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Sample records for argentine peanut skins

  1. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Solange Guidolin CANNIATTI-BRAZACA

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to...

  2. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa de Camargo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ. Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h, measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  5. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  6. Assessment and Characterization of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value material from peanut processing and are a good source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have a significant use other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high antioxidant activity, while little is known s...

  7. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  8. BNCT for skin melanoma in extremities: Updated Argentine clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of phase I/II melanoma BNCT clinical trial conducted in Argentina in a cooperative effort of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Oncology Institute Angel H. Roffo (IOAHR), 7 patients (6 female-1 male) received eight treatment sessions covering ten anatomical areas located in extremities. Mean age of the patients was 64 years (51-74). The treatments were performed between October 2003 and June 2007. All patients presented multiple subcutaneous skin metastases of melanoma and received an infusion containing ∼14 gr/m2 of 10borophenyl-alanine (BPA) followed by the exposition of the area to a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam at the RA-6 reactor. The maximum prescribed dose to normal skin ranged from 16.5 to 24 Gy-Eq and normal tissue administered dose varied from 15.8 to 27.5 Gy-Eq. Considering evaluable nodules, 69.3% of overall response and 30.7% of no changes were seen. The toxicity was acceptable, with 3 out of 10 evaluable areas showing ulceration (30% toxicity grade 3).

  9. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Peanut Skin using HPLC-MSn

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Kyle Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Consumers view natural antioxidants as a safe means to reduce spoilage in foods. In addition, these compounds have been reported to be responsible for human health benefits. Identification of these compounds in peanut skins may enhance consumer interest, improve sales, and increase the value of peanuts. This study evaluated analytical methods which have not been previously incorporated for the analysis of peanut skins. Toyopearl size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used for separating phen...

  10. Physicochemical effects of gamma radiation in peanuts and the utilization of their peanut skins as natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanuts are among the most popular oilseed in the world, their lipid content is about 50%, on average. Their fatty acid composition is characterized by high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. Peanuts are a source of dietary tocopherol and polyphenols, antioxidants that play benefits to human health. However, the presence of potential mycotoxic fungi is a concern of this oilseed production chain. Gamma radiation, in addition to good agricultural practices, has been identified as an effective treatment for disinfecting peanuts of fungi and has been identified as a potential tool for reducing their allergenicity. However, the physicochemical quality of the peanuts deserves attention due to its high lipid percentage. The irradiation process can promote the formation of free radicals, increase lipid oxidation and induce molecular changes that may reflect changes in the antioxidant properties. In the present study samples of peanut from IAC Runner 886 cultivar, peeled, in shell and blanched as well as their peanut skins were subjected to gamma radiation in doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy with dose rate of 7.5 kGy.h-1 using a cobalt-60 source. The samples were stored for six months at room temperature and analysis were performed at the beginning of the study and after each three month storage on peanuts and just at the beginning of the study on peanut skins. Few changes noticed in the physical parameters of color seem to be more related to storage than the irradiation process Chemical parameters related to the antioxidant properties showed moderate change due to the irradiation process, while storage was determinant on the reduction of bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant activity in the samples. No correlation was found between gamma radiation and fatty acid changes of peanuts. Tocopherol content and the induction period of the crude peanut oil were negatively correlated with gamma radiation doses. Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching

  11. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Hourihane, J O; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J O

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine rates of other atopic manifestations in people with peanut allergy and the prevalence of such allergy in their families. DESIGN: A survey of people with self reported peanut allergy and people referred by their general practitioner for suspected peanut allergy; survey and skin testing of 50 children with reported peanut allergy and their available first degree relatives. SUBJECTS: 622 adults and children with reported, suspected, or known peanut allergy. MAIN OUTCOME ...

  12. The Research Progress of the Peanut Skin%花生红衣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧文; 许海燕; 马超美

    2015-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop as food and oil, while its seed skin is also known as a tradi-tional Chinese medicine.This review compiled reports of procyanidins at home and abroad, introduced the chemical compositions, biological activities and the application prospect of peanut skin in detail. Peanut is an important plant in China, with the highest production over the world.But there are much peanut skin wasted in the processing of peanut-derived products.The main chemical compositions in peanut skin were procyanidins, which were classified according to the polymerization degree, with fig-ures to illustrate each compound.This paper summarized the current knowledge on the biological ac-tivities, such as antioxidant and antiallergic activity, inhibition on hyperlipidemia and diabetes, etc. Based on the latest studies at home and abroad, peanut skin is considered to be with great application in the field of food and medicine for its strong antioxidant activities and low toxicity.%花生是我国的优势种植作物,产量位居世界首位,但是缺少深度开发,花生红衣的利用率低下。花生红衣是重要粮油作物花生(Arachis hypogaea .L)的种皮,同时也是一味传统中药。花生红衣中的化学成分主要是原花青素,根据成分的聚合度进行分类。原花青素具有很强的生物活性,如抗氧化、降血脂、降血糖和抗过敏等,又具食源性和低毒性的特点,因此在食品和药品领域有巨大的应用前景和实用价值。本文对花生生产的基本情况、花生红衣的化学成分、生物活性和应用前景进行了详细综述。

  13. 花生红衣研究进展%The Research Progress of the Peanut Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧文; 许海燕; 马超美

    2015-01-01

    花生是我国的优势种植作物,产量位居世界首位,但是缺少深度开发,花生红衣的利用率低下。花生红衣是重要粮油作物花生(Arachis hypogaea .L)的种皮,同时也是一味传统中药。花生红衣中的化学成分主要是原花青素,根据成分的聚合度进行分类。原花青素具有很强的生物活性,如抗氧化、降血脂、降血糖和抗过敏等,又具食源性和低毒性的特点,因此在食品和药品领域有巨大的应用前景和实用价值。本文对花生生产的基本情况、花生红衣的化学成分、生物活性和应用前景进行了详细综述。%Peanut is an important crop as food and oil, while its seed skin is also known as a tradi-tional Chinese medicine.This review compiled reports of procyanidins at home and abroad, introduced the chemical compositions, biological activities and the application prospect of peanut skin in detail. Peanut is an important plant in China, with the highest production over the world.But there are much peanut skin wasted in the processing of peanut-derived products.The main chemical compositions in peanut skin were procyanidins, which were classified according to the polymerization degree, with fig-ures to illustrate each compound.This paper summarized the current knowledge on the biological ac-tivities, such as antioxidant and antiallergic activity, inhibition on hyperlipidemia and diabetes, etc. Based on the latest studies at home and abroad, peanut skin is considered to be with great application in the field of food and medicine for its strong antioxidant activities and low toxicity.

  14. Combined normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography/ESI-MS as a tool to determine the molecular diversity of A-type procyanidins in peanut skins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Vincken, J.P.; Sanders, M.B.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Peanut skins, a byproduct of the peanut butter industry, are a rich source of proanthocyanidins, which might be used in food supplements. Data on the molecular diversity of proanthocyanidins in peanut skins is limited and conflicting with respect to the ratio of double- (A-type) versus single-linked

  15. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariza Pires de Melo; Marco Antonio Trindade; Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in vitro of peanut skin extract (PSE) and effect of PSE on characteristics of sheep patties during storage. Methods: PSE phenolic profile was evaluated in LC–MS analysis and by total phenolic content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power. Patties elaborated with sheep meat were packaged in modified at-mosphere and storage at (2 ± 1) ?C. The analyses were performed every 5 days for 20 days on microbial counts, physico-chemical properties, lipid oxidation, protein stability and sensory characteristics. Results: The major group of phenolic compounds in PSE was the proanthocyanidins followed by other flavonoids, which are related to potential phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity. The addition of PSE and butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT) reduced the mi-crobial counts during the storage time, caused reduction on the loss of redness and sensory properties over time. The lipid and protein oxidation in sheep patties was effectively inhibited by PSE and BHT. Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT) for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  16. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation. PMID:26304352

  17. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  18. 红衣组分对花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物理化和抗氧化性质的影响%Effect of peanut red skin on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein isolate and its hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炜; 杨晓泉; 刘远洋; 郭健; 任晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    Peanut was used as raw material,the effects of peanut red skin on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein isolate(PPI) and its hydrolysates were studied.The results showed that:the hydrolysis speed of PPI with peanut red skin was slower than PPI without peanut red skin;under the conditions of the same value of DH,surface hydrophobicity of PPI with peanut red skin was less than PPI without peanut red skin;in the distribution of GPC,the peak of PPI with peanut red skin was greater than PPI without peanut red skin;peanut red skin could improve the solubility,emulsion stability and emulsifying activity of PPI and its hydrolysates;under the conditions of the same value of DH,content of polyphenol of hydrolysates of PPI with peanut red skin was significantly increased,content of polyphenol had a positive correlation with antioxidant properties of PPI and its hydrolysates.%以花生为原料,研究了花生红衣组分对花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物理化和抗氧化性质的影响。研究结果表明:含红衣的分离蛋白酶解速度低于不含红衣的;相同水解度条件下,含红衣的表面疏水性小于脱红衣的;GPC分布中,含红衣的峰值大于脱红衣的;红衣组分能够提高花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物的溶解性、乳化稳定性、乳化活性;在相同水解度条件下,含红衣的水解产物多酚含量显著高于脱红衣的,多酚含量的差异与花生分离蛋白及其水解产物的抗氧化性具有正相关性。

  19. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Maria; Schnoor Heidi J; Malling Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 ye...

  20. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  1. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  2. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term use of fish oil (FO is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE, which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF. MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways.

  3. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  4. 花生衣红色素提取及抗氧化作用研究进展%Research Progress on Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Peanut Skin Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟硕莉

    2013-01-01

    花生衣红色素是一种提取自花生内衣的天然色素资源,其主要成分为黄酮类物质。介绍花生衣红色素的基本特性,对花生衣红色素的提取方法和抗氧化作用的最新研究进展进行简要总结,以期为花生衣红色素的进一步研究开发提供参考。%Peanut skin red pigment is a kind of natural pigment extracted from the inside skin of peanut. Its main ingredients are of flavonoids. This paper describes the basic characteristics of peanut haematochrome, the latest research progress of extraction methods and its antioxidant effects in order to provide reference for the further research and development of peanut skin red pigment.

  5. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceite de Cacahuete, Aceite de Maní, Arachide, Arachis hypogaea, Cacahouète, Cacahuète, Earth-Nut, Groundnuts, Huile d'Arachide, Huile de Cacahouète, Huile de Cacahuète, Monkey Nuts, Peanut, Peanuts.

  6. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  7. 花生红衣粗多酚体外抗氧化活性研究%Peanut skin coarse polyphenol antioxidation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曼; 韩升廷; 张海悦; 魏滢

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of polyphenols was studied for peanut red skins. Ethanol,acetone,distilled water were used as extraction solvent for polyphenols from peanut red skins. The antioxidant capacity of polyphenols extracts were determined by the total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) testing,superoxide radical scavenge ability and hydroxyl radicals scavenge ability. The antioxidant activity in vitro of these three polyphenols extracts was compared and the total polyphenols content was determined, The results showed that the total polyphenols content of three polyphenols extracts was at 9,7%,9.2% and 6.3%. In the different antioxidant system,three kinds of polyphenol extracts had good antioxidant activity,which 60% ethanol extracts oxidation capacity was higher than the volume fraction of 0.02% Vc. The order of the three oxidation capacity were 60% ethanol extracts>60% acetone extracts>distilled water extracts.%对花生红衣粗多酚抗氧化活性进行研究.采用乙醇、丙酮、蒸馏水3种溶剂提取花生红衣中多酚类物质,通过粗多酚提取液总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)清除能力、羟基自由基(·OH)清除作用的测定,比较了3种酚提液的体外抗氧化活性,并测定了其中总多酚含量.结果表明,3种粗多酚提取液总多酚含量分别为9.7%、9.2%、6.3%;在不同抗氧化体系中,3种酚提液均具有良好的抗氧化活性,其中60%乙醇提取液抗氧化能力均高于体积分数0.02%的Vc,抗氧化能力的大小顺序为:60%乙醇提取液>60%丙酮提取液>蒸馏水提取液.

  8. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai and Vietnamese) and Mexican restaurants; bakeries; and ice cream shops. The FDA exempts highly refined peanut oil ... Executive Team Board of Directors Clinical & Research Advisors History Become a Member Corporate Partners Careers Contact Us ...

  9. Development of Compound Soft Sweets of Peanut Red Skin with Chinese Yam and White Fungus%花生红衣山药银耳软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 卜婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The peanut red skin, Chinese yam and white fungus are used as the main materials in this essay. The existence of pectin and sugar make this product closer to the definition of the health soft sweets. The peanut red skin , Chinese yam , liquid fungus , pectin and sugar are studied respectively by single factor experiment and L9(34) orthogonal experiment to find the best ratio of every ingredients. The result shows that ratio of every ingredient can be:peanut red skin∶Chinese yam and liquid fungus∶pectin∶sugar is 5∶40∶4∶50.%以花生红衣、山药、银耳为主要原料,添加果胶、白砂糖等研制出保健软糖。对花生红衣量、山药和银耳浆、果胶和白砂糖4个因素分别进行单因素和正交试验,得到最佳制取配方,即:花生红衣∶山药银耳浆∶果胶∶白砂糖为(质量比)5∶40∶4∶50。

  10. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  11. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these foods. Sauces. Many cooks use peanuts or peanut butter to thicken chili and other sauces. Always proceed ... the knife another family member used to make peanut butter sandwiches is not used to butter your bread ...

  12. 黑花生衣色素抗氧化作用的研究%Study on antioxidant activities of black peanut skin pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜蕾; 李新华; 陈芳芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the antioxidant activities of black peanut skin pigment (BPSP), reducing ability and scavenging activities of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical and antioxidative activity on lipid of the BPSP were determined. Results showed that the UV spectrum of BPSP had two maximum absorb summit at 223nm and 278nm,it was the same as other natural antioxidant such as cocoa pigment and sorghum red pigment,and their IC50 to hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical were 0.601,0.496, and 0.208 mg/mL respectively and the antioxidative activity on lipid was strong,it was an excellent natural antioxidant.%为研究黑花生衣色素的抗氧化能力,对黑花生衣色素溶液进行紫外一可见光谱扫描。并分别测定黑花生衣色素的还原能力,清除羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基的能力以及扰脂质过氧化功能。结果表明:黑花生衣色素的紫外光谱图显示在223nm和278nm处有两个最大吸收峰,与可可色素和高粱红色素等天然抗氧化物质的紫外吸收图谱相似;对羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基的半抑制能力IC5D分别为0.601、0.496、0.208mg/mL,对脂质过氧化有很强的抑制作用,是一种效果较好的天然抗氧化剂。

  13. Argentine radiation protection society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

  14. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  15. Argentine National Pharmacopoeia (Argentine Codex Medicamentarius). 6. ed., suppl. 1982.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards of mandatory application, established by Law No. 22729 of February, 1983, on radiopharmaceuticals and radiosterilization of products for medical use, issued as a supplement to the text of the Argentine National Pharmacopoeia. In particular, the general characteristics, identification and purity tests, radioactivity valuation, top date of utilization, and form of conservation of different radiopharmaceuticals are described. (C.A.K.)

  16. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  17. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  18. Nucleoelectric energy in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text intends to reflect a coherent and sustained management in the Argentine nucleoelectrical policy. Through individual thematic unities connected between them, the basic structure consists of three principal parts. The first part introduces a broad panorama of atomic energy in the world, in the international treaties and organizations. Also the technical, economic and political aspects which had influence in the Argentine nuclear policies, particularly in the electrical production with nuclear power plants, are considered in this part. The second part describes the historical sequence of the principal achievements of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in the nuclear industry. A mention of particular criteria adopted in each situation and the intention and motivations that guide the decisions are also considered. Finally, an actual balance of the nucleoelectrical technology situation in Argentine and in the world is presented. (Author)

  19. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  20. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  1. Effect Of GAMMA Irradiation On THEANTIOXIDANT Activity Of Ethanolic Extracts From Peanut Hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut skins and hulls are by-products of the peanut industry that has low economic value despite its high contents of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels 4 and 8 kGy on total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity were studied and the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated ethanolic extracts of peanut skins and hulls (Giza-80 variety) was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The results showed that ethanolic extracts of peanut hull samples had a higher content of total phenolic compounds than samples of ethanolic extracts of peanut skins and exhibited antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Based on these results, the hulls of Giza-80 variety were selected as the best antioxidant as compared to peanut skins because of their high contents of total phenolic compounds and scavenging effect on DPPH radical. Thus, the biological experiment indicated that addition of non-irradiated and irradiated ethanolic extracts of peanut hulls to animal diets caused a significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) while very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was decreased significantly. These results are very beneficial to protect the heart against coronary heart diseases risks.

  2. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties. PMID:27596394

  3. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  4. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  5. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  6. Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    UÇKUN, Okşan; Var, Işıl

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are one of the most important oilseed crops and snack foods in the world Agro-food trade market. The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, China, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. Peanuts are a perishable commodity, easily spoiled by fungi. Aflatoxins are a group of natural compounds mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They have been found to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic to humans and animal...

  7. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valerie; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Giraud, Tatiana;

    2010-01-01

    the native range) and secondary introductions (from sites with established invasive supercolonies) were important in the global expansion of the Argentine ant. In combination with the similar social organization of colonies in the native and introduced range, this indicates that invasiveness did not...

  8. DOES THE REDUCTION IN PEANUT PRICES BENEFIT PEANUT BUTTER CONSUMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Nadolnyak, Denis A.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2004-01-01

    Using monthly data, we find evidence of both short- and long-run asymmetry of price transmission from peanut to peanut butter prices. This suggests that the asymmetry is more likely a result of imperfect competition than of competitive profit maximizing inventory management. Effects of producer support policy changes are discussed.

  9. DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF PEANUT BUTTER ADVERTISING ON PEANUT BUTTER DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Deodhar, Satish Y.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1998-01-01

    Using error correction approach and nonlinear three-stage-squares, long-run and short-run effects of aggregate brand advertising on the U.S demand for peanut butter are estimated. Results indicate that demand for peanut butter is more responsive to advertising in the long-run. Moreover, demand is responsive to price only in the short-run.

  10. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Costa Braga; Priscilla Siqueira Melo; Keityane Boone Bergamaschi; Ana Paula Tiveron; Adna Prado Massarioli; Severino Matias de Alencar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07%) followed by peanut skin (15.1...

  11. What makes peanuts so allergenic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Arnd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy belongs to one of the most severe food allergies. So far 12 peanut allergens have been registered by the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. Here, we describe the different peanut allergens and factors that contribute to allergenicity. Peanut contains several class I food allergens (especially Ara h 1, 2, 3 that are stable against heat denaturation and proteolytic digestion and represent storage proteins. These allergens are often associated with severe allergic reactions. Additionally, peanut contains class II food allergens (Ara h 5 and 8, where the IgE reactivity is caused by cross reactions to inhalant allergens. These allergens are mostly associated with mild to moderate allergic reactions. But the severity of symptoms may change by involvement of additional factors. The peanut matrix consists of about 50% of lipids, and allergen - lipid associations have been shown for several peanut allergens. Further factors influencing allergenicity depend on peanut varieties, geographical differences and alterations in food processing. Finally, the physiological function of allergens and the mechanisms, by which they interact with the immune system, are further modulating factors. Thus, the specific allergen structure, matrix, genetic variations, geographic alterations and further augmentation factors are important parameters that induce and influence allergenicity.

  12. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as...

  13. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.

  14. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  15. Leveraging the Potential of Argentine Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzini, Elisa; Eraso Puig, Beatriz; Anapolsky, Sebastian; Lonnberg, Tara; Mora, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    OVERVIEW. FULL BOOK EXPECTED IN JUNE 2016. Argentina’s path to economic prosperity is through efficient, sustainable and economically thriving cities. Not only are cities a spatial concentration of people, but also they generate agglomeration economies by concentrating ideas, talent, and knowledge. Argentina is one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America, with 90 percent of Argentine people currently living in cities. Argentina’s cities are geographically and economically diverse, an...

  16. Situation of the Science Libraries in Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Nancy-Diana

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the present-day situation of the Libraries of Science in the Argentine Republic, emphasising on there possibilities of access to information. The first division that we can do in this area is: special libraries and academic libraries. This is our starting point. We also point out the Programs or Projects originated in the Ministry of Culture and Education that directly affect the present situation of academic libraries, like the University Interc...

  17. Hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbons produced by γ-radiation of peanuts were analyzed to determine the relationship between irradiation and production of hydrocarbons, and the use of hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts. Hydrocarbons in peanuts were determined by a sequential procedure of lipid extraction by hexane, Florisil column chromatography, and gas chromatography. Hydrocarbons C17:1, C16:2, C17:2, and C16:3 were easily detected in peanuts irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher, but not in unirradiated ones. The hydrocarbons were minimally changed by roasting the irradiated peanuts and were not detected in unirradiated roasted peanuts

  18. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  19. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  20. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  1. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  2. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  3. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author)

  4. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  5. LES HYDROCARBURES EN ARGENTINE : RESEAUX, TERRITOIRES, INTEGRATION.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Silvina Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Les réseaux d'hydrocarbures en Argentine ont vécu une restructuration brutale, lors de la réforme de l'Etat des années 1990. La dérégulation des activités et les privatisations des entreprises YPF et Gas del Estado ont induit la re-concentration du secteur, désormais sous l'empire des entreprises étrangères, dont Repsol YPF est le leader. La fédéralisation des ressources au bénéfice des provinces contribue à l'affaiblissent et à la décapitalisation de l'Etat. Ces changements ont entraîné une ...

  6. The Argentine remote monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scientific and Technical Support Department of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN) has developed a Remote Monitoring and Surveillance System (RMSS) that provides a media to verify state of variables related to the monitoring and surveillance activities of nuclear facilities, mainly safeguard applications. RMSS includes a variety of on site installed sensors, an authenticated radiofrequency communication link, a receiver processing unit, an active vision set and a user friendly personal computer interface to collect, view and store pertinent histories of events. A real time data base allows consulting, maintenance, updating and checking activities. RMSS could be integrated into a LAN or WAN via modem for use in a remote operation scheme. In this paper a description of the RMSS is provided. Also, an overview of the RMSS operation at one facility under safeguards belonging to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) is presented. Results and conclusions of the system associated with this facility are given. (author). 37 figs

  7. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  8. Progress of radiosterilization in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and economic advantages of radiation as a means of sterilization have led to a steady expansion of its use. With the significant increase in the radiosterilization of medical products, the health authorities have established standards for the use of radiation for that purpose. These standards will be incorporated in the next edition of the Argentine Pharmacopoeia. In general, Argentine legislation in this area is based on the IAEA's Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products. The microbiology services of Argentina's National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) determine the number of viable microorganisms in each product and package the product before irradiation. The controls are carried out on random samples. At the same time, the chemistry laboratories carry out quality controls on new products which have received sterilizing doses of gamma radiation. The gas sterilization methods employed most widely in the industrial manufacture of thermolabile products involve the use of ethylene oxide or formaldehyde. The cost of this process is influenced considerably by the fact that Argentina has to import ethylene oxide. The low penetrating power of formaldehyde means that the package containing the product must still be open at the time of sterilization if an adequate safety margin is to be ensured; consequently, one needs sterile installations for the post-irradiation sealing of packages. The capital and operating coats of such installations are high. A comparison has been made of the costs of sterilizing 11000 m3 of a product with a density of 0.1 g/cm3 and the following relative values obtained: ethylene oxide, 399.2; formaldehyde, 947.5; gamma radiation, 166.0. Studies of the effects of sterilizing doses on certain pharmaceutical products have demonstrated that the radiosterilization of some drugs is possible. The CNEA has designed an installation for the radiosterilization of medical products; the installation would have a 500000-Ci

  9. Economically Feasible Crop Production Alternatives to Peanuts in Southwestern Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Devkota, Shankar; Holcomb, Rodney B.; Taylor, Merritt J.; Epplin, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the U.S. peanut program have resulted in drastically decreased planted acres and forced many peanut producers in the Southwest to consider alternative crops. This study examined the economic risk associated with producing peanuts and common alternatives to peanuts. Seedless watermelon is an alternative for risk preferring farmers whereas, irrigated peanut is the best choice for risk averse farmers.

  10. Carbohydrate supply limits invasion of natural communities by Argentine ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2009-08-01

    The ability of species to invade new habitats is often limited by various biotic and physical factors or interactions between the two. Invasive ants, frequently associated with human activities, flourish in disturbed urban and agricultural environments. However, their ability to invade and establish in natural habitats is more variable. This is particularly so for the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). While biotic resistance and low soil moisture limits their invasion of natural habitats in some instances, the effect of food availability has been poorly explored. We conducted field experiments to determine if resource availability limits the spread and persistence of Argentine ants in remnant natural forest in North Carolina. Replicated transects paired with and without sucrose solution feeding stations were run from invaded urban edges into forest remnants and compared over time using baits and direct counts at feeding stations. Repeated under different timing regimes in 2006 and 2007, access to sucrose increased local Argentine ant abundances (1.6-2.5 fold) and facilitated their progression into the forest up to 73 +/- 21% of 50-m transects. Resource removal caused an expected decrease in Argentine ant densities in 2006, in conjunction with their retreat to the urban/forest boundary. However, in 2007, Argentine ant numbers unexpectedly continued to increase in the absence of sugar stations, possibly through access to alternative resources or conditions not available the previous year such as honeydew-excreting Hemiptera. Our results showed that supplementing carbohydrate supply facilitates invasion of natural habitat by Argentine ants. This is particularly evident where Argentine ants continued to thrive following sugar station removal. PMID:19452171

  11. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

  12. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  13. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07% followed by peanut skin (15.17% and grape marc (7.92%. In terms of lyophilized sample, total phenolics did not vary significantly among the residues evaluated (average of 60.33mg EAG g-1; however, when they were expressed as dry extract grape marc exhibited the highest total phenolic (768.56±116.35mg GAE g-1, followed by peanut skin (404.40±13.22mg GAE g-1 and mango bagasse (160.25±4.52mg GAE g-1, Peanut skin exhibited the highest content of total flavonoids (2.44mg QE g-1, while grape marc (1.76mg QE g-1 and mango bagasse (1.70 mg QE g-1 showed no significant differences. The extraction yield showed strong negative linear correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoid. This study showed that peanut skin was the sample with the highest antioxidant activity and it was strongly influenced by total flavonoids. All extracts of byproducts showed antioxidant activity comparable to α-tocopherol, and they can be a source of natural compounds with potential to replace synthetic antioxidants such as BHT.

  14. Cross-Reactivity of Peanut Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are d...

  15. Re-defining Anglo-Argentine literature: from travel writing to travelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    Ferradas, Claudia Mónica

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a definition of Anglo-Argentine literature, a literary corpus that has not been explicitly defined, and provides a reading list of Anglo-Argentine works on the basis of that definition. The research is based on the presupposition that Anglo-Argentine texts can be used to contribute to an intercultural approach to language and literature teaching in the Argentine higher education context. Such texts can encourage reflection on how writing on Argentina in English has co...

  16. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  17. URINARY INCONTINENCE: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND PREVALENCE AMONG OLDER ARGENTINE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauregui JR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Argentine women 65 years of age and older regarding urinary incontinence (UI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 238 community-dwelling Argentine women 65 years of age and older was conducted in San Justo, Argentina. Data were collected by in-person interviews. Results: Regarding knowledge, 232 (97.5% of the women surveyed were familiar with the term urinary incontinence, but 152 (63.9% falsely believed that UI is a normal part of aging and 163 (68.5% did not know about pelvic exercises or a surgical option to treat UI. A total of 106 (44.5% women reported symptoms of UI. Discussion: Older Argentine women are misinformed about UI. Interventions are necessary to increase their knowledge and healthcare seeking behaviors.

  18. Argentine intercomparison programme for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1997 began in Argentine, sponsored by Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) the intercomparison program for personal dosimetry laboratories, on a voluntary basis. Up to know 6 exercises have been done. The program began with a workshop to present the quantities, personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and extremities dose equivalent, Hs(d). The first aim of this program was to know the true sate of personal dosimetry laboratories in the country, and then introduce the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) into the dose measurements. The Regional Reference Center for Dosimetry (CCR), belonging to CNEA and the Physical Dosimetry Laboratory of ARN performed the irradiation. Those were done air free and on ICRU phantom, using x-ray, quality ISO: W60, W110 and W200; and 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays. The irradiation was made following ISO 4037 (2) recommendations. There are studied the dose, energy and angular response of the different measuring system. The range of the dose analyzed was from 0.2 mSv up to 80 mSv. The beam incidence was normal and also 20o and 60o. The dosimeters irradiation's were performed kerma in free in air and in phantom in order to study the availability of the service to evaluate the behavior as a function of kerma free in air or Hp(10). At the same time several items have been asked to each participant referring to the action range, the detectors characteristics, the laboratory procedures, the existence of an algorithm and its use for the dosimeter evaluation and the wish to participate in a quality assurance program. The program worked in writing a standard of personal dosimetry laboratories, that was published in 2001. In this work the results of each laboratory and its performance based on the ICRP-60 and ICRP-35 acceptance criteria are shown. Also the laboratory evolution and inquiry analyses have been included. (author)

  19. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel....... Furthermore, the leaf proteome map will lead to development of protein markers for cultivar identification at seedling stage of the plant. Overall, this study will contribute to improve our understanding of plant genetics and metabolism, and overall assist in the selection and breeding programs geared toward...

  20. Maintaining Roads : The Argentine Experience with Output-Based Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Liautaud, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The Argentine government is using output-based contracts with the private sector for rehabilitation and maintenance of its nonconcessioned road network. The multiyear lump sum contracts, funded by the government, specify required road service outputs and use incentive-based payment schedules to ensure the quality of the work. After three years of operation the 60 contracts (averaging US$10...

  1. Sino-Argentine SLR station making new progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Argentine satellite laser ranging (SLR) system ranks second in the pass total of satellites it has observed among the SLR satellite observatories worldwide, according to statistics of the International Laser Ranging Service from October 2007 to September 2008. In addition, it tops the world in observing high orbit satellites, a difficult task to perform.

  2. A view on the future of Argentine nuclear exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to anticipate the possibilities of future nuclear technology exports, the technological capacities of the organizations and companies that make up the Argentine nuclear sector are analyzed together with the evolution of their possible markets. The main export opportunities are seen in the field of the research reactors, nuclear fuel elements, heavy water and radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications

  3. Radioactive wastes: the situation in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the present situation in the Argentine Republic relating to the treatment of radioactive wastes, the methodology used for siting a radioactive waste repository and the legal problems associated with the provincial jurisdiction on the chosen territory. It also describes related financing and nuclear liability problems (NEA)

  4. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  5. Comparative Studies on Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Water and Ethanol Extracts from Peanut Skin%花生红衣乙醇和水提取物的抗氧化性与抑菌活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊柳; 张磊; 张吉民; 孙庆杰

    2012-01-01

    采用乙醇和水做溶剂提取花生红衣,并对得到的花生红衣提取物进行猪油的抗氧化性考察,对食品中常见污染菌的抗菌活性研究。结果表明:两种花生红衣提取物均可以明显的降低猪油的过氧化值,延缓猪油的氧化,当花生红衣乙醇提取物加入量为0.8‰效果最好;且抗氧化性具有剂量依赖性。两种花生红衣提取物抑菌作用均显著,其抗菌活性随着剂量增加而增强;花生红衣乙醇提取物对细菌和真菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC)分别为0.44‰和0.62‰,花生红衣水提取物对细菌和真菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC)分别为0.38‰和0.56‰。%The antioxidant effects of water and ethanol extracts from peanut skin on lard and the antibacterial activity against common bacterial pollutants were investigated in the present study. The results showed that both extracts could remarkably inhibit the increase of peroxide value of lard, and delay the oxidation of lard. The ethanol extract revealed the best inhibitory effect at the dosage of 0.8‰ and the antioxidant effect was in a dosage-dependent fashion. Furthermore, the two extracts exhibited obvious dose-dependent antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ethanol extract against bacteria and fungi were 0.44‰ and 0.62‰, and of the water extract 0.38‰and 0.56‰, respectively.

  6. Enzymatic treatment of peanut butter to reduce the concentration of major peanut allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzymatic treatment of peanut butter on two-major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Home-made and commercial peanut butter samples were treated with alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin or the combination of these enzymes and incubated at room temperature for 24�h or at 37��C for 3�h. Treated peanut butter samples were sampled weekly for evaluation of total soluble proteins and extractable Ara h 1/Ara h 2. Data show that 1:1 alpha-chymotrypsin: trypsin at 0...

  7. PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia.

  8. 78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION.... 7958. Dated: June 14, 2013. Rex A. Barnes, Associate Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service.... ADDRESSES: Nominations should be sent to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit...

  9. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  10. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  11. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides. PMID:21080075

  12. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  13. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  14. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  15. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Senesi; Fabio Ribas Chaddad; Hernán Palau

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS) and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultu...

  16. Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M.; Nelson, Erik H; Varela, Lucia G; Battany, Mark; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Rust, M K

    2008-01-01

    Liquid ant baits are an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays conventionally used to control Argentine ants. We review the development of liquid ant baits, which capitalize on the ants’ sugar-feeding requirements and social structure to deliver small doses of toxicant throughout the colony. The ant bait program described here, developed for commercial vineyards, also has the potential to facilitate the use of biological controls for mealybug and scale pests. The implementation of a...

  17. Other-initiated repair in Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Other-initiated repair is an essential interactional practice to secure mutual understanding in everyday interaction. This article presents evidence from a large conversational corpus of a sign language, showing that signers of Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or ‘LSA’), like users of spoken languages, use a systematic set of linguistic formats and practices to indicate troubles of signing, seeing and understanding. The general aim of this article is to provide a...

  18. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influen...... children sensitized to birch pollen protein Bet v 1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein...

  19. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  20. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  1. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  2. Dynamic infrared imaging for cancer: research and development in the Argentine Boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Argentine Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) project for treating metastatic cutaneous melanoma, we have initiated a research and development program aimed at obtaining a noninvasive methodology for following-up the treated patients. The technique is called Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) and comprises the acquisition of infrared images as a function of time of the anatomical part under study, when the region is subjected to a mild cold stress. Vascular, metabolic and regulating differences between normal and tumor tissues appear as differences in the pattern of temperature evolution, which can be correlated with the anatomical and functional aspects of both. Two patients enrolled in the BNCT protocol were studied with DIRI. A good spatial correlation between dose, temperature recovery velocity and skin reaction distributions was observed at the time of maximum expression of the erythematous reaction. Melanoma nodules appear as highly localized hyperthermic regions, surrounded and interconnected by elevated temperature areas. Their temperature recovery velocity after the thermal cold stress was substantially faster than that of normal skin with an appreciably large temperature difference (6 degreesC to 10 degreesC). These tissue differences can be related with the thermal conductivity and metabolic rate as explained by a simple one-directional heat transport model. Compared with other imaging modalities (CT and Doppler ultrasound) DIRI has had a similar ability for confirming the already diagnosed nodules. Together with the clinical observation, DIRI provides a potentially useful amount of information, at a competitive cost-benefit relationship suitable for performing a non-invasive functional assessment of this kind of cutaneous lesions and the evaluation of the acute skin reaction following irradiation. (author)

  3. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  4. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  5. XXXVIII Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology (AATN 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 38th Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology was organized by the AATN (Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear) in Buenos Aires, Argentine, between the 14 and 18 November of 2011. In this event 146 papers in 16 Sessions, with 13 Plenary Conferences and 3 Roundtables were presented.

  6. Research Hot Spots of Black Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the research papers on black peanut in National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)as data sources,we determine the research hot spots on black peanut using word frequency analysis,and analyze the main research directions that change over the years.The results show that the relevant researches on black peanut are mainly concentrated in six themes(study of varieties,physiological property,cultivation management,development prospects,relationship with agriculture,and molecular level);varieties,physiology,cultivation and other aspects are the focus of current research hot spots;the researches on selection and breeding of variety and various physiological and ecological mechanisms,still need a breakthrough.

  7. Aspectos epidemiológicos del cáncer no melanoma de piel en un servicio de dermatología de la ciudad de Santa Fe - Argentina 2007 Epidemiologic aspects to the skin cancer non melanoma in a dermatologic office of the Santa Fe city - Argentine 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L M Lukaszuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del cáncer no melanoma de piel (CNMP, principalmente en países tropicales ha aumentado en grandes proporciones. La identificación de lesiones sospechosas y aquellas relacionadas directamente con el cáncer de piel es efectuada en ocasiones por colegas de muchas especialidades médicas. Objetivos: estudiar las características de la frecuencia del CNMP en relación con ciertos factores de riesgo en el Hospital José María Cullen, de la ciudad de Santa Fe, capital de la provincia del mismo nombre, Argentina. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, no experimental, descriptivo y de corte transversal. La muestra quedó conformada por 61 pacientes de ambos sexos y de 1 a 83 años. Se confeccionó una historia clínica completa de los pacientes candidatos a la toma de biopsia, que luego fue analizada por el Servicio de Anatomía Patológica. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 11.5, mediante el cual se usó la prueba de Chi cuadrado y tablas de contingencia para relacionar las variables y comparar los datos. Se estableció una asociación estadísticamente significativa cuando se halló un valor de pBackground: The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, mainly in tropical countries has increased in large proportions. The identification of suspicious lesions and those directly related to the skin cancer is made by colleagues of many medical specialities. Objectives: Study the characteristics of the frequency of NMSC and their relation with certain risk factors in the Hospital José María Cullen, city of Santa Fe, capital of the province of the same name, Argentina. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, not experimental, descriptive and transversal cut study. The sample was composed by 61 patients of both sexs and from 1 to 83 years old. A complete clinical history of patients with suspected lesions were developed. After the biopsy collection, the Department of

  8. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Golijow; G. Giovambattista; M.V. Rípoli; F.N. Dulout; M.M. Lojo

    1999-01-01

    Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC) and Argentine Holstein (AH) cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the varian...

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... threatening skin cancer. The "ABCD's" of what to watch for with the moles on your skin: Asymmetry : ... skin cancer has been increasing. Exposure to the sun is a major factor. In 2006, over 30 ...

  10. New insights into diagnosis and treatment of peanut food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280

  11. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  12. Radiation technology for sewage sludge treatment: The Argentine project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the environmental applications of ionizing radiation, disinfection of wastewaters or sewage sludges is one of the most best known. Argentina based the project of a full scale irradiation plant on the gamma irradiation application, utilizing Argentine made Cobalt-60 sources. The design characteristics, process descriptions and costs are included. The research project developed information about the irradiation effects on the sludges with respect to plant performance. For the purpose of oxi-irradiation experiments, a lab-scale pool irradiator was constructed and is described. (author)

  13. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures un...

  14. Antagonizing Aspergillus parasiticus and Promoting Peanut Growth of Bacillus Isolated from Peanut Geocarposphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wei; YAN Pei-sheng; WU Han-qi; LIN Feng

    2014-01-01

    A set of 38 Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil were screened as potential biological control agent anti-Aspergillus parasiticus. Tip-culture method with rapid and quantitative characteristics was used to determine anti-A. parasiticus activity and the process of isolation could be accelerated with this method. 12 out of 38 Bacillus strains showed high anti-alfatoxin production activity. These 12 Bacillus strains were selected to identify the characteristics of promoting peanuts germination rate. Pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out by using these strains which can promote peanuts germination. Phytohormones in the fermentation broth were also detected as another important reference factor to select the isolates as biological control agent with PGPR features. These Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil not only had high ability anti-Aspergillus parasiticus, but also promoted peanut growth. Therefore, these Bacillus strains were well adapted to peanut production in the ifeld as biological control agent with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) features.

  15. The Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  16. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  17. Management and Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of peanuts with mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies. Most countries have adopted regulations that limit the quantity of aflatoxins in food and feed to 20 ppb or less; however, environmental conditions in m...

  18. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...: September 6, 2012. David R. Shipman, Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. BILLING CODE 3410-02-P ... to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on peanut plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time of flowering, time of harvesting, number of pods, number of seeds, number of branches, plant height, number of chlorophyl, mutated plants, and morphological deformation of peanut seeds of macan variety irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma ray at the dose of 18,000 rad to 20,000 rad with the interval of 1000 rad, are observed. (author)

  20. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  1. Argentine Radiation Protection Society Experience in RP education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) promotes all the radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public. To fulfill this objective, SAR organised training and refresher courses, seminars and workshops on RP subjects. During 2002, SAR organised 7 basic and specialized courses regarding the uses of radioactive materials in industrial applications and the course on medical response in radiological accidents, that was attended by Argentine and other Latin American participants. The programmes of the courses are developed in compliance with the legal requirements and also considering specifics needs. In this paper, the characteristics of the courses are enunciated and basic statistics regarding courses and participants are presented. For the 2003 and 2004, SAR foresees the organisation of 18 courses per year and has the capacity to deliver other courses by request. all the courses are delivered in Spanish language. Based on this educational experience SAR consider a priority the inclusion, of a RP module in all the scientific graduate programmes to generate awareness on the importance of RP. Taking into account the migration of professionals to Europe and North America and the Globalization, SAR advocates the harmonization of RP syllabus to attain an international recognition. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of the international restraints and limitations on the Argentine nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the book makes a short description of the nuclear development in the 20th. Century in the international, Latin American and Argentine frameworks. The second part outlines the relationship between the nuclear technology and the international relations in the light of the different theoretical models of international relations. Finally the third part analyzes in the international context the Argentine nuclear policy, from the presidency of J. D. Peron that of C. Menem. The international restraints to the Argentine nuclear policy are also described

  3. Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy is Nutritionally Safe, NIH-funded Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Friday, June 10, 2016 Peanut allergy prevention strategy is nutritionally safe, NIH-funded study ... peanut-containing foods during infancy as a peanut allergy prevention strategy does not compromise the duration of ...

  4. The Effects of Peanut Intercropping with Different Gramineous Species and Their Intercropping Model on Iron Nutrition of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yuan-mei; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of peanut intercropped with five different gramineous species with different phyto-siderophore release rate on iron nutrition of peanut were studied in field experiment. The rate of phyto-siderophore release of five gramineous species was as following: barley> oats> wheat>> maize> sorghum.The results showed that intercropping of peanut with five gramineous species could improve iron nutrition ofpeanut respectively. This indicated that root exudates, especially for phytosiderophore of gramineous plantsplayed an important role in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut. Although phytosiderophore release ratesof maize and sorghum were lower than those of barley, oats and wheat, the five gramineous species had thesame effects on iron improvement of peanut. The less phytosiderophore release of maize was enough to improveiron nutrition of peanut in intercropping system. For every intercropping system, intercropping model Ⅱ ( theratio of gramineous plants: peanut: gramineous plants was 2: 3 : 2) was much better in improvement of ironnutrition of peanut than that of intercropping model Ⅰ (the ratio of gramineous plants: peanut : gramineousplants was 2: 6: 2). This led to have greater rhizosphere effect of gramineous plants on iron nutrition of pea-nut in intercropping model Ⅱ than intercropping model Ⅰ .

  5. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  6. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  7. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  8. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  9. Logistic Analysis of Factors Affecting the Productivity of Peanut Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Topcu, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Due to low domestic production, the domestic peanut demand cannot be met and therefore, foreign trade always gives deficit in favor of import. Peanut is an important raw material for food industry, and Turkey has potential to increase her peanut production capacity. However, up to now, neglecting this production unit and not taking required incentives and guidance for producers have created current problems. To explore these problems, the effects of ecologic and topographic structures of Osma...

  10. Economics of non-oil value chains in peanut: A case of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the extent of value-addition, employment generating potential and economics of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India. In the low-capacity peanut-candy units, the value-addition at the end of Stage-I (pod to kernel was $ 2.4/q, whereas, it was $ 2.2/q in the high-capacity units. In salted-peanut units, the value-addition in the low- and high-capacity was $2.2/q and $2.3/q, respectively. In Stage-II (kernel to final product, the value-addition was high across sizes and type of the processing units. Around 525 and 635 man-days of employment/month/unit were generated by low and high-capacity peanut-candy units, respectively. The employment generation was less in salted-peanut vis-à-vis peanut-candy units due to different processing methods. The kernel alone constituted 50 to 52 per cent of the total cost in peanut-candy, and 89 per cent in salted-peanut units. The sensitivity analysis revealed that change in the kernel price directly affected the magnitude of profits. The important policy implications emerged were: if the units process the pods to obtain kernel (Stage-I instead of procuring kernels from the market, considerable value-addition can be made, kernel price directly affects the profits and hence an appropriate mechanism like ‘contract farming’ would stabilise the kernel prices, majority of the units retrench labour during off-peak period due to less demand and hence diversification in processing will generate sufficient employment to retain the existing skilled employees, and appropriate policy intervention is necessary to address the capital, technology and marketing constraints of the peanut processing units.

  11. Process of peanut protein milk powder by dry preparation%花生蛋白奶粉的干法生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章宝; 单杨; 李高阳

    2011-01-01

    以去壳花生仁为原料,经低温烘烤、脱红衣、冷榨脱脂、超微粉碎等工艺生产出花生蛋白粉,将其与全脂奶粉混合生产花生蛋白奶粉,所得产品溶解度高、冲调性好、口感细腻、营养均衡,同时具有奶味和花生特有的香味。%Peanut protein milk powder was made by mixing whole milk powder with peanut protein powder,which was made by the technologies of low-temperature baking,taking the peanut red skin off,cold-pressed degreasing and ultra-fine pulverizatio by using shelled pea

  12. TGS pipeline primed for Argentine growth, CEO says

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowhere in Latin America has the privatization process been more aggressively pursued than in Argentina where President Carlos Menem has successfully turned over the bulk of state companies to the private sector. In the energy sector, that meant the divestiture in 1992 of Gas del Estado, the state-owned integrated gas transportation and distribution company. It was split in two transportation companies: Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) and Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), and eight distribution companies. TGS is the largest transporter of natural gas in Argentina, delivering more than 60 percent of that nation's total gas consumption with a capacity of 1.9 Bcf/d. This is the second in a series of Pipeline and Gas Journal special reports that discuss the evolving strategies of the natural gas industry as it continues to restructure amid deregulation. The article focuses on TGS, the Argentine pipeline system in which Enron Corp. is a key participant

  13. Characterization of Argentine Loess and Paleosols by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigate iron-bearing mineral samples of loess and paleosols from a geologic section at La Plata, Argentina, 34 deg. 54' 14'' S and 58 deg. 2' W. Hematite is by far the dominant iron-bearing magnetic component in initial loess and paleosol samples. The samples were also subjected to magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched loess fractions show a remarkable increase in the content of magnetite. The enhancement of non-magnetic Fe3+ and a decrease of Fe2+ mineral phases in the paleosol layer seem to be a consequence of the process of pedogenesis which also caused a dissolution of magnetic iron oxides by weathering. The increase of magnetite in the silt fraction suggests that the wind could have been the main carrier of magnetic minerals, causing the major differences in the magnetic parameters between loess and paleosols in the Argentine loess plateau

  14. Native supercolonies of unrelated individuals in the invasive Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe; Krieger, Michael J. B.; Vogel, Valérie;

    2006-01-01

    Kinship among group members has long been recognized as a main factor promoting the evolution of sociality and reproductive altruism, yet some ants have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely among physically separated nests. This type of social...... organization is not only a key attribute responsible for the ecological dominance of these ants, but also an evolutionary paradox because relatedness between nestmates is effectively zero. Recently, it has been proposed that, in the Argentine ant, unicoloniality is a derived trait that evolved after its...... introduction into new habitats. Here we test this basic assumption by conducting a detailed genetic analysis of four native and six introduced populations with five to 15 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial gene. In contrast to the assumption that native populations consist of family-based colonies with...

  15. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  16. Knowledge management in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority has initiated a regulatory knowledge management process to face the loss of knowledge resulting from retiring experts, the generation gap, and the existing need to train new human resources. A number of projects have been started together with the technical assistance of the National Public Administration Institute to preserve knowledge and render it explicit for the coming generations. These projects include 'The History of the Expert's Learning Process' in which the majority of the most critical experts have been interviewed so far. The results of this project help envision a training structure and prospective projects. An Internet Site has also been created on the Intranet in order to render knowledge explicit and facilitate the tools for knowledge management initiatives. Furthermore, ARN's knowledge map project has also been started. (author)

  17. Detection of Argentine onions treated with 60 Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has been the most important MERCOSUL's purchaser of fresh onions from Argentina. The increased claim for this fresh product has forced a consensus between the members nations, as regards to phytosanitary restrictions. The radio inhibition is described on National Food Codes in Brazil and Argentina. Methods of food irradiation detection must be performed, since they increase the consumer confidence. Quick and simple screening tests indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not. This present study verified the DNA fragments of argentine fresh onions, produced during radiation process and 6 months of storage period. The DNA fragments are analyzed for detection of irradiated foods. The irradiated onions presented extensive DNA migrations, as comets, when submitted to agarose gel electrophoresis. They also showed more shelf life compared to the unirradiated onions. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. This initial screen method showed to be effective for detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  18. Annual Report ABACC 2003 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes the actions of the Brazil-Argentine of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), during the year of 2003. The developed work allowed to concluded that there is no event indicating that any nuclear material non-accounted for were deviated for non permitted activities by the Agreement for Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy between Argentine and Brazil and by the Four Parties Agreement among these countries, the ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  19. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  20. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Senesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  1. Gamma irradiation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine some effects of gamma radiation on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The biological parameters used to evaluate these effects were: % emergence of irradiated seeds, % survival of plants, growth rate, chlorophyll mutations, morphological changes and yield potential. Seeds were irradiated with dose levels of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 KK per hour of gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. In general, % of emergence and survival in the M1 gene ration decreased with increasing doses of gamma radiation. Morphological changes induced by gamma radiation in the M1 generation of peanut were: leaf flecks, thickened leaves, red purple seeds and red colored seed coat. Generally, frequency of these morphological changes increased with increasing doses of gamma radiation. Protein and fat contents were increased by 2.8% to 1.5% respectively, while starch content decreased with 2.6% in the M2. On the basis of the results obtained, gamma radiation is an effective mutagenic agent in inducing various morphological and genetic changes in peanut

  2. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  3. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Serap; Özcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). In the kernels an...

  4. Lessons Learned While Breeding Peanut for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxins when subjected to prolong periods of heat and drought stress. We have documented that improved drought tolerance can result in reduced aflatoxin contamination, and we are using drought-tolerance as an indirect selection technique to develop peanut cultiva...

  5. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  6. Environmental Conditions During Transport of Shelled Peanuts in Overseas Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts exported overseas may be in transit from the shelling plant or cold storage to the overseas manufacturer for 30 d or more. In some instances, quality assurance testing at the overseas destination indicates that peanuts no longer meet contractual quality specifications. Considerable effort a...

  7. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  8. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  9. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  10. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence regarding potential benefits of supporting early rather than delayed peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on conse...

  11. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  12. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  13. Oral peanut challenge identifies an allergy but the peanut allergen threshold sensitivity is not reproducible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Glaumann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge, DBPCFC, the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy, is time-consuming and potentially dangerous. A basophil allergen threshold sensitivity test, CD-sens, has shown promising results as a diagnostic tool in food allergy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reproducibility of oral peanut challenge and compare the outcome to CD-sens in peanut-sensitized children. METHODS: Twenty-seven children (4-19 years underwent a DBPCFC followed by a single-blind oral food-challenge. The peanut challenges (1 mg to 5 g were evaluated by severity scoring. Blood samples were drawn for CD-sens before the two first challenges. RESULTS: Thirteen children (48% did not react at any of the challenges. Fourteen reacted at both peanut challenges but not to placebo. Only two of these children reacted at the same threshold dose and with the same severity score. All other children scored differently or reacted at different doses. For children with a positive challenge the geometric mean of the ratio of the doses was 1.834 (p = 0.307 and the arithmetic mean of the difference between the severity scores was 0.143 (p = 0.952. No association was obtained between the two peanut challenges regarding severity score (r(s = 0.11, p = 0.71 or threshold dose (r(s = 0.35, p = 0.22. Among the children positive in peanut challenge, 12 were positive in CD-sens. Two were low-responders and could not be evaluated. Geometric mean of the ratio of CD-sens values in children with a positive challenge was 1.035 (p = 0.505 but unlike for the severity score and the threshold dose the association between the two CD-sens values was strong (r(s = 0.94, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: For a positive/negative test the reproducibility is 100% for both peanut challenge and CD-sens. However, a comparison of the degree of allergen threshold sensitivity between the two tests is not possible since the threshold dose and severity

  14. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  15. Can Peg Strength be used as a Predictor for Pod Maturity and Peanut Yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesocarp hull color is the current standard to estimate digging date and peanut maturity. The objective was to determine if peg strength could be used to predict peanut maturity instead of hull color. Peanut peg strength was collected on three peanut cultivars (Ga-O6G, Ga-O9B, and Tifguard), planted...

  16. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  17. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  18. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  19. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up during a check. This can indicate severe dehydration that needs quick treatment. You have reduced skin turgor and are unable ... Urinalysis Intravenous fluids may be needed for severe ... treat other conditions that affect skin turgor and elasticity.

  20. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  1. SKIN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Putri Hendaria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases was happened in United States, which makes it become the most common cancer type in that country. Skin cancer diagnosis is build from anamnesis, physic examination about skin eufloressence, using dermoscopy, and histopatologic examination as the gold standar. Therapy for skin cancer is classified to surgery and non surgery therapy and its prognostic is depend to the types of the skin cancer itself.

  2. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  3. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin condition cannot be diagnosed by the patient's history and what the physician finds on examination alone. Confirming a clinical diagnosis may also be necessary prior to starting therapy. Skin biopsy types are as follows: Shave biopsies Punch biopsies ...

  4. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Comstock

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed.

  5. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  6. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Ruka Shimizu; Kazuo Kishi

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  7. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  8. Argentine regulatory experience on industrial gammagraphy in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to work load pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the argentine regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author)

  9. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

  10. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author)

  11. Nuclear trade: an approach on the Argentine situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine nuclear trade regime. Nuclear Materials. Definitions. Stages. From early times of nuclear development an actual and strict monopoly governed the transfers of nuclear materials. That meant: the Federal State took the control as user, producer, purchaser or seller. This policy was inspired and clearly echoed a similar one developed by countries with important development in the nuclear field. Types of contracts on nuclear commerce. Relation with costs implied with the nuclear industry. Uranium mining. System of supplies. Development of factories of nuclear supplies. Incentives. Nuclear Power. Radioisotopes. Human Resources. Ways of intervention of the State on nuclear Commerce. The right of veto. The ownership of shares in private or public corporations. Export- import controls. Security and Safety standards. National Act of Nuclear Activity. Veto of the Executive Power to the monopoly of the exclusive national supply of uranium. Comparative policies on other fields or products in Argentina. A proposal of lege ferenda. State's right of transformation applicable to purchases and sales of nuclear materials. Exchange and loans. Cosignature of contracts, etc. (author)

  12. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  13. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  14. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  15. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  16. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  17. Perspectives on Argentine Migration to Spain: Oral, Journal and Film Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes up our doctoral research –Argentine migrationto Spain- to share some theoretical-methodological considerations.We refer to the conceptualization of "transnational social spaces," an approach that allows us to consider migration in its double dimension origin/destination and is particularly useful to thing the relationship between migration and creation of social and cultural ties in the Hispano-Argentine or Argentine-Spanish space. Similarly, the transnational spaces approach allows to put in dialog diverse social groups involved in the phenomenon: the migrants themselves, whose life stories are analysed by using oral sources; the society of origin and the host society, analysing collective image through journal sources; the filmmakers, whose migration stories we discussmigration through various fiction films; and, of course, historians and other social scientists who study these migrations.

  18. Study on Oxidation Resistance of Different Peanut Varieties%不同品种花生抗氧化能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅; 王晶珊; 李文香

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the different oxidation resistance between different peanut varieties with or without skin,five peanut varieties, including Xuzhou 68-4 ( pink) , Karpts ( purple), Caihei 2,Huayu 23 and Linyi Xi-aomaguo were used as research objects. The superoxide anion resistance reactivity units,the hydroxyl free radical ability, the content of hydrogen peroxide (H202) ,the CAT activity,the SOD activity and total oxidation resistance were determined. The results showed that the oxidation resistance was different significantly in different varieties and peanut skin. The superoxide anion resistance reactivity units and the hydroxyl free radical ability of peanut with skin were higher than that of peanut without skin; there were a lot of antioxidant compositions in peanut skin. The highest total oxidation resistance and superoxide anion resistance reactivity was Xuzhou 68-4 with skin, the activity of CAT in Xuzhou 68-4 without skin was the highest among different peanut varieties, and the activity of SOD in Caihei 2 was the highest among different peanut varieties;CAT and SOD were induced enzymes.%为了探讨不同花生品种带种皮和脱种皮籽仁抗氧化活性的差异,以徐州68 -4(粉红)、Krapts(紫)、莱黑2、花育23(粉红)和临沂小麻果5个花生品种为研究对象,通过对其抗超氧阴离子活性、抗羟自由基活性、过氧化氢( H2O2)含量、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性及总抗氧化能力的测定,结果表明:不同花生品种之间其带种皮籽仁和脱种皮籽仁在抗氧化能力方面存在显著差异(P<0.05).带种皮的籽仁比不带种皮的籽仁其抗超氧阴离子和抑制羟自由基的能力均较高,且H2O2含量均比较低,表明花生的种皮中含有大量的抗氧化成分;带种皮的徐州68 -4籽仁总抗氧化能力和抗超氧阴离子能力明显高于其他品种,而脱种皮的徐州68 -4籽仁CAT活性明显比其他花生品种高,脱种皮的莱黑2

  19. Combined effect of hemipteran control and liquid bait on Argentine ant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Bambara, S B; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has become a worldwide problem capable of inflicting significant ecological and economic injury on urban, agricultural, and natural environments. The mobility of this pest ant has long been noted, rapidly moving nests to new food resources and then away as resources are depleted. This ant, like many pest ant species, has a special affinity for honeydew excreted by phloem-feeding Hemiptera. We investigated the effect of various hemipteran control strategies on terrapin scale densities and measured their indirect effect on local Argentine ant densities and foraging effort. We then determined whether this indirect treatment strategy improved the performance of an ant bait. We predicted that Argentine ants would move nests away from trees treated for Hemiptera and then move nests back when a liquid bait was offered, followed by a decline in ant numbers due to intake of the toxicant. A horticultural oil spray and soil application of the systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, had no effect on terrapin scale numbers. However, trunk-injected dicrotophos caused a reduction in scale and a decline in local Argentine ant nest density and canopy foraging effort. We also recorded a reduction in local Argentine ant ground foraging when large amounts of liquid bait were applied, and we found no evidence that combining dicrotophos with liquid ant bait performed better than each treatment alone. We suggest that a strategy of combined hemipteran control plus application of liquid ant bait can reduce local Argentine ant densities, when both components of this system are highly efficacious. PMID:21061981

  20. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  1. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  2. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  3. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  4. Chemical composition of volatile fraction of pakistani peanut and its

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachis hypogaea Linn (peanut or groundnut) is an economically important crop. Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown in the world and studies have been carried out on these but, to the best of our knowledge, no salient work has been done on Pakistani cultivar so far. Here, we report the chemical composition of volatile fraction of Pakistani cultivar of peanut and its anti radical activities using 1,I-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and phospho molybdenum complex (PC) method. This study revealed that Pakistani cultivar exhibited an almost equal antioxidant potential to that of standard, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which was obvious from their IC/sub 50/ values. The IC/sub 50/ value of peanut extract was found to be 13.42 +- 26 macro L/mL, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene, having 12.1 +- 0.92 macro/mL. (author)

  5. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  6. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  7. Mycoflora of pistachio and peanut kernels from Sari, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; Saied Kaboli

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Fungal contamination of various foodstuffs and agricultural commodities is a major problem in the developing countries; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the mycoflora of pistachio and peanuts from retailers and dried fruit retail shops of Sari, Iran. Materials and methods: A total number of 100 peanut and pistachio kernel samples in two consumption forms (dry roasted and raw) were collected from retailers and dried fruit retail shops in Sari city. Sa...

  8. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  9. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  10. Curious Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of Henry Wellcome’s collection of tattoos on human skin will be on display in our forthcoming Skin exhibition. But how did the Parisian doctor from whom they were acquired come by his macabre collection of tattoos in the first place, and what did they mean to those whose skin they were on? It’s Gemma Angel‘s job to find out…

  11. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV, chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads, and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation.

  12. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  13. The Complexities of Early Peanut Introduction for the Practicing Allergist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M; Atkins, Dan; Chan, Edmond S

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the timing of introducing major food allergens, such as peanut, into the diet of at-risk infants have undergone major changes in the past decade. The most substantial modification has been a shift toward advice that delaying beyond 4 to 6 months does not prevent and might actually increase the risk of food allergy. The Learning Early About Peanut (LEAP) study published last year provided strong evidence that early peanut introduction with regular ingestion has a potentially dramatic benefit. Although there is little current doubt of the effectiveness of early peanut introduction, many unanswered questions remain. Previous guidelines defined infants at risk as those with a first-degree relative with allergic disease, whereas the LEAP study defined high risk as severe eczema or egg allergy. The LEAP study chose to screen infants but did not have a comparison group randomized without screening. In the following case-based discussion, we explore the complexities of LEAP implementation for the practicing allergist. These include nonuniformity in the literature for defining at-risk infants, difficulties in assessing eczema severity objectively, variable adherence to current guidelines, proposed peanut screening methods contrasting with existing food allergy guidelines to not routinely screen before ingestion, unclear interpretation of positive test results if screened, risks of screening extending to foods not studied in the LEAP study, and uncertainties about the optimal dose and duration of peanut once introduced. PMID:26968960

  14. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burow Mark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B, oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues.

  15. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  16. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants. PMID:19610434

  17. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  18. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  19. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J; Hagen, Darren E; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R; Johnson, Reed M; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Moeller, Joseph A; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Marguerite C; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P; Placek, Jennifer E; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Smith, Chris R; Suarez, Andrew V; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K O; Wild, Alexander L; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2011-04-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism. PMID:21282631

  20. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the upper Cambrian and Ordovician in the Argentine Precordillera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, A.N.; Peralta, S.; Gaucher, C.; Toselli, A.J.; Ferreira, V.P.; Frei, Robert; Parada, M.A.; Pimentel, M.M.; Pereira, Natan Silva

    2013-01-01

    We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America, and the nega...

  1. Abstracts of the 81. national meeting on physics of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts are presented at the 81 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics; classical and quantum physics: particles and fields; statistical physics and thermodynamics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; optic; fluid dynamics and plasmas; condensed matter; instrumentation; geophysics and astrophysics. refs., ills

  2. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area

  3. Reduction of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, in roasted peanuts by ultrasound assisted enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of ultrasound, enzyme concentration and enzyme treatment time on soluble protein and major allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) of roasted peanut kernels. A 3-factor, five-level orthogonal experimental design was implemented with various ultrasonication times, concentrations of trypsin or α-chymotrypsin and treatment times. The total soluble proteins were determined by the Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and sandwich ELISA. The IgE-binding of peanut extracts was analysed by a competitive inhibition ELISA. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment, followed by protease digestion of peanuts, significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein and decreased the concentrations of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The sequential treatment of peanuts by ultrasonication-trypsin-alpha chymotrypsin, resulted in maximum reductions of Ara h 1/Ara h 2, and lowest IgE-binding. This study provides an approach to significantly reduce allergenic proteins in peanut product. PMID:23790845

  4. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  5. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Sean B; Holway, David A

    2006-03-01

    1. A prominent and unresolved question in ecology concerns why communities differ in their susceptibility to invasion. While studies often emphasize biotic resistance, it is less widely appreciated how the physical environment affects community vulnerability to invasion. 2. In this study we performed field experiments to test how abiotic variation directly and indirectly influences the extent to which Linepithema humile Mayr (Argentine ants) invade seasonally dry environments in southern California. 3. In controlled and replicated experiments involving drip irrigation, we demonstrate (i) that elevated levels of soil moisture increased both the abundance of Argentine ants and their ability to invade native ant communities and (ii) that cessation of irrigation caused declines in the abundance of Argentine ants and led to their withdrawal from previously occupied areas. 4. Because drip irrigation stimulated plant growth, in an additional experiment we manipulated both soil moisture and plant cover to assess the direct vs. indirect effects of added water on the abundance of L. humile. 5. Local abundance of Argentine ants increased in irrigated plots but was 38% higher in irrigated plots with plants compared to irrigated plots where plant growth was suppressed. The results of this experiment thus argue for a direct role of soil moisture in influencing Argentine ant abundance but suggest that that the indirect effects of added water may also be important. 6. Our study illustrates more generally that fine-scale variation in the physical environment can control whether communities become invaded by non-native species and suggests that an understanding of community susceptibility to invasion will be improved by a better appreciation of interactions between the biotic and abiotic environment. PMID:16637990

  6. Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Discusses effects of drought and heat on peanut plants and crop yield, and offers advice on if and when to irrigate fields, and for drought-tolerant varieties of peanuts to use in fields with a history of drought.

  7. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.;

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  8. 健康食品花生酱%All Peanut Butters Healthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Processed or Fresh, Peanut Butter Is Good Food无论是加工过还是新鲜的,花生酱都是好东西. Store-bought peanut butter is as good tor you as the fresh-ground-in-the-health-food-store variety, a study shows. That any kind of peanut butter is healthy seems too good to be true. But the lowly peanut is packed full of healthy oils and vitamin E.

  9. Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Graham, Alister W.

    2016-06-01

    X-shaped or peanut-shaped (X/P) bulges are observed in more than 40 per cent of (nearly) edge-on disc galaxies, though to date a robust method to quantify them is lacking. Using Fourier harmonics to describe the deviation of galaxy isophotes from ellipses, we demonstrate with a sample of 11 such galaxies (including NGC 128) that the sixth Fourier component (B6) carries physical meaning by tracing this X/P structure. We introduce five quantitative diagnostics based on the radial B6 profile, namely: its `peak' amplitude (Πmax); the (projected major-axis) `length' where this peak occurs (RΠ, max); its vertical `height' above the disc plane (zΠ, max); a measure of the B6 profile's integrated `strength' (SΠ); and the B6 peak `width' (WΠ). We also introduce different `classes' of B6 profile shape. Furthermore, we convincingly detect and measure the properties of multiple (nested) X/P structures in individual galaxies which additionally display the signatures of multiple bars in their surface brightness profiles, thus consolidating further the scenario in which peanuts are associated with bars. We reveal that the peanut parameter space (`length', `strength' and `height') for real galaxies is not randomly populated, but the three metrics are inter-correlated (both in kpc and disc scalelength h). Additionally, the X/P `length' and `strength' appear to correlate with (vrot/σ⋆), lending further support to the notion that peanuts `know' about the galactic disc in which they reside. Such constraints are important for numerical simulations, as they provide a direct link between peanuts and their host disc. Our diagnostics reveal a spectrum of X/P properties and could provide a means of distinguishing between different peanut formation scenarios discussed in the literature. Moreover, nested peanuts, as remnants of bar buckling events, can provide insights into the disc and bar instability history.

  10. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  11. Retrieval of granular bait by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): effect of clumped versus scattered dispersion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jules; Roulston, T'ai H

    2003-06-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), use mass recruitment foraging, with clumped prey items being retrieved more efficiently than dispersed prey. However, in prior field experiments, granular baits, whether dispensed in containers or broadly scattered, had a similar impact on Argentine ant populations. In laboratory experiments, granular insecticide bait was encountered faster by Argentine ant workers and more granules were initially returned to the colony when the granules were scattered versus clumped. After 2 h, granules from both dispersion patterns were retrieved equally. Our results suggest that Argentine ant colonies adjust their foraging patterns to resources of different quality (prey versus bait). Also, foraging activity patterns for bait in the laboratory are consistent with prior field results demonstrating no efficacy advantages to discrete granular bait placements. PMID:12852629

  12. Documentation for release of a high oleic runner peanut cultivar (tested as TX 994313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the peanut acreage diminished in 2008 to 18,000 acres, the peanut crop remains a viable agricultural commodity in western and southwestern Oklahoma with an annual estimated value of $14 million. Production of peanut is adversely affected by soilborne pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor...

  13. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  14. Oral immunotherapy for the treatment of peanut allergy: systematic review of six case series studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, A.; Nurmatov, U.; Venderbosch, I.; Bischoff, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to peanuts is associated with considerable morbidity and, in a minority of cases, mortality. Natural resolution to peanut allergy occurs in only a few cases, hence the need to find effective interventions. Peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a potentially important new therapeutic

  15. Capacitance sensors for the nondestructive measurement of moisture content in in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. An instrument was developed earlier that would measure the capacitance and phase angle of a small sample of peanuts held between two circular parallel-plates at two frequencies 1 a...

  16. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  17. Peanut Paste/ Butter Consumption Frequency in the Republic of Uganda: Count Data Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan-Nambiar, Padmanand; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut paste/butter consumption frequency in the Republic of Uganda is analyzed using a household survey data. Estimation results from Zero-inflated Binomial regression conclude that education, household location, color of peanut paste, etc. are important. The ordinal logistic results conclude that peanut paste/butter consumption with vegetables is the most preferred option.

  18. Mycoflora of pistachio and peanut kernels from Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Hedayati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Fungal contamination of various foodstuffs and agricultural commodities is a major problem in the developing countries; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the mycoflora of pistachio and peanuts from retailers and dried fruit retail shops of Sari, Iran. Materials and methods: A total number of 100 peanut and pistachio kernel samples in two consumption forms (dry roasted and raw were collected from retailers and dried fruit retail shops in Sari city. Samples were analyzed for the presence of fungi by culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Results: Fungi were detected in almost 70% of the samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most predominant isolate from peanut (70.5% and pistachio (62.7% kernel samples. Among the species of Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most frequently isolated species in the collected samples. A. flavus also had the highest contamination mean value in dry roasted and raw form of peanut and pistachio kernels. Conclusion: Because of the isolation of high percentage of A. flavus as the main aflatoxins producer in nature we recommend also the need of good storage practices in order to prevent the occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and pistachio.

  19. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  20. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection in a hair follicle) A skin ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90. Read More Boils Endocarditis Folliculitis MRSA Osteomyelitis Update Date 11/12/ ...

  1. Making Sense of an Unstable Legislature: Committee Assignments in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, 1946–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina Lilian Danesi; Carleton University; Ludovic Rheault; University of Montreal

    2012-01-01

    Latin American legislatures have gone largely unstudied, with the functioning of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies prior to the 1980s being an entirely unexplored subject. This paper fills that gap by examining the organization of the Chamber, with particular focus on its standing committee system from 1946 to 2001. We assess the portability of two U.S.-based theoretical approaches to legislative organization by applying them to committee assignments. An original data set of Argentine deputie...

  2. Indirect effects of Argentine ant and honeydew-producing insect mutualisms on California red scale in a citrus agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kizner, Michelle Cara

    2010-01-01

    In San Diego County, a major economic impact of the Argentine ant occurs in citrus agroecosystems, where ants interfere with biological control of key insect pests, especially California red scale. Ant control is considered a critical component of integrated pest management (IPM) of several citrus pests, but IPM recommendations fail to consider quantitative relationships between levels of Argentine ant abundance and those of the economic pests. This serious gap in understanding impedes develo...

  3. Argentine ant invasion associated with loblolly pines in the southeastern United States: minimal impacts but seasonally sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2010-08-01

    Invasive ants are notorious for directly displacing native ant species. Although such impacts are associated with Argentine ant invasions (Linepithema humile) worldwide, impacts within natural habitat are less widely reported, particularly those affecting arboreal ant communities. Argentine ants were detected in North Carolina mixed pine-hardwood forest for the first time but were localized on and around loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), probably because of association with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. We explored the potential impacts of L. humile on arboreal and ground-foraging native ant species by comparing interspersed loblolly pines invaded and uninvaded by Argentine ants. Impacts on native ants were assessed monthly over 1 yr by counting ants in foraging trails on pine trunks and in surrounding plots using a concentric arrangement of pitfall traps at 1, 2, and 3 m from the base of each tree. Of floristics and habitat variables, higher soil moisture in invaded plots was the only difference between plot types, increasing confidence that any ant community differences were caused by Argentine ants. Overall patterns of impact were weak. Composition differed significantly between Argentine ant invaded and uninvaded trunks and pitfalls but was driven only by the presence of Argentine ants rather than any resulting compositional change in native ant species. Native ant abundance and richness were similarly unaffected by L. humile. However, the abundance of individual ant species was more variable. Although numbers of the arboreal Crematogaster ashmeadi (Myrmicinae) declined on and around invaded pines, epigeic Aphaenogaster rudis (Myrmicinae) remained the most abundant species in all plots. Argentine ant densities peaked in late summer and fall, therefore overlapping with most native ants. Unexpected was their continued presence during even the coldest months. We provide evidence that Argentine ants can invade and persist in native North Carolina forests, probably

  4. Thermal facility for BNCT in RA-1 Argentine research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A thermal facility for BNCT experiments is being developed in an Argentine Research Reactor: RA-1 'Enrico Fermi'. RA-1 research nuclear reactor is working at Constituyentes Atomic Center, near Buenos Aires, and started operations in 1958. It worked at several power levels, up to 120 k W. Today, RA-1 is licensed to work at 40 k W. RA-1 was used to produce radioisotopes in the early 60's, and today gives irradiation services to test materials, to calibrate detectors and activation analysis. RA-1 users are CNEA researchers, Nuclear Regulatory Authority staff and private laboratories. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a method to fight against cancer. It consists to irradiate cancer tumors using thermal neutrons. The tumor tissue should include a dose of a boron solution. The Boron irradiation produces the following nuclear reactions: n + B10→ α + Li7 + γ. Being the α particle a radiation with short range, but high destructive energy, the tumor cells are destroyed. The neutron flux should be of 109 n/cm2seg, and the gamma dose lower than 0.48 s V/h. This method is oriented to treat brain tumors. Taking in account that the brain tumors usually are several centimeters deep in the head, to get thermal neutrons in the tumor is convenient to irradiate the patient using epithermal neutrons. moderation in the cells of the brain will permit to get more thermal neutrons in the tumor. In CNEA BNCT program there is in construction an epithermal clinical facility in the RA-6, a 500 k W research reactor that is at Bariloche Atomic Center. To perform some experiments for instance to test the boron compounds, RA-1 is used. In this experiments little animals like hamsters or bottles with cultivated cells are used, for that reasons thermal neutrons are used. The project in RA-1 consists in several stages. As the first stage a preliminary thermal facility was built. Irradiation times of 45-60 minutes were estimated, at power operation levels of 40 k W. Several

  5. Long-term field trial to control the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with synthetic trail pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishisue, K; Sunamura, E; Tanaka, Y; Sakamoto, H; Suzuki, S; Fukumoto, T; Terayama, M; Tatsuki, S

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term experiments showed that trail following behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), can be disrupted by a high concentration of synthetic trail pheromone component (Z)-9-hexadecenal. In this study, a long-term field trial was conducted in 100-m2 plots of house gardens in an urban area of Japan to see whether the control effect on Argentine ants can be obtained by permeating synthetic trail pheromone from dispensers. The dispensers were placed in the experimental plots during the ant's active season (April-November) for 2 yr with monthly renewal. To estimate Argentine ant population density, foraging activity of Argentine ants in the study plots was monitored by monthly bait surveys. Throughout the study period, Argentine ant foraging activity was suppressed in the presence of the dispensers, presumably via trail forming inhibition. In contrast, the level of foraging activity was not different between treatment and no-treatment plots when the dispensers were temporarily removed, suggesting that treatment with pheromone dispensers did not suppress Argentine ant density in the treatment plots. Population decline may be expected with larger-scale treatment that covers a significant portion of the ant colony or with improvement in the potency of the disruptant. PMID:21061980

  6. Comparison of six commercial ELISA kits for their specificity and sensitivity in detecting different major peanut allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasena, S.; Smits, M.; Fiechter, D.; Jong, A. de; Nordlee, J.; Baumert, J.; Taylor, S.L.; Pieters, R.H.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. The percentage recov

  7. Comparison of Six Commercial ELISA Kits for Their Specificity and Sensitivity in Detecting Different Major Peanut Allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasena, Shyamali; Smits, Mieke; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Jongh, Aard de; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L.; Pieters, Raymond; Koppelman, Stef J.

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: "Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. Th

  8. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y

    1998-06-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  9. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... watch for with the moles on your skin: Asymmetry : the shape of one half does not match ... Number 4 Pages 22 - 25 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National ...

  12. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI ...

  13. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil

  14. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenying Peng; Lan Li; Lianqun Yang; Bin Zhang; Gao Chen; Yuping Bi

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide s...

  15. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number of...

  16. Radiological impact of the management of radioactive waste arising from the Argentine Nuclear Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine nuclear programme, as it stands at present, provides for the construction of four nuclear power plants in addition to those of Atucha I and Embalse and for the establishment of such fuel cycle facilities as are required to supply all of these plants. This paper evaluates the radiological impact (collective dose commitment) expected from the management of the radioactive wastes arising in the facilities mentioned above throughout the useful life of the reactors. The maximum individual doses to be expected as a result of the planned high-level-waste repository are also estimated. The evaluations presented are partly specific to the sites under consideration, but they also include estimates of the total collective dose commitments resulting from the management of radioactive waste under the Argentine nuclear programme. (author)

  17. The source and market development of a premium product - Beef from the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champredonde, M

    2008-07-01

    The two main features of beef from the Argentine Pampas are its quality and geographical origin. In addition to the normal aspects of meat quality detected by sensory panels or measured by scientific instruments, the quality of Pampean beef includes the powerful symbolic quality of pampas life - the immensity of the green grasslands and the culture of the gaucho, living on horseback or sipping mate while making an asado (barbecue). This review defines the qualities and geographical origin of Pampean beef, and explains their interrelationships in terms of animal breed, nutrition and production systems. The objective is to help secure Pampean beef against unfair encroachment from competing products which lack the true authenticity of beef from the Argentine Pampas. PMID:22062914

  18. Proceedings of the 6. Argentine congress on radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th Argentine Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the 22 and 24 of september of 1998. In this event, were presented almost 66 papers in the following sessions, about these subjects: 1.- Safety in nuclear installations. 2.- Control of nuclear material and physical protection of nuclear installations. 3.- Programs of quality assurance. 4.- Training, technical information and public information. 5.- Physical dosimetry. 6.- Physical dosimetry and occupational radiation protection. 7.- Exposure of the natural radiation. 8.- Environmental radiological safety. 9.- Biological effects of the ionizing radiations and biological dosimetry. 10.- Radiological protection of the medical practice and the radiological emergencies. 11.- Radioactive wastes management. 12.- Transport of radioactive materials

  19. Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Bo; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethan...

  20. Industry-Wide Work Rules and Productivity: Evidence from Argentine Union Contract Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the Argentine government promoted a framework for productivity-based negotiations between firms and unions at low levels of organization. The policy weakened the industry-wide collective bargaining system, which sets working conditions for all firms in an industry. This paper employs newly developed quantile regression approaches to investigate the effect of union practices on productivity within the context of the reform. The findings show that (i) industry-wide practice...

  1. International Financial Contagion: Evidence from the Argentine Crisis of 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Boschi, Melisso

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to look for evidence of financial contagion suffered by several countries as a result of the latest Argentine crisis. I focus my attention on a set of countries: Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, Uruguay, and Venezuela. I also focus exclusively on three financial markets: foreign exchange, stock exchange, and sovereign debt. In order to test the hypothesis of contagion, Vector Autoregression (VAR) models and instantaneous correlation coefficients corrected for het...

  2. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  3. Managerial form, ownership and efficiency: a case-study of Argentine agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Marcos; Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.

    1994-01-01

    In agriculture, studies dealing with the separation of ownership from control have focused on sharecropping, paying little attention to the impact of management and ownership on efficiency. Using Argentine data, this study tests the hypothesis that efficiency is a function of type of management, concentration of ownership, and mechanisms for monitoring managers. Results show that management, ownership and monitoring have a greater impact on marketing efficiency than either on technical or cos...

  4. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher D.; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G.; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D.; Graur, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-b...

  5. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rat...

  6. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, L. A.; Piccinali, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky tra...

  7. How Argentine farmers overpowered Monsanto : the mobilization of knowledge-users and intellectual property regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno, Felipe Amin

    2013-01-01

    "Since the 1980s, governments and transnational corporations from core countries led by the United States have driven a global upward ratchet of intellectual property protection. In agriculture, this has meant strengthening the rights of seed companies over the plant varieties they develop and curtailing the rights of farmers over the seeds they cultivate. Exceptionally, from the 1990s to 2013, Argentine soy growers overcame the pressures from the seed industry, guaranteeing the right to free...

  8. Food habits of the great horned owl in northwestern Argentine Patagonia: the role of introduced lagomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Travaini, Alejandro; Ceballos, Olga; Delibes, M.; Hiraldo, F.

    1997-01-01

    —Pellets of adult and nestling Great Horned Owls (Bitho tirginianus) were collected at 12 owl territories nearJunin de los Andes (Neuquen, Argentine Patagonia) during the breeding seasons of 1991— 92 and 1994—95. Mammals represented 69% of the total prey items (N = 1324) identified and Reithrodon auritus (16%), Lepuseuwpaeus (12%) and Ctenomys haigi (12%) were the most common species. Anhropods aecounted for 27% of the total prey by numbers. The two main prey items b...

  9. Abiotic factors control invasion by Argentine ants at the community scale

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Sean B.; Holway, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    A prominent and unresolved question in ecology concerns why communities differ in their susceptibility to invasion. While studies often emphasize biotic resistance, it is less widely appreciated how the physical environment affects community vulnerability to invasion. In this study we performed field experiments to test how abiotic variation directly and indirectly influences the extent to which Linepithema humile Mayr (Argentine ants) invade seasonally dry environments in southern California...

  10. Proceedings of the 76. meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works are presented at the 76 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association. The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics, mathematical methods, classical and quantum physics, mechanics and fields, statistical physics and thermodynamics, elementary particle physics and fields, nuclear physics, and molecular physics, atomic collisions, optics, fluid dynamics and plasmas, condensed matter, instrumentation, geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. refs., ills

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  12. Appropriating "modernization" – indigenous anti-hegemonic resistance in the Argentine Chaco

    OpenAIRE

    S. Weißermel

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of indigenous territories into the Argentine Republic must be considered as a complex process of colonization which encompassed space, the word and the body. It enabled the dominant settler society to establish socioeconomic and sociocultural hegemony. The example of the Toba community in Clorinda elucidates the extent to which hegemonic worldviews have infiltrated their self-perception and produced the barrio (urban district) and the campo (rural area), as...

  13. [Cercarial dermatitis of bathers in northern Argentine Patagonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleizán, Aylén A; Flores, Verónica R; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2016-01-01

    The cercarial dermatitis is a zoonotic, summer, skin-disease, caused by a swimming larva (cercaria) of a schistosomatid trematode. This larva accidentally penetrates the skin of people in the water, causing an allergic reaction, which is not always reported in health centers, so it is difficult to determine its incidence. Cases have been registered worldwide, including Argentina, although the epidemiological studies were performed only in the Northern Hemisphere. In this survey the epidemiology of cercarial dermatitis was studied in three Patagonian lakes watering places, Pellegrini, Mari Menuco, and Puelo, where surveys were conducted during summers of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The risk factors were analyzed and grouped in "personal characteristics", "use of the recreational resource", and "prevention measures". At the Pellegrini Lake, the people's sensitivity included in "personal characteristics" was the only determining factor for the occurrence of this zoonosis, mean while in Mari Menuco Lake, the bathing time and distance from the coast, and the use of lotions would affect the occurrence of swimmer's itch. In Puelo Lake, no cases were recorded during the study period. PMID:26826989

  14. Quality assurance programmes and normalization for the Argentine-Brazilian integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the tasks developed by the Argentine-Brazilian Contractors Coordination Committee in the nuclear area, which was at the beginning promoted by the Contractor Committee of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology, a working team was created between both countries in order to analyze the existing regulations and the Quality Assurance systems applied in Brazil and Argentina for their nuclear projects. This paper describes the steps to be followed so as to fulfill the compatibility of the rules, quality assurance and firm certification, laboratories, personnel and materials, and the applicable quality assurance programmes. At first, the methodology applied was the collection of the information and the existing regulations in each one of the countries, to exchange them, analyze them and arrange joint meetings and organize a seminar with experts from both countries to develop and discuss the objectives of this working team. As a result of these activities, the criteria adopted will allow, together with another actions, that both Argentine and Brazilian firms make exchanges and integrations in the nuclear field to supply Atucha II and Angra II. (Author)

  15. False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

    2013-07-01

    Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  17. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  18. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

  19. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  20. Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanut and Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  1. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  2. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  3. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulatory processes might be made more useful to consumers.

  4. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulato

  5. Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts Maní tostado y molido conduce a una menor respuesta glicémica postprandial comparado con maní crudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the effect of nuts processing on the glycemic response and satiety. Objective: To evaluate the effect of peanut processing on glycemic response, and energy and nutrients intake. Method: Thirteen healthy subjects (4 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 28.5 ± 10 years, BMI 22.7 ± 2.5 kg/m², and body fat 23.7 ± 5.7% participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial. After 10-12 h of fasting, one of the following types of test meals were consumed: raw peanuts with skin (RPS, roasted peanuts without skin, ground-roasted peanuts without skin (GRPWS or control meal. The test meals had the same nutrient composition, and were consumed with 200 ml of water in 15 minutes. Glycemic response was evaluated 2 hours after each meal. Energy and nutrients intake were assessed through diet records reflecting the habitual food intake and food consumption 24 hours after the ingestion of test meal. Result: The area under the glycemic response curve after GRPWS was lower (p = 0.02 the one obtained for RPS. There was no treatment effect on energy intake, macronutrients and fiber consumption after the test meal. Conclusion: The consumption of ground-roasted peanuts may favor the control and prevention of diabetes due to its reduction on postprandial glucose response. However, more prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.Introducción: Escasos estudios han evaluado el efecto del procesado industrial de los frutos secos sobre la respuesta glicérica y la saciedad. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto del procesamiento de maní sobre la respuesta glicémica y la ingesta de energía y nutrientes. Métodos: Trece sujetos sanos (4 hombres y 9 mujeres, con una edad media de 28,5 ± 10 años, IMC 22,7 ± 2,5 kg/m², y un porcentaje de grasa corporal de 23,7 ± 5,7% participaron en este ensayo clínico aleatorizado y cruzado. Tras 10-12 h de ayuno uno de los siguientes tipos de comidas test fueron consumidas: man

  6. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. PMID:26920259

  7. TOLERANCE OF PEANUT GENOTYPES TO ACIDIC SOIL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanto Kasno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranging from 3.1 to 5.0. However, it could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1 were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI according to Fernandez (1992. Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, and peanut yield on acidic soil. Lines of GH3 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-1 and GH 4 (G/92088/ 92088-02-B-2-8-2 genotypes had high STI with average yield of 2.47 tha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively as well as check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1. It is concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic, and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms.

  8. The peanut allergy epidemic: allergen molecular characterisation and prospects for specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2007-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088

  9. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interi...

  10. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  11. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  12. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  13. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  14. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  15. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  16. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  17. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F;

    2014-01-01

    intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the...

  18. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar

    Full Text Available The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr, cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  19. Detection of peanut traces in wheat flour through NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Puneet; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Roger, Jean-Michel; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Herrero Langreo, Ana; Lleó García, Lourdes; Gorretta, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    - NIR Hyperspectral images (1000-2200 nm) allowed the detection of peanut traces down to adulteration percentages 0.01 % - Determination coefficient of R2= 0.946 was found for the quantification of peanut adulteration from 10% to 0.1%. - The obtained results shows the feasibility of using HSI systems for the detection of peanut traces in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as RT-PCR and ELISA to facilitate quality control surveyance on food product processing lines.

  20. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schwager; Skadi Kull; Susanne Krause; Frauke Schocker; Arnd Petersen; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Uta Jappe

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was ...

  1. Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J W; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primari...

  2. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-01-01

    Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure) were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Amb...

  3. European Union Import Demand for In-Shell Peanuts: The Source Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Boonsaeng, Tullaya; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2007-01-01

    This research estimates import demand elasticities for in-shell peanuts in the European Union from four different sources: China, the United States, South America, and Africa. The null hypothesis of aggregation over product sources is rejected at conventional levels of significance suggesting that peanuts from different sources are differentiated by EU consumers which might attributed to their different quality characteristics. Conditional expenditure elasticities for U.S. in-shell peanuts ar...

  4. Promoters and Deterrents of Developing Mechanization of Peanut Cultivation in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zehtab Naebi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing cost of peanut production is a major concern in Iran. Therefore, developing the mechanization of peanut production is a necessity. In this regard, a three-phase Delphi study was conducted to identify the promoting and deterring factors affecting peanut cultivation mechanization in Guilan Province, the main peanut-producing region in Iran. After preliminary studies, 26 experts were selected as respondents for the study. Based on the final results, ‘allocating provincial and national funds to develop mechanization’ (with the agreement of 98.07% of respondents, ‘Organizing training programs to increase farmers’ technical knowledge’ (97.12%, and ‘conducting the pilot and model projects’(95.19% were found to be the most important promoting factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Moreover, ‘the small size and fragmentation of peanut farms’ (with 96.15% of respondents agreeing, ‘problems with the national and provincial programs of peanut mechanization’ (95.19%, and ‘low technical knowledge of farmers and craftsmen about peanut farming mechanization’ (94.23% were identified as the most important deterring factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Given the small area dedicated to peanut cultivation and the low income levels of peanut farmers in north of Iran, it seems that provincial and national funding allocation and peer-planned programming to import appropriate farm machinery are the most urgent plans to improve the status of mechanization of peanut cultivation in north of Iran.

  5. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  6. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-07-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  7. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  8. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  9. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 de...

  10. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  11. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  12. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type...

  13. The nuclear community. An anthropological look on the Argentine nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine development in the nuclear field is analyzed from an anthropological and sociological standpoint. The author has made his 'field work' at the Reactor and Power Plants sector of the National Atomic Energy Commission. She examines the perception that the scientists and other workers of the nuclear field have of the role of its discipline and consequently of its own role in the society. The analysis is carried out into the framework of the situation of nuclear energy in the world and in Argentina in particular

  14. Le Programme d’Agriculture Urbaine de la ville de Rosario en Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel, Marta Soler

    2015-01-01

    L’agriculture urbaine prétend répondre efficacement aux défis de la crise globale actuelle en apportant des emplois et des revenus à ceux qui travaillent la terre, des aliments sains et durables à ceux qui mangent les produits, et des services environnementaux à l’ensemble des citoyens. Dans la ville argentine de Rosario (province de Santa Fe), pour faire face à la crise de 2001, l’agriculture urbaine est passée du stade d’alternative agronomique et socioéconomique proposée par l’agroécologie...

  15. Social and cognitive determinants in entrepreneurial interest: an exploratory study among argentine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA ROMERO MARTÍNEZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the intentions in creating a business on the part of a group of Argentine students in Strategic Human Resources Management in the University of Buenos Aires. The results of the study show that these students want to create their own business, but their possibilities depend on several factors. Among all of them, self-effi cacy stands out; those students who show more self-effi cacy are those who demonstrate more intention for creating a business. This intention is minor for the students who possess more social support. Neither family charges nor previous experience in entrepreneurship have a signifi cant effect.

  16. Food habits of common barn-owls along an elevational gradient in Andean Argentine Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, Alejandro; Donázar, José A.; Ceballos, Olga; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Hiraldo, F.; Delibes, M.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the diet of Common Barn-owls (Tyto alba) along an elevational gradient in Argentine Patagonia. Small mammals (mainly rodents) were the main prey accounting for 93.2% of total prey items. Consumption of rodents appeared to be dependent on their availability. Sizes of mam­ malian prey were variable but most ranged from 10—100 g in body mass. We concluded that the diet of these barn owls could be used as an index of cricetid rodent populations along ...

  17. Graphic correlation of Argentine Precordillera and North American Lower/Middle Ordovician sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter C.Sweet; Guillermo L.Albanesi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Present work demonstrates that a level equivalent to the proposed Whiterockian basal GSSP can be located graphically in a composite section anchored by the Niquivil section of the Argentine Precordillera. The FAD of Cooperignathus aranda in the Niquivil composite section, a candidate for GSSP of the Lower/Middle Ordovician boundary, projects to a level very close to the FAD of Tripodus laevis in the Whiterockian reference section. The conodont-based framework reported here includes the potential for recognition of the proposed Whiterock Canyon-based GSSP, the Cooperignathus aranda-based GSSP, and, possibly, the Baltoniodus triangularisbased GSSP, recently proposed.

  18. Mutagenic response of peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominant seeds of peanut were treated with varying doses of fast neutrons employing efficient pre- and post-irradiation techniques for determination of various plant responses useful in a long range program of mutation breeding. Mean reductions in seedling height and frequency of M1 somatic mutations increased with increasing radiation dose. No reduction in M1 seedset was obtained even in the dose above the LD50 of 1600 rads. The frequency of M2 macromutations ranged from only 3.60 - 5.65 per 100 M2 plants. The genetic basis of each of these radiation responses is briefly discussed. The high sensitivity of M1 peanut seedlings and growing plants to fast neutrons is probably due to the highly differentiated seed embryo at the time of irradiation while the radioresistance exhibited by the matured plant appears to be related to the polyploid genome of the species. (Auth.)

  19. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  20. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  1. Determination of Carbaryl residues in soybean and peanut plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaryl is one of the insecticides used in large quantities in Indonesia. It is effective against soybean and peanut plant insects. The residues in the plants are determined by Colorimetry at the residues level up to 5 ppm and by thin layer chromatography at level up to 0,1 ppm. Both methods use coupling reaction between hydrolysis product of Carbaryl and diazo reagent to produce colour. (author)

  2. Collimated directional emission from a peanut-shaped microresonator

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with the emission divergence as small as 2.5o. The mechanism of the collimated emission is explained with the short-term ray trajectory and the intuitive lens model in detail. Wave simulation also confirms these results. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds a great ...

  3. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, M. M.M.; El- Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller’s e...

  4. Histological Studies of Ditylenchus africanus Within Peanut Pods

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, C.; van Aswegen, G.; Meyer, A.J.; De Waele, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ditylenchus africanus entered the immature pegs and pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Sellie) at the peg-connection and subsequently invaded the parenchymatous regions of the hull exocarp and endocarp, and eventually the seed testa. The nematode caused malformations of the cells of infected tissues, cell wall breakage, and cell collapse. The damage appeared to be due to enzymatic activity. In some testae the entire parenchyma region, which aids in protection of the seed, was destroyed. In ...

  5. Kinetics and isotherms of Neutral Red adsorption on peanut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runping; Han, Pan; Cai, Zhaohui; Zhao, Zhenhui; Tang, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of Neutral Red (NR) onto peanut husk in aqueous solutions was investigated at 295 K. Experiments were carried out as function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Toth isotherm models. The results indicated that the Toth and Langmuir models provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacity of peanut husk for the removal of NR was determined with the Langmuir and found to be 37.5 mg/g at 295 K. The adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic equations. It was seen that the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic equations could describe the adsorption kinetics. The intraparticle diffusion model was also used to express the adsorption process at the two-step stage. It was implied that peanut husk may be suitable as adsorbent material for adsorption of NR from aqueous solutions. PMID:19143308

  6. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  7. Kinetics and isotherms of Neutral Red adsorption on peanut husk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Runping; HAN Pan; CAI Zhaohui; ZHAO Zhenhui; TANG Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of Neutral Red (NR) onto peanut husk in aqueous solutions was investigated at 295 K. Experiments were carded out as function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Toth isotherm models. The results indicated that the Toth and Langmuir models provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacity of peanut husk for the removal of NR was determined with the Langmuir and found to be 37.5 mg/g at 295 K. The adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic equations. It was seen that the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic equations could describe the adsorption kinetics. The intraparticle diffusion model was also used to express the adsorption process at the two-step stage. It was implied that peanut husk may be suitable as adsorbent material for adsorption of NR from aqueous solutions.

  8. Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2016-02-17

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergic sensitization as a result of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGEs of a peanut allergen were probed with nano-scale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Amadori product ions matched to expected peptides and yielded fragments that included a loss of three waters and HCHO. As a result of the paucity of b and y ions in the MS/MS spectrum, standard search algorithms do not perform well. Reactions with isotopically labeled sugars confirmed that the peptides contained Amadori products. An algorithm was developed on the basis of information content (Shannon entropy) and the loss of water and HCHO. Results with test data show that the algorithm finds the correct spectra with high precision, reducing the time needed to manually inspect data. Computational and technical improvements allowed for better identification of the chemical differences between modified and unmodified proteins. PMID:26811263

  9. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  10. Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising. PMID:23414152

  11. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  12. Bahiagrass, corn, cotton rotations, and pesticides for managing nematodes, diseases, and insects on peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Burton, G W; Culbreath, A K; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H

    1999-06-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  13. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  14. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  15. Estimating aflatoxin in farmers' stock peanut lots by measuring aflatoxin in various peanut-grade components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, T B; Hagler, W M; Giesbrecht, F G; Dorner, J W; Dowell, F E; Cole, R J

    1998-01-01

    Five, 2 kg test samples were taken from each of 120 farmers' stock peanut lots contaminated with aflatoxin. Kernels from each 2 kg sample were divided into the following grade components: sound mature kernels plus sound splits (SMKSS), other kernels (OK), loose shelled kernels (LSK), and damaged kernels (DAM). Kernel mass, aflatoxin mass, and aflatoxin concentration were measured for each of the 2400 component samples. For 120 lots tested, average aflatoxin concentrations in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components were 235, 2543, 11,775, and 69,775 ng/g, respectively. Aflatoxins in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components represented 6.9, 7.9, 33.3, and 51.9% of the total aflatoxin mass, respectively. Cumulatively, 3 aflatoxin risk components--OK, LSK, and DAM--accounted for 93.1% of total aflatoxin, but only 18.4% percent of test sample mass. Correlation analysis suggests that the most accurate predictor of aflatoxin concentration in the lot is the cumulative aflatoxin mass in the high 3 risk components OK + LSK + DAM (correlation coefficient, r = 0.996). If the aflatoxin in the combined OK + LSK + DAM components is expressed in concentration units, r decreases to 0.939. Linear regression equations relating aflatoxin in OK + LSK + DAM to aflatoxin concentration in the lot were developed. The cumulative aflatoxin in the OK + LSK + DAM components was not an accurate predictor (r = 0.539) of aflatoxin in the SMKSS component. Statistical analyses of 3 other data sets published previously yielded similar results. PMID:9477563

  16. Acceptance and intake of gel and liquid sucrose compositions by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J; Roulston, T H

    2001-04-01

    Liquids and gels are common delivery forms used in commercial ant baits, but the relative effectiveness of each is unknown. We compared the feeding responses of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), to liquid and gel compositions of sucrose. In choice assays, more workers were counted on gel than liquid; however, substantially more liquid was consumed. Because workers could stand on the gel, more workers could feed simultaneously on the gel. The feeding bouts of individual workers, however, were much less efficient at extracting sucrose in gel form. Workers fed eightfold longer on the gel, yet removed fivefold less sucrose than workers feeding on liquid. This potential bias should be considered during attraction and palatability studies that use physically different bait compositions. When the toxicant fipronil was added to the compositions, a greater proportion of the colony died after workers had fed on liquid than gel baits. This finding suggests that liquid formulations may provide more effective control of Argentine ants due to the greater speed and abundance in which it is ingested. PMID:11332847

  17. Improving liquid bait programs for Argentine ant control: bait station density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik H; Daane, Kent M

    2007-12-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have a positive effect on populations of mealybugs (Pseudococcus spp.) in California vineyards. Previous studies have shown reductions in both ant activity and mealybug numbers after liquid ant baits were deployed in vineyards at densities of 85-620 bait stations/ha. However, bait station densities may need to be bait stations/ha before bait-based strategies for ant control are economically comparable to spray-based insecticide treatments-a condition that, if met, will encourage the commercial adoption of liquid baits for ant control. This research assessed the effectiveness of baits deployed at lower densities. Two field experiments were conducted in commercial vineyards. In experiment 1, baits were deployed at 54-225 bait stations/ha in 2005 and 2006. In experiment 2, baits were deployed at 34-205 bait stations/ha in 2006 only. In both experiments, ant activity and the density of mealybugs in grape fruit clusters at harvest time declined with increasing bait station density. In 2005 only, European fruit lecanium scale [Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)] were also present in fruit clusters, and scale densities were negatively related to bait station density. The results indicate that the amount of ant and mealybug control achieved by an incremental increase in the number of bait stations per hectare is constant across a broad range of bait station densities. The results are discussed in the context of commercializing liquid ant baits to provide a more sustainable Argentine ant control strategy. PMID:18284776

  18. Efficacy of Argentine propolis formulation for topical treatment of canine otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A Lozina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of Argentine propolis ear drop formulation on canine otitis externa were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs with symptoms of otitis externa were randomly assigned to double-blinded, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical formulation with propolis versus a topical placebo in the treatment of otitis externa. The propolis preparation and placebo were administrated into both external ear canals, twice daily for 14 days. Throughout the study, clinical examination and microbiological analysis of dogs ear exudates were made. The most frequent microorganisms isolated in culture media were: Malassezia pachydermatis (54.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, Candida albicans (18.8%, Proteus mirabilis (16.7%, Streptococcus spp. (16.7%, Enteroccocus faecalis (12.5%, Escherichia coli (12.5%, Staphylococcus intermedius (6.3%, Klebsiella spp. (4.2%, andCandida glabrata (2.1%. Whereas the control group did not recover from the infectious ear disease, the propolis preparation exhibited antimicrobial activity against most of the microorganisms isolated from samples of the treated group. In addition, no propolis-adverse effects were observed. This allowed propolis-treated patients to show a significant improvement of the clinical parameters. Thus, this new Argentine propolis ear drop formulation may be used for topical treatment of otitis externa in dogs.

  19. The Limits of Liberalism in Argentine Provinces 1890-1940: An Analysis of Provincial Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Ross

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the liberal grounded provincial societies of Argentina from 1890 to 1940. A close examination of provincial government expenditures reveals that these states spent most of their revenues on law and order and education with little being directed to social welfare and to health. This form of government was extremely limited, therefore, in providing for the welfare of most of its citizens, and left many of them excluded from full participation in the political, economic and social life of the nation. The type of liberalism espoused by the Argentine elites effectively undermined the very project of state building that they espoused and resulted in the Peronist revolution of the 1940s when the state, under the slogan of social justice, became much more interventionist in the areas of welfare, health and housing, and much more inclusionist with regard to the Argentine people as a whole. The liberal state, and this includes the provinces, became a victim of its own chosen limitations.

  20. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  1. Potential application of Northern Argentine propolis to control some phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, R M; Zampini, I C; Moreno, M I Nieva; Isla, M I

    2011-10-20

    The antimicrobial activity of samples of Northern Argentine propolis (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Chaco) against phytopathogenic bacteria was assessed and the most active samples were identified. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by agar macrodilution and broth microdilution assays. Strong antibacterial activity was detected against Erwinia carotovora spp carotovora CECT 225, Pseudomonas syringae pvar tomato CECT 126, Pseudomonas corrugata CECT 124 and Xanthomonas campestris pvar vesicatoria CECT 792. The most active propolis extract (Tucumán, T1) was selected to bioguide isolation and identified for antimicrobial compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone). The antibacterial chalcone was more active than the propolis ethanolic extract (MIC values of 0.5-1 μg ml(-1) and 9.5-15 μg ml(-1), respectively). Phytotoxicity assays were realized and the propolis extracts did not retard germination of lettuce seeds or the growth of onion roots. Propolis solutions applied as sprays on tomato fruits infected with P. syringae reduced the severity of disease. Application of the Argentine propolis extracts diluted with water may be promising for the management of post harvest diseases of fruits. PMID:21237629

  2. Transmission pricing in privately-owned electricity grids: An illustration from the Argentine electricity pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdala, Manuel A. [LECG, LLC, 1725 Eye St NW - Suite 800, Washington, DC 20006 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The Argentine electricity reform of 1992 offers an interesting example of decentralized transmission pricing arrangements within a competitive system. This paper is a shortened version of an original analysis made in 1994 of the regulation of the Argentine transmission system, with emphasis on investment cost allocation rules. To make up for the limitation of short-run marginal cost (SRMC) pricing, incentives on service quality were put in place, including penalties for lack of line availability. The mechanism for capacity expansion, based on ad-hoc rules for allocations of investment costs, had the potential to produce non-optimal investment outcomes, as such rules ignored beneficiaries on the demand side. For fine tuning of this system, I proposed an alternative rule based on traditional welfare analysis that broadens the universe of identified beneficiaries, and thus can be expected to produce a fairer outcome on investment cost allocation, reducing the potential risks of non-optimal investment. A brief postscript comments on the paper from the perspective of 2007. (author)

  3. Transmission pricing in privately-owned electricity grids: An illustration from the Argentine electricity pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine electricity reform of 1992 offers an interesting example of decentralized transmission pricing arrangements within a competitive system. This paper is a shortened version of an original analysis made in 1994 of the regulation of the Argentine transmission system, with emphasis on investment cost allocation rules. To make up for the limitation of short-run marginal cost (SRMC) pricing, incentives on service quality were put in place, including penalties for lack of line availability. The mechanism for capacity expansion, based on ad-hoc rules for allocations of investment costs, had the potential to produce non-optimal investment outcomes, as such rules ignored beneficiaries on the demand side. For fine tuning of this system, I proposed an alternative rule based on traditional welfare analysis that broadens the universe of identified beneficiaries, and thus can be expected to produce a fairer outcome on investment cost allocation, reducing the potential risks of non-optimal investment. A brief postscript comments on the paper from the perspective of 2007. (author)

  4. Conflits et coopérations en territoire montagnard Mapuche (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Miniconi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La question des autochtones est devenue, durant les deux dernières décennies, une préoccupation majeure dans différents pays du monde, comme en Argentine où environ 600 000 individus se reconnaissent comme tels, soit 1,5 % de sa population totale. Toutefois, ces populations sont encore trop souvent marginalisées à l’échelle de certaines régions, comme c’est le cas pour les Mapuche du Parc National Nahuel Huapi, situé dans les provinces du Rio Negro et de Neuquén. Si les textes internationaux et parfois nationaux réhabilitent certains droits humains essentiels de ces populations, les réalités locales sont plus contrastées, du fait d’intérêts souvent divergents des acteurs régionaux. Dans le contexte particulier d’une Argentine marquée par des difficultés d’accès à la propriété foncière pour une large part de la population, les parcs nationaux se révèlent être des outils pertinents, pour les populations autochtones, de recouvrement de leurs terres ancestrales, grâce en particulier aux processus de co-gestion participative mise en place sur ces territoires.

  5. Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

  6. Spatial Ecology and Remote Sensing in the Precision Management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)in Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Erin

    2002-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a common polyphagous pest in peanut agroecosystems. The mite has caused serious economic losses to peanut farmers in the Virginia-Carolina area, where approximately 20% of the peanuts are produced annually in the United States. Peanut farmers depend on pesticides to control mite populations. Because TSSM has developed resistance to many acaricides and there are restrictions on the use of pesticides, an alternative approach, su...

  7. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  8. Differential use of the Argentine shelf by wintering adults and juveniles southern giant petrels, Macronectes giganteus, from Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Quintana, Flavio

    2014-08-01

    To study habitat use and at-sea movements of southern giant petrels (SGP) during non-breeding period, we deployed 15 satellite transmitters (six adults, nine juveniles) at Isla Arce and Isla Gran Robredo colonies in Patagonia, Argentina. Birds were instrumented during 81.4 ± 37 days. Adult birds used 74% of the Argentine shelf concentrating mainly at the shelf break, middle shelf waters, and the surroundings of the colony. After fledging, juveniles spread to the Argentine, Uruguayan and Brazilian shelves within the South Atlantic. Adults alternated at-sea excursions (12 ± 5 days) with periods at the colony of 3 ± 0.3 days. Contrarily, juveniles moved first to the shelf break and then traveled northwards reaching the south of Brazil. There was some spatial overlap between age classes, but only during the first 30 days after juveniles had fledged; thereafter there was not overlap between the areas used by both age classes. The Argentine shelf is widely used by different species offering a suitable environment for foraging; this may be why adults SGP from Patagonian colonies spend all year-round within the Argentine shelf. The identification of used areas of non-breeding SGP fills a gap in the species knowledge contributing not only to the preservation the species, but also to the management of marine areas globally recognized as important for many other Procellariiformes.

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  10. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish adole...

  11. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  12. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  13. Analysis of germination of castor and peanuts seeds by 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination of castor and peanut seeds was followed by 13C NMR. Results are comparable to those observed for soybean seeds and reveal that this technique is generally applicable in cases in which a reasonable amount of soluble material is present during germination. Different pathways for oil degradation by castor and peanut seeds may be distinguished. (Author)

  14. Interfacial Properties of Raw and Roasted Peanut Oils as Related to Emulsification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roasted peanut oil is a unique product that can impart a desirable roasted peanut flavor in various emulsified formulations. Emulsification properties are a function of the oil physical properties, which include interfacial tension, viscosity, and density among others. These physical properties ha...

  15. Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

  16. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and-susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  17. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Cercospora arachidicola, Causal Agent of Early Leaf Spot in Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora arachidicola, an economically important pathogen of peanut, is the cause of early leaf spot disease. Despite its significance, insufficient genetic information is available for utilization. Understanding the genetic diversity of this pathogen is crucial for peanut breeding programs to d...

  19. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time. - Highlights: • Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation (1, 2 and 3 kGy). • The change in physicochemical properties of peanut oil was determined. • Gamma irradiation process had no effect on physicochemical properties of peanut oil. • The peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time

  20. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  1. Growth and yield of valencia, spanish, virginia and runner market type peanuts in various row spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the majority of peanuts grown in New Mexico and West Texas are planted in single rows on beds 36 to 40 inches apart. In 2006-2008, several field studies were conducted with Valencia peanuts comparing single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns in various populations. The basic c...

  2. First report of the natural occurence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in peanuts in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  3. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  4. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  5. Comparison of Single Row, Twin Row, and Diamond Planting Patterns in Valencia Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted at locations near Portal...

  6. YIELD RESPONSE TO PEANUT ROW ORIENTATION AND SEEDING RATE WHEN IRRIGATED USING SDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are typically planted in a single or twin row orientation, however, research indicates that peanut planted at equidistance between rows and plants in alternating rows (diamond shape) and using the same planting rate can increase pod yield. A study was conducted to eval...

  7. YIELD AND GRADE OF VALENCIA PEANUT IN SINGLE ROW, TWIN ROW, AND DIAMOND PLANTING PATTERNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted at Wayne Baker’s farm South of Clovis in 2006 to compare single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns in Valencia peanut on 36 inch beds. The twin row and diamond pattern treatments were planted with an experimental planter developed at the USDA-ARS National Peanut Rese...

  8. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  9. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  10. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  11. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... About Us Contact Us © 2016 The Skin Cancer Foundation | 149 Madison Avenue Suite 901 New York, NY ...

  12. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  13. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incontinence - skin care ... or bowels (called incontinence) are at risk of skin problems around the buttocks, hips, genitals, and the ... rectum (perineum). Excess moisture in these areas makes skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast ...

  14. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  16. Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Osman E; Ahmed, Talaat A; Knapp, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS-LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS-LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut. PMID:23961057

  17. Honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts from Argentina. Sensorial and chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical and sensory aspects of Honey Roasted (HRP and Roasted Peanuts (RP. These products were evaluated for sensory analysis: overall acceptance using a consumer test and a descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Percentages of protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash was analyzed in HRP and RP. The contents of carbohydrate, oil and protein in HRP were 28.22%, 45.56% and 21.06%, respectively. RP showed higher percentages of lipids and protein and lower percentages of carbohydrate content than HRP. The total energetic value was lower in HRP. Values of 8 (like very much were chosen by a higher number of consumer panelist for HRP while values of 6 (like slightly were found in a higher proportion for RP. The trained panel described 11 attributes: brown color, roughness, roasted peanutty, oxidized, cardboard, sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hardness and crunchiness. The roasted peanutty intensity in RP was higher than in HRP. The intensities of roughness, sweet and salty in HRP were higher than in RP.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente al Maní Tostado con Miel (MTM y Maní Tostado (MT. Estos dos productos fueron evaluados sensorialmente analizando su aceptabilidad por parte de consumidores (test de aceptabilidad y sus atributos sensoriales por el uso de un panel de jueces entrenados (prueba descriptiva. Por otra parte se describió la composición química porcentual: porcentajes de proteínas, aceites, hidratos de carbonos y cenizas. Los contenidos de hidratos de carbonos, aceites y proteínas en MTM fueron de 28,22%, 45.56% y 21,06%. MT presentó mayores porcentajes de lípidos y proteínas y menor contenido de hidratos de carbono que MTM. El valor energético total de MTM es levemente menor que en MT. La aceptabilidad de los productos mostró mayor número de consumidores que le asignaron un valor de 8 ( me gusta mucho dentro de una escala hedónica de 9 puntos a MTM y

  18. The agreement between the Argentine Republic and Australia on the cooperation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its fitting to the Argentine Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the legal aspects of the cooperation agreement between Australia and Argentina signed in Camberra on August 8, 2001, the authors elaborate upon the following points: 1. The interpretation of the constitutional texts. Its need; 2. Facts: the development of nuclear energy in Argentina. The contract INVAP-ANSTO. The cooperation agreement Argentina-Australia; 3. The great publicity campaign. The appeal to fear; 4. The difference with the case of power reactors. Distinction between power and research reactors; 5. The difference with the Chernobyl case; 6. Shipment safety; 7. Other clarifications; 8. Factual and juridical distinction between spent fuel and radioactive waste concepts; 9. The regulatory framework of the difference; 10. The essence of the adjective 'Immediate'. Its juridical meaning; 11. The concept of 'entry'. The need to overcome an intentional literalness; 12. The harmonious interpretation of the constitution; 13. The engagement with the future generations; 14. The adaptation to the global trends. The Kyoto protocol; 15. The bases of the constitutional doctrine. They conclude that nothing in the agreement is contrary to the Argentine constitution

  19. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  20. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  1. Overexpression of peanut diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Peng

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2 genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3. Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a-GST, or AhDGAT2b-GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2b-GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4-2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction. The total fatty acid (FA levels of the AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2a-GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  2. Adjective checklist to assess the big five personality factors in the Argentine population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; Sánchez, Roberto; Díaz-Lázaro, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an adjective checklist to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Argentine population. The new instrument was administered to pilot (n= 112), validation (n= 372), and replication (n= 309) samples. The final version of the checklist included 67 adjectives encompassing its 5 dimensions. Factor analysis results were consistent with the Five-factor model. Internal consistency of scales was very good and convergent correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were substantial. Face validity, as evaluated by 2 independent raters, was good. Preliminary evidence of validity for the checklist is presented. Finally, the Adjective Checklist for Personality Assessment and BFI are compared, taking into consideration their psychometric properties in our cultural context. Study limitations and future research are discussed. PMID:21184330

  3. Dynamics and genetic structure of Argentine ant supercolonies in their native range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valérie; Pedersen, Jes S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia;

    2009-01-01

    analyses revealed the presence of 11 supercolonies (width 1 to 515 m) over a 3-km transect. As in the introduced range, there was always strong aggression between but never within supercolonies. The genetic data were in perfect agreement with the behavioral tests, all nests being assigned to identical......Some introduced ant populations have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely within large supercolonies. We investigated whether this mode of social organization also exists in native populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Behavioral...... units. Genetic and chemical distances between supercolonies were positively correlated, but there were no other significant associations between geographic, genetic, chemical, and behavioral distances. A comparison of supercolonies sampled in 1999 and 2005 revealed a very high turnover, with about one...

  4. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (Pmeat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  5. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes. PMID:25831585

  6. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine

  7. Copi et Puig, ovnis du théâtre argentin ?

    OpenAIRE

    Souquet, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    C’est en 1968 que Copi (Raúl Damonte Botana, 1939-1987) publie sa première pièce, La journée d’une rêveuse puis, un an plus tard, la très iconoclaste Eva Peron. Par son milieu familial, Copi a baigné dès l’enfance dans la vie théâtrale internationale et a été fortement influencé par sa grand-mère, la dramaturge anarcho-féministe Salvadora Medina Onrubia de Botana. Mais, vivant en exil avec sa famille, Copi est coupé de la réalité de la scène argentine et il écrit d’ailleurs ses premières pièc...

  8. Pratiques alimentaires et (re)construction identitaire chez des migrants boliviens de retour d’Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Suremain, Charles-Édouard de

    2010-01-01

    L’étude anthropologique des pratiques alimentaires de migrants boliviens de retour ayant longuement séjourné en Argentine permet d’aborder la problématique de la migration et de l’identité : la construction sociale, réelle et imaginaire, de la migration ne passe-t-elle pas aussi par l’alimentation ? Ce que l’on mange ici et là-bas éclaire, en creux, le succès ou l’échec donné à la migration par les migrants et aide à comprendre plus finement les significations locales données à la pauvreté et...

  9. Proceedings of the eighth scientific meeting; second latin american meeting; first engineering and argentine nuclear industry exposition at Buenos Aires, 5-10 november 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of 59 papers of different authors, most of whom are personnel from the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the others belonging to the firms involved in the development of the Argentine Nuclear Programme. The papers are arranged in 7 sections comprising the following groups of subjects; experimental and power reactors; fuel elements' fabrication study; prospection, extraction, production and study of nuclear materials; radiological and nuclear safety; instrumentation and control; quality assurance, and technological applications. (R.J.S.)

  10. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-01-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, ...

  11. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits. PMID:21061977

  12. The effect of airborne particles and weather conditions on pediatric respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of estimated PM10 on respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine as well as the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions and education. We analyzed upper and lower respiratory infections and applied a time-series analysis with a quasi-Poisson distribution link function. To control for seasonally varying factors we fitted cubic smoothing splines of date. We also examined community-specific parameters and differences in susceptibility by sex. We found a significant association between particles and respiratory infections. This relationship was affected by mean temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. These effects were stronger in fall, winter and spring for upper respiratory infections while for lower respiratory infections the association was significant only during spring. Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of respiratory infections. These findings add useful information to understand the influence of airborne particles on children health in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Few information is available on children respiratory health from developing countries. ► We modeled the association between PM10 and children's respiratory infections. ► We checked the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions, education and sex. ► Temperature, pressure and wind speed modified the effect of particles. ► Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of infections. - The concentration of airborne particles as well as low socio-economic conditions and low education levels are significant risk factors for upper and lower respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine.

  13. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  14. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcón, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David

    2015-01-01

    Ants often visit flowers, but have only seldom been documented to provide effective pollination services. Floral visitation by ants can also compromise plant reproduction in situations where ants interfere with more effective pollinators. Introduced ants may be especially likely to reduce plant reproductive success through floral visitation, but existing experimental studies have found little support for this hypothesis. Here, we combine experimental and observational approaches to examine the importance of floral visitation by the nonnative Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on plant species native to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. First, we determine how L. humile affects floral visitor diversity, bee visitation rates, and levels of pollen limitation for the common, focal plant species island morning glory (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia). Second, we assess the broader ecological consequences of floral visitation by L. humile by comparing floral visitation networks between invaded and uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant and native ants both visited island morning glory flowers, but L. humile was much more likely to behave aggressively towards other floral visitors and to be the sole floral occupant. The presence of L. humile in morning glory flowers reduced floral visitor diversity, decreased rates of bee visitation, and increased levels of pollen limitation. Network comparisons between invaded and uninvaded. sites revealed differences in both network structure and species-level attributes. In. invaded sites, floral visitors were observed on fewer plant species, ants had a higher per-plant interaction strength relative to that of other visitors, and interaction strengths between bees and plants were weaker. These results illustrate that introduced ants can negatively affect plant reproduction and potentially disrupt pollination services at an ecosystem scale. PMID:26236907

  15. Culture et propagande franquiste dans l’Argentine péroniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bonardi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La fin de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale et la condamnation internationale de l’Espagne plongent le régime franquiste dans une situation très délicate. Cependant, le gouvernement argentin du général Peron devient un véritable gilet de sauvetage pour la dictature espagnole. Le régime du Caudillo profite de ce contexte pour développer une propagande très intense dans le Rio de la Plata. Pour mener à bien les différentes actions de propagande, les représentants espagnols en Argentine devront lutter contre les activités antifranquistes des exilés.La conclusión de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y la condena internacional de España sumen al régimen franquista en una muy delicada coyuntura. Sin embargo, el gobierno argentino del general Perón se convierte en un auténtico chaleco salvavidas para la dictadura española. El régimen del Caudillo aprovecha este contexto para desarrollar una intensa propaganda en el Río de la Plata. Para llevar a cabo las distintas acciones propagandísticas, los representantes españoles en Argentina tendrán que luchar contra las actividades antifranquistas de los exiliados.The end of World War II and the international condemnation of Spain put Franco’s regime in a very delicate situation. However, the Argentinian government of the general Peron appeared as a “life jacket” for the Spanish dictatorship. The government of the Caudillo used this context to develop a very intense propaganda in the Rio de la Plata. Still, to conclude their various propagandist actions, the Spanish representatives in Argentina had to fight against the activities of antifranquist people in exile.

  16. First finding of melanic sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) colonies in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, L A; Piccinali, R V; Berkunsky, I; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as "dark morphs" were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  17. First Finding of Melanic Sylvatic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Colonies in the Argentine Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEBALLOS, L. A.; PICCINALI, R. V.; BERKUNSKY, I.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Triatoma infestans (Klug), the most important vector of Chagas disease in southern South America, is a highly domiciliated species with well-known sylvatic foci only in the Bolivian Andean valleys and in the Bolivian Chaco, where melanic insects designated as “dark morphs” were found. After the tentative identification of two melanic bugs collected from parrot nests in a forest reserve in the Argentine Chaco as T. infestans, we conducted an intensive search there using mouse-baited sticky traps in summer 2006 and 2007. Four live T. infestans bugs were collected in trees without parrot nests in 288 trap-nights, whereas no bug was collected from inside trees with active parrot nests in 51 trap-nights. To increase bug captures, hollow tree trunks that recently had had Amazona aestiva (Berlepsch) and Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) parrot nests were treated with insecticide fumigant canisters exhibiting strong knockdown power. Four (22%) of 18 trees were positive for T. infestans with a dark phenotype. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI of 8 of the 14 triatomine bugs collected was successfully sequenced and confirmed as T. infestans. Most of the bugs were captured from Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (Schlechter) hollow tree trunks harboring parrot nests. All of the T. infestans collected from the nearest house located at 10 km from the sylvatic foci displayed normal chromatic characters. The repeated finding of T. infestans in sylvatic habitats, albeit at very low density, shows that this species is capable of maintaining viable sylvatic foci in the absence of human hosts and immigration from domestic populations. These are the first confirmed findings of sylvatic T. infestans colonies in Argentina and of dark morphs in the Argentine Chaco. PMID:19769054

  18. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  19. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken. The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels , hair follicles , and glands . Enlarge Anatomy of the skin, ...

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Dry skin public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  1. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  2. Stiff skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  3. Argentina; Argentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  4. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  6. CONTROL OF AFLATOXIGENIC Aspergillus flavus IN PEANUTS USING NONAFLATOXIGENIC A. flavus, A. niger and Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Trichoderma harzianum inoculated into planting media on toxigenic A. flavus infection and its aflatoxin production in peanut kernels at harvest were investigated together with (1 the moisture content of planting media before peanut planting, at the time of inflorescence, and at harvest, (2 the population of aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus, A. niger and T. harzianum in peanut planting media before peanut planting, at the time of inflorescence, and at harvest, (3 the moisture content of peanut kernels at harvest, and (4 toxigenic A. flavus invasion in peanut plant parts (r oots, stems, petioles, leaves and flowers at the time of inflorescence. The fungal isolates were inoculated into planting media at the same time with the planting of peanut seeds. Peanut plants were grown under glasshouse conditions. Treated planting media were inoculated with the combined use of (1 toxigenic and nontoxigenic A. flavus, (2 toxigenic A. flavus and A. niger, and (3 toxigenic A. flavus and T. harzianum. Planting media inoculated only with each fungal isolat e and uninoculated planting media were used as controls. Two watering treatments of peanut plants were carried out, i.e. watering un til harvest and not watering for 15 days before harvest. The populations of the fungal isolates in the planting media and peanut kernels were determined using dilution method followed by pour plate method; the percentages of toxigenic A. flavus and test fungal colonizations in peanut plant parts were de termined using plating method; the moisture content of planting media and peanut kernels were determined using oven method; the aflatoxin content of peanut kernels was determined using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The results indicated that at the time of harvest the decr ease in moisture contents of planting media not watered for 15 days before harvest was higher than those watered until harvest. The

  7. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James A; Shepley-McTaggart, Ariel; Umpierrez, Michelle; Hurlburt, Barry K; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Mayfield, Stephen P; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between preparations complicates immunotherapy studies. Moreover, peanut immunotherapy is associated with frequent negative side effects and patients are often at risk of allergic reactions once immunotherapy is discontinued. Allergen-specific approaches using recombinant proteins are an attractive alternative because they allow more precise dosing and the opportunity to engineer proteins with improved safety profiles. We tested whether Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, two major peanut allergens, could be produced using chloroplast of the unicellular eukaryotic alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is novel host for producing allergens that is genetically tractable, inexpensive and easy to grow, and is able to produce more complex proteins than bacterial hosts. Compared to the native proteins, algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain and Ara h 2 have a reduced affinity for IgE from peanut-allergic patients. We further found that immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain confers protection from peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut allergy. PMID:26801740

  8. Effect of biochar amendment on yield and photosynthesis of peanut on two types of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Hosseini-Bai, Shahla; Hao, Yanbin; Rachaputi, Rao C N; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Zhihong; Wallace, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has significant potential to improve crop performance. This study examined the effect of biochar application on the photosynthesis and yield of peanut crop grown on two soil types. The commercial peanut cultivar Middleton was grown on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol (Queensland, Australia) amended with a peanut shell biochar gradient (0, 0.375, 0.750, 1.50, 3.00 and 6.00%, w/w, equivalent up to 85 t ha(-1)) in a glasshouse pot experiment. Biomass and pod yield, photosynthesis-[CO2] response parameters, leaf characteristics and soil properties (carbon, nitrogen (N) and nutrients) were quantified. Biochar significantly improved peanut biomass and pod yield up to 2- and 3-folds respectively in red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. A modest (but significant) biochar-induced improvement of the maximum electron transport rate and saturating photosynthetic rate was observed for red ferrosol. This response was correlated to increased leaf N and accompanied with improved soil available N and biological N fixation. Biochar application also improved the availability of other soil nutrients, which appeared critical in improving peanut performance, especially on infertile redoxi-hydrosol. Our study suggests that application of peanut shell derived biochar has strong potential to improve peanut yield on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. Biochar soil amendment can affect leaf N status and photosynthesis, but the effect varied with soil type. PMID:25395326

  9. Development of a novel strategy to isolate lipophilic allergens (oleosins from peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwager

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins.A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins.Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis.

  10. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  11. Peanut Seed Vigor Evaluation Using a Thermal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Grey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted from 2007 to 2009 evaluated germination of 11 peanut runner-type cultivars. Germination was evaluated in Petridishes incubated over a thermal gradient ranging from 14 to 30°C at 1.0 C increments. Beginning 24 hr after seeding, peanut was counted as germinated when radicles were greater than 5 mm long, with removal each day. Germination was counted daily for seven days after seeding. Growing-degree day (GDD accumulation for each temperature increment was calculated based on daily mean temperature for that Petri dish. Two indices were obtained from a logistic growth curve used to elucidate seed germination by cultivar: (1 maximum indices of germination and (2 GDD value at 80% germination (Germ80, an indication of seed vigor the lower the Germ80 value, the greater the seed lot vigor. Based on the two indices, seed lots “AT 3081R”, “AP-3”, “GA-06G”, and “Carver” had the strongest seed vigor (Germ80 26 to 47 GDD and a high maximum incidence of germination rate (80 to 94%. Seed lots of “C99-R”, “Georgia-01R”, “Georgia-02C”, and “Georgia-03L” had inconsistent seed performance, failing to achieve 80% germination in at least two of three years.

  12. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue

  13. A Vertical Resonance Heating Model for X- or Peanut-Shaped Galactic Bulges

    OpenAIRE

    Quillen, Alice C.; Minchev, Ivan; Sharma, Sanjib; Qin, Yu-Jing; Di Matteo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    We explore a second order Hamiltonian vertical resonance model for X-shaped or peanut-shaped galactic bulges. The X-shape is caused by the 2:1 vertical Lindblad resonance with the bar, with two vertical oscillation periods per orbital period in the bar frame. We examine N-body simulations and find that due to the bar slowing down and disk thickening during bar buckling, the resonance and associated peanut-shape moves outward. The peanut-shape is consistent with the location of the vertical re...

  14. Effects of grading on the main quality attributes of peanut kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiancheng ZHANG; Chuantang WANG; Yueyi TANG; Xiuzhen WANG

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of peanut kernels of different grades by mainly using advanced breeding lines derived from intersectional crosses in two experiments gave similar results, showing remarkable inter-grade variation in oil content of a specific entry. The effects of genotype on qualitative attributes proved to be predominant. No significant differences in protein content, oleic acid/linoleic acid content in total fatty acids, and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratio were detected among the No. 1, No, 2 and No. 3 grade peanut kernels of a given peanut genotype.

  15. Bahiagrass, Corn, Cotton Rotations, and Pesticides for Managing Nematodes, Diseases, and Insects on Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Burton, G. W.; Culbreath, A. K.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S H

    1999-01-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated pl...

  16. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedo, R. H.; Nepote, V.; N. R. Grosso

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP) and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R), oregano (CP-O) and laurel (CP-L) essential oils and BHT (CPBHT) were prepared. Peroxide values (PV) and p-anisidine values (AV) and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C). CP-...

  17. Research on the Peanut Leaf Etiolation Prevention and Film Mulching Effect in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changbing; YU; Yinshui; LI; Lihua; XIE; Xiaojia; HU; Boshou; LIAO; Fang; CHEN; Xing; LIAO

    2014-01-01

    The possible nutrient problems existing in leaf etiolation,the influence of film mulching on the yield of peanut and benefits of balanced fertilization were analyzed. The results showed that the deficiency of nutrient elements was not main limiting factor in leaf etiolation of peanut in Hong’an. Deep trench,film mulching,liming and organic manure could be used to prevent leaf etiolation. The film mulching could increase the yield of peanut by improving the rate of germination and seedling,the number of branches and full pod,and it was beneficial to playing the effect of balanced fertilization.

  18. Nestor Kirchner (2003-2007) : rupture ou continuite du peronisme ? Les mutations du populisme en Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Doz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Ce texte est un extrait du quatrième chapitre de la thèse « Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007) : Rupture ou continuité du péronisme. Les mutations du populisme en Argentine ». Le 25 mai 2003, le peuple argentin assistait à l’investiture présidentielle du candidat du Frente Para la Victoria, Néstor Kirchner. Suite à la défection de Carlos Menem pendant l’entre-deux tours, il est élu avec 22% des suffrages. Malgré cette faible légitimité, il réussit à insuffler un changement certain dans la politique ...

  19. Network composition, collaborative ties, and upgrading in emerging-market firms: Lessons from the Argentine autoparts sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. McDermott; Rafael A Corredoira

    2010-01-01

    What types of relational and institutional mechanisms shape knowledge flows and the upgrading capabilities of emerging-market firms in the face of economic liberalization? We analyze the Argentine autoparts sector to distinguish the relative impact of different types of network relationships on a firm's process and product upgrading. A few social ties to international assemblers appear to be most beneficial for local suppliers, although they may be insufficient to compensate fully for the neg...

  20. Aesthetic campaigns and counter-campaigns. Jorge Luis Borges and a century of the Argentine detective story (1877-1977)

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Eoin George

    2013-01-01

    This cultural history of Argentine crime fiction involves a comprehensive analysis of the literary and critical traditions within the genre, paying particular attention to the series of ‘aesthetic campaigns’ waged by Jorge Luis Borges and others during the period between 1933 and 1977. The methodological approach described in the introductory chapter builds upon the critical insight that in Argentina, generic discourse has consistently been the domain, not only of literary critics in the trad...

  1. Samosprávné podniky v Argentině jako sociální hnutí

    OpenAIRE

    Virtová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to elaborate a case study of self-managed factories, which has been emerging in Argentina after the economic crisis in 2001. Mainly the conflictive origin, organization, role of the state and the dynamics of the movement of self-managed factories is discussed. This paper is based on European tradition of social movements' analysis and seeks to characterize movement of Argentine self-managed factories as so called old or new social movement. This dividing line will ultimately ...

  2. Motives for inter-firm cooperation on R&D and innovation: empirical evidence from Argentine and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Schachter, Mónica; Anlló, Guillermo; Castro-Martínez, Elena; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Motives and determinants supporting inter-firm technological cooperation have been extensively investigated in developed countries but scarcely addressed in developing countries. This paper addresses these issues, investigating empirically several factors influencing the likelihood to cooperate on R&D and innovation between Argentine and Spanish firms, their strategic motives and firms characteristics which influence cooperation. We draw upon data collected through a survey of 104 firms and c...

  3. Cell-mediated immunity and lymphocyte populations in experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junín Virus).

    OpenAIRE

    Carballal, G; Oubiña, J. R.; Rondinone, S N; Elsner, B; Frigerio, M J

    1981-01-01

    Guinea pigs infected with the XJ prototype strain of Junín virus reproduce the main features of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, showing hemorrhages, leukothrombocytopenia, and focal lymphoid tissue necrosis. Viral lymphotropism is shown by the presence of viral antigens, severe cytopathic effect, and high virus titers in lymphoid organs. A pronounced depression of humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes as well as to the virus is described. This study was carried out to determine whether c...

  4. Communication of 31 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 31 March 2000 from the Resident Representative of the Argentine Republic, including as attachment the declaration of the Advisory and Political Harmonisation Forum of MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay), Bolivia and Chile, issued on 27 March 2000, with regard to the 30th Anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  5. Moderls of Internationzation of Two Argentine Pharmaceutical Companies in Historical Perspective: The Cases of Bagó and Sidus

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization is not a simple decision but rather a complex strategy that requires the presence of tangible and intangible resources that, in the case of a family firm, call for careful analysis. To understand this process, the present study reconstructs the historical trajectories of two important Argentine laboratories, Bagó and Sidus, in historical perspective, using the stage approach of the Uppsala school (U-model) and the perspective of resources and capacities (resource-based vi...

  6. Slowdown of Circumpolar Deepwater flow during the Late Neogene: Evidence from a mudwave field at the Argentine continental slope

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter; Arndt, Jan Erik

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical evidence from boreholes suggests enhanced transport of Northern Component Water (NCW) to southern latitudes from about 6 Ma onwards. However, information on how this change in transport influenced the intensity and position of current systems is sparse. Here we use seismic reflection profiles interpreted together with bathymetric data to investigate current derived deposits at the central Argentine Margin. Upslope migrating mudwaves overlying a late Miocene erosional unconformity ...

  7. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction. PMID:23892582

  8. Territorial plannnig in a river basin with high erosion level using multicriteria decision methods in cordoba province(argentine)

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Olive, Juan Bautista; Antón Corrales, José Manuel; Cisneros, J.M.; Andina de la Fuente, Diego; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Prada, M.; A. Degioanni; Cantero, A.

    2010-01-01

    The erosion-sedimentation-flooding processes in large zones of Argentine are a critical problem that involve complex relationships with technological, economic, social and environmental cause-effect. The increasing of agricultural activities in new areas previously with forestry or pasture could produce irreversible environmental impacts. It is necessary to prepare a spatial plan taking into consideration, economic development, social cohesion, environmental quality and progressive desertific...

  9. Molina’s Touch and Dorda’s Music: The Schizophrenia of Gender in Post-dictatorial Argentine Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaumik, Munia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyze the “woman question” in relation to tropes of schizophrenia in post-dictatorial queer Argentine fiction. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guttari’s claim in Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia states: “schizoanalysis must devote itself with all its strength to the necessary destructions….. Destroying beliefs and representations, theatrical scenes. And when engaged in this task no activity will be too malevolent.” Similarly, Manuel Puig’s El Beso de la mujer ...

  10. Effect of distribution modes of nitrogenous fertilizer on wheat and peanut yields and the nitrogenous fertilizer utilization ratio under the wheat-peanut cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the condition of wheat-peanut (summer) cropping system, the nitrogenous fertilizer utilization ratio (NFUR) was 32.52% when the total annual nitrogenous fertilizer was applied to both crops by three times (base and top dressing to wheat and base fertilizer to peanut, M3) and was 37.01% when the total annual nitrogenous fertilizer was applied to wheat by twice (base and top dressing to wheat, M2). The nitrogen fertilizer recovery ratio was 69.24% in M3, 12.03% higher than that in M2. The yields of wheat and peanut in M3 were 7.7% and 3.4%, respectively, higher than that in M2, showing that the M3 was ideal fertilizer application mode under the wheat-peanut cropping system. The NFUR was 16.08%-35.63% for wheat and was 23.70% for peanut. The NFUR was 6,57%-7.70% for wheat with the base fertilizer and was 10.03%-12.73% for wheat with top dressing fertilizer (elongation state). Great effects of fertilizer applying time and rate on the NFUR were observed

  11. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in bait uptake, control efficacy may be maximized by applying bait when ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand. PMID:22928290

  12. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  13. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lei Su; Chuan-Zhi Zhao; Yu-Ping Bi; Shu-Bo Wan; Han Xia; Xing-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that includes proteins accumulated at late stages of seed development or in vegetative tissues in response to drought, salinity, cold stress and exogenous application of abscisic acid. In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project was carried out using a peanut seed cDNA library. From 6258 ESTs, 19 LEA-encoding genes were identified and could be classified into eight distinct groups. Expression of these genes in seeds at different developmental stages and in various peanut tissues was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that expression levels of LEA genes were generally high in seeds. Some LEA protein genes were expressed at a high level in non-seed tissues such as root, stem, leaf, flower and gynophore. These results provided valuable information for the functional and regulatory studies on peanut LEA genes.

  14. Effect of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L. on Dyslipidemia in Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Akter,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid lowering drugs are available in modern medicine but prolong use of these drugs may produce some side effects. Peanut due to some of its active component can improve lipid profile. Objective: To observe the effects of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. on dyslipidemia in young adults. Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka between 1st July 2013 and 30th June 2014. For this purpose 30 dyslipidemic young adults of both sexes with aged 30 to 40 years were included in this study and they were selected from Out Patient Department of Medicine of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka. They were studied three times i,e before supplementation with peanut (BSP, after 4 weeks supplementation with peanut (4 wks AP and after 8 weeks supplementation with peanut (8 wks AP. For assessing lipid profile TAG, LDL-C, TC and HDL-C of all subjects were estimated by enzymatic method. The statistical analysis was done by using paired sample‘t’ test as applicable. Results: In this study, the mean serum TAG, LDL-C and TC levels were significantly decreased after 8 weeks supplementation with peanut in comparison to those of after 4 weeks and before supplementation with peanut. However, these levels were also decreased after 4 weeks supplementation than those of before supplementation but it was significant only for TC (p<0.05 and LDL-C (p<0.001. Whereas, the mean serum HDL-C level was significantly (p<0.001 increased after 8 weeks supplementation when compared to those of after 4 weeks and before supplementation of peanut. Conclusion: The present study revealed that, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. has effect on improvement of lipid profile by lowering serum TAG, LDL-C, TC levels and by increasing serum HDL-C level. This lipid lowering effects of peanut may be due to its high Mg

  15. Storage protein profiles in Spanish and runner market type peanuts and potential markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic analysis has proven to be the most powerful method for describing plant species and lines, and for identification of proteins in complex mixtures. The strength of this method resides in high resolving power of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry (MS, and sequence homology search. By using this method, we might find polymorphic markers to differentiate peanut subspecies. Results Total proteins extracted from seeds of 12 different genotypes of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., comprised of runner market (A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea and Spanish-bunch market type (A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata, were separated by electrophoresis on both one- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels. The protein profiles were similar on one-dimensional gels for all tested peanut genotypes. However, peanut genotype A13 lacked one major band with a molecular weight of about 35 kDa. There was one minor band with a molecular weight of 27 kDa that was present in all runner peanut genotypes and the Spanish-derivatives (GT-YY7, GT-YY20, and GT-YY79. The Spanish-derivatives have a runner-type peanut in their pedigrees. The 35 kDa protein in A13 and the 27 kDa protein in runner-type peanut genotypes were confirmed on the 2-D SDS-PAGE gels. Among more than 150 main protein spots on the 2-D gels, four protein spots that were individually marked as spots 1–4 showed polymorphic patterns between runner-type and Spanish-bunch peanuts. Spot 1 (ca. 22.5 kDa, pI 3.9 and spot 2 (ca. 23.5 kDa, pI 5.7 were observed in all Spanish-bunch genotypes, but were not found in runner types. In contrast, spot 3 (ca. 23 kDa, pI 6.6 and spot 4 (ca. 22 kDa, pI 6.8 were present in all runner peanut genotypes but not in Spanish-bunch genotypes. These four protein spots were sequenced. Based on the internal and N-terminal amino acid sequences, these proteins are isoforms (iso-Ara h3 of each other, are iso-allergens and may be

  16. Effect of the ozonization process on the quality of peanuts and crude oil Efeito do processo de ozonização na qualidade dos grãos e do óleo bruto de amendoim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes R. de Alencar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ozone on the quality of peanut grains and crude oil extracted from these grains. Peanut samples of 1 kg were used, with a moisture content of 8.0% w.b. and stored in 3 L glass recipients. The ozonization process utilized ozone gas concentrations of 13 and 21 mg L-1, temperature of 25 °C, exposure periods of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and a flow rate of 1.0 L min-1. Evaluation of peanut quality consisted of analysis for moisture content, electrical conductivity, lipid concentration and peanut color. The qualitative parameters of the crude oil evaluated were free fatty acids, peroxide index and iodine index. In general there was no alteration in peanut quality due to ozone, except for the coloration of the peanuts. With regard to parameters related to the crude oil extracted from the peanut, there were no qualitative alterations due to ozone exposure. It was concluded that, despite depigmentation of the skin surrounding the peanuts, the quality of the peanuts and the extracted crude oil is not affected by exposure to ozone gas at concentrations up to 21 mg L-1, for up to 96 h.O propósito deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito imediato do ozônio na qualidade dos grãos de amendoim e do óleo bruto extraído desses grãos. Utilizaram-se amostras de 1 kg de grãos, com teor de água de 8,0% b.u., acondicionadas em recipientes de vidro com capacidade de 3 L e no processo de ozonização, as concentrações de 13 e 21 mg L-1, temperatura de 25 °C, períodos de exposição de 0, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e vazão do gás de 1,0 L min-1. Para avaliação da qualidade dos grãos foram analisados os parâmetros teor de água, condutividade elétrica, teor de lipídios e coloração dos grãos. Quantificaram-se, para a avaliação da qualidade do óleo bruto, o teor de ácidos graxos livres, o índice de peróxido e o índice de iodo. Em geral, não ocorreu alteração da qualidade do amendoim em virtude a

  17. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  18. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm for...... presented in this study can be used when advising peanut-allergic children and their caretakers about what other legumes to avoid in the diet....

  19. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  20. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.; Cabral, D.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces......Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... aflatoxins G(1) and G(2), aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to A. flavus group II and three Australian soil isolates. A. arachidicola produces aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2), kojic acid, chrysogine and...

  1. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health, talk to your doctor or a physical therapist to find out what kinds of activities are ... the treatment of diseases of the skin. Follicle (FALL-lick-el). The opening in the skin where ...

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  3. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced skin damage. Blue-eyed, fair-skinned people show ... 80. Women gradually produce less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the ...

  4. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  5. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  6. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can trigger eczema, especially in young children. Skin staph infections can cause flare-ups in children as well. ... oral corticosteroids are also prescribed. If a skin staph infection is suspected to be a trigger for an ...

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  9. Skin lesion KOH exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KOH exam is a test to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin . How the Test is Performed ... Performed This test is done to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin. Normal Results No fungus is ...

  10. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  12. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  14. Chemical quality of different argentine honey varieties, irradiated to control american foulbrood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'American foulbrood' is a disease that seriously affects bees. Honey may be contaminated with spores of the related bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, which is a great drawback for trade. The scientific literature reports that these spores, resistant to heat and chemicals, are inactivated in honey when it is irradiated al 10 kGy, being this treatment mandatory in the Republic of Southafrica. Irradiated food wholesomeness is endorsed by the World Health Organization. Considering that Argentina is an important honey producer and exporter, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on some of its commercial chemical parameters along storage time. Honeys with different characteristics, coming from five different regions of the country: Middle, Patagonia, North, Litoral, Humid Pampa, were provided by producers from a commission called 'Packaged honey' of the National Food, Fishery and Agriculture Ministry. Fifteen kg of each honey variety were packaged in 500 g polypropylene recipes with polyethylene lids, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, 500,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 10 and 20 kilo Grays. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature for 10 months. Some standardized chemical analysis required by the Argentine Food Code (AFC) were performed on the first, fourth and tenth storage months: water content, acidity, diastase content, reducing sugars, and hydroxymethylfurfural. Reducing sugars and diastase activity slightly diminished, and acidity slightly increased, along storage which is typical in this product; no significant differences were found between control and irradiated samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural values, related to aging or thermal abuse, diminished slightly though significantly due to irradiation, which would not affect the product quality as regulations require not to surpass a maximum value, 40 mg/kg in the AFC. So ionizing

  15. Perpetuating Social Movements amid Declining Opportunity: The Survival Strategies of Two Argentine Piquetero Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Epstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent behaviour in Argentina of two national protest groups of socalled ‘piqueteros’ or picketers (impoverished unemployed individuals who used the blockage of strategic roads and bridges to force government concessions that emerged politically in the buildup to the crisis of 2001-2002. Using theoretical concepts developed by McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly in understanding social movements, the author analyses what he calls the ‘survival strategy’ adopted by their leaders as the political opportunities that produced their initial growth gave way to a more hostile environment with the normalization of Argentine politics under the Kirchner administration. While the two piquetero groups studied differ considerably in terms of their politics and ideology, both ended up depending on the same traditional tactic of utilizing important government contacts to obtain the resources necessary for organizational maintenance, despite their nominal identity as radical protesters against the present political system.Resumen: Perpetuando movimientos sociales y oportunidades decrecientes: las estrategias de sobrevivencia de dos grupos de piqueteros argentinesEste artículo examina el comportamiento reciente de dos grupos nacionales de protesta argentinos llamados ‘piqueteros’ (desempleados empobrecidos que usaron el bloqueo de calles y puentes estratégicos para forzar concesiones gubernamentales que aparecieron durante la crisis de 2001- 2002. Utilizando conceptos teóricos creados por McAdam, Tarrow, y Tilly en su discusión sobre los movimientos sociales, el autor analiza lo que describe como ‘estrategias de sobrevivencia’ adoptadas por sus dirigentes cuando las oportunidades que ocasionaron su crecimiento inicial cedieron ante un ambiente más hostil en el contexto de la normalización de la política argentina durante la administración de Kirchner. Aunque los dos grupos piqueteros estudiados se diferencian mucho en t

  16. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  17. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method. PMID:26471545

  18. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Ambient conditions such as light intensity,temperature and air flow of the BAZAR and also the relative humidity of peanuts were measured. Samples wereanalyzed for fungal colony and were identified using slide culture technique. Results showed that Mold fungiwere dominant among the colonies as. Aspergillus flavus (39.1%, Penicillium (9.2%, Rhizopus (7.2%, Mucor(2.5%, Alternaria (1.03% and Nigrospora (0.5%. Temperature and the samples relative humidity were higherthan the standard range. The results indicated a significant relation between relative humidity, light intensity,temperature and peanuts’ type (pure or salted with level of fungal contamination. Also, roasting and processingreduced the relative humidity of peanuts and the level of contamination. Hence roasting, salting and provision ofappropriate ambient conditions can be useful to peanut storage

  19. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants. PMID:19019105

  20. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  1. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, M; Gerhard, O

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a Box/Peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such Box/Peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well-known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models it has been claimed in the past that Box/Peanut bulges are supported by "bananas", or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent Made-to-Measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45...

  2. Oral administration of IL-12 suppresses anaphylactic reactions in a murine model of peanut hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Huang, C K; Zhang, T F; Schofield, B H; Burks, A W; Bannon, G A; Sampson, H A; Li, X M

    2001-11-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for peanut allergy, which accounts for most life-threatening food allergic reactions. Since IL-12 has been found to inhibit allergic airway responses in a mouse model of asthma and to cure Th2 cytokine-mediated murine schistosomiasis, we hypothesized that IL-12 treatment might also inhibit peanut allergic reactions. Consequently, we investigated the effects of oral IL-12 treatment in a murine model of peanut allergy and found that oral administration of liposome encapsulated rIL-12 could both prevent and reverse peanut hypersensitivity and could reduce histamine release, peanut-specific serum IgE and IgG1, and fecal IgA levels. Oral IL-12 treatment also increased IFN-gamma but did not decrease IL-4 or IL-5 levels. We conclude that oral rIL-12 treatment has therapeutic as well as preventive effects on peanut allergy, which are associated with increased IFN-gamma production. PMID:11683581

  3. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houmiao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus–peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R and -susceptible peanut (af_S at one (T1, three (T2 and seven (T3 days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops.

  4. High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences suggest that nuts consumption can improve energy metabolism. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effects of acute ingestion of high-oleic and conventional peanuts on appetite, food intake, and energy metabolism in overweight and obese men. Methods: Seventy one subjects (29.8 ± 2.4 kg/m² were assigned to the groups: control (CT, n = 24; conventional peanuts (CVP, n = 23; high-oleic peanuts (HOP, n = 24. Subjects consumed 56 g of peanuts (CVP and HOP or control biscuits (CT after overnight fasting. Thereafter, energy metabolism was evaluated over 200 minutes, during which diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and substrate oxidation were analyzed. Appetite sensation was recorded for 3 hours. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software considering 5% as the significance level. Results: Postprandial energy expenditure and DIT were significantly higher in HOP than in CVP. Substrate oxidation did not differ between groups. Only HOP presented score below 100 indicating incomplete compensation. CT and CVP showed a complete caloric compensation (scores > 100. Regarding appetite sensation, CVP group felt less "full" than HOP and CT. After 3 hours, satiety score of CVP returned to baseline, whereas HOP and CT remained significantly higher. Hunger scores returned to baseline in CVP and CT and they were maintained significantly lowered in HOP. Conclusion: High-oleic peanuts contributed to higher DIT, higher sensation of fullness and incomplete compensation for energy intake compared to conventional peanuts and may be useful to dietary intervention to reduce body weight.

  5. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  6. Friction induced skin tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  7. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  8. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  9. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  10. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas Tectónica activa en la Precordillera argentina y las Sierras Pampeanas occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.El antepais andino del centro-oeste de Argentina (28°S-33°S está caracterizado por deformaciones asociadas a la subducción horizontal activa de la placa de Nazca debajo de la litósfera de la placa Sudamericana. En esta región se concentra una importante actividad sísmica y fallamiento cortical activo. Para mejorar la identificación y caracterización de las fuentes sismogénicas en la región de San Juan, fueron integrados y combinados datos de sismología, geología estructural y geomorfología cuantitativa para establecer un modelo sismotectónico. El mismo considera al retroarco del oeste argentino como un antearco con convergencia oblicua donde las deformaciones plio-cuaternarias son particionadas en movimientos compresivos y de transcurrencia dextral. Dichos movimientos están localizados respectivamente en la Precordillera, una faja de pliegues y escurrimientos de cobertura con vergencia hacia el este, y en las Sierras

  11. INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS ON CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD AND PURHCASE PATTERN OF IN-SHELL PEANUTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2000-01-01

    A nationwide household survey was used to examine U.S. consumers' attitude and purchase behavior toward in-shell peanuts. Fishbein's multiattribute model was the basis for evaluating the effects of perceived product attributes on attitudes toward in-shell peanuts. Consumer purchase behavior was analyzed using a count data model. The results suggest that attitudes toward in-shell peanuts were influenced by attributes such as fat, taste, and healthiness, and that taste was the only attribute in...

  12. Identification of seed proteins associated with resistance to pre-harvested aflatoxin contamination in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ling; Chen Xiaoping; Zhang Erhua; Wang Tong; Liang Xuanqiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-harvest infection of peanuts by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination is one of the food safety factors that most severely impair peanut productivity and human and animal health, especially in arid and semi-arid tropical areas. Some peanut cultivars with natural pre-harvest resistance to aflatoxin contamination have been identified through field screening. However, little is known about the resistance mechanism, which has slowed the incorporation of...

  13. Characterization of a Pathogen Induced Thaumatin-Like Protein Gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a Wild Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Koppolu Raja Rajesh; Kumar, Dilip; Shukla, Pawan; P B Kirti

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) study using the conidial spray of the lat...

  14. Pengaruh Komposisi Konsentrat Sirsak Dan Kacang Tanah Dan Banyaknya Emulsifier Terhadap Mutu Mentega Kacang Campuran (Mixed Peanut Butter)

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Natra

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed to investigate the effect of soursop concentrate and peanut composition and emulsifier concentration on the quality of mixed peanut butter. This research had been performed using factorial completely randomized design, with two factors i.e : soursop concentrate and peanut composition (K): 0%:100%, 10%:90%, 20%:80%, 30%:70%, and emulsifier concentration (G) : 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Parameters analyzed were water content, ash contend, fat content, vitamin C countent, stick...

  15. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepote, V.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P, in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P, of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91% than T-P (48.95%. GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49% than GO-P (26.68%. GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively. In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad de pastas de cacahuete elaboradas a partir del cultivar alto oleico, Granoleico (GO-P, en comparación con el cultivar convencional, Tegua (T-P, de cacahuetes desarrollados en Argentina. GOP presentó mayor contenido de aceite (50.91% que T-P (48.95%. GO-P y T-P no mostraron diferencias en los contenidos de cenizas y carbohidratos. T-P presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (27.49% que GO-P (26.68%. GO-P mostró contenidos significativamente mayores de ácido oleico y menores de ácido linoleico (78.50% y 4.60%, respectivamente que T-P (45.80% y 33.30%, respectivamente. Además, GO-P mostró mayor porcentaje de ácido eicosenoico y

  16. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  17. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  18. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  19. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  20. Lithologic identification and characterization using ETM+ (Landsat 7. Study case of the Upsala glacier basin, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lo Vecchio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study aims to evaluate and analyze digital image processing techniques applied to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, in order to demark and characterize the outcropping lithologies on the Upsala Glacier basin, Santa Cruz, Argentine Republic. The prolific technological and spatial development experienced in the last decades has given place to the generation, without precedents, of multiple remote sensors capable of capturing information of the terrestrial surface and also the improvement of digital image processing techniques and software; amongst them, the amazing possibilities in the detection and differentiation of diverse covers present on the terrestrial surface can be highlighted, such as glaciers, volcanoes, vegetation, soils, water, types of rock outcrops, etc. This situation improves mapping and monitoring of natural phenomenon in the Earth Sciences field. The proposed methodology includes radiometric corrections, elimination of unwanted covers, statistical evaluation in the combination of the most appropriate bands, application of the Z index, discretization of the statistical series, entailing tasks of spectral classification with field samples and a later validation. Valuable results were obtained by means of digital processing of images, that were validated yielding a 82% of accuracy in the proposed classification, which are good results taking into account the diversity of covers present and the lithological heterogeneity that makes up each pixel (30m. These results were also validated with existing geological maps, obtaining a good agreement.

  1. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) trail pheromone enhances consumption of liquid sucrose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, L; Klotz, J H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated whether the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), trail pheromone, Z9-16:Ald, could enhance recruitment to and consumption of liquid sucrose solutions. All tests were done as paired comparisons with a 10% sucrose solution as food. In the laboratory, mixing 20 microl of a 10-microg/ml solution of the pheromone with 50 microl of the 10% sucrose solution increased the number of ants feeding by >150%. In a field test, we combined the trail pheromone with a 10% sucrose solution in 50-ml vials. These vials were covered with a plastic membrane that has 1.5-mm-diameter holes punched uniformly across its surface. Ants could drink from the holes after the vials were inverted. For half of the vials, 1 microg of the pheromone was put onto the plastic membrane before the vials were filled with a 10% sucrose solution. The remaining vials had no pheromone on the plastic membrane. After 4 h we measured the consumption in each vial. Bait consumption with the pheromone was enhanced by 29%. In a 2nd series of tests, vials were left outside for 24 h. The consumption rate was 33% higher with the pheromone compared with the controls that didn't have pheromone. PMID:14658521

  2. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Merín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL. This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

  3. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  4. The Argentine radioactive waste repository: Basic criteria, preliminary siting and design conceptual basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes studies carried out for siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes originating in the nuclear programme of Argentina. A summary is given of the basic criteria governing the study, as well as a description of the activities involved in the selection of the site, its validation and the derivation of the design basis of the repository, together with conceptual definitions regarding its engineering. At the end of the 1970s the Argentine authorities decided to explore alternatives for disposing of the high level radioactive wastes that would eventually be generated by the country's nuclear programme. This programme involves nuclear power reactors that will generate a time integrated electric energy of about 100 GW·a by the end of the century. The programme also includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. On the basis of the criteria adopted for the disposal of high level wastes, a site in stable, unfractured granite, near Gastre in the Province of Chubut, was selected for detailed studies out of about 200 potential sites. This site has been thoroughly investigated and its suitability will be validated. Work has also progressed on the design of the repository. (author)

  5. Training and the personnel accreditation of regulatory functions in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaching and the training are indispensable for the development of the human resources in all disciplines and occupations of the man in the world scale. About the applications of the radionuclides in the nuclear industry, in Argentina, during the last years, the efforts have been intensified. The necessity of improving the capacity of answer in radiation protection and nuclear safety demands an focus integrated in the teaching and the training. The radiological protection and the nuclear safety presents elements of the applied physics, the chemistry, the biology, the nuclear technology and other specialized subjects. However, in relation with the development of the human resources, specially those that belong to regulatory bodies and perform inspection functions, have important differences, necessities and specific problems. Some differences and problems emerge of the wide diversity and reach of the radiological and nuclear applications. Nowadays, in the world, the applications of the radiation and radioactive sources are being diversified in the medicine (diagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, the industry, the agricultures, and the investigation and teaching), that involve a permanent knowledge and actualization of the personnel of the regulatory bodies. For that exposed this work describe training program for the personnel with regulatory functions (inspectors) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the Argentine Republic. Also, this document includes the description of the basic formation and specialized in each case and it reach. (author)

  6. Reflections on the development of local suppliers for the Argentine nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has given recently a new start to its nuclear power activities. Looking for background and experiences that can be useful under the new reality, the paper is a survey of the past development of local suppliers for the national nuclear industry. Based on the intention to answer the questions: Why so early it was decided to build a nuclear power plant? Why it was decided to buy it under a turnkey basis rather than developing an indigenous design? and what was the meaning of the 'opening of the technology package' at that time?, the paper describes the actions that led to the purchase of the Atucha I, Embalse and Atucha II nuclear power plants and how these decisions were implemented in order to maximize local participation and the technology transfer. It also analyzes the influence of the Argentine Nuclear Plan of the late seventies on the development of endogenous technology and describes the facts that helped to preserve until now the technological nuclear capabilities of the country in spite of the stopping of the Atucha II construction, and to create positive expectations regarding the revival of the local industry as a supplier of nuclear goods and services. (author)

  7. Les intellectuels espagnols exilés dans l'Argentine peroniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bonardi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno argentino del general Perón reveló ser un verdadero chaleco salvavidas para la dictadura española. Esta política de cooperación provoca una viva oposición en Argentina. Este trabajo propone un análisis de las reacciones de los intelectuales españoles exiliados en Argentina. Observaremos de que manera los intelectuales españoles lucharon contra la dictadura franquista durante el idilio hispano-argentino y analizaremos el “modus operandi” adoptado por el gobierno peronista para obstaculizar las actividades anti-franquistas en el exilio.__________________ABSTRACT:The Argentine government of general Perón becomes an authentic life jacket for the Spanish dictatorship. This policy of cooperation triggers ample dispproval in Argentina. We propose an analysis of the reactions of the spanish intellectuals exiled in Argentina. We will see how the Spanish intellectuals fight against the Franco dictatorship during the honeymoon Hispanic-Argentinean. Also we will analyze the modus operandi adopted by the Peronist government to prevent the antifrancoist activities of the exiliados.

  8. The projects for heavy water production of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bases and scope of the projects for heavy water production that are being currently developed by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are described. As an introduction, the following points are presented: a) the fundamentals of heavy water utilization in a nuclear reactor, with a mention of its properties and uses, b) a review of the physicochemical bases of the principal methods for heavy water production: chemical exchange (monothermal and bithermal processes), distillation and electrolysis, with tables summarizing the fundamental characteristics of the first two ones, and an evaluation of the different production methods from the viewpoint of their application in an industrial scale; and c) a synthetic information, in the form of tables, about the world's heavy water production. The subject of heavy water production in Argentina is treated in the principal section, describing the scope, location, main characteristics and chemical processes corresponding to the projects being developed by CNEA, which currently are the installation of an Industrial Plant in Arroyito (Province of Neuquen), purchased on a turnkey basis and using the NH3/H2 isotopic exchange method; the installation of an Experimental Plant in Atucha (Province of Buenos Aires), for the development of the domestic technology of heavy-water production by the SH2/H2O isotopic exchange method, and the development of the engineering of an industrial plant (''Module 80''), based on the Experimental Plant's technology. (M.E.L.)

  9. Stability constants of some complexes of Argentine humic acids and micronutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main aims in the study of the complexes of humic substances and plant mineral nutrients in the soil is to obtain thermodynamic data which, compared with known systems, can give the necessary information to calculate the element activity in solution. This information is essential for predicting the dynamics of such nutrients in the soil solution, since the latter is one of the main locations of fundamental reactions related to soil genesis and fertility. The distribution of radioactive 65Zn and non-radioactive Cu between a cation exchange resin and the humic systems was used to calculate the stability constants of these elements and the humic acids (HA) extracted from various Argentine soils. On the basis of these stability constants, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) Copper was more strongly complexed than zinc by the humic acid of a Solod soil. Copper had also almost the same value of the logarithm of the stability constant for several soils (8.1 to 9.1); (2) The value of the stability constant of the Zn-HA complex was higher for a Chestnut soil (Petrocalcic Paleustoll) than for the other soils studied; (3) Since HA is an important insoluble fraction in normal soil conditions, it is suggested that the mobility of Cu is low in the soil solution of these soils. Therefore, a Cu deficiency may be predicted or expected. (author)

  10. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  11. Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita stock identification and incipient exploitation in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita is an essential species in the pelagic ecosystem of the southwest Atlantic Ocean, and a potentially important fishery resource. Exploitation has recently started in southern Brazil, so it requires a better understanding of their structure and population dynamics. This work aims to update the information on the population identification of E. anchoita. Parameters such as age and size composition, length-at-age data and other parameters using sagittae otoliths were used to compare anchovy of the continental shelf between 20° and 32°S. The results indicate the existence of different populations in the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil: the bonaerense stock in southern Brazil is shared with Argentina and Uruguay and exhibits migratory behavior, while in the southeast there is a population confined to this region and shows different population characteristics. This has implications for the management of this species and should be taken into account by the institutions responsible for the assessment and management of fisheries in Brazil.

  12. Argentine activities related to the development of low enriched fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the RERTR Program and supported by the technical cooperation work agreed upon between the USA and Argentina in May 1979, the CNEA Nuclear Fuel Department - Low Enriched Fuel Elements Project (ECBE Project) has carried on its own program for developing fuels with low enrichment for research and test reactors. Up to the present, its main objective has been to replace the highly enriched fuel used in its only reactor (RA-3) for research, development and radioisotopes production. The basic stages of the Argentine Program are shown. The densities reached were within the range of 3.12 to 3.58 g/cm3 for U3O8-Al, 2.99 to 3.09 g/cm3 for UAl2-Al and 5.18 to 6.10 g/cm3 for U3Si-Al. If further miniplates can be irradiated, it is the purpose of the program to research uranium densities of 3.5 g/cm3 in UAl2-Al and 6.5 g/cm3 in U3Si-Al

  13. Guidelines to upgrade and convert the Argentine's research reactor RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is been considered a proposal in order to define a project oriented to modify and to convert the Argentine's research reactor RA6 of 500 KW of thermal power. Its main guidelines are presented here. This reactor is in operation from 1982 in the Bariloche Atomic Center and was designed and constructed by CNEA and INVAP SE. Original core is composed by 25 old design RA3's fuel elements partially burned, that means containing high enriched uranium (HEU). The strategic objective of the project is to allow the use of this facility to produce radioisotopes as auxiliary alternative to the RA3. For these, it is proposed: - to adapt the facility in order to be able to increase the thermal power or neutron flux to adequate level enough to the mentioned use and regarding the compatibility with the general specifications and requiring a minimum of modifications; - to change the core, this implies: - to convert the reactor from HEU to LEU fuel opening the possibility to return spent fuel elements to USA through the RERTR previsions; to include new high density LEU fuels in developing in the country; - to complete the facilities to handle radioactive material in the RA6 building; No major problems are expected considering our long experience acquired with the RA3. Some preliminary studies are already under way. (author)

  14. F2-layer parameters long-term trends at the Argentine Islands and Port Stanley stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available The ionospheric sounding data at two southern hemisphere stations, the Argentine Islands and Port Stanley, are analyzed using a method previously developed by the authors. Negative trends of the critical frequency foF2 are found for both stations. The magnitudes of the trends are close to those at the corresponding (close geomagnetic latitude stations of the northern hemisphere, as considered previously by the authors. The values of the F2 layer height hmF2 absolute trends ΔhmF2 are considered. The effect of ΔhmF2 dependence on hmF2 found by Jarvis et al. (1998 is reproduced. A concept is considered that long-term changes of the geomagnetic activity may be an important (if not the only cause of all the trends of foF2 and hmF2 derived by several groups of authors. The dependence of both parameters on the geomagnetic index Ap corresponds to a smooth scheme of the ionospheric storm physics and morphology; thus, a principal cause of the foF2 and hmF2 geomagnetic trends is most probably a trend found in several publications in the number and intensity of ionospheric storms.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction; ionospheric disturbances

  15. Magnetic and Moessbauer Studies of Quaternary Argentine Loessic Soils and Paleosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of the current status about the remaining problems that are found in the investigation of the Quaternary Argentine soils and loessic sediments, and the way that Moessbauer studies can assist in solving them. There are two main types of investigations that make use of the magnetic response of the samples to correlate them with information gathered by other methods. On the one hand, there is the stratigraphic and chronological research, which is of importance from the geological and paleontological points of view. On the other hand, the paleoclimatic records, of significance toward a possible model of the past climate, are also studied because of their close relation to the sediments history. However, there is not yet a model that can tell the difference between the modifications due to the climatic conditions at the time when the soils were buried from processes that occurred after burial. Some examples are given that show that Moessbauer studies can be applied with a certain degree of success when cross-checked with magnetic measurements toward understanding the processes that occurred in alluvial B (paleosols) and C horizons (loess) from the eastern part of Buenos Aires Province. Although the application of Moessbauer studies to hydromorphic processes in soils is not straightforward, there are cases in which Moessbauer spectroscopy, if applied properly and correlated with other techniques, is able to characterize the type of iron oxides existing in the materials and thus assist theories about its origin and history.

  16. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C Inamadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  17. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  18. Oral and sublingual peanut immunotherapy is not ready for general use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational peanut allergy treatment aimed to achieve specific oral tolerance induction. Allergic children are given titrated oral (or sublingual) doses of their allergen on a daily basis, unlike in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OIT is theorized to cause a shift from a Th2 to a Th1 regulatory environment, reflected by increases in food-specific IgG4/IgE, and the production of FoxP3. Peanut OIT holds special promise because peanut allergy has an unfavorable natural history and is rarely outgrown. A high percentage of the participants experience symptoms during peanut OIT, including anaphylaxis, warranting epinephrine and/or discontinuation of therapy. This is a concerning fact given that the studies have mostly targeted only older children, with less historical reactivity for enrollment. The handful of peanut OIT studies have shown that some participants can be desensitized to peanut, but none have shown that long-term tolerance can be reestablished. Factors predictive of which patients are most likely to succeed and become desensitized through OIT are unknown. Some private practices have begun offering peanut OIT as a therapy. Such practice is potentially dangerous given the safety and efficacy of OIT in randomized controlled clinical trials is still not well established. Therefore, until further investigation emerges that conclusively demonstrates OIT is safe, intermediate and long-term outcomes are better established, the number of participants that experience symptoms is reduced, and proof of concept established in patients of all ages, (irrespective of past reaction severity), OIT is not ready for use in the general allergy practice. PMID:23676568

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (ppeanut butter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

  20. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  1. Effect of Soil Moisture on Release of Low-MolecularWeight Organic Acids in Root Exudates and the Accumulation of Iron in Root Apoplasm of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A three-compartments rhizobox was designed and used to study the low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates and the root apoplastic iron of "lime-induced chlorosis" peanut grown on a calcareous soil in relation to different soil moisture conditions. Results showed that chlorosis of peanuts developed under condition of high soil moisture level (250 g kg-1), while peanuts grew well and chlorosis did not develop when soil moisture was managed to a normal level (150 g kg-1). The malic acid, maleic acid and succinic acid contents of chlorotic peanut increased by 108.723, 0.029 and 22.446μg cm-2, respectively,compared with healthy peanuts. The content of citric acid and fumaric acid also increased in root exudates of chlorotic peanuts. On Days 28 and 42 of peanut growth, the accumulation of root apoplastic iron in chlorotic peanuts was higher than that of healthy peanuts. From Day 28 to Day 42, the mobilization percentages of chlorotic peanuts and healthy peanuts to root apoplastic iron were almost the same, being 52.4% and 52.8%,respectively, indicating that the chlorosis might be caused by the inactivation of iron within peanut plant grown on a calcareous soil under high soil moisture conditions.

  2. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  3. Sensitive skin: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Inamadar, Arun C.; Aparna Palit

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial...

  4. Archaea on human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Probst; Auerbach, Anna K.; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  5. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, van der, M.; X. Zeng; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  6. 15 June 2009 - President of the Argentine Nation C. Fernández visiting ATLAS experimental area.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1:President of the Argentine Nation, C. Fernández and Minister of Science, Technology and Innovative Production,L. Barañao Tirage 2-8:Arrival greetings Tirage 9-12:Introduction to CERN's activities by Director-General, R. Heuer Tirage 13-15:Signature of the guest book Tirage 16-25:M. Benedetti,R. Heuer and L.Barañao sit for the signature of the Agreement Tirage 26-33: Meeting with Argentinian scientists at CERN

  7. La construction territoriale de têtes de ponts antarctiques rivales : Ushuaia (Argentine) et Punta Arenas (Chili)

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Ushuaia et Punta Arenas sont les villes les plus australes de leurs pays d’appartenance,  l’Argentine et le Chili. Elles ont joué le rôle de ville frontière au service de la consolidation et la légitimation de ces territoires nationaux austraux localisés en position de bout du monde. Depuis cinquante ans, ces deux villes portuaires s’affirment comme les deux portes d’entrée internationales principales des relations avec le continent Antarctique, et en particulier avec la Péninsule Antarctique...

  8. Ce qu'on en dit après - le Currency Board argentin et sa fin tragique

    OpenAIRE

    Sgard, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    L'Argentine a mené entre 1991 et 2001 une des expériences de currency board les plus remarquables de la période moderne. Comment rendre compte de cette expérience, prise dans son ensemble ? Qu'apprend-elle sur les avantages et les inconvénients des currency board ? Comment expliquer son échec final et quelles conclusions plus générales en tirer ? Telles sont les questions auxquelles cet article souhaite apporter des éléments de réponse. Pour cela, l'auteur commence par rappeler les principaux...

  9. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production. PMID:26194243

  10. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernels to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut kernels inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia and uninoculated kernels were gamma irradiated. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of the inoculated mold was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 weeks incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μg/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels as 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. When uninoculated peanut kernels were irradiated and stored for 1 year at ambient and frozen conditions, molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 kGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  11. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  12. Development of Paper Products from Dried Sweetpotato Stems and Peanut Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, R.; Smith, R.; Jones, G.; Lu, J. Y.

    1998-01-01

    One of the goals of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS) for sustaining human life in space is to achieve a closed system in plant production and usage. That all inedible plant parts should be recycled or used in some way. A Tuskegee University team researching sweetpotato and peanut for ALS has developed paper products from dried sweet-potato stems and peanut shells. In this study, the sweet-potato stems and peanut shells were soaked separately in water for 48 hours. After 48 hours, researchers manually separated the pulp and the unusable parts. To form the paper, 160 g of pulp and water mixture was poured through a 15.1 cm (diameter) filtration funnel and the pulp was trapped on 15 cm (diameter) filter paper. The filter paper and pulp were dried in an air oven, and the filter paper was removed, An examination under a scanning electron microscope showed that the sweet-potato paper was composed of "fibers", whereas the peanut shell paper was composed of "blocks". Results of physical testing showed that the sweet-potato stem paper was stronger than the peanut shell paper. It is anticipated that there may be other uses of these products such as writing paper, bags and packaging material. Because of its biodegradability, it can be incorporated into the resource recycling system at the end of its use.

  13. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  14. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola-Siri Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance. A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location. Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population.

  15. Variations in sediment transport at the central Argentine continental margin during the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetzner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Franke, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    The construction of the sedimentary cover at most passive continental margins includes gravitational downslope transport and along-slope contourite deposition, which are controlled by tectonics, climate and oceanography. At the eastern continental margin of Argentina the history of deposition and erosion is intimately linked to the evolution of the South Atlantic and its water masses. Here we present a detailed seismic investigation of the mixed depositional system located between 41°S and 45°S. The study provides a northward complement to prior investigations from the southern Argentine margin and together with these may be used as background information for future ocean drilling in the region. Prominent features in our seismic cross sections are submarine canyons, mass wasting deposits, contourite channels, and sediment drifts. Four major seismic units above regional reflector PLe (˜65 Ma) are separated by distinct unconformities of regional extent. Using a dense grid of reflection seismic profiles, we mapped the depocenter geometries of the seismic units and derived a chronology of the depositional processes during the Cenozoic. While the Paleocene/Eocene (˜65-34 Ma) is characterized by hemipelagic sedimentation under relatively sluggish bottom water conditions, strong Antarctic bottom water (AABW) circulation led to widespread erosion on the slope and growth of a detached sediment drift during the Oligocene and early Miocene (˜34-17 Ma). After deposition of an aggradational seismic unit interpreted to represent the Mid-Miocene climatic optimum (˜17-14 Ma), gravitational downslope sediment transport increased during the middle to late Miocene (˜14-6 Ma) possibly related to tectonic uplift in South America. The Pliocene to Holocene unit (<˜6 Ma) is very heterogeneous and formed by interactions of downslope and along-slope sediment transport processes as indicated by the evolution of canyons, slope plastered drifts and channels.

  16. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eManrique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA. We describe a type of response termed a ‘freeze-look’, which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a ‘thinking’ face or hesitation, etc.. We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The ‘freeze-look’ results in the questioner ‘re-doing’ their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus we argue that the ‘freeze-look’ is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an ‘off-record’ practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying ‘Huh?’ or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  17. The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

  18. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  19. [Suitability of wild underexploited vegetables from the Argentine Chaco as a food resource].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre, M R; Baigorria, C M; Rozycki, V R; Bernardi, C M; Charpentier, M

    2000-12-01

    The nutritional value of wild underexploited vegetable samples collected in the Argentine Chaco was investigated. Leaves from Hipochaeris sp.-, Coronopus didimus and Portulaca olearacea; fruits from Zyziphus sativa, Brumelia obtusifolia and Eugenia uniflora; and roots of Canna coccinea were included in this work; several separate samples being taken at least during two consecutive harvesting seasons. Values for moisture, protein, total lipids, crude fiber, ash, reducing and total sugars, starch, total pectins and energy are given. Mineral micronutrient contents are reported for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus, as well as vitamin values (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). Higher concentrations of macronutrients were found in the leafy vegetables (32-50 Kcal/100 g) than in commercially exploited cultivars (14-30 Kcal/100 g), as shown by an increased energy value, the protein content of Portulaca olearacea (3.74 g/100 g) being highly remarkable. Unusually high micronutrient figures were also determined in Coronopus didimus, with 172.3; 3.98, and 46.7 mg/100 g, for calcium, iron and magnesium, respectively. In general, fruits also showed higher macronutrient contents, with the exception of proteins, with less but constant values (1.58 to 1.74 g/100 g), although contributing more energy than commercial cultivars (70 to 147 Kcal/100 g). Equally important proved to be the provitamin A content in Eugenia uniflora (11.98 mg/100 g). Roots of Canna coccinea revealed the lowest energy value (34 Kcal/100 g) but surprisingly, the highest content of phosphorus of all the species under study. PMID:11464672

  20. Ordovician K-bentonites in the Argentine Precordillera: relations to Gondwana margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Cingolani, C.A.; Astini, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'The proto- Andean margin of Gondwana', edited by R.J. Pankhurst and C.W. Rapela. Ordovician K-bentonites have now been recorded from >20 localities in the vicinity of the Argentine Precordillera. Most occur in the eastern thrust belts, in the San Juan Limestone and the overlying the Gualcamayo Formation, but a few ash beds are known also from the central thrust belts. The oldest occur in the middle Arenig I, victoriae lunatus graptolite (Oe. evae conodont) Zone, and the youngest in the middle Llanvirn P. elegans (P. suecicus) Zone. Mineralogical characteristics, typical of other Ordovician K-bentonites, include a matrix of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay and a typical felsic volcanic phenocryst assemblage: biotite, beta-form quartz, alkali and plagioclase feldspar, apatite, and zircon, with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene, titanite and Fe-Ti oxides. The proportions of the mineral phases and variations in their crystal chemistry are commonly unique to individual (or small groups of) K-bentonite beds. Glass melt inclusions preserved in quartz are rhyolitic in composition. The sequence is unique in its abundance of K-bentonite beds, but a close association between the Precordillera and other Ordovician sedimentary basins cannot be established. The ash distribution is most consistent with palaeogeographical reconstructions in which early Ordovician drifting of the Precordillera occurred in proximity to one or more volcanic arcs, and with eventual collision along the Andean margin of Gondwana during the mid-Ordovician Ocloyic event of the Famatinian orogeny. The Puna-Famatina terrane northeast of the Precordillera might have served as the source of the K-bentonite ashes, possibly in concert with active arc magmatism on the Gondwana plate itself.