-regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Adriana; Mira, Anabela; Molineri, Ana; Giacobino, Agostina; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Aignasse, Andrea; Zago, Luis; Izaguirre, Mercedes; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Pietronave, Hernan; Russo, Romina; Scannapieco, Alejandra; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Schnittger, Leonhard; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    A total of 361 colonies from 59 apiaries located in two temperate and three subtropical eco-regions were examined during the post-harvest period to determine distribution and prevalence of Nosema spp. Apiaries from subtropical eco-regions showed a lower spore count than those from temperate eco-regions. Pure N. ceranae and co-infection were detected in apiaries from all regions. In contrast, pure N. apis infection was exclusively observed in the subtropical study region. The predominant detection of N. apis in a subtropical region joining a southern temperate region where mainly co-infected apiaries were identified is in contrast to previous reports.

  12. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  13. Aerosol transport of biomass burning to the Bolivian Andean region from remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ramirez, Daniel; Whiteman, David; Andrade, Marcos; Gasso, Santiago; Stein, Ariel; Torres, Omar; Eck, Tom; Velarde, Fernando; Aliaga, Diego

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the analysis of columnar aerosol optical and microphysical properties obtained by the AERONET network in the region of Bolivia and its border with Brazil. Through the long record AERONET measurements we focus in the transport of biomass-burning aerosol from the Amazon basin (stations at Rio Branco, Cuiba, Ji Parana and Santa Cruz) to the Andean Altiplano (altitude above 3000 m a.s.l. at the station in the city of La Paz). Also, measurements from the space-sensors MODIS and OMI are used to understand spatial distribution. The main results is the high impact in the aerosol load during the months of August, September and August with mean values of aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD) at the low lands of ≈ 0.60 ± 0.60 and Angstrom exponent (α(440-870)) of ≈ 1.52 ± 0.38. Satellite measurements also follow very similar patterns. Also, that season is characterized by some extreme events that can reach AOD of up to 6.0. Those events are cloud-screened by MODIS but not by OMI sensor, which is attributed to different pixel resolutions. The biomass-burning is clearly transport to the Andean region where higher values of AOD (~ 0.12 ± 0.06 versus 0.09 ± 0.04 in the no biomass-burning season) and α(440-870) (~ 0.95 ± 0.30 versus 0.84 ± 0.3 in the no biomass-burning season). However, the intensity of the biomass-burning season varies between different years. Analysis of precipitation anomalies using TRNM satellites indicates a strong correlation with AOD, which suggest that on dry years there is less vegetation to burn and so less aerosol load. The opposite is found for positive anomalies of precipitation. In the transport of biomass burning larger values of the effective radius (reff) are observed in La Paz (reff = 0.26 ± 0.10 μm) than in the low lands (reff = 0.63 ± 0.24 μm), which has been explained by aerosol aging processes. Moreover, although the spectral dependence is similar, single scattering albedo (SSA) is larger in the low lands

  14. Geometric, Kinematic, and Erosional history of the Central Andean Plateau, northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Barnes, J. B.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2006-12-01

    Latitudinal changes in topography, climate, and thrust-belt geometry in the Central Andes have lead to conflicting hypotheses that climate or tectonics exert a first-order control on the orogens' evolution. Models of climate/tectonic interactions are limited by a lack of detailed observations for both the long-term deformation and erosion history of the Andean fold-thrust belt. We contribute to this problem by combining a sequentially restored, balanced cross section across the northern Bolivia portion of the thrust belt (15-16°S) with 10 new and 51 previously published mineral cooling ages, documenting the timing and magnitude of exhumation across the cross section. The cross section was balanced and restored using the sinuous bed method. The restored section was also sequentially forward modeled using stratigraphic and cooling age constraints. Results indicate the Eastern Cordillera (EC) records the highest magnitudes of shortening (123 km or 55%). The Interandean zone (IAZ) has shortened 48 km or 30%. In both the EC and IAZ individual thrust sheets are tightly folded and have minor offsets of 1-5 km. The fold-thrust belt of the SAZ has multiple levels of detachments allowing for thrust sheets with large 6-17 km of offset. Total shortening in the SAZ is 66 km or 40%. Total shortening for the entire fold-thrust belt in this region is 276 km (39%). New cooling ages support previously published ages that indicate rapid exhumation of the EC from ~40-25 Ma and distributed exhumation of the entire fold-thrust belt from ~15-0 Ma. Cooling ages in the EC and IAZ do not appear affected by individual thrusts. Integrating the sequential reconstructions with a compilation of mineral cooling ages and onlapping sedimentary basins provides a means of comparing independently derived exhumation estimates and determining long term shortening rates. Combined exhumation estimates suggest ~9 km of exhumation in the EC ~5-9 km in the IAZ and 3-4 km in the SAZ. Long term shortening

  15. Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

    2013-03-01

    The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets.

  16. Latitudinal variations (18°-23°S) in denudation rates of western Andean Syntaxis, Chile, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.; Schaller, Mirjam

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Cosmogenic nuclides, denudation rates, channel steepness, Chi, syntax, North Chile, South Peru Syntaxial regions of orogens (e.g. the western and eastern Himalayan Syntaxes, St. Elias Mountains Alaska) are regions where curved segments of subducting plates meet and the subducting plate is bent forms a rigid indentor. Previous studies of syntaxial regions in the Himalaya and Alaska document localized and rapid deformation and denudation due to vigorous fluvial or glacial erosional processes. In this study we investigate denudation around an arid end-member syntaxial orogen in South America to understand the interactions between climate and tectonic processes in localizing denudation. We present 35 new cosmogenic 10Be analyses of river sediments to quantify spatial variations in erosion along the Andean Coastal Cordillera and Western Cordillera. The sizes of the drainage basin vary from 5 - 5000 square kilometers. These measurements are linked to analysis of digital topography, variations in fluvial steepness indices and Chi- plots. Cosmogenic derived denudation rates range from 2.5 - 130 mm/kyr. Denudation rates decrease generally from the syntaxis (near Arica, Chile) towards the south (near Antofagasta, Chile) and from the Western Cordillera to the Coastal Cordillera. Topographic analysis of channel steepness variations and Chi-plots also document spatial variations in fluvial erosion and are consistent with spatial pattern in cosmogenic derived denudation rates. In summary the results document both a north to south and east to west variation in denudation around the western Andean margin. The spatial pattern of denudation is consistent with recently proposed patterns of syntaxial deformation driven by the geometry of the bent subducting plate. Denudation rates are also likely influenced to a lesser degree by a latitudinal variation in climate along the Andean margin.

  17. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  18. Late Glacial-Holocene climatic transition record at the Argentinian Andean piedmont between 33–34° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Mehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo La Estacada (~33°28' S, 69°02' W, eastern Andean piedmont of Argentina, cuts through an extensive piedmont aggradational unit composed of a dominant late Pleistocene–early Holocene (LP–EH alluvial sequence including several paleosols. The arroyo sedimentary record exhibits a paleosol developed affecting the topmost part of likely Lateglacial aeolian deposits aggraded into a floodplain environment by the end of the late Pleistocene. The paleosol shows variable grade of development in the outcrops along the arroyo probably in relation to fluvial valley paleotopography. Organic matter humification, carbonate accumulation and redox processes were the dominant processes associated with paleosol formation. By the early Holocene, when the formation of the paleosol ended, alluvial aggradation renewed and a higher frequency of flooding events could have affected the arroyo's floodplain environment. A period of relative landscape stability in the Arroyo La Estacada basin is inferred from the paleosol developed by the LP–EH transition in response to a climatic amelioration in the Andes cordillera piedmont after the Late Glacial arid conditions. The renewal of early Holocene alluvial aggradation was probably influenced by the South American Monsoon and resulted in a change in the sedimentary dynamics of the arroyo. The analyzed Late Glacial-Holocene alluvial record of the Andean piedmont constitutes a suitable record of the LP–EH climatic transition at the extra Andean region of Argentina. It is in agreement with regional paleoclimatic evidence along the southern tip of the South American continent, where other sedimentary sequences record similar late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes over both fluvial and interfluvial areas.

  19. Realist evaluation of intersectoral oral health promotion interventions for schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities: a research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lise R; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Background Intersectoral collaboration, known to promote more sustainable change within communities, will be examined in an oral health promotion program (OHPP). In Peru, an OHPP was implemented by the Ministry of Health, to reduce the incidence of caries in schoolchildren. In rural Andean communities, however, these initiatives achieved limited success. The objectives of this project are: (1) to understand the context and the underlying mechanisms associated with Peruvian OHPP's current effects among school children living in rural Andean communities and (2) to validate a theory explaining how and under which circumstances OHP intersectoral interventions on schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities produce their effects. Methods and analysis Through a realist evaluation, the context, underlying mechanisms and programme outcomes will be identified. This process will involve five different steps. In the first and second steps, a logic model and an initial theory are developed. In the third step, data collection will permit measurement of the OHHP's outcomes with quantitative data, and exploration of the elements of context and the mechanisms with qualitative data. In the fourth and fifth steps, iterative data analysis and a validation process will allow the identification of Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration, and validate or refine the initial theory. Ethics and dissemination This research project has received approval from the Comité d’éthique de la recherche en santé chez l'humain du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke. The initial theory and research results will be published in relevant journals in public health and oral health. They will also be presented at realist evaluation and health promotion international conferences. PMID:28237962

  20. The origin of oriented lakes in the Andean foreland, Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Chilean Patagonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joseph; Aydin, Atilla

    2008-05-01

    The Parque Nacional Torres Del Paine and surrounding area in the Magallanes foreland basin in Chilean Patagonia is the site for numerous lakes fed by glaciers and rivers in the Andean highlands to the west. The lakes are elongate and have conspicuously systematic orientations. We hypothesize that the origin of the oriented lakes lies in the fault system, composed of a right-lateral strike-slip fault set oriented 58° from north, a left-lateral strike-slip set oriented 87°, and a thrust fault set oriented 167°, that exists within the underlying rocks. To test this hypothesis quantitatively, we determined the shape and orientation of the lakes by fitting each lake with an ellipse of appropriate aspect ratio, and later with multiple ellipses consistent with the composite geometry of some lakes. We then examined the faults in the area in terms of their kinematics, orientation and distribution. The distribution of lake orientations showed three distinct groups which appear to correspond to the three main fault groups. For lakes fitted with multiple ellipses, the difference in means between the right-lateral, left-lateral, and thrust faults and their corresponding groups of lakes are 3.05°, 1.57°, and 5.17°. Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistical test to compare the orientations of faults with respect to the lakes suggests that there is not a strongly significant difference between the fault orientations and the corresponding lake groups. These results indicate that the faults have a profound control on the orientation, shape, and distribution of the lakes. We attribute this to faults and their damage zones being weaker and therefore prone to a faster rate of erosion, and to stress perturbations associated with discontinuous faults resulting in localized high density fracturing and surface subsidence. These results have implications for lake and drainage system morphologies in other foreland basins along the Andes and other similar settings.

  1. Neurocognitive screening of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test of visual-spatial reasoning was used to evaluate the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on 73 Andean children aged 5 to 11 years (mean: 8.4) living in the Nambija and Portovelo gold mining areas of Ecuador, where Hg is widely used in amalgamation. Mean levels of Hg found in blood (Hg(B)), urine (Hg(U)), and hair (Hg(H)) samples were 5.1 microg/L (SD: 2.4; range: 1-10 microg/L), 13.3 microg/L (SD: 25.9; range: 1-166 microg/L), and 8.5 microg/g (SD: 22.8; range: 1-135 microg/g), respectively. Of the children in the Nambija area 67-84.9% had abnormal RCPM standard scores (i.e., < or = 25%tile), depending on the test norm used in the data analysis. Higher standard scores for Peruvian (t = 4.77; p = < 0.0001) and Puerto Rican (t = 4.51; p = < 0.0001) norms than for U.S. norms suggested a linguistic influence. No difference was found between Peruvian and Puerto Rican norms (t = 0.832; p = < 0.408), which showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.915, p = < 0.0001). Children with abnormal Hg(B) and Hg(H) levels had significantly lower scores on the RCPM subtest B than did children with nontoxic Hg levels (t = -2.16; p = < 0.034). These results suggest that a substantial number of Hg-exposed children in the Nambija study area have neurocognitive deficits in visual-spatial reasoning.

  2. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Oliver Adams

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  3. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  4. High-up: a remote reservoir of microbial extremophiles at Central Andean Wetlands

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    Virginia Helena Albarracín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3,700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient thermal amplitude, and extreme solar radiation levels. This work reviews HAAL microbiodiversity, taking into account different microbial niches, such as plankton, benthos, microbial mats and microbialites. The modern stromatolites and other microbialites discovered recently at HAAL are highlighted, as they provide unique modern -though quite imperfect- analogues of environments proxy for an earlier time in Earth’s history (volcanic setting and profuse hydrothermal activity, low atmospheric O2 pressure, thin ozone layer and high UV exposure. Likewise, we stress the importance of HAAL microbes as model poly-extremophiles in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying their resistance ability against UV and toxic or deleterious chemicals using genome mining and functional genomics. In future research directions, it will be necessary to exploit the full potential of HAAL poly-extremophiles in terms of their biotechnological applications. Current projects heading this way have yielded detailed molecular information and functional proof on novel extremoenzymes: i.e. DNA repair enzymes and arsenic efflux pumps for which medical and bioremediation applications, respectively, are envisaged. But still, much effort is required to unravel novel functions for this and other molecules that dwell in a unique biological treasure despite its being hidden high up, in the remote Andes.

  5. High-Up: A Remote Reservoir of Microbial Extremophiles in Central Andean Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Virginia H; Kurth, Daniel; Ordoñez, Omar F; Belfiore, Carolina; Luccini, Eduardo; Salum, Graciela M; Piacentini, Ruben D; Farías, María E

    2015-01-01

    The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called "High-Altitude Andean Lakes" (HAAL) are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles) such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient thermal amplitude, and extreme solar radiation levels. This work reviews HAAL microbiodiversity, taking into account different microbial niches, such as plankton, benthos, microbial mats and microbialites. The modern stromatolites and other microbialites discovered recently at HAAL are highlighted, as they provide unique modern-though quite imperfect-analogs of environments proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history (volcanic setting and profuse hydrothermal activity, low atmospheric O2 pressure, thin ozone layer and high UV exposure). Likewise, we stress the importance of HAAL microbes as model poly-extremophiles in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying their resistance ability against UV and toxic or deleterious chemicals using genome mining and functional genomics. In future research directions, it will be necessary to exploit the full potential of HAAL poly-extremophiles in terms of their biotechnological applications. Current projects heading this way have yielded detailed molecular information and functional proof on novel extremoenzymes: i.e., DNA repair enzymes and arsenic efflux pumps for which medical and bioremediation applications, respectively, are envisaged. But still, much effort is required to unravel novel functions for this and other molecules that dwell in a unique biological treasure despite its being hidden high up, in the remote Andes.

  6. Monitoring the Diversity of Hunting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Fragmented and Restored Andean Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I

    2015-10-01

    Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals.

  7. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Roach, Robert C; Keyl, Cornelius; Spicuzza, Lucia; Passino, Claudio; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge; Malcovati, Luca; Schneider, Annette; Casiraghi, Nadia; Mori, Antonio; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-01-01

    Polycythemia is one of the key factors involved in the chronic mountain sickness syndrome, a condition frequent in Andean natives but whose causes still remain unclear. In theory, polycythemia may be secondary to abnormalities in ventilation, occurring during day or night (e.g. due to sleep abnormalities) stimulating excessive erythropoietin (Epo) production, or else it may result from either autogenous production, or from co-factors like cobalt. To assess the importance of these points, we studied subjects with or without polycythemia, born and living in Cerro de Pasco (Peru, 4330m asl, CP) and evaluated the relationship between Epo and respiratory variables both in CP and sea level. We also assessed the relationship between sleep abnormalities and the circadian rhythm of Epo. Polycythemic subjects showed higher Epo in all conditions, lower SaO2 and hypoxic ventilatory response, higher physiological dead space and higher CO2, suggesting ventilatory inefficiency. Epo levels could be highly modified by the level of oxygenation, and were related to similar directional changes in SaO2. Cobalt levels were normal in all subjects and correlated poorly with hematologic variables. The diurnal variations in Epo were grossly abnormal in polycythemic subjects, with complete loss of the circadian rhythm. These abnormalities correlated with the levels of hypoxemia during the night, but not with sleep abnormalities, which were only minor even in polycythemic subjects. The increased Epo production is mainly related to a greater ventilatory inefficiency, and not to altered sensitivity to hypoxia, cobalt or sleep abnormalities. Improving oxygenation can represent a possible therapeutic option for this syndrome.

  8. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  9. Ultrastructure of the ovarian follicles in the placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simón; de Pérez, Gloria Romero; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2010-06-01

    We studied the ultrastructural organization of the ovarian follicles in a placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya. The oocyte of the primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells. During the previtellogenic stages, these cells become stratified and differentiated in three cell types: small, intermediate, and large globoid, non pyriform cells. Fluid-filled spaces arise among follicular cells in late previtellogenic follicles and provide evidence of cell lysis. In vitellogenic follicles, the follicular cells constitute a monolayered granulosa with large lacunar spaces; the content of their cytoplasm is released to the perivitelline space where the zona pellucida is formed. The oolemma of younger oocytes presents incipient short projections; as the oocyte grows, these projections become organized in a microvillar surface. During vitellogenesis, cannaliculi develop from the base of the microvilli and internalize materials by endocytosis. In the juxtanuclear ooplasm of early previtellogenic follicles, the Balbiani's vitelline body is found as an aggregate of organelles and lipid droplets; this complex of organelles disperses in the ooplasm during oocyte growth. In late previtellogenesis, membranous organelles are especially abundant in the peripheral ooplasm, whereas abundant vesicles and granular material occur in the medullar ooplasm. The ooplasm of vitellogenic follicles shows a peripheral band constituted by abundant membranous organelles and numerous vesicular bodies, some of them with a small lipoprotein core. No organized yolk platelets, like in lecithotrophic reptiles, were observed. Toward the medullary ooplasm, electron-lucent vesicles become larger in size containing remains of cytoplasmic material in dissolution. The results of this study demonstrate structural similarities between the follicles of this species and other Squamata; however, the ooplasm of the mature oocyte of Mabuya is morphologically similar to the ooplasm of

  10. High-Up: A Remote Reservoir of Microbial Extremophiles in Central Andean Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Virginia H.; Kurth, Daniel; Ordoñez, Omar F.; Belfiore, Carolina; Luccini, Eduardo; Salum, Graciela M.; Piacentini, Ruben D.; Farías, María E.

    2015-01-01

    The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called “High-Altitude Andean Lakes” (HAAL) are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles) such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient thermal amplitude, and extreme solar radiation levels. This work reviews HAAL microbiodiversity, taking into account different microbial niches, such as plankton, benthos, microbial mats and microbialites. The modern stromatolites and other microbialites discovered recently at HAAL are highlighted, as they provide unique modern—though quite imperfect—analogs of environments proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history (volcanic setting and profuse hydrothermal activity, low atmospheric O2 pressure, thin ozone layer and high UV exposure). Likewise, we stress the importance of HAAL microbes as model poly-extremophiles in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying their resistance ability against UV and toxic or deleterious chemicals using genome mining and functional genomics. In future research directions, it will be necessary to exploit the full potential of HAAL poly-extremophiles in terms of their biotechnological applications. Current projects heading this way have yielded detailed molecular information and functional proof on novel extremoenzymes: i.e., DNA repair enzymes and arsenic efflux pumps for which medical and bioremediation applications, respectively, are envisaged. But still, much effort is required to unravel novel functions for this and other molecules that dwell in a unique biological treasure despite its being hidden high up, in the remote Andes. PMID:26733008

  11. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  12. Imaging the Seismic Cycle in the Central Andean Subduction Zone from Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Culaciati, F.; Becerra-Carreño, V. C.; Socquet, A.; Jara, J.; Carrizo, D.; Norabuena, E. O.; Simons, M.; Vigny, C.; Bataille, K. D.; Moreno, M.; Baez, J. C.; Comte, D.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Delorme, A.; Genrich, J. F.; Klein, E.; Ortega, I.; Valderas, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We aim to quantify spatial and temporal evolution of fault slip behavior during all stages of the seismic cycle in subduction megathrusts, with the eventual goal of improving our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the subduction system and its implications for earthquake and tsunami hazards. In this work, we analyze the portion of the Nazca-SouthAmerican plates subduction zone affected by the 1868 southern Peru and 1877 northern Chile mega-earthquakes. The 1868 and 1878 events defined a seismic gap that did not experience a large earthquake for over 124 years. Only recently, the 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, and 2014 Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquakes released only a small fraction of the potential slip budget, thereby raising concerns about continued seismic and tsunami hazard. We use over a decade of observations from continuous and campaign GPS networks to analyze inter-seismic strain accumulation, as well as co-seimic deformation associated to the more recent earthquakes in the in the Central Andean region. We obtain inferences of slip (and back-slip) behavior using a consistent and robust inversion framework that accounts for the spatial variability of the constraint provided by the observations on slip across the subduction megathrust. We present an updated inter-seismic coupling model and estimates of pre-, co- and post- seismic slip behavior associated with the most recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquake. We analyze our results, along with published information on the recent and historical large earthquakes, to characterize the regions of the megathrust that tend to behave aseismically, and those that are capable to accumulate a slip budget (ultimately leading to the generation of large earthquakes), to what extent such regions may overlap, and discuss the potential for large earthquakes in the region.

  13. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae, from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL, at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23'7.42" S – 64º38'7.88" W, 2015 m, Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of the snake probably killed by a settler, there was an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae, a native rodent species widely distributed in the region.

  14. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PRECEDING PACIFIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND SUBTROPICAL HIGH INDEXES OF MAIN RAINING SEASONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; YAN Hua-sheng

    2009-01-01

    With correlation analysis and factor analysis methods,the effects of preceding Pacific SSTs on subtropical high indexes of main raining seasons are discussed. The results of correlation analysis show that the effects of SSTs on five subtropical high indexes differ in seasons and regions. The variation of SSTs mostly affects the area and intensity indexes of the subtropical high,followed by the western ridge index,and the effect on the ridge line index is more remarkable than on the north boundary index. The results of factor analysis reveals that the first common thctor of SST of each season reflected mainly the inverse relation of SSTs variation between the central and eastern part of equatorial Pacific and the western Pacific,which correlates better with the subtropical high indexes in the main raining seasons than other common factors of SST. The analysis of interdecadal variation indicated that the variation of SSTs was conducive to the emergence of the La Ni(n)a event before the end of 1970s,such that in the summer the subtropical high is likely to be weaker and smaller and located eastward and northward. After the 1980s,the opposite characteristics prevailed.

  16. Stormwater quality from extensive green roofs in a subtropical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onis Pessoa, Jonas; Allasia, Daniel; Tassi, Rutineia; Vaz Viega, Juliana; Fensterseifer, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Green roofs have increasingly become an integral part of urban environments, mainly due to their aesthetic benefits, thermal comfort and efficiency in controlling excess runoff. However, the effects of this emerging technology in the qualitative characteristics of rainwater is still poorly understood. In this study was evaluated the effect of two different extensive green roofs (EGRs) and a traditional roof built with corrugated fiber cement sheets (control roof) in the quality of rainwater, in a subtropical climate area in the city of Santa Maria, in southern Brazil. The principal variant between the two EGRs were the type of plant species, time since construction, soil depth and the substrate characteristics. During the monitoring period of the experiment, between the months of April and December of 2015 fourteen rainfall events were selected for qualitative analysis of water from the three roofs and directly from rainfall. It was analyzed physical (turbidity, apparent color, true color, electrical conductivity, total solids, dissolved solids, suspended solids and temperature), chemical (pH, phosphate, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulfate, BOD, iron and total hardness), heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and chromium) and microbiological parameters (total coliforms and E. coli). It was also characterized the substrates used in both extensive green roofs. The results showed that the quality of the water drained from EGR s was directly influenced by their substrates (in turn containing significant levels of nutrients, organic matter and some metals). The passage of rainwater through green roofs and control roof resulted in the elevation of pH, allowing the conversion of the slightly acidic rainfall into basic water. Similarly, on both types of roofs occurred an increase of the values of most of the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters compared to rainwater. This same trend was observed for heavy metals, although with a much smaller degree

  17. Oceanic dominance of interannual subtropical North Atlantic heat content variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sonnewald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean heat content varies on a range of timescales. Traditionally the atmosphere is seen to dominate the oceanic heat content variability. However, this variability can be driven either by oceanic or atmospheric heat fluxes. To diagnose the relative contributions and respective timescales, this study uses a box model forced with output from an ocean general circulation model (OGCM to investigate the heat content variability of the upper 800 m of the subtropical North Atlantic from 26° N to 36° N. The ocean and air-sea heat flux data needed to force the box model is taken from a 19 yr (1988 to 2006 simulation performed with the 1/12° version of the OCCAM OGCM. The box model heat content is compared to the corresponding heat content in OCCAM for verification. The main goal of the study is to identify to what extent the seasonal to interannual ocean heat content variability is of atmospheric or oceanic origin. To this end, the box model is subjected to a range of scenarios forced either with the full (detrended ocean and air-sea fluxes, or their deseasoned counterparts. Results show that in all cases, the seasonal variability is dominated by the seasonal component of the air-sea fluxes, which produce a seasonal range in mean temperature of the upper 800 m of ~ 0.42 °C. However, on longer timescales oceanic heat transport dominates, with changes of up to ~ 0.30 °C over 4 yr.

    The technique is subsequently applied to observational data. For the ocean heat fluxes, we use data from the RAPID program at 26° N from April 2004 to January 2011. At 36° N heat transport is inferred using a linear regression model based on the oceanic low-frequency transport in OCCAM. The air-sea flux from OCCAM is used for the period 2004 to 2006 when the RAPID timeseries and the OCCAM simulation overlap, and a climatology is used for the air-sea flux from 2006 onwards. The results confirm that on longer (> 2 yr timescales the ocean dominates the ocean heat

  18. New particle growth and shrinkage observed in subtropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-H. Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the first systematic analysis for new particle formation (NPF, growth and shrinkage of new particles observed at four different sites in subtropical Central Taiwan. A total of 14 NPF events were identified during 137 days of ambient measurements during a cold and warm season. The derived nucleation rates of 1 nm particles (J1 and growth rates were in the range of 39.6–252.9 cm−3 s−1 and 6.5–14.5 nm h−1, respectively. The NPF events occurred on days either with low condensation sink (CS, increased morning traffic emissions and the breakup of nocturnal inversion layer (type A, or with high CS, minimum levels of primary traffic emissions and enhanced atmospheric dilution (type B. On non-event days, the particle number concentrations were mostly driven by traffic emissions. We have also observed shrinkage of new particles (type A-S and B-S, reversal of growth, during five out of the 14 NPF events. In intense shrinkage cases, the grown particles shrank back to the smallest measurable size of ~10 nm, thereby creating a unique "arch-like" shape in the size distribution contour plot. The particle shrinkage rates ranged from 5.1 to 7.6 nm h−1. The ratios of shrinkage-to-growth rates were mostly in the range of 0.40–0.65, suggesting that a large fraction of the condensable species that contributed to growth were likely semi-volatile. The particle shrinkage was related to air masses with low CS due to atmospheric dilution, high ambient temperature and low relative humidity and such atmospheric conditions may have facilitated the evaporation of semi-volatile species from the particles to the gas phase. Our observations show that the new particle growth may be a~reversible process and the evaporating semi-volatile species are important for the growth of new particles to cloud condensation nuclei sizes.

  19. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  20. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  1. Special issue on the advances in understanding of the North Pacific subtropical front ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Skip; Seki, Michael P.; Ichii, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Subtropical, oligotrophic oceanic gyres are the largest marine ecosystems in the world. They provide important habitat for many higher trophic level species of fish, squid, seabirds, and marine mammals, with some taxa undergoing extensive seasonal migrations between the subtropical frontal region and summer feeding grounds in the subarctic. Knowledge of the structure, variability, and trends of these regions has developed slowly because of their immense size, remote location, and cost of sampling. The first consolidation of the general understanding of the physical nature of the subtropical North Pacific Ocean (and subarctic transition) was published 25 years ago (Roden, 1991) with important information on its relationship to biota added by the now defunct International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC, 1992; Ito et al., 1993). At that time, a research imperative had arisen from a need by governments to understand the effects of large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing on marine ecosystems (Wetherall, 1991).

  2. Study on north boundary of subtropical zonein Funiu Mountain according to soilgeochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJianhua; XUShuming; HANJinxian; ZHULianqi; ZHAOQingliang

    2003-01-01

    The boundary between subtropical zone and temperate zone is not only important in physical geography, but also attractive in agricultural production. Seven soil profiles studied in this paper are placed along the southern slope of Funiu Mountain at different heights above sea level.Many compositions and properties of these soils have been determined in laboratory. In this paper,the laws of migration and accumulation of soil materials on the southern slope of Funiu Mountain are discussed first, then the division of the boundary between subtropical zone and temperate zone in this area according to soil geochemistry is discussed with qualitative methods and mathematical classification method in which twelve selected indexes such as Km, Saf, Ba, β, Feo/Fet, Mno/Mnt and so on are used. The result indicates that the boundary between subtropical zone and temperate zone on the southern slope of Funiu Mountain is about 950 m above sea level.

  3. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  4. Warming effects on photosynthesis of subtropical tree species: a translocation experiment along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyong; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Huang, Wenjuan; Duan, Honglang

    2016-04-22

    Ongoing climate warming induced by human activities may have great impacts on trees, yet it remains unresolved how subtropical tree species respond to rising temperature in the field. Here, we used downward translocation to investigate the effects of climate warming on leaf photosynthesis of six common tree species in subtropical China. During the experimental period between 2012 and 2014, the mean average photosynthetic rates (Asat) under saturating light for Schima superba, Machilus breviflora, Pinus massoniana and Ardisia lindleyana in the warm site were7%, 19%, 20% and 29% higher than those in the control site. In contrast, seasonal Asat for Castanopsis hystrix in the warm site were lower compared to the control site. Changes in Asat in response to translocation were mainly associated with those in leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic capacity (RuBP carboxylation, RuBP regeneration capacity). Our results imply that climate warming could have potential impacts on species composition and community structure in subtropical forests.

  5. Relationship between real meridional volume transport and Sverdrup transport in the North Subtropical Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua; WANG Hui; ZHU Jiang; TAN Benkui

    2006-01-01

    The oceanic meridional volume transport (MVT) in the North Subtropical Pacific is calculated directly from an observed velocity field (real MVT) and indirectly from wind stress based on Sverdrup balance, respectively. It is confirmed that the Sverdrup MVT is a good approximation to the real MVT for the North Subtropical Pacific except in the western boundary region, where the difference is expected because of frictional and nonlinear effects.The time evolution of the MVT derived from a revised Sverdrup balance, in which a time delay due to the propagation of the first baroclinic Rossby wave is considered, is well correlated with that of the real MVT on decadal time scale, especially near the western boundary region. It is suggested that the Sverdrup balance can be used to study not only the mean climatology of the oceanic circulation, but also the time-dependent oceanic circulation of the North Subtropical Pacific when the Rossby wave propagation is taken into account.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Seismological and Gravimetric Crustal Thicknesses below the Andean Region with Flat Subduction of the Nazca Plate

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    Mario E. Gimenez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric study was carried out in a region of the Central Andean Range between 28∘ and 32∘ south latitudes and from 72∘ and 66∘ west longitudes. The seismological and gravimetrical Moho models were compared in a sector which coincides with the seismological stations of the CHARGE project. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the gravity Moho depths and those obtained from seismological investigations (CHARGE project, the latter giving deeper values than those resulting from the gravimetric inversion. These discrepancies are attenuated when the positive gravimetric effect of the Nazca plate is considered. Nonetheless, a small residuum of about 5 km remains beneath the Cuyania terrane region, to the east of the main Andean chain. This residuum could be gravimetrically justified if the existence of a high density or eclogitized portion of the lower crust is considered. This result differed from the interpretations from Project “CHARGE” which revealed that the entire inferior crust extending from the Precordillera to the occidental “Sierras Pampeanas” could be “eclogitized”. In this same sector, we calculated the effective elastic thickness (Te of the crust. These results indicated an anomalous value of Te = 30 km below the Cuyania terrane. This is further conclusive evidence of the fact that the Cuyania terrane is allochthonous, for which also geological evidences exist.

  7. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  8. Comparative study of emission of pollutant gases in vehicle M1, using fuel of the Andean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernando Antamba Guasgua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental pollution is a problematics that concerns all countries about the world as result of this pollution there take place the phenomena of climate change, greenhouse effect, acid rain, and diseases in people. To delimit the issues, there were selected the countries that integrate the Andean Community, the project goal is compare by means of static and dynamic tests the values of emission of pollutant gases, with the fuel that is distributed in each of the selected countries. The process of measuring and testing of static tests were developed under NTE INEN 2203:1999 standard, considering the idle condition (820 rpm and high engine speed (2500 RPM, in both these cases, an constant engine oil temperature of 94 ° C and dynamic tests carried out according to ASM 25/25 and ASM 50/15 cycles, the results that have been achieved with the different fuels in a vehicle Chevrolet Sail, the best-selling in the country. Based on tests developed, the evaluated vehicle will be able to circulate without any disadvantage with any of the fuels of the Andean Community according NTE INEN 2204:2002 standard. Accordingly, the fuel with the lowest levels of emissions of gaseous pollutants is the distributed one in Peru.

  9. Novel Rhizobium lineages isolated from root nodules of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Andean and Mesoamerican areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-09-01

    The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions.

  10. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Calvo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68% of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.

  11. Characterization of Bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Pamela; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Zúñiga, Doris

    2010-10-01

    Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.

  12. ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INTRODUCED CULTIVARS OF ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA IN RUSSIAN HUMID SUBTROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besedina N. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main criteria in assessing the adaptive capacity of Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi, cultivated in Russian subtropics were yield of the introduced cultivars, as well as ecological (stability and periodicity of fruiting and biological indicators (resistance and periodicity of fruiting. The studied nature of the way Actinidia cultivars react to the constantly changing weather conditions during the period from 1998 to 2011 will help to optimize the placement of the crop in subtropical zone, and use natural resources for its unique climatic properties of Russian territory in a sustainable way

  13. Numerical simulation of the sensitivity of the Pacific subtropical-tropical meridional cell to global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tianjun; YU Yongqiang; LIU Hailong; LI Wei; YU Rucong

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Pacific subtropical-tropical meridional cell to global warming is examined by using a global ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed at LASG/IAP. Results indicate that associated with the increasing of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the most prominent signals of global warming locate at high latitudes, and the change of middle and low latitudes, in particular the surface wind, is relatively weak, which leads to a weak response of the Pacific subtropical-tropical meridional cell. At the time of atmospheric carbon dioxide doubling, the change of the meridional cell strength is smaller than the amplitude of natural variability.

  14. Proceedings of the first international symposium on wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first International Symposium on Wild Relatives of Subtropical and Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops offered a platform for the scientists and others concerned with conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of wild relatives of subtropical and temperate fruit and nut crops. Wild relative...

  15. A high resolution history of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation and of the solar activity during the Late Glacial - Early Holocene in the subtropical Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, S.; Schimmel, M.; Hernández, A.; Bao, R.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Sáez, A.; Pueyo, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution laminated lacustrine sediments are excellent archives of the past hydrological changes and they provide valuable insights about the climatic processes that trigger these changes. The paleoclimatic records located in the Southern Hemisphere are fundamental for understanding the evolution of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since this climatic phenomena is the main cause of droughts and floods in many areas of South America and other regions of the world, like Spain and Egypt. Available regional paleoclimate reconstructions show that modern climatic patterns in South America were established during the Late Holocene. The laminated sediments of Lago Chungará (18° 15' S - 69° 10' W, 4520 m a.s.l., Chilean altiplano) have allowed us to characterize the evolution of this climatic phenomena for the transition Late Glacial - Early Holocene (12,300 - 9,500 calendar years BP) as well as its relationship with other climate forcings, namely the solar activity. The studied sediments correspond to the lowermost 2.4 m of 8 m long Kullemberg cores recovered from this lake. These sediments are mainly made up of greenish and whitish laminae and thin layers constituted by diatomaceous oozes with carbonates and organic matter, arranged in rhythms and cycles. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Zn, Sb and Ba) analyses, total organic carbon (TOC), total carbon (TC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), biogenic silica, stable isotopes (delta18O and delta13C) on carbonates and on diatoms (delta18O) and magnetic susceptibility were determined in order to characterize the sediments of Lago Chungará. Previous statistical studies (cluster and Principal Component Analyses (PCA)) were used to disentangle the paleoclimatic signal from the other ones (volcanic and tectonic). The chronological model framework was built using 6 radiocarbon dates, allowing us to establish that laminated couplets were deposited on a pluriannual basis. These couplets are composed of a lower light lamina, progressively grading upwards to a dark lamina. Light laminae are composed by diatom valves of a single species (Cyclostephanos cf. andinus), accumulated during short-term extraordinary diatom blooms when water column mixing took place under abrupt and short-term climatic events. Dark laminae contain a complex diatom assemblage and are rich in organic matter representing the baseline limnological conditions during several years of deposition. Spectral analyses (Fast Fourier Transformation - FFT - and Time Frequency - TF - analyses) were performed on the isolated paleohydrological curve and on the gray color curve calculated for these laminated sediments. The FFT analyses of the paleohydrological signal obtained from the PCA highlights the record of 35-51 years cycles, that might correspond to the solar Bruckner cycle as well as to the inter-decadal changes in the variance of the ENSO phenomena. The results of the FFT analyses carried out on the gray curve reinforce the hypothesis of the solar control on the variations in the lake productivity: the 11-years Schwabe, 22-23-years Hale, 35-years Bruckner and the approx. 90-years Gleissberg cycles, as well as a strong to very strong ENSO phenomena (8.2 and 7.5-years cycles) are recorded. The TF analyses developed on the variations of the gray-colour curve reveal that all solar frequencies have modified intensities during the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. During the low activity periods of the 11-years Schwabe cycles, strong to very strong ENSO phenomena took place. These results show that ENSO-like variability was present during the late Glacial and early Holocene in the Altiplano.

  16. Aplicación de electroforesis capilar para la caracterización de gliadinas de trigos argentinos Use of capillary electrophoresis for characterization of Argentinean wheat gliadins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colombo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las gliadinas son proteínas del trigo que desempeñan un papel central en la formación del gluten, ya que son las responsables de la viscosidad de la red. Pese a su importancia han sido menos estudiadas que las gluteninas, debido a que sus inusuales propiedades de solubilidad e hidrofobicidad dificultan su caracterización. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar el perfil proteico de las gliadinas de cultivares de trigos argentinos mediante electroforesis capilar, y evaluar la capacidad de esta técnica para discriminar entre los diferentes cultivares. Para ello se trabajó con 12 cultivares de trigo de las diferentes categorías de calidad asignadas por el INTA, a los que se caracterizó en cuanto a su composición y calidad tecnológica y se les extrajo las gliadinas para estudiarlas por electroforesis capilar. Los resultados obtenidos confirman el potencial de esta técnica para lograr separaciones de gliadinas, con la ventaja de requerir poca preparación y poca cantidad de la muestra analizada y sencillos protocolos de limpieza y mantenimiento de capilar, permitiendo el análisis de gran cantidad de muestras. Asimismo, se demostró la capacidad de la electroforesis capilar para discriminar diferentes cultivares sobre la base de su perfil de gliadinas, lo que permite la diferenciación de genotipos.Gliadins are a group of wheat proteins that play a major role in gluten development since they account for net viscosity. Despite this fact, gliadins have not been studied as deeply as glutenins because of their unusual solubility properties and their high hydrophobicity. The objectives of this work were to study the gliadin profile of Argentinean wheats comprising a broad quality range by means of capillary electrophoresis and to assess the suitability of this technique for wheat cultivar discrimination. For this purpose, chemical compositions of twelve wheat cultivars belonging to different quality groups were determined. Besides, flour

  17. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  18. Classification of rainfall events for weather forecasting purposes in andean region of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Hincapié, Joan Nathalie; Romo Melo, Liliana; Vélez Upegui, Jorge Julian; Chang, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a comparative analysis of the results of applying different methodologies for the identification and classification of rainfall events of different duration in meteorological records of the Colombian Andean region. In this study the work area is the urban and rural area of Manizales that counts with a monitoring hydro-meteorological network. This network is composed of forty-five (45) strategically located stations, this network is composed of forty-five (45) strategically located stations where automatic weather stations record seven climate variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, solar radiation and barometric pressure. All this information is sent wirelessly every five (5) minutes to a data warehouse located at the Institute of Environmental Studies-IDEA. With obtaining the series of rainfall recorded by the hydrometeorological station Palogrande operated by the National University of Colombia in Manizales (http://froac.manizales.unal.edu.co/bodegaIdea/); it is with this information that we proceed to perform behavior analysis of other meteorological variables, monitored at surface level and that influence the occurrence of such rainfall events. To classify rainfall events different methodologies were used: The first according to Monjo (2009) where the index n of the heavy rainfall was calculated through which various types of precipitation are defined according to the intensity variability. A second methodology that permitted to produce a classification in terms of a parameter β introduced by Rice and Holmberg (1973) and adapted by Llasat and Puigcerver, (1985, 1997) and the last one where a rainfall classification is performed according to the value of its intensity following the issues raised by Linsley (1977) where the rains can be considered light, moderate and strong fall rates to 2.5 mm / h; from 2.5 to 7.6 mm / h and above this value respectively for the previous classifications. The main

  19. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  20. Andean evolution of the Aluminé fold and thrust belt, Northern Patagonian Andes (38°30‧-40°30‧S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Morabito, Ezequiel; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2012-10-01

    The Aluminé fold and thrust belt between 38°30' and 40°30'S is the result of two periods of progression of deformation toward the foreland. The chronology of deformation and its relationship with magmatism through time show spatially and temporally separated magmatic events closely linked to distinct deformational stages. Data presented here confirms a Late Cretaceous mountain-building phase that coexisted in space and time with an eastward arc-migration. During this stage, a belt of deformation expanded through the foreland where it produced the Southern Neuquen Precordillera. This eastern independent mountain grew separately from the main Andean axis through a combination of inversion of the old rift systems and interaction with a pre-Andean belt which acted as a foreland obstacle. On the basis of tectonostratigraphic controls we define the last Andean contractional phase between the Late Miocene and the Pliocene. This event induced the reactivation of both sectors of the fold and thrust belt with minor propagation toward the foreland, leading to the uplift of the Patagonian Andes and reshaping the Southern Neuquén Precordillera. Both intervals of shortening are separated by a period of localized extension that resulted in the development of the Collón Cura basin within this Andean segment. Here, large thicknesses of volcanosedimentary sequences accumulated contemporaneously with the extensional activity between the earliest Oligocene and the Early Miocene.

  1. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The IT...

  2. The complete genome sequences of a Peruvian and a Colombian isolate of Andean potato latent virus and partial sequences of further isolates suggest the existence of two distinct potato-infecting tymovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, Jan; Koenig, Renate; De Souza, Joao; Vetten, Heinrich Josef; Muller, Giovanna; Flores, Betty; Ziebell, Heiko; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2013-05-01

    The complete genomic RNA sequences of the tymovirus isolates Hu and Col from potato which originally had been considered to be strains of the same virus species, i.e. Andean potato latent virus (APLV), were determined by siRNA sequencing and assembly, and found to share only c. 65% nt sequence identity. This result together with those of serological tests and comparisons of the coat protein gene sequences of additional tymovirus isolates from potato suggest that the species Andean potato latent virus should be subdivided into two species, i.e. APLV and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV). Primers were designed for the broad specificity detection of both viruses.

  3. Ant community structure during forest succession in a subtropical forest in South-East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Michael; Schuldt, Andreas; Assmann, Thorsten; Bruelheide, Helge; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how communities respond to environmental gradients is critical to predict responses of species to changing habitat conditions such as in regenerating secondary habitats after human land use. In this study, ground-living ants were sampled with pitfall traps in 27 plots in a heterogeneous and diverse subtropical forest to test if and how a broad set of environmental variables including elevation, successional age, and tree species richness influence ant diversity and community composition. In total, 13,441 ant individuals belonging to 71 species were found. Ant abundance was unrelated to all environmental variables. Rarefied ant species richness was negatively related to elevation, and Shannon diversity decreased with shrub cover. There was considerable variation in ant species amongst plots, associated with elevation, successional age, and variables related to succession such as shrub cover. It is shown that younger secondary forests may support a species-rich and diverse community of ants in subtropical forests even though the species composition between younger and older forests is markedly different. These findings confirm the conservation value of secondary subtropical forests, which is critical because subtropical forests have been heavily exploited by human activities globally. However, the findings also confirm that old-growth forest should have priority in conservation as it supports a distinct ant community. Our study identifies a set of ant species which are associated with successional age and may thus potentially assist local conservation planning.

  4. The western boundary current of the seasonal subtropical gyre in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Nampoothiri, G.

    , and monthly mean wind stress, we propose that the poleward current is the western boundary current of a seasonal anticyclonic subtropical gyre which forms in the Bay during January, is best developed during March-April, and decays by June. The gyre...

  5. Variations of Soil Microbial Community Structures Beneath Broadleaved Forest Trees in Temperate and Subtropical Climate Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhao, Mengxin; Lu, Hui; Xie, Changyi; Yang, Caiyun; Yuan, Tong; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. However, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRI (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from -0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomy-based association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-for-time substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.

  6. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  7. Assessing the effects of subtropical forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution using remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Ramoelo, A.; Debba, P.; Mutanga, O.; Mathieu, R.; Deventer, van H.; Ndlovu, N.

    2013-01-01

    Subtropical forest loss resulting from conversion of forest to other land-cover types such as grassland, secondary forest, subsistence crop farms and small forest patches affects leaf nitrogen (N) stocks in the landscape. This study explores the utility of new remote sensing tools to model the spati

  8. Managing adipsic diabetes insipidus following anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brendan; Inder, Warrick J

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus without perception of thirst, as may follow an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, requires prescription of fluid intake as well as desmopressin. The management goal of maintaining a normal serum sodium is rendered more challenging in a humid subtropical environment, where insensible losses are higher.

  9. Nile tilapia and blue tilapia fry production in a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between production in earthen ponds located in a subtropical climate of fry suitable for hormonal sex inversion and degree-days was quantified for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; Egypt strain) and blue tilapia (O. aureus). Degree-days were calculated for each trial as the sum o...

  10. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  11. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three th

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Agricultural Soils of the Southern Subtropics, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The contributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the subtropical regions of China to pollution of the global environment have been paid great attention; however, little is known about the state of POPs in agricultural ecosystems within these regions of China. This study primarily revealed the state of the contamination and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in agricultural soils in the subtropical regions. 115 surface soils (0-20 cm)were sampled in the breadbaskets of these regions. The concentrations and types of PAH were determined using gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 22.1 to 1256.9 ng g-1, with a mean of 318.2 ± 148.2 ng g-1. In general terms, the current PAH concentrations were lower than most PAH levels reported in a number of investigations from different countries and regions. PAH isomer ratios indicated that pyrolytic origins, such as fossil fuel combustion related to vehicle tail gas and industrial emissions, were the dominant sources of PAH in the southern subtropical areas of China. Although PAH concentrations decreased with decreasing pollution, population, and traffic density, to a great extent PAH compositions were similar throughout subtropical soils,with naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene being dominant.

  13. Lysogenic infection in sub-tropical freshwater cyanobacteria cultures and natural blooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhauer, L.M.; Pollard, P.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Säwström, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lysogeny has been reported for a few freshwater cyanobacteria cultures, but it is unknown how prevalent it is in freshwater cyanobacteria in situ. Here we tested for lysogeny in (a) cultures of eight Australian species of subtropical freshwater cyanobacteria; (b) seven strains of one species: Cylind

  14. Invariant community structure of soil bacteria in subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Lixia; Wan, Songze; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-01-12

    Soil bacteria may be influenced by vegetation and play important roles in global carbon efflux and nutrient cycling under global changes. Coniferous and broadleaved forests are two phyletically distinct vegetation types. Soil microbial communities in these forests have been extensively investigated but few studies have presented comparable data regarding the characteristics of bacterial communities in subtropical forests. We investigated soil bacterial biomass and community composition in three pairs of coniferous and broadleaved forests across a subtropical climatic gradient. We found that bacterial biomass differed between the coniferous and broadleaved forests across the subtropical climate gradient; however, this difference disappeared at some individual sites. In contrast, the same 90 bacterial genera were found in both forest types, and their relative abundances didn't differ between the forest types, with the exception of one genus that was more abundant in broadleaved forests. Soil nitrogen or moisture was associated with bacterial groups in the coniferous and broadleaved forests, respectively. Thus, we inferred that these forests can respond differently to future changes in nitrogen deposition or precipitation. This study highlights soil bacterial invariant community composition in contrasting subtropical forests and provides a new perspective on the potential response and feedback of forests to global changes.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  16. Experimental evidence for a phylogenetic Janzen-Connell effect in a subtropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xubing; Liang, Minxia; Etienne, Rampal S.; Wang, Yongfan; Staehelin, Christian; Yu, Shixiao

    2012-01-01

    Observational evidence increasingly suggests that the JanzenConnell effect extends beyond the species boundary. However, this has not been confirmed experimentally. Herein, we present both observational and experimental evidence for a phylogenetic JanzenConnell effect. In a subtropical forest in Gua

  17. Mercury fluxes and pools in three subtropical forested catchments, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhangwei [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Xiaoshan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: Zhangxsh@rcees.ac.cn; Xiao Jingsong [Guizhou Institute of Environmental Science and Designing, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhijia Ci [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yu Pingzhong [Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science (China)

    2009-03-15

    Forested catchments are an important part of the mercury (Hg) cycle and a link between the atmospheric and the aquatic environments. In this study, Hg input and output fluxes and its retention were investigated at subtropical forested catchments in southwest China. Significantly enhanced atmospheric Hg inputs were observed, and the contribution of litterfall Hg plays a more important role at these subtropical forested catchments. The ratios of Hg output fluxes from stream water to total input were 2.5% and 1.2% for LGS and TSP, which were markedly lower than those reported from Europe and North America. The current annual input Hg only accounted for 0.8 and 1.8 per mille to the Hg stored in the upper 90 cm of soil in LGS and TSP. These suggest that subtropical forested catchments are important for retention of atmospheric mercury deposition in southwest China. - The subtropical forested catchments are important for retention of atmospheric mercury deposition in southwest China.

  18. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  19. La corriente en chorro subtropical media mensual en América del Sur The monthly mean subtropical jet stream over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo L. Antico

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de campos medios mensuales obtenidos de los reanálisis del NCEP/NCAR se identifica a la corriente en chorro subtropical sobre América del Sur durante el período 1978-1999. Para determinar su intensidad y posición se construyeron cortes verticales del viento zonal medio mensual. Luego, se identifica al núcleo de la corriente en chorro mediante el empleo de campos medios mensuales de la intensidad del viento en 200 hPa. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio y su comparación con aquellos obtenidos por otros autores muestran la eficiencia de los reanálisis en detectar a la corriente en chorro subtropical (JST media mensual. La intensidad y la posición latitudinal del JST están relacionados de manera tal que al desplazarse hacia el polo, el JST se debilita. Sin embargo, en octubre este comportamiento no se observa, lo cual representa una particularidad del JST en América del Sur. El análisis de la ubicación del núcleo de la corriente en chorro subtropical muestra que éste tiende a posicionarse sobre el este de Argentina y Uruguay. También se halla una segunda ubicación preferida sobre el Océano Pacífico frente a la costa de América del Sur. En verano, los núcleos tienden a permanecer sobre el continente y no sobre el mar, en cambio durante el invierno su localización presenta una gran dispersión zonal.The subtropical jet stream over South America is identified from monthly mean wind fields obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis during the period 1978-1999. Zonal wind vertical cross-sections are used to determine its intensity and latitudinal position. Then, 200-hPa wind intensity fields are used to identify the subtropical jet stream core. The results obtained in this study and the comparison with those obtained by other authors show the efficiency of the reanalysis in detecting the monthly mean subtropical jet stream (STJ. The intensity and latitudinal position of the STJ are related in such a way that the STJ weakens

  20. Cenozoic foreland basin evolution during Andean shortening in the Malargüe region of western Argentina (35°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, S. G.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic clastic deposits in western Argentina provide key opportunities to evaluate the timing and duration of Andean deformation and uplift. We studied the Malargüe segment of the Andean foreland basin at 35°S to better understand latest Cretaceous to Pliocene deformation and eastward propagation of Andean retroarc shortening. Our multi-technique approach included logging of a well-exposed ~1500m Paleocene-Miocene stratigraphic succession, paleocurrent measurements, conglomerate clast counts, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses of basin fill exposed in the Sosneado region along the Rio Atuel. The Pircala and Coihueco Formations define the lowermost ~180 m of the section and are represented by fine to medium sandstones, siltstones, claystones and marls interpreted as distal fluvial floodplain and localized lacustrine deposits. Pircala paleocurrents show a major reversal from west- to east-directed flow. These finer deposits of the lower succession are separated from the overlying coarser-grained ~800 m thick Agua de la Piedra Formation by a conspicuous unconformity that spans up to roughly 20 Myr. The Agua de la Piedra Formation is composed of upward-coarsening amalgamated beds of massive medium to coarse sandstones and lenticular conglomerates interpreted as a prograding proximal fluvial to alluvial fan system. Conglomerate clast counts show initial dominance by Mesozoic detritus from the pre-Andean Neuquen basin system, with a progressive upsection increase in Cenozoic volcanic detritus from the Andean magmatic arc. Collectively, the paleocurrents, clast compositions, sedimentary facies associations, and emerging U-Pb results suggest a long-term shift, commencing in the Paleocene, from eastern cratonic sources to magmatic-arc and thrust-belt sources during a systematic eastward propagation of deformation, with a pronounced phase of Miocene magmatism and shortening that incorporated the proximal foreland basin into the advancing thrust belt.

  1. mtDNA and Y-chromosome diversity in Aymaras and Quechuas from Bolivia: different stories and special genetic traits of the Andean Altiplano populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Moral, Pedro; Saenz-Ruales, Nancy; Gerbault, Pascale; Tonasso, Laure; Villena, Mercedes; Vasquez, René; Bravi, Claudio M; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Two Bolivian samples belonging to the two main Andean linguistic groups (Aymaras and Quechuas) were studied for mtDNA and Y-chromosome uniparental markers to evaluate sex-specific differences and give new insights into the demographic processes of the Andean region. mtDNA-coding polymorphisms, HVI-HVII control regions, 17 Y-STRs, and three SNPs were typed in two well-defined populations with adequate size samples. The two Bolivian samples showed more genetic differences for the mtDNA than for the Y-chromosome. For the mtDNA, 81% of Aymaras and 61% of Quechuas presented haplogroup B2. Native American Y-chromosomes were found in 97% of Aymaras (89% hg Q1a3a and 11% hg Q1a3*) and 78% of Quechuas (100% hg Q1a3a). Our data revealed high diversity values in the two populations, in agreement with other Andean studies. The comparisons with the available literature for both sets of markers indicated that the central Andean area is relatively homogeneous. For mtDNA, the Aymaras seemed to have been more isolated throughout time, maintaining their genetic characteristics, while the Quechuas have been more permeable to the incorporation of female foreigners and Peruvian influences. On the other hand, male mobility would have been widespread across the Andean region according to the homogeneity found in the area. Particular genetic characteristics presented by both samples support a past common origin of the Altiplano populations in the ancient Aymara territory, with independent, although related histories, with Peruvian (Quechuas) populations.

  2. Space-time objective decomposition of vortex equations and mechanism analysis of subtropical high abnormal activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei HONG; Ren ZHANG; Feng XUE; Ke-feng LIU

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the dynamic mechanism of unusual activities of the subtropical high, the space-time varible separation of the partial differential vortex equations is carried out with Galerkin methods based on the heat force and the whirl movement dissi-pation effect. Aiming at the subjective and man-made conventional method of choice in the space basis functions, we propose to combine the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis with the genetic algorithm to inverse the space basis functions from the actual sequence of fields. A group of trigonometric functions are chosen as a generalized space basis function. With the least-squares error of the basis function and EOF typical fields, and with the complete orthogonality of basis functions, we can get the dual-bound func-tion. A genetic algorithm is then introduced to carry out surface fitting and coefficient optimization of the basis function. As a result, the objective and reasonable constant differential equation of the subtropical high is obtained by inversion. Finally, based on the obtained nonlinear dynamics model, the dynamic behavior and mechanism of the subtropical high is analyzed and discussed under the influence of heat force. We find that solar radiation and zonal differences in land and sea are important factors impacting the potential field and flow field changes of the subtropical areas. These factors lead to strength changes of the subtropical high and medium-term advance/retreat activities. The former is a gradual change, while the latter shows more break characteristics. Meaningful results are obtained in the analysis.

  3. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dunmei; Lai, Jiangshan; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5]) and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0]) in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8]) in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  4. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  5. Single-tree influence on understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu H-Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999, according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT. The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA, was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were low, amounted to 1-10% of total inertia. The higher eigenvalue-to­total-inertia ratio with RDA was interpreted as due mainly to the low species turnover along the tree influence gradient. Vascular plants and bryophytes species differed with respect to optimal parameters in the tree influence mo­del, especially in a conifer dominated forest. Compositional turnover asso­ciated with tree influence indices was also generally low, although somewhat varies among study areas. Thus, it was concluded that single-tree EFT models may have limited suitability for studied subtropical forests; different optimal parameters in the tree influence model obtained for vascular plants and bryo­phytes species in two studied areas indicates that subtropical trees may impact vascular plants and bryophytes species in different ways; and trees may influence the understorey species composition more in a collective manner than through the influence of single individuals in studied

  6. Extremophilic Acinetobacter Strains from High-Altitude Lakes in Argentinean Puna: Remarkable UV-B Resistance and Efficient DNA Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Pathak, Gopal P.; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Borsarelli, Claudio Darío; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Farias, María Eugenia

    2012-06-01

    High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL) of the South American Andes are almost unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes. The HAAL are recognized by a remarkably high UV exposure, strong changes in temperature and salinity, and a high content of toxic elements, especially arsenic. Being exposed to remarkably extreme conditions, they have been classified as model systems for the study of life on other planets. Particularly, Acinetobacter strains isolated from the HAAL were studied for their survival competence under strong UV-B irradiation. Clinical isolates, Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter johnsonii, served as reference material. Whereas the reference strains rapidly lost viability under UV-B irradiation, most HAAL-derived strains readily survived this exposure and showed less change in cell number after the treatment. Controls for DNA repair activity, comparing dark repair (DR) or photo repair (PR), gave evidence for the involvement of photolyases in the DNA repair. Comparative measurements by HPLC-mass spectrometry detected the number of photoproducts: bipyrimidine dimers under both PR and DR treatments were more efficiently repaired in the HAAL strains (up to 85 % PR and 38 % DR) than in the controls (31 % PR and zero DR ability). Analysis of cosmid-cloned total genomic DNA from the most effective DNA-photorepair strain (Ver3) yielded a gene (HQ443199) encoding a protein with clear photolyase signatures belonging to class I CPD-photolyases. Despite the relatively low sequence similarity of 41 % between the enzymes from Ver3 and from E. coli (PDB 1DNPA), a model-building approach revealed a high structural homology to the CPD-photolyase of E. coli.

  7. The interplay between tectonics and volcanism: a key to unravel the nature of Andean geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrano, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    subvertical pathways for magma ascent and shorter residence times. This in turn prevents advanced magma differentiation. However, in the SVZ, transtensional and transpressional domains coexist in space and time. On one end of the spectrum, a plumbing system dominated by NNE-striking subvertical strike-slip faults and ENE-striking tension cracks will favor rapid ascent of magmas from the asthenospheric wedge with little crustal contamination. On the other end, a system of long-lived NW-striking faults and subhorizontal cracks will favor longer residence times and episodic magma fractionation, which in turn allow eruption of evolved magmas, similar to those of the CVZ. Whereas the transtensional fault-fracture network does not require fluid overpressures to operate, the compressional/transpressional does. This is consistent with the higher presence of volatiles accompanying magma differentiation in the more felsic magmas of the CVZ and the NW-trending volcanic chains of the SVZ. The same fundamental processes that drive the interplay between volcanism and tectonics may also control the nature, geometry and composition of geothermal reservoirs in the Andean volcanic arc.

  8. The feedback between active tectonics, fluid flow and mineralization in an Andean geotermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M.; Arancibia, G.; Perez, P.; Sanchez, P.; Cembrano, J. M.; Stimac, J. A.; Lohmar, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the Andean Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile, geothermal resources occur in close spatial relationship with active volcanism. The nature of the relationship between tectonics and volcanism in this region is the result of interaction between the crustal structures of the basement and the ongoing regional stress field, which is primarily controlled by the oblique convergence of the Nazca and South America Plates. Between 39° and 46°S, the volcanic and geothermal activity is controlled by the NNE-trending, 1,000 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ), an intra-arc dextral strike-slip fault system. Although there is consensus that volcanism (and hence geothermal activity) in southern Chile is largely controlled by the regional-scale tectonic stress field and architecture of the volcanic arc, there is limited scientific information about the role of local kinematic conditions on fluid flow and mineralization during the development and evolution of geothermal reservoirs. In this report, we present the preliminary results of an undergoing structural, mineralogical and geochemical study of the Tolhuaca geothermal system in southern Chile. The Tolhuaca geothermal reservoir formed as a liquid-dominated hydrothermal system, where shallow upflow resulted in near-boiling temperatures in a roughly horizontal liquid reservoir at 100-200 m depth (Melosh et al., 2010, 2012). In an early stage of evolution, hydrothermal brecciation and phase-separation (boiling) episodes penetrated at least 950 m depth into the deeper reservoir, and boiling was followed by steam-heated water invasion that cooled the reservoir. In a later stage, the preliminary conceptual model involves boiling and reheating of the reservoir, forming a system with deep hot brines that is connected to the shallow steam zone by an upflow conduit that is characterized by high-temperature mineralogy. The structural analysis of veins, fault-veins and faults of the Tol-1 drillcore (~1080 m depth) provide insights

  9. Effects of Light Intensity and Fertilization on the Growth of Andean Oak Seedlings at Nursery

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    Yira Lucia Sepúlveda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus humboldtii is a native plant species of great importance in Colombia for use in reforestation and restoration of degraded Andean highlands. The species is highly threatened and it is necessary to establish programs of propagation and planting. However, little is known about their nutritional and light requirements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined relative illumination (IR and fertilization on the growth of seedlings of  Q. humboldtii at nursery. For this purpose three contrasting IR regimes (high, medium, and low IR and nine fertilization treatments were established: complete (TC, a missing nutrient (-N,-P,-K,-Ca,-Mg, -S,-B and a control without fertilization (T0. The best development of seedlings was showed in the medium IR condition. All treatments with a lacking nutrient showed decreases in seedling development regarding TC, except in the –B treatment. Nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient yielding biomass similar to that of T0. The impact of nutrient limitation on seedling performance was in the following order:-N>-Ca,-K,-P>-Mg,-S>-B. No significant interaction IR x Fertilization was detected on seedling development.EFECTOS DE LA ILUMINACIÓN RELATIVA Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE ROBLE ANDINO EN VIVEROQuercus humboldtii es una especie vegetal nativa de mucha importancia en Colombia por su uso en repoblamiento forestal y restauración de tierras altoandinas degradadas. La especie se encuentra fuertemente amenazada y es necesario establecer programas de propagación de la misma. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre sus exigencias nutricionales y lumínicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos simples y combinados de la iluminación relativa (IR y la fertilización sobre el crecimiento de plántulas de  Q. humboldtii en vivero. Para esto se establecieron en combinación tres condiciones contrastantes de iluminación relativa (alta, media y baja

  10. [An updated checklist of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the Colombian Andean coffee-growing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vélez, Iván Darío; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra Inés

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of phlebotomine sand flies species in coffee growing areas in the Colombian Andean region is presented. Fifty three species were reported from 12 departments. In addition, species distribution in the region was derived from specimens obtained during intensive field work in five departments, from previously published studies and from the taxonomic revision of specimens in the entomological collection of the Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET). The list includes the genera Brumptomyia (2 species), Lutzomyia (50 species) and Warileya (1 species). The updated list contains eleven new records in the region under study, including Lutzomyia panamensis , a species of medical importance not recorded previously in this zone. Eighteen of the species are considered to be anthropophilic, and many of them have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis.

  11. Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands: A Case Study from Peru and Bolivia

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    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers.

  12. Genetic divergence in populations of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, a vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, in Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b gene sequences of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis populations from Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru where the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and populations from the northern Peruvian Andes, for which transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. The haplotype analyses showed higher intrapopulation genetic divergence in northern Peruvian Andes populations and less divergence in the southern Peru and Ecuador populations, suggesting that a population bottleneck occurred in the latter populations, but not in former ones. Importantly, both haplotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that populations from Ecuador consisted of clearly distinct clusters from southern Peru, and the two populations were separated from those of northern Peru.

  13. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

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    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  14. Validation of Satellite Precipitation (trmm 3B43) in Ecuadorian Coastal Plains, Andean Highlands and Amazonian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, D.; Castro, E.; Campozano, L.

    2016-06-01

    Precipitation monitoring is of utmost importance for water resource management. However, in regions of complex terrain such as Ecuador, the high spatio-temporal precipitation variability and the scarcity of rain gauges, make difficult to obtain accurate estimations of precipitation. Remotely sensed estimated precipitation, such as the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis TRMM, can cope with this problem after a validation process, which must be representative in space and time. In this work we validate monthly estimates from TRMM 3B43 satellite precipitation (0.25° x 0.25° resolution), by using ground data from 14 rain gauges in Ecuador. The stations are located in the 3 most differentiated regions of the country: the Pacific coastal plains, the Andean highlands, and the Amazon rainforest. Time series, between 1998 - 2010, of imagery and rain gauges were compared using statistical error metrics such as bias, root mean square error, and Pearson correlation; and with detection indexes such as probability of detection, equitable threat score, false alarm rate and frequency bias index. The results showed that precipitation seasonality is well represented and TRMM 3B43 acceptably estimates the monthly precipitation in the three regions of the country. According to both, statistical error metrics and detection indexes, the coastal and Amazon regions are better estimated quantitatively than the Andean highlands. Additionally, it was found that there are better estimations for light precipitation rates. The present validation of TRMM 3B43 provides important results to support further studies on calibration and bias correction of precipitation in ungagged watershed basins.

  15. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flash Floods in an Andean Stream: Challenges for Assessing Flood Hazards in Mountain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M. T.; Escauriaza, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rain-induced flash floods are common events in regions close to the southern Andes, in north and central Chile. Rapid urban development combined to the changing climate and ENSO effects have resulted in an alarming proximity of flood-prone streams to densely populated areas in the Andean foothills, increasing the risk for cities and infrastructure. Simulations of rapid floods in these complex watersheds are particularly challenging, especially if there is insufficient geomorphological and hydrometeorological data. In the Quebrada de Ramón, an Andean stream that passes through a highly populated area in the east part of Santiago, Chile, previous events have demonstrated that sediment concentration, flow resistance, and the characteristic temporal and spatial scales of the hydrograph, are important variables to predict the arrival time of the peak discharge, flow velocities and the extension of inundated areas. The objective of this investigation is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flash floods in the Quebrada de Ramón, quantifying the effects of these factors on the flood propagation. We implement a two-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations (Guerra et al. 2014) modified to account for hyperconcentrated flows over natural topography. We evaluate events of specific return periods and sediment concentrations, using different methodologies to quantify the flow resistance in the channel and floodplains. Through this work we provide a framework for future studies aimed at improving hazard assessment, urban planning, and early warning systems in urban areas near mountain streams with limited data, and affected by rapid flood events. Work supported by Fondecyt grant 1130940 and CONICYT/FONDAP grant 15110017.

  16. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  17. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported.

  18. Dynamic paleogeography of the Jurassic Andean Basin: pattern of transgression and localisation of main straits through the magmatic arc

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    J-C. Vicente

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paleogeographic evolution of the Jurassic Andean retroarc basin is examined at a global scale for the Central Andes. In this paper, it is called for the striking continuity and lasting of the active volcanic arc. Both direct and indirect sedimentologic evidences allow to locate the western border (insular of the basin and opposite it with the eastern border (cratonic. Emphasis is placed on the volcaniclastic deposits and synsedimentary structures associated with this insular border. It is concluded that the arc magmatic activity has contributed considerably in sediment supply to the basin. Extent and continuity of the arc implies to locate the straits connecting with the Paleopacific. Systematic check of the time of transgressions coupled with sequential facies analysis provides a dynamic outlook of the transgressive process. Sectors with early transgression allow to distinguish two main gulfs of passage through the arc from which waters have progressed lengthwise at the same time northward and southward in a narrow retroarc furrow : the first at latitude of Taltal (25°S, the second at latitude of Curepto (35°S. Both initiated in the upper Triassic and extended during the Hettangian. The evolution as separate basins (Tarapacá and Aconcagua-Neuquén ended by fusion in middle Pliensbachian giving rise to a continuous elongated basin from Chubut to northern Peru. The remarkable continuity and narrowness of the Andean Basin leaves no doubt about its tectonic control. This stems to its geotectonic setting as a typical retroarc basin adjacent to a very active magmatic arc and explains the extreme mobility of its insular margin characterized by a huge volcanoclastic apron with associated debris flows and turbidites.

  19. Evidence for the development of the Andean rain shadow from a Neogene isotopic record in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason A.; Currie, Brian S.; Shullenberger, Eric D.; Dunagan, Stan P.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, Nicolás; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Rowe, Harry D.; Houston, John

    2010-04-01

    Varying ages from Triassic to Pliocene have been proposed for the onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. The exact timing for the initiation of hyperaridity is critical for determining potential causes, which range from regional effects of global cooling to Andean uplift above elevations conducive to extreme rain shadows. Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of lower Miocene-Quaternary (21-0.015 Ma) palustrine and lacustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin reveals extreme changes in their oxygen and carbon isotopic composition during the Miocene. Limestone δ18O values increased by ˜ 5‰ from middle to late Miocene, ranging from - 5.5‰ at 12 Ma to - 1‰ at ˜ 6 Ma. Carbon isotopic values increase by 9‰ over the Neogene, from average values of - 3‰ at 21 Ma to + 3‰ at 12 Ma, and reaching a maximum of + 6‰ at 5 Ma. The increase in oxygen isotopic values occurred over a time span in which the catchment area of the basin experienced significant uplift, causing the δ18O value of precipitation to become more negative. We attribute the shift towards higher δ18O values to enhanced evaporative enrichment both of soil water or snow prior to infiltration, and within shallow lakes or wetlands prior to carbonate precipitation. The large increase in δ13C values was likely caused by a transition from a vegetated landscape influenced primarily by soil-respired CO 2 to a landscape largely devoid of vegetation and influenced by atmospheric and volcanic CO 2. Isotopic values of palustrine carbonates therefore indicate that hyperaridity commenced in the Calama Basin during the middle to late Miocene, in agreement with other paleoclimatic records from the basin. The cause for the onset of this climate change is thought to be due to the development of a strong Andean rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Andes to mean elevations > 2 km.

  20. Birds of Two Oceans? Trans-Andean and Divergent Migration of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens from the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Lisa C Davenport

    Full Text Available Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens breeding on the Manu River (in the lowlands of Manu National Park, Perú, as well as divergent movement patterns both regionally and across the continent. Of eight skimmers tracked with satellite telemetry, three provided data on their outbound migrations, with two crossing the high Peruvian Andes to the Pacific. A third traveled over 1800 km to the southeast before transmissions ended in eastern Paraguay. One of the two trans-Andean migrants demonstrated a full round-trip migration back to its tagging location after traveling down the Pacific Coast from latitude 9° South to latitude 37° S, spending the austral summer in the Gulf of Arauco, Chile. This is the first documentation of a trans-Andes migration observed for any bird breeding in lowland Amazonia. To our knowledge, this research also documents the first example of a tropical-breeding waterbird migrating out of the tropics to spend the non-breeding season in the temperate summer, this being the reverse pattern with respect to seasonality for austral migrants in general.

  1. Spread of Epidemic MRSA-ST5-IV Clone Encoding PVL as a Major Cause of Community Onset Staphylococcal Infections in Argentinean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Claudia; Egea, Ana L.; Moyano, Alejandro J.; Garnero, Analia; Kevric, Ines; Culasso, Catalina; Vindel, Ana; Lopardo, Horacio; Bocco, José L.

    2012-01-01

    /Significance The dissemination of epidemic MRSA clone, ST5-IV-PVL+ was the main cause of increasing staphylococcal community-onset infections in Argentinean children (2003–2008), conversely to other countries. The predominance of this clone, which has capacity to express the h-VISA phenotype, in healthcare-associated community-onset cases suggests that it has infiltrated into hospital-settings. PMID:22291965

  2. Spread of epidemic MRSA-ST5-IV clone encoding PVL as a major cause of community onset staphylococcal infections in Argentinean children.

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    Claudia Sola

    associated with a SCCmec type closely related to SCCmecIV(2B&5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dissemination of epidemic MRSA clone, ST5-IV-PVL(+ was the main cause of increasing staphylococcal community-onset infections in Argentinean children (2003-2008, conversely to other countries. The predominance of this clone, which has capacity to express the h-VISA phenotype, in healthcare-associated community-onset cases suggests that it has infiltrated into hospital-settings.

  3. 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α promoter gene polymorphisms in Argentinean lupus patients: focus on lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Sebastián Andrés; Aranda, Federico; Allievi, Alberto; Orden, Alberto Omar; Perés Wingeyer, Silvia; Trobo, Rosana; Alvarez, Analía; Eimon, Alicia; Barreira, Juan Carlos; Schneeberger, Emilce; Dal Pra, Fernando; Sarano, Judith; Hofman, Julio; Chamorro, Julián; de Larrañaga, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between the 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms and the clinical and biochemical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in an Argentinean patient cohort. A total of 402 patients were studied, including 179 SLE patients and 223 healthy individuals. PCR-RLFP was used to determine the genotypes of the 4G/5G PAI-1 and -308 A/G TNF-α polymorphisms. SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) (n = 86) were compared with patients without LN (n = 93). Additionally, LN patients were divided into proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups according to the results of the renal biopsies. No significant differences were noted in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of these TNF-α and PAI-1 polymorphisms between SLE patients and controls. There were higher numbers of criteria for SLE, more lupus flares and higher damage scores in LN patients, but there were similar frequencies of anti-phospholipid antibody (APA) positivity and anti-phospholipid syndrome. No significant difference was noted for any studied variable between the proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups except for the presence of APA. We found no significant differences in the TNF-α and PAI-1 genotype distributions or allele frequencies between groups. We found that the -308 A/G TNF-α and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to SLE in an Argentinean population. We also did not find any association between the presence of any specific allele or genotype and the development of LN in SLE patients. Finally, no association was noted between either of the two polymorphisms and the severity of renal disease.

  4. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Ximena; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, Jorge S

    2013-09-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (≥4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e.g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present summer water column stratification. We sampled 26 tropical high-altitude Andean lakes from three regions of the Bolivian Eastern Andes Cordillera during the wet period (austral summer). We performed an ordination to better describe the typology of Andean lakes in relation to the environmental variables, and we assessed the relationships among them, focussing on the UV-A transparency (360 nm) throughout the water column. We found a positive correlation between UV-A transparency calculated as Z(1%) (the depth which reaches 1% of the surface UV-A), the lake maximum depth and Secchi transparency (r = 0.61). Z(1%) of UV-A was smaller in shallow lakes than in deep lakes, indicating that shallow lakes are less transparent to UV-A than deep lakes. We hypothesize that, compared to shallow lakes, deep lakes (maximum depth > 10 m) may have lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (that absorb UV radiation) due to lower temperature and reduced macrophyte cover. Based on our data, tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are less transparent to UV-A (K(d) range = 1.4-11.0 m(-1); Z(1%) depth range = 0.4-3.2 m) than typical temperate alpine lakes (1-6 m(-1), 3-45 m, respectively). Moreover, they differ in vertical profiles of UV-A, chlorophyll-a, and temperature, suggesting that they may have a distinct ecological functioning. Such peculiarities justify treating tropical high-altitude Andean lakes as a separate category of alpine lakes. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes have been poorly

  5. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (<45%). Cis-violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and lutein were the next most relevant carotenoids in the yellow/orange Andean peppers (5% to 14%). As a whole, rocotos showed the highest contributions of provitamin A carotenoids to the carotenoid fraction. In terms of nutritional contribution, both ajíes and rocotos provide a remarkable provitamin A activity, with several accessions showing a content in retinol equivalents higher than California Wonder controls. Furthermore, levels of lutein in yellow/orange ajíes and rocotos were clearly higher than California Wonder pepper (≥1000 μg·100/g). Finally, the Andean peppers, particularly red ajíes, can be also considered as a noticeable source of capsanthin, the most powerful antioxidant compound among pepper carotenoids. Practical Application: Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is

  6. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications for tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 425 citations of selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications covering the general subject of tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis. Functionally related topics that include vegetation analysis are included for completeness, and citations have been organized under the following subheadings for ease of reference: remote sensing application overviews, vegetation (general), forestry, grasslands/savannah/shrublands, agriculture, land use/thematic mapping, and integrated surveys/multiple resource analysis/land systems. The terms "tropics and subtropics" are used in the widest context to include applications related to a broad range of equatorial environments. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1924 and 1978. Many foreign language and non U.S.- source items are included.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF INTRASEASONAL LONG ROSSBY WAVE SPEED IN THE SUBTROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the satellite altimeter data suggests that the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave amplified in the subtropical Pacific Ocean is faster than that of first-mode baroclinic free Rossby wave predicted by the liner theory and the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave reflected in the eastern boundary of Pacific Ocean agrees basically with the liner theory speed of first-mode baroclinic free Rossby wave. If we do not distinguish the two kinds of long Rossby waves and estimate the Rossby wave speed in the whole basin, the phase speed is merely 25% higher than the linear theory long Rossby wave speed. The acceleration of the propagating speed of intraseasonal long Rossby wave amplified in the subtropical Pacific Ocean is due to the existence of westward thermolcline mean flow.

  8. Impacts of winter-NAO on March cooling trends over subtropical Eurasia continent in the recent half century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rucong; Zhou, Tianjun

    2004-06-01

    At odds with global warming trends, surface air temperature over large subtropical Eurasia continent in spring March exhibits unique strong cooling over the last half century. The cause for this cooling is shown to be related to Winter (DJF) North Atlantic Oscillation (W-NAO). Positive values of W-NAO provoke cooling signals in northern Africa continent simultaneously from surface to tropopause. The W-NAO generated signals barotropically extend eastward over most of subtropical Eurasia and reaches eastern China in March.

  9. Adaptability of grades and hybrids of tangerine in a subtropical zone of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Abilphazova; Oksana Belous

    2015-01-01

    Results of researches of various cultivars and hybrids of tangerine growing in the conditions of the humid subtropics of Russia and possessing valuable physiological and biochemical markers are presented in article. The stress factors limiting cultivation of tangerine culture in Krasnodar region are defined. The assessment of the water saving and enzymes activity in tangerine leaves is given. Changes of physiological parameters at influence of a stressful factor are shown. The analysis of wat...

  10. Mycosphere Essay 8: A review of genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha Chandranath; Chen, J.; Mortimer, P.E.; Xu, J.C.; Zhao, R.L.; Callac, Philippe; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Agaricus includes both edible and poisonous species, with more than 400 species worldwide. This genus includes many species, which are enormously important as sources of food and medicine, such as the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the almond mushroom (Agaricus subrufescens). This paper reviews the genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia, including the history, characteristics, pertinent morphological and organoleptic taxonomic traits, molecular phy...

  11. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  12. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Lopes, Fabio J. S.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Héctor; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W), located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW) in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio) and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness) properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable) LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  13. Diversity and Seasonal Impact of Acanthamoeba Species in a Subtropical Rivershed

    OpenAIRE

    Po-Min Kao; Ming-Yuan Chou; Chi-Wei Tao; Wen-Chien Huang; Bing-Mu Hsu; Shu-Min Shen; Cheng-Wei Fan; Yi-Chou Chiu

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence of Acanthamoeba species in the Puzih River watershed, which features typical subtropical monsoon climate and is located just above the Tropic of Cancer in Taiwan. The relationship between the seasonal and geographical distributions of Acanthamoeba species in this rivershed was also investigated. Acanthamoeba species were detected in water samples using the amoebal enrichment culture method and confirmed by PCR. A total of 136 water samples were included in th...

  14. Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yongjie; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    that climatic and energy factors correlate well with the richness pattern of birds, and that on the surveyed subtropical mountain, the elevational bands with highest seasonality harbour fewer species than areas with less seasonal variation in temperature. The results, however, vary somewhat among taxonomic...... groups. The most diverse species groups and species with the broadest ranges have a disproportionate influence on our perception of the overall diversity pattern and its underlying explanatory factors....

  15. Adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach trees in a subtropical climate

    OpenAIRE

    Idemir Citadin; Silvia Scariotto; Marcos Robson Sachet; Fábio José Rosa; Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira; Américo Wagner Junior

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian peach breeding programs have been established to improve peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] production, yield consistency, quality, and disease resistance. Every year several genotypes are selected and their traits must be assessed. This study aimed to evaluate adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach genotypes in a subtropical climate, using the GGE biplot methodology. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates (trees) in a factor...

  16. Analysis on the Reason of Local Heavy Rainstorm Forecast Error in the Subtropical High Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the reason of local heavy rainstorm forecast error in the subtropical high control. [Method] Started from summarizing the reason of forecast error, by using the conventional ground observation data, the upper air sounding data, T639, T213 and European Center (ECMWF) numerical prediction product data, GFS precipitation forecast product of U.S. National Center for Environmental Prediction, the weather situation, physical quantity field in a heavy rainstorm process which...

  17. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Yang; Barton, Huw J.; Zhiwei Wan; Quan Li; Zhikun Ma; Mingqi Li; Dan Zhang; Jun Wei

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hyp...

  18. Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone : statistical characterization from satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurczyn, J. A.; Beier, Emilio; Lavín, Miguel,; Chaigneau, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone (16 degrees N-30 degrees N; 130 degrees W-102 degrees W) are analyzed using nearly 18 years of satellite altimetry and an automated eddy-identification algorithm. Eddies that lasted more than 10 weeks are described based on the analysis of 465 anticyclonic and 529 cyclonic eddy trajectories. We found three near-coastal eddy-prolific areas: (1) Punta Eugenia, (2) Cabo San Lucas, and (3) Cabo Corrientes. These thr...

  19. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  20. Phytoplankton community structure and dynamics in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Rivera, Antonella; González, Sonia; Anadón, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Phytoplankton fuel epipelagic ecosystems and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of quantitative information about the factors that determine both phytoplankton community structure and dynamics, particularly in subtropical gyres. Here, we estimated size fractionated phytoplankton growth (μ) and microzooplankton grazing rates (m) along a transect in the subtropical North Atlantic, from the island of Hispaniola to the Iberian Peninsula, by conducting dilution experiments and fitting mixed models. We also examined the relationship between nutrient availability and the differences in both phytoplankton community structure and size fractionated phytoplankton growth rates at two spatial scales (i.e. subtropical gyre and within-province spatial scale). Our results revealed high values for both phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. Phytoplankton growth (0.00-1.19 d-1) displayed higher variability among stations, biogeochemical provinces and size fractions than the microzooplankton grazing rate (0.32-0.74 d-1). Differences in phytoplankton community structure were associated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (0.72-5.85 μM; R2 = 0.19) and squared Brunt-Väisälä frequency (R2 = 0.21) at the whole gyre scale. Conversely, the differences in phytoplankton growth rate showed a weak relationship with those properties (R2 ⩽ 0.05) at that scale, but a stronger relationship at the within province scale (R2 ⩾ 0.07). These results support the idea that phytoplankton grow at high rates in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, this is likely due to the selection of phytoplankton groups with functional traits suited to exploit low nutrient availability. Thus, shedding new, multi-scale knowledge on the commonly misunderstood "ocean deserts".

  1. Subtropical Air-Sea Interaction and Development of Central Pacific El Ni(n)o

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ruihuang; HUANG Fei; REN Hongli

    2013-01-01

    The standard deviation of the central Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) during the period from October to February shows that the central Pacific SSTA variation is primarily due to the occurrence of the Central Pacific El Ni(n)o (CP-El Ni(n)o)and has a connection with the subtropical air-sea interaction in the northeastern Pacific.After removing the influence of the Eastern Pacific El Ni(n)o,an S-EOF analysis is conducted and the leading mode shows a clear seasonal SSTA evolving from the subtropical northeastern Pacific to the tropical central Pacific with a quasi-biennial period.The initial subtropical SSTA is generated by the wind speed decrease and surface heat flux increase due to a north Pacific anomalous cyclone.Such subtropical SSTA can further influence the establishment of the SSTA in the tropical central Pacific via the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback.After established,the central equatorial Pacific SSTA can be strengthened by the zonal advective feedback and thermocline feedback,and develop into CP-El Ni(n)o.However,as the thermocline feedback increases the SSTA cooling after the mature phase,the heat flux loss and the reversed zonal advective feedback can cause the phase transition of CP-El Ni(n)o.Along with the wind stress variability,the recharge (discharge) process occurs in the central (eastern) equatorial Pacific and such a process causes the phase consistency between the thermocline depth and SST anomalies,which presents a contrast to the original recharge/discharge theory.

  2. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  3. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit...... and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island......, and an assimilation–fractional crystallization model indicates a low degree of upper crustal contamination in the youngest trachytes. Magnesium numbers (45–55) and contents of Ni (

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEST PACIFIC SUBTROPICAL HIGH AND ENSO AND ITS INFLUENCE ON RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION OF RAINY SEASON IN FUJIAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡学湛; 吴滨; 温珍治

    2003-01-01

    Relationship between the variations of West Pacific subtropical high indices in the summer half of the year and preceding SST in North Pacific was examined based on a data set of 1951 - 2000. The correlation between the subtropical high indices and preceding SST in the equatorial East Pacific was the strongest among the others, and has great persistency from last autumn to spring. It is indicated that ENSO events appeared about six months earlier than the change of the subtropical high activities, and the subtropical high intensities enhanced (weakened) and western ridge point was westward (eastward) in the year of El Nino(La Nina) events. It was also observed that there were similar interdecadal oscillation and abrupt variations between Nino3 SST, subtropical high intensities and rainfall of rainy season in Fujian. Therefore, experiments were made on rainfall distribution of rainy season in Fujian. The results showed that the distribution was directly affected by the subtropical high activities, pronouncedly caused by ENSO effect.

  5. Linking The Atlantic Gyres: Warm, Saline Intrusions From Subtropical Atlantic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.

    2010-01-01

    Ocean state estimates from SODA assimilation are analyzed to understand how major shifts in the North Atlantic Current path relate to AMOC, and how these shifts are related to large scale ocean circulation and surface forcing. These complement surface-drifter and altimetry data showing the same events. SODA data indicate that the warm water limb of AMOC, reaching to at least 600m depth, expanded in density/salinity space greatly after 1995, and that Similar events occurred in the late 1960s and around 1980. While there were large changes in the upper limb, there was no immediate response in the dense return flow, at least not in SODA, however one would expect a delayed response of increasing AMOC due to the positive feedback from increased salt transport. These upper limb changes are winddriven, involving changes in the eastern subpolar gyre, visible in the subduction of low potential vorticity waters. The subtropical gyre has been weak during the times of the northward intrusions of the highly saline subtropical waters, while the NAO index has been neutral or in a negative phase. The image of subtropical/subpolar gyre exchange through teleconnections within the AMOC overturning cell will be described.

  6. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  7. Temperature-dependence of planktonic metabolism in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. García-Corral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of planktonic metabolism in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean was assessed on the basis of measurements of gross primary production (GPP, community respiration (CR and net community production (NCP, as well as experimental assessments of the response of CR to temperature manipulations. Metabolic rates were measured at 68 stations along three consecutive longitudinal transects completed during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition, in three different seasons. Temperatures gradients were observed in depth and at basin and seasonal scale. The results showed seasonal variability in the metabolic rates, being the highest rates observed during the spring transect. The overall mean integrated GPP/CR ratio was of 1.39 ± 0.27 decreasing from winter to summer and the NCP for the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during this cruises, was net autotrophy (NCP > 0 in about two-thirds of the total sampled communities (68.2%. Here, we reported the activation energies describing the temperature-dependence of planktonic community metabolism, which generally was higher for CR than for GPP in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, as the metabolic theory of ecology predicts. Also, we performed an assessment of the activation energies describing the responses to in situ temperature at field (EaCR = 1.64 ± 0.36 eV and those derive experimentally by temperature manipulations (EaCR = 1.45 ± 0.6 eV, which showed a great consistency.

  8. The effects of green roofs in a sub-tropical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, M. [Austin Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center; Gardiner, B. [Austech Roof Consultants Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The building and environmental benefits of green roofs in non-temperate, or subtropical systems were discussed. Since there are greater climatic extremes in such systems, green roofs may offer more benefits. Most green roof research has focused on the use of succulent plants due to their low water demand and slow growth rates. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center and the Roof Consultants Institute Foundation are conducting joint research project to assess the suitability of native vegetation for use on extensive green roofs in central Texas. The project examined the effects of green roofing in a subtropical climate and the thermal properties of buildings, stormwater runoff rates, water quality, and irrigation requirements. Stormwater retention capacity of green roofs and water quality of stormwater runoff was compared to conventional roofs. The growing media that are most successful for this particular ecoregion was also identified. The focus on native plants in this study identified the characteristics of climatic adaptation, which may help to reduce total water and nutrient demand, and avoid problems associated with the introduction of potentially invasive species. The study compared performance of 6 types of green roofs and two types of traditional roof materials using simulated roof platforms. During the hottest days in August, roof membrane temperatures on the green roofs were 10 degrees C cooler than white roofs and 40 degrees C cooler than conventional black roofs. It was concluded that the temperature and water quantity characteristics of green roofs are advantageous in subtropical climates. 4 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37-48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m(3) water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region.

  10. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  11. Statistical characteristics of the double ridges of subtropical high in the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Ruifen; LI Jianping; HE Jinhai

    2005-01-01

    The generality and some climatological characteristics of the double ridge systems of subtropical high (SH) are investigated statistically by using the daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1958 to 1998. The results show that the SH double-ridge event is a common phenomenon in the Northern Hemisphere, with the distinct seasonal and regional features, that is, the majority of SH double-ridge geneses concentrate over the eastern North India Ocean- western North Pacific as well as the central North Pacific in the period from mid-July to mid-September. Especially over the western North Pacific subtropics, the SH double-ridge events are extremely active. It is found that the life cycle of most double-ridge events of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is shorter but some still last longer. The WPSH double-ridge events occur most frequently from July to September, while there is a paucity of occurrences during November-March. Also, it is shown that the WPSH double-ridge events have a strong interannual variation with a certain periodicity which possesses a remarkably abrupt change in the mid-1970s. Additionally, the relationship between the WPSH double ridges and the meridional movement of WPSH is discussed.

  12. Forecasting influenza epidemics from multi-stream surveillance data in a subtropical city of China.

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    Pei-Hua Cao

    Full Text Available Influenza has been associated with heavy burden of mortality and morbidity in subtropical regions. However, timely forecast of influenza epidemic in these regions has been hindered by unclear seasonality of influenza viruses. In this study, we developed a forecasting model by integrating multiple sentinel surveillance data to predict influenza epidemics in a subtropical city Shenzhen, China.Dynamic linear models with the predictors of single or multiple surveillance data for influenza-like illness (ILI were adopted to forecast influenza epidemics from 2006 to 2012 in Shenzhen. Temporal coherence of these surveillance data with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases was evaluated by wavelet analysis and only the coherent data streams were entered into the model. Timeliness, sensitivity and specificity of these models were also evaluated to compare their performance.Both influenza virology data and ILI consultation rates in Shenzhen demonstrated a significant annual seasonal cycle (p<0.05 during the entire study period, with occasional deviations observed in some data streams. The forecasting models that combined multi-stream ILI surveillance data generally outperformed the models with single-stream ILI data, by providing more timely, sensitive and specific alerts.Forecasting models that combine multiple sentinel surveillance data can be considered to generate timely alerts for influenza epidemics in subtropical regions like Shenzhen.

  13. Influenza associated mortality in the subtropics and tropics: results from three Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Ma, Stefan; Chen, Ping Yan; He, Jian Feng; Chan, King Pan; Chow, Angela; Ou, Chun Quan; Deng, Ai Ping; Hedley, Anthony J; Wong, Chit Ming; Peiris, J S Malik

    2011-11-01

    Influenza has been well documented to significantly contribute to winter increase of mortality in the temperate countries, but its severity in the subtropics and tropics was not recognized until recently and geographical variations of disease burden in these regions remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied a standardized modeling strategy to the mortality and virology data from three Asian cities: subtropical Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and tropical Singapore, to estimate the disease burden of influenza in these cities. We found that influenza was associated with 10.6, 13.4 and 8.3 deaths per 100,000 population in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Singapore, respectively. The annual rates of excess deaths in the elders were estimated highest in Guangzhou and lowest in Singapore. The excess death rate attributable to A/H1N1 subtype was found slightly higher than the rates attributable to A/H3N2 during the study period of 2004-2006 based on the data from Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Our study revealed a geographical variation in the disease burden of influenza in these subtropical and tropical cities. These results highlight a need to explore the determinants for severity of seasonal influenza.

  14. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  15. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  16. Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

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    M. L. R. Liberato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter of 2009–2010 south-western Europe was hit by several destructive windstorms. The most important was Xynthia (26–28 February 2010, which caused 64 reported casualties and was classified as the 2nd most expensive natural hazard event for 2010 in terms of economic losses. In this work we assess the synoptic evolution, dynamical characteristics and the main impacts of storm Xynthia, whose genesis, development and path were very uncommon. Wind speed gusts observed at more than 500 stations across Europe are evaluated as well as the wind gust field obtained with a regional climate model simulation for the entire North Atlantic and European area. Storm Xynthia was first identified on 25 February around 30° N, 50° W over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Its genesis occurred on a region characterized by warm and moist air under the influence of a strong upper level wave embedded in the westerlies. Xynthia followed an unusual SW–NE path towards Iberia, France and central Europe. The role of moist air masses on the explosive development of Xynthia is analysed by considering the evaporative sources. A lagrangian model is used to identify the moisture sources, sinks and moisture transport associated with the cyclone during its development phase. The main supply of moisture is located over an elongated region of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean with anomalously high SST, confirming that the explosive development of storm Xynthia had a significant contribution from the subtropics.

  17. Seasonal drought effects on carbon sequestration of a mid-subtropical planted forest of southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide exchange using the eddy covariance (EC) technique is made at the Qianyanzhou mid-subtropical planted forest as part of the ChinaFLUX network. Qianyanzhou planted forest is affected by typical subtropical continental monsoon climate. It has plentiful water and heat resource but is in inconsistency of its seasonal distribution in the mid-subtropical region, thus seasonal drought frequently occurs in this planted forest. In this study, seasonal drought effect on ecosystem carbon sequestration was analyzed based on net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) at the month scale in 2003 and 2004. In this drought-stressed planted forest, ecosystem carbon sequestration showed a clear seasonality, with low rates during seasonal drought and in winter. The declining degree of ecosystem carbon sequestration under the seasonal drought condition was determined by the accumulation of soil moisture deficits and a co-occurrence of high temperatures. Different drought effects are expected for RE and GEP. The net effect of ecosystem carbon balance depends on how these two quantities are affected relatively to each other. Summer drought and heat wave are two aspects of weather that likely play an important part in the annual NEP of forest in this region.

  18. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava,Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez,Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca,Jeniffer K.; Zapata,Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and t...

  19. Hidracáridos (Acari, Hydrachnidia de la cuenca Andina del río Beni, Bolivia Hydracarids (Acari, Hydrachnidia from the Andean basin of Beni river, Bolivia

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    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Water mites from Andean part of the Bolivian Amazonian rivers were examined. A new species is described, Limnesia aymara. New records and redescription are made for Hygrobatella multiacetabulata Cook,1980, Atractides brasiliensis (Lundblad, 1937 and Krendowskia convexa (Ribaga, 1902. A new subgenus Schwoerbelobatella for hygrobatelids poliacetabulated is proposed and characterized. Ecological characteristics of the river area sampled and ecological preferences of the analyzed species are discussed.

  20. Detrital Zircon Provenance Record of Pre-Andean to Modern Tectonics in the Northern Andes: Examples from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300­-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of

  1. The Under-side of the Andes: Using Receiver Functions to Map the North Central Andean Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project is an interdisciplinary project to investigate connections between lithospheric removal, crustal shortening and surface uplift in the northern Bolivia and southern Peru region of the South American Andean orogen. The central Andes are defined by six major tectonomorphic provinces; the forearc, the volcanically active Western Cordillera (WC, ~6 km elevation), the internally drained Altiplano (~4 km elevation), an inactive fold and thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera (EC, ~6 km elevation), a lower elevation active fold and thrust belt in the Subandean (SA) zone and the Beni, a foreland basin. Forty seismic stations installed for the CAUGHT project were deployed between 13° and 18° S latitude, covering the transition zone where the Altiplano region pinches out in southern Peru, in an effort to better constrain the changing character of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Geologic studies across the northern Bolivian portion of the eastern Andean margin (15-17° S) have documented a total of 275 km of upper crustal shortening (McQuarrie et al, Tectonics, v27, 2008), which may be associated with crustal thickening and/or the removal of lithospheric material as a thickened lithosphere root becomes unstable. For this receiver function (converted wave) study, we have little coverage in the forearc and foreland, ~75 km spacing in most of the array, and a relatively dense ~20 km spaced profile along the Charaña-La Paz-Yucumo transect, the eastern portion of which is nearly coincident with the balanced cross-section of McQuarrie et al. (2008). Using the first year of available data, more than 1200 receiver functions have been calculated using an iterative deconvolution method, and stacked using the common conversion point (CCP) method, along profiles parallel to and nearly coincident to those used for the geologic shortening estimates. We identified arrivals for the Moho and generated a 3D map of

  2. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  3. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

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    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  4. Seasonal Evolution of Subtropical Anticyclones in the Climate System Model FGOALS-s2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yimin; HU Jun; HE Bian; BAO Qing; DUAN Anmin; WU Guoxiong

    2013-01-01

    The simulation characteristics of the seasonal evolution of subtropical anticyclones in the Northern Hemisphere are documented for the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model,Spectral Version 2 (FGOALS-s2),developed at the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics,the Institute of Atmospheric Physics.An understanding of the seasonal evolution of the subtropical anticyclones is also addressed.Compared with the global analysis established by the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts,the ERA-40 global reanalysis data,the general features of subtropical anticyclones and their evolution are simulated well in both winter and summer,while in spring a pronounced bias in the generation of the South Asia Anticyclone(SAA) exists.Its main deviation in geopotential height from the reanalysis is consistent with the bias of temperature in the troposphere.It is found that condensation heating (CO) plays a dominant role in the seasonal development of the SAA and the subtropical anticyclone over the western Pacific (SAWP) in the middle troposphere.The CO biases in the model account for the biases in the establishment of the SAA in spring and the weaker strength of the SAA and the SAWP from spring to summer.CO is persistently overestimated in the central-east tropical Pacific from winter to summer,while it is underestimated over the area from the South China Sea to the western Pacific from spring to summer.Such biases generate an illusive anticyclonic gyre in the upper troposphere above the middle Pacific and delay the generation of the SAA over South Asia in April.In midsummer,the simulated SAA is located farther north than in the ERA-40 data owing to excessively strong surface sensible heating (SE) to the north of the Tibetan Plateau.Whereas,the two surface subtropical anticyclones in the eastern oceans during spring to summer are controlled mainly by the surface SE over the two continents in the Northern

  5. Weathering-pedogenesis of Carbonate Rocks and Its Environmental Effects in Subtropical Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lijun; HE Shouyang; LI Jingyang

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks and its environmental effects in subtropical regions of China. The investigation demonstrated that the weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks is the process of a joint action of corrosion and illuviation and metasomatism in subtropical region. It is characterized by multi-stage, multi-path and multi-style.With the persisting development of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks, metasomatic pedogenesis progressively became the main process of the weathering-pedogenesis and the dominant style of formation of minerals. And it proceeds through the whole process of evolution of theweathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks. The stage evolution of wcathering-pedogenesis ofcarbonate rocks and the fractionation evolution of newly produced minerals are characterized byobvious vertically zoning structures and the rules of gradation of elements geochemical characteristics in the carbonate rocks weathering profiles. The geochemical process of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks can be divided into three geochemical evolution stages, I.e., the Ca, Mg-depletion and Si, AI-enrichment stage; the Fe, Mn enrichment stage and the Si-depletion and Al-enrichment stage in the subtropical regions. Consistent with the three geochemical evolution stages, the sequence of formation and evolution of minerals can be divided into the clay mineral stage; the Fe, Mn oxide and the gibbsite stage. The influence of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks on the chemical forms of heavy elements is mainly affected via newly produced components and minerals in the process of weathering-pedogenesis, e.g., iron oxide minerals and organic matters. The important mechanism for the mobilization, transport and pollution of F and As is affected the selective adsorption and desorption of F and As on the surface of iron oxide minerals in the subtropical karst zones, I.e., the selective adsorption and desorption on mineral surfaces of

  6. Geometric, kinematic, and erosional history of the central Andean Plateau, Bolivia (15-17°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Barnes, Jason B.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2008-06-01

    Latitudinal changes in topography, climate, and thrust belt geometry in the central Andes have led to conflicting hypotheses that climate or tectonics exert a first-order control on orogen evolution. The relative roles of climate and tectonics in the evolution of the Andean orogen are difficult to quantify because of a lack of detailed observations for both the long-term deformation and erosion history of the Andean fold-thrust belt. We contribute to the resolution of this problem by presenting a sequentially restored, balanced cross section based on new mapping across the northern Bolivia portion of the thrust belt (15-17°S). The timing and magnitude of exhumation across the cross section are determined by synthesizing 10 new and ˜70 previously published mineral cooling ages. Once balanced and restored, the section was sequentially forward modeled using stratigraphic and cooling age constraints. Results indicate the Eastern Cordillera (EC) records the highest magnitudes of shortening (123 km or 55%). The Interandean zone (IA) has shortened 48 km or 30%. In both the EC and IA individual thrust sheets are tightly folded and have minor offsets of 1-5 km. The Subandes (SA) has multiple levels of detachments allowing for thrust sheets with relatively large offsets (6-17 km). Total shortening in the SA is 66 km or 40%. Total magnitude of shortening for the entire fold-thrust belt in this region is 276 km (40%). New apatite and zircon fission track cooling ages in conjunction with published ages indicate two phases of rapid exhumation; an earlier phase from ˜40 to 25 Ma in the EC and one prior to ˜25 Ma in the IA, followed by distributed exhumation of the entire fold-thrust belt from ˜15-0 Ma. Combined exhumation estimates from the balanced cross section and thermochronology suggest ˜9-11 km of exhumation in the EC, ˜5-9 km in the IA, and ˜3-4 km in the SA. Long-term shortening rates are 7 mm/a for the EC and IA and 4-8 mm/a for the SA. The SA shortening rates

  7. Phytosynthesis and photocatalytic activity of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Brajesh, E-mail: krmbraj@gmail.com [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador); Department of Chemistry, TATA College, Kolhan University, Chaibasa, 833202, Jharkhand (India); Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, Sangolqui, P.O. BOX 171-5-231B (Ecuador); Galeas, Salome; Guerrero, Victor H. [Laboratorio de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Materiales, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito (Ecuador)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, a simple, low cost, and ecofriendly synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) has been developed using Andean blackberry leaf extract. UV–vis spectroscopy technique were used to study the initial formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. Morphology, crystallinity and surface properties of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermal gravimetric (TG) techniques. TEM and DLS characterization indicated the formation of spherical Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs of average size 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. XRD and FTIR studies confirmed the existence of the cubic spinel phase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs and Fe−O peak at 570 cm{sup −1}, whereas TG analysis indicated that the nanoparticles contain 94% metal and 6% capping ligand. It has been observed that, as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs exhibited photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (k = 0.0105475 min{sup −1}), congo red (k = 0.0043240 min{sup −1}), and methyl orange (k = 0.0028930 min{sup −1}), efficiently. The antioxidant activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were also evaluated. - Highlights: • We report extracellular phytosynthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf. • The synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are spherical and average size is 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. • It showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and weak antioxidant efficacy. • Environmentally benign, non-toxic and cost-effective method is suggested.

  8. Hydrological Responses of Andean Lakes and Tropical Floodplains to Climate Variability and Human Intervention: an Integrative Modelling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, I. C.; González Morales, C.; Serna López, J. P.; Duque, C. L.; Canon Barriga, J. E.; Dominguez, F.

    2013-12-01

    Andean water bodies in tropical regions are significantly influenced by fluctuations associated with climatic and anthropogenic drivers, which implies long term changes in mountain snow peaks, land covers and ecosystems, among others. Our work aims at providing an integrative framework to realistically assess the possible future of natural water bodies with different degrees of human intervention. We are studying in particular the evolution of three water bodies in Colombia: two Andean lakes and a floodplain wetland. These natural reservoirs represent the accumulated effect of hydrological processes in their respective basins, which exhibit different patterns of climate variability and distinct human intervention and environmental histories. Modelling the hydrological responses of these local water bodies to climate variability and human intervention require an understanding of the strong linkage between geophysical and social factors. From the geophysical perspective, the challenge is how to downscale global climate projections in the local context: complex orography and relative lack of data. To overcome this challenge we combine the correlational and physically based analysis of several sources of spatially distributed biophysical and meteorological information to accurately determine aspects such as moisture sources and sinks and past, present and future local precipitation and temperature regimes. From the social perspective, the challenge is how to adequately represent and incorporate into the models the likely response of social agents whose water-related interests are diverse and usually conflictive. To deal with the complexity of these systems we develop interaction matrices, which are useful tools to holistically discuss and represent each environment as a complex system. Our goal is to assess partially the uncertainties of the hydrological balances in these intervened water bodies we establish climate/social scenarios, using hybrid models that combine

  9. Mountain building at ocean-continent margins - linking mass flux, mechanics, and earthquakes at the Andean margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, O.

    2015-12-01

    Deformation at convergent plate boundaries involves various styles of mass flux and of backarc shortening. For the Andes, patterns appear obvious. Long-term mass flux style - i.e. accretionary versus erosive - shows a distinct relationship with forearc as well as backarc deformation mode. Neogene surface deformation exhibits tectonically uplifting areas along the coast driven by interseismically active reverse faulting. Moreover, seismic-cycle vertical displacement is not coincident with long-term vertical motion that probably is superseded by slow basal underplating (southern Chile) or tectonic erosion (northern Chile). Reconstruction clearly indicates that the Central Andean trench has always been underfilled with less than 500 m of sediment. In southern Chile, our data illustrate a similar trend during most of the Cenozoic with a shift around some 6-7 Ma to substantial sediment influx from glaciation of the Patagonian part of the Andean Cordillera. As a consequence, backarc shortening stopped at this latitude, while shortening velocity in the Central Andes was still accelerating. Using latitudinal evolution and variations of shortening rate, orogenic strain accumulation and deformation partitioning in the Andes can be shown to be dominated by distinct factors. The Altiplano-Puna plateaux are characterized by a complete cycle of initial lateral spreading of deformation followed by subsequent localization and acceleration of bulk shortening rate. Estimates of strength evolution based on force balance calculations and critical wedge analysis suggest significant backarc weakening driving this change. Lithosphere-scale failure from strain weakening beyond a critical strain threshold (c. 20%) and fault coalescence with formation of a weak detachment in shales (μeff < 0.1) played a key role in the evolution of the Central Andes. Strain-related lithosphere weakening dominated over the impact of external forcing mechanisms, such as variations of plate convergence

  10. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  11. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

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    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  12. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José R.; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S.; Robles‐Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar‐Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R.; Paz‐y‐Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua‐Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre‐Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or “shaven heads”, assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua‐Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre‐Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas’ ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q‐M3 Y‐chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua‐Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self‐identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  13. Assessing the effects of climate and volcanism on diatom and chironomid assemblages in an Andean lake near Quito, Ecuador

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    Neal Michelutti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes are undergoing climate changes that rival those occurring anywhere else on the planet, and are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Paleolimnological investigations of remote mountain lakes can provide details of past environmental change, especially where monitoring data are absent. Here, we reconstruct fossil diatom and chironomid communities spanning the last several hundred years from an Andean lake located in an ecological reserve near Quito, Ecuador. Both diatoms and chironomids recorded assemblage shifts reflective of changing climate conditions. The diatoms are likely responding primarily to temperature-related limnological changes, recording an increase in the number of planktonic taxa in the most recent sediments. This change is consistent with warmer conditions that result in enhanced periods of thermal stratification, allowing planktonic species to proliferate. The chironomids appear to respond mainly to a change in precipitation regime, recording a greater number of terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa that have been transported to the lake. A thick tephra deposit at the base of the sediment core affected both diatom and chironomid assemblages. The diatoms registered a change in species composition highlighting the ability of certain taxa to rapidly colonize new environments. In contrast, the chironomids showed a marked drop in abundance immediately following the tephra, but no change in species composition. In both cases the ecological response was short-lived, illustrating the resiliency of the lake to return to baseline conditions following volcanic inputs.

  14. The best for the guest: high Andean nurse cushions of Azorella madreporica enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal status in associated plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Torres-Mellado, Gustavo Adolfo; Palfner, Goetz; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2011-10-01

    Positive interactions between cushion plant and associated plants species in the high Andes of central Chile should also include the effects of fungal root symbionts. We hypothesized that higher colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi exists in cushion-associated (nursling) plants compared with conspecific individuals growing on bare ground. We assessed the AM status of Andean plants at two sites at different altitudes (3,200 and 3,600 ma.s.l.) in 23 species, particularly in cushions of Azorella madreporica and five associated plants; additionally, AM fungal spores were retrieved from soil outside and beneath cushions. 18 of the 23 examined plant species presented diagnostic structures of arbuscular mycorrhiza; most of them were also colonized by dark-septate endophytes. Mycorrhization of A. madreporica cushions showed differences between both sites (68% and 32%, respectively). In the native species Hordeum comosum, Nastanthus agglomeratus, and Phacelia secunda associated to A. madreporica, mycorrhization was six times higher than in the same species growing dispersed on bare ground at 3,600 ma.s.l., but mycorrhiza development was less cushion dependent in the alien plants Cerastium arvense and Taraxacum officinale at both sites. The ratio of AM fungal spores beneath versus outside cushions was also 6:1. The common and abundant presence of AM in cushion communities at high altitudes emphasizes the importance of the fungal root symbionts in such situations where plant species benefit from the microclimatic conditions generated by the cushion and also from well-developed mycorrhizal networks.

  15. UVR induce optical changes and phosphorous release of lake water and macrophyte leachates in shallow Andean lakes

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    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on optical features and phosphorous release of Dissolved Organic Mater (DOM from lake water and macrophyte leachates. Lake water samples were obtained from lakes Escondido and El Trébol, and macrophytes (Potamogeton linguatus and Schoenoplectus californicus from their littoral zones. After UVR exposure, DOM from lake El Trébol seemed to react more quickly than that from Lake Escondido and this seems to be related with the degree of lability or aromaticity in the DOM bulk of each lake. Leachates from both macrophytes showed different absorbance spectra with differences in photochemical transformations after UVR exposure: S. californicus leachates exhibited the highest photodegradation. A significant Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP release was observed in lake water after UVR exposure. Lake El Trébol showed the highest SRP concentrations, suggesting that the release of orthophosphate was favored by low molecular weight DOM. P. linguatus leachates have more dissolved phosphorus content than S. californicus ones and after UVR exposure, P. linguatus leachate did not react to UVR while S. californicus exhibited a decrease in SRP. However both macrophyte leachates showed the higher P release in darkness. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics and in the nutrient content in shallow Andean lakes. An increasing input of P. linguatus leachates would produce DOM of high molecular size and a higher P release than S. californicus.

  16. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

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    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  17. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

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    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  18. Pleistocene niche stability and lineage diversification in the subtropical spider Araneus omnicolor (Araneidae.

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    Elen A Peres

    Full Text Available The influence of Quaternary climate oscillations on the diversification of the South American fauna is being increasingly explored. However, most of these studies have focused on taxa that are endemic to tropical environments, and relatively few have treated organisms restricted to subtropical biomes. Here we used an integrative phylogeographical framework to investigate the effects of these climate events on the ecological niche and genetic patterns of the subtropical orb-weaver spider Araneus omnicolor (Araneidae. We analyzed the mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I, COI and nuclear (Internal Transcribed Subunit II, ITS2 DNA of 130 individuals throughout the species' range, and generated distribution models in three different climate scenarios [present, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, and Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG]. Additionally, we used an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach to compare possible demographic scenarios and select the hypothesis that better explains the genetic patterns of A. omnicolor. We obtained high haplotype diversity but low nucleotide variation among sequences. The population structure and demographic analyses showed discrepancies between markers, suggesting male-biased dispersal in the species. The time-calibrated COI phylogenetic inference showed a recent diversification of lineages (Middle/Late Pleistocene, while the paleoclimate modeling indicated niche stability since ~120 Kya. The ABC results agreed with the niche models, supporting a panmictic population as the most likely historical scenario for the species. These results indicate that A. omnicolor experienced no niche or population reductions during the Late Pleistocene, despite the intense landscape modifications that occurred in the subtropical region, and that other factors beside LGM and LIG climate oscillations might have contributed to the demographic history of this species. This pattern may be related to the high dispersal ability and wide

  19. Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean

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    N. R. Bates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant into the North Atlantic Ocean subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into the subtropical mode water (STMW that forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-ocean water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean. Observations at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg−1 yr−1 between 1988 and 2011. It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C between 1988 and 2011 (~70 % of which is due to uptake of Cant. However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s (NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sinks.

  20. Bacterioplankton carbon cycling along the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Stuck, Esther; Morales, Sergio; Currie, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Marine heterotrophic bacterioplankton (Bacteria and Archaea) play a central role in ocean carbon cycling. As such, identifying the factors controlling these microbial populations is crucial to fully understanding carbon fluxes. We studied bacterioplankton activities along a transect crossing three water masses (i.e., Subtropical waters [STW], Sub-Antarctic waters [SAW] and neritic waters [NW]) with contrasting nutrient regimes across the Subtropical Frontal Zone. In contrast to bacterioplankton production and community respiration, bacterioplankton respiration increased in the offshore SAW, causing a seaward increase in the contribution of bacteria to community respiration (from 7% to 100%). Cell-specific bacterioplankton respiration also increased in SAW, but cell-specific production did not, suggesting that prokaryotic cells in SAW were investing more energy towards respiration than growth. This was reflected in a 5-fold decline in bacterioplankton growth efficiency (BGE) towards SAW. One way to explain this decrease in BGE could be due to the observed reduction in phytoplankton biomass (and presumably organic matter concentration) towards SAW. However, this would not explain why bacterioplankton respiration was highest in SAW, where phytoplankton biomass was lowest. Another factor affecting BGE could be the iron limitation characteristic of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions like SAW. Our field-study based evidences would agree with previous laboratory experiments in which iron stress provoked a decrease in BGE of marine bacterial isolates. Our results suggest that there is a strong gradient in bacterioplankton carbon cycling rates along the Subtropical Frontal Zone, mainly due to the HNLC conditions of SAW. We suggest that Fe-induced reduction of BGE in HNLC regions like SAW could be relevant in marine carbon cycling, inducing bacterioplankton to act as a link or a sink of organic carbon by impacting on the quantity of organic carbon they incorporate

  1. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

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    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  2. Environmental drivers of mesozooplankton biomass variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Bellineth; Landry, Michael R.; Décima, Moira; Hannides, Cecelia C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The environmental drivers of zooplankton variability are poorly explored for the central subtropical Pacific, where a direct bottom-up food-web connection is suggested by increasing trends in primary production and mesozooplankton biomass at station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment) over the past 20 years (1994-2013). Here we use generalized additive models (GAMs) to investigate how these trends relate to the major modes of North Pacific climate variability. A GAM based on monthly mean data explains 43% of the temporal variability in mesozooplankton biomass with significant influences from primary productivity (PP), sea surface temperature (SST), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and El Niño. This result mainly reflects the seasonal plankton cycle at station ALOHA, in which increasing light and SST lead to enhanced nitrogen fixation, productivity, and zooplankton biomass during summertime. Based on annual mean data, GAMs for two variables suggest that PP and 3-4 year lagged NPGO individually account for 40% of zooplankton variability. The full annual mean GAM explains 70% of variability of zooplankton biomass with significant influences from PP, 4 year lagged NPGO, and 4 year lagged Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The NPGO affects wind stress, sea surface height, and subtropical gyre circulation and has been linked to mideuphotic zone anomalies in salinity and PP at station ALOHA. Our study broadens the known impact of this climate mode on plankton dynamics in the North Pacific. While lagged transport effects are also evident for subtropical waters, our study highlights a strong coupling between zooplankton fluctuations and PP, which differs from the transport-dominated climate influences that have been found for North Pacific boundary currents.

  3. Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell

    2011-05-01

    The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid.

  4. Toxocariosis en niños de una región subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Ángeles López; Graciela Martín; Myrian del Carmen Chamorro; José Mario Alonso

    2005-01-01

    La toxocariosis está presente en todo el mundo, pero se considera en mayor riesgo a los habitantes de zonas con deficiencias sanitarias y particularmente a los niños. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer aspectos inmunológicos y clínicos de la infección infantil en un área subtropical de Argentina, para lo cual se estudiaron 182 niños de ambos sexos de la ciudad de Resistencia (Noreste de Argentina), de 0 a 16 años, con eosinofilia mayor al 10%. Se realizaron exámenes clínicos, encuestas e...

  5. Relationships Between Permeability and Erodibility of Cultivated Acrisols and Cambisols in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; SHI Xue-Zheng; D. C. WEINDORF

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between soil erodibility factor (K) and soil saturated permeability (Kfs) for cultivated Acrisols derived from Quaternary red clay and Cambisols derived from red sandstone were studied and quantified using a rainfall simulator and Guelph permeameter in a hilly area of subtropical China. A negative correlation existed between Kfs of the topsoil (0-5 cm) and K. The empirical expression K ≈ a × K-b fs + c, where a, b and c are the structural coefficients related to soil properties, such as soil type, soil parent material, organic matter, pH and mechanical composition, best described the relationship between soil saturated permeability and soil erodibility.

  6. Variations in leaf soluble amino acids and ammonium content in subtropical seagrasses related to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, W M

    1986-01-01

    A survey of leaf soluble amino acids was conducted for four subtropical seagrasses grown at several salinities. Proline functioned as an organic osmoticum in Halodule wrightii Aschers., Thallasia testudinum Banks ex Koenig, and Ruppia maritima L., while alanine functioned in an osmoregulatory capacity in Halophila engelmanni Aschers. When light-and salinity-induced variations in leaf NH(4) and amide-N levels were compared in Halodule, Thalassia, and Halophila, ability to regulate leaf NH(4) levels was correlated with osmoregulatory capacity and maintenance of selected amino acid contents.

  7. The Study of Biogenetic Organic Compound Emissions and Ozone in a Subtropical Bamboo Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Duhl, Nanhao; van der A, Ronald; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic compounds (BVOCs), Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), and meteorological parameters were measured in some ecosystems in China. A Relaxed Eddy Accumulation system and an enclosure technique were used to measure BVOC emissions. Obvious diurnal and seasonal variations of BVOC emissions were found. Empirical models of BVOC emissions were developed, the estimated BVOC emissions were in agreement with observations. BVOC emissions in growing seasons in the Inner Mongolia grassland, Chnagbai Mountain temperate forest, LinAn subtropical bamboo forest were estimated. The emission factors of these ecosystems were calculated.

  8. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  9. THE EAST ASIAN SUBTROPICAL SUMMER MONSOON INDEX AND ITS RELATION WITH THE CLIMATE ANOMALIES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan-fei; WANG-Jing

    2007-01-01

    A new East Asian subtropical summer monsoon circulation index is defined, where the barotropic and baroclinic components of circulation are included. Results show that this index can well indicate the interannual variability of summer precipitation and temperature anomalies in China. A strong monsoon is characterized by more rainfall in the Yellow River basin and northern China, less rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and more rainfall in south and southeast China, in association with higher temperature in most areas of China. Furthermore, comparison is made between the index proposed in this paper and other monsoon indexes in representing climate anomalies in China.

  10. Management practices and controls on methane emissions from sub-tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Nicholas; Casa-Nova Gomez, Nuri; Bernacchi, Carl

    2015-04-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on any combination of climate conditions, natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or ecosystem perturbations. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are the main source for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. CH4 is one of the most damaging green house gases with current emission estimates ranging from 55 to 231 Tg CH4 yr-1. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04"N, 81o21'8.56"W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified

  11. The Simulation of the Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Tropical Area and Subtropical Area in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gong-li

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theory of the summer influenza transmission peaks in tropical area and subtropical area in East Asia is still unclear. We built an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the influenza transmission dynamics. We modeled two main routes of influenza transmission in the model: the aerosol route and the fomite-mediated route. Our results show that the absolute humidity (AH) is strikingly associated with the influenza transmission in different season; Fomite-mediated route particularly plays an important role in influenza transmission, the two-route transmission model can be better used for explaining the summer transmission peaks.

  12. La industria de la consultoría y la constitución de la élite managerial de las grandes empresas argentinas The consulting industry and the constitution of the managerial elite of large Argentinean companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Luci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar el rol que desempeña la industria de la consultoría en la constitución de la élite managerial de las grandes empresas en Argentina. La intención es mostrar que las consultoras tienen un papel destacado en los procesos organizacionales de estas firmas ya que muchas veces participan directamente en los procesos de selección de los dirigentes -encargándose de las "pruebas" de reclutamiento, de evaluación, de promoción- así como en la constitución de relaciones de sociabilidad que intervienen activando posibilidades desiguales de carrera profesional.The purpose of this article is to analyze the role adopted by the consulting industry in the constitution of the managerial elite of large companies in Argentina. The goal is to show that the consulting firms have an outstanding role in the organizational processes of large Argentinean companies. They often participate directly in the leader's selection process - being in charged of the recruitment tests, evaluation, and promotion- as well as in the constitution of sociability relations that generate unequal possibilities of professional career.

  13. Confederações indígenas em luta por participação política, comercial e territorial: Argentina, 1852 - 1859 Argentinean native-american confederations in action: politics, commerce and territories (1852-1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Passetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1852 e 1859, a atual Argentina se encontrava politicamente dividida entre Buenos Aires e a Confederação, que congregava as demais Províncias. Nesse período, diferentes grupos étnicos dos pampas, dos Andes e da Patagônia se organizaram em confederações indígenas com o objetivo de enfrentar os avanços territoriais, defender suas autonomias e a participação em lucrativas redes de comércio. Nesta luta por autonomia política, territorial e comercial, negociaram com os grupos criollos em luta pelo poder, avaliaram seus projetos e aderiram a aquele que os reconheceu enquanto interlocutores políticos e aliados militares. Participantes ativos da política argentina, conseguiram reconquistar territórios e oferecer intensas resistências aos criollos.Argentina was divided, between 1852 and 1859 in two political groups: the Province of Buenos Aires and the Argentine Confederation. Strong native-american confederations from the pampas, the Andes and Patagonia, arose interested in political autonomy, deffence of territories and commerce. They dealed with the criollos, evaluated their project for the nation and joined those who recognized them as political and military allies. Active members of the Argentinean politics in that time, they re-conquered lands and offered intense resistances to the criollos.

  14. Price components of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean wines: a hedonic price analysis Componentes dos preços dos vinhos brasileiros, argentinos e chilenos: uma análise de preços hedônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Luppe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of hedonic prices was used to investigate if descriptive information, on the labels of the 229 fine Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean wines surveyed, had an influence on the retail price in Brazil. The producing country, vintage, grape variety and growing region were the aspects analyzed. The characteristics that most impacted the price of these wines were the producing country and grape variety.Este artigo utiliza o conceito da teoria dos preços hedônicos para investigar se as informações contidas nos rótulos dos vinhos finos brasileiros, argentinos e chilenos vendidos no mercado influenciam o preço desses produtos. As características analisadas são: o país de produção, a safra, a variedade da uva e a região de produção. O estudo analisou uma amostra de 229 vinhos e os resultados obtidos indicam que as características que mais impactam o preço dos vinhos analisados são: o país produtor e a variedade da uva.

  15. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 1998–2011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (June–November) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  16. NON-LINEAR DYNAMIC MODEL RETRIEVAL OF SUBTROPICAL HIGH BASED ON EMPIRICAL ORTHOGONAL FUNCTION AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ren; HONG Mei; SUN Zhao-bo; NIU Sheng-jie; ZHU Wei-jun; MIN Jin-zhong; WAN Qi-lin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty of accurately constructing the dynamic model of subtropical high, based on the potential height field time series over 500 hPa layer of T106 numerical forecast products, by using EOF(empirical orthogonal function) temporal-spatial separation technique, the disassembled EOF time coefficients series were regarded as dynamical model variables, and dynamic system retrieval idea as well as genetic algorithm were introduced to make dynamical model parameters optimization search, then, a reasonable non-linear dynamic model of EOF time-coefficients was established. By dynamic model integral and EOF temporal-spatial components assembly, a mid-/long-term forecast of subtropical high was carried out. The experimental results show that the forecast results of dynamic model are superior to that of general numerical model forecast results.A new modeling idea and forecast technique is presented for diagnosing and forecasting such complicated weathers as subtropical high.

  17. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  18. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecolo