WorldWideScience

Sample records for argentine peanut skins

  1. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Solange Guidolin CANNIATTI-BRAZACA

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to...

  2. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa de Camargo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ. Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h, measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

  4. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  6. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of catechins in peanut seed skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are cultivated as a source of edible seed oil and protein. The peanut seed testa or skin that surrounds the seed is typically removed after the shelling process by blanching. Several phenolic compounds such as catechins may be isolated as co-products from peanut seed skins...

  8. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Peanut Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nepote

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of skin from runner peanut was performed on sunflower refined oil. The skin was obtained from industrial blanching process. The oil was oxidized at 60ºC. The methanolic extracts show antioxidant activity in relation to the oil (without additives. However these extracts do not reach the activity level from BHT.

  10. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  11. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Peanut Skin using HPLC-MSn

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Kyle Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Consumers view natural antioxidants as a safe means to reduce spoilage in foods. In addition, these compounds have been reported to be responsible for human health benefits. Identification of these compounds in peanut skins may enhance consumer interest, improve sales, and increase the value of peanuts. This study evaluated analytical methods which have not been previously incorporated for the analysis of peanut skins. Toyopearl size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used for separating phen...

  12. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  13. Physicochemical effects of gamma radiation in peanuts and the utilization of their peanut skins as natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanuts are among the most popular oilseed in the world, their lipid content is about 50%, on average. Their fatty acid composition is characterized by high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. Peanuts are a source of dietary tocopherol and polyphenols, antioxidants that play benefits to human health. However, the presence of potential mycotoxic fungi is a concern of this oilseed production chain. Gamma radiation, in addition to good agricultural practices, has been identified as an effective treatment for disinfecting peanuts of fungi and has been identified as a potential tool for reducing their allergenicity. However, the physicochemical quality of the peanuts deserves attention due to its high lipid percentage. The irradiation process can promote the formation of free radicals, increase lipid oxidation and induce molecular changes that may reflect changes in the antioxidant properties. In the present study samples of peanut from IAC Runner 886 cultivar, peeled, in shell and blanched as well as their peanut skins were subjected to gamma radiation in doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy with dose rate of 7.5 kGy.h-1 using a cobalt-60 source. The samples were stored for six months at room temperature and analysis were performed at the beginning of the study and after each three month storage on peanuts and just at the beginning of the study on peanut skins. Few changes noticed in the physical parameters of color seem to be more related to storage than the irradiation process Chemical parameters related to the antioxidant properties showed moderate change due to the irradiation process, while storage was determinant on the reduction of bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant activity in the samples. No correlation was found between gamma radiation and fatty acid changes of peanuts. Tocopherol content and the induction period of the crude peanut oil were negatively correlated with gamma radiation doses. Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching

  14. 花生红衣研究进展%The Research Progress of the Peanut Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧文; 许海燕; 马超美

    2015-01-01

    花生是我国的优势种植作物,产量位居世界首位,但是缺少深度开发,花生红衣的利用率低下。花生红衣是重要粮油作物花生(Arachis hypogaea .L)的种皮,同时也是一味传统中药。花生红衣中的化学成分主要是原花青素,根据成分的聚合度进行分类。原花青素具有很强的生物活性,如抗氧化、降血脂、降血糖和抗过敏等,又具食源性和低毒性的特点,因此在食品和药品领域有巨大的应用前景和实用价值。本文对花生生产的基本情况、花生红衣的化学成分、生物活性和应用前景进行了详细综述。%Peanut is an important crop as food and oil, while its seed skin is also known as a tradi-tional Chinese medicine.This review compiled reports of procyanidins at home and abroad, introduced the chemical compositions, biological activities and the application prospect of peanut skin in detail. Peanut is an important plant in China, with the highest production over the world.But there are much peanut skin wasted in the processing of peanut-derived products.The main chemical compositions in peanut skin were procyanidins, which were classified according to the polymerization degree, with fig-ures to illustrate each compound.This paper summarized the current knowledge on the biological ac-tivities, such as antioxidant and antiallergic activity, inhibition on hyperlipidemia and diabetes, etc. Based on the latest studies at home and abroad, peanut skin is considered to be with great application in the field of food and medicine for its strong antioxidant activities and low toxicity.

  15. The Research Progress of the Peanut Skin%花生红衣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧文; 许海燕; 马超美

    2015-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop as food and oil, while its seed skin is also known as a tradi-tional Chinese medicine.This review compiled reports of procyanidins at home and abroad, introduced the chemical compositions, biological activities and the application prospect of peanut skin in detail. Peanut is an important plant in China, with the highest production over the world.But there are much peanut skin wasted in the processing of peanut-derived products.The main chemical compositions in peanut skin were procyanidins, which were classified according to the polymerization degree, with fig-ures to illustrate each compound.This paper summarized the current knowledge on the biological ac-tivities, such as antioxidant and antiallergic activity, inhibition on hyperlipidemia and diabetes, etc. Based on the latest studies at home and abroad, peanut skin is considered to be with great application in the field of food and medicine for its strong antioxidant activities and low toxicity.%花生是我国的优势种植作物,产量位居世界首位,但是缺少深度开发,花生红衣的利用率低下。花生红衣是重要粮油作物花生(Arachis hypogaea .L)的种皮,同时也是一味传统中药。花生红衣中的化学成分主要是原花青素,根据成分的聚合度进行分类。原花青素具有很强的生物活性,如抗氧化、降血脂、降血糖和抗过敏等,又具食源性和低毒性的特点,因此在食品和药品领域有巨大的应用前景和实用价值。本文对花生生产的基本情况、花生红衣的化学成分、生物活性和应用前景进行了详细综述。

  16. Combined normal-phase and reversed-phase liquid chromatography/ESI-MS as a tool to determine the molecular diversity of A-type procyanidins in peanut skins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Vincken, J.P.; Sanders, M.B.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Peanut skins, a byproduct of the peanut butter industry, are a rich source of proanthocyanidins, which might be used in food supplements. Data on the molecular diversity of proanthocyanidins in peanut skins is limited and conflicting with respect to the ratio of double- (A-type) versus single-linked

  17. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  18. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariza Pires de Melo; Marco Antonio Trindade; Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in vitro of peanut skin extract (PSE) and effect of PSE on characteristics of sheep patties during storage. Methods: PSE phenolic profile was evaluated in LC–MS analysis and by total phenolic content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power. Patties elaborated with sheep meat were packaged in modified at-mosphere and storage at (2 ± 1) ?C. The analyses were performed every 5 days for 20 days on microbial counts, physico-chemical properties, lipid oxidation, protein stability and sensory characteristics. Results: The major group of phenolic compounds in PSE was the proanthocyanidins followed by other flavonoids, which are related to potential phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity. The addition of PSE and butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT) reduced the mi-crobial counts during the storage time, caused reduction on the loss of redness and sensory properties over time. The lipid and protein oxidation in sheep patties was effectively inhibited by PSE and BHT. Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT) for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  19. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation. PMID:26304352

  20. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  1. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  2. 红衣组分对花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物理化和抗氧化性质的影响%Effect of peanut red skin on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein isolate and its hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炜; 杨晓泉; 刘远洋; 郭健; 任晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    Peanut was used as raw material,the effects of peanut red skin on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein isolate(PPI) and its hydrolysates were studied.The results showed that:the hydrolysis speed of PPI with peanut red skin was slower than PPI without peanut red skin;under the conditions of the same value of DH,surface hydrophobicity of PPI with peanut red skin was less than PPI without peanut red skin;in the distribution of GPC,the peak of PPI with peanut red skin was greater than PPI without peanut red skin;peanut red skin could improve the solubility,emulsion stability and emulsifying activity of PPI and its hydrolysates;under the conditions of the same value of DH,content of polyphenol of hydrolysates of PPI with peanut red skin was significantly increased,content of polyphenol had a positive correlation with antioxidant properties of PPI and its hydrolysates.%以花生为原料,研究了花生红衣组分对花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物理化和抗氧化性质的影响。研究结果表明:含红衣的分离蛋白酶解速度低于不含红衣的;相同水解度条件下,含红衣的表面疏水性小于脱红衣的;GPC分布中,含红衣的峰值大于脱红衣的;红衣组分能够提高花生分离蛋白及其酶解产物的溶解性、乳化稳定性、乳化活性;在相同水解度条件下,含红衣的水解产物多酚含量显著高于脱红衣的,多酚含量的差异与花生分离蛋白及其水解产物的抗氧化性具有正相关性。

  3. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Maria; Schnoor Heidi J; Malling Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 ye...

  4. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  5. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  6. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  7. 花生衣红色素提取及抗氧化作用研究进展%Research Progress on Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Peanut Skin Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟硕莉

    2013-01-01

    花生衣红色素是一种提取自花生内衣的天然色素资源,其主要成分为黄酮类物质。介绍花生衣红色素的基本特性,对花生衣红色素的提取方法和抗氧化作用的最新研究进展进行简要总结,以期为花生衣红色素的进一步研究开发提供参考。%Peanut skin red pigment is a kind of natural pigment extracted from the inside skin of peanut. Its main ingredients are of flavonoids. This paper describes the basic characteristics of peanut haematochrome, the latest research progress of extraction methods and its antioxidant effects in order to provide reference for the further research and development of peanut skin red pigment.

  8. Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossny Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations. Methods We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for site of allergy, possible precipitating factors, consumption of peanuts (starting age and last consumption, duration of breast feeding, current treatment, and family history of allergy as well as skin prick testing with a commercial peanut extract, and serum peanut specific and total IgE estimation. Children who were found sensitized to peanuts were subjected to an open oral peanut challenge test taking all necessary precautions. Results Seven subjects (7% were sensitized and three out of six of them had positive oral challenge denoting allergy to peanuts. The sensitization rates did not vary significantly with gender, age, family history of allergy, breast feeding duration, clinical form of allergy, serum total IgE, or absolute eosinophil count. All peanut sensitive subjects had skin with or without respiratory allergy. Conclusions Peanut allergy does not seem to be rare in atopic children in Egypt. Skin prick and specific IgE testing are effective screening tools to determine candidates for peanut oral challenging. Wider scale multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of peanut allergy and its clinical correlates in our country.

  9. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai and Vietnamese) and Mexican restaurants; bakeries; and ice cream shops. The FDA exempts highly refined peanut oil ... Executive Team Board of Directors Clinical & Research Advisors History Become a Member Corporate Partners Careers Contact Us ...

  10. 花生红衣粗多酚体外抗氧化活性研究%Peanut skin coarse polyphenol antioxidation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曼; 韩升廷; 张海悦; 魏滢

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of polyphenols was studied for peanut red skins. Ethanol,acetone,distilled water were used as extraction solvent for polyphenols from peanut red skins. The antioxidant capacity of polyphenols extracts were determined by the total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) testing,superoxide radical scavenge ability and hydroxyl radicals scavenge ability. The antioxidant activity in vitro of these three polyphenols extracts was compared and the total polyphenols content was determined, The results showed that the total polyphenols content of three polyphenols extracts was at 9,7%,9.2% and 6.3%. In the different antioxidant system,three kinds of polyphenol extracts had good antioxidant activity,which 60% ethanol extracts oxidation capacity was higher than the volume fraction of 0.02% Vc. The order of the three oxidation capacity were 60% ethanol extracts>60% acetone extracts>distilled water extracts.%对花生红衣粗多酚抗氧化活性进行研究.采用乙醇、丙酮、蒸馏水3种溶剂提取花生红衣中多酚类物质,通过粗多酚提取液总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)清除能力、羟基自由基(·OH)清除作用的测定,比较了3种酚提液的体外抗氧化活性,并测定了其中总多酚含量.结果表明,3种粗多酚提取液总多酚含量分别为9.7%、9.2%、6.3%;在不同抗氧化体系中,3种酚提液均具有良好的抗氧化活性,其中60%乙醇提取液抗氧化能力均高于体积分数0.02%的Vc,抗氧化能力的大小顺序为:60%乙醇提取液>60%丙酮提取液>蒸馏水提取液.

  11. Development of Compound Soft Sweets of Peanut Red Skin with Chinese Yam and White Fungus%花生红衣山药银耳软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 卜婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The peanut red skin, Chinese yam and white fungus are used as the main materials in this essay. The existence of pectin and sugar make this product closer to the definition of the health soft sweets. The peanut red skin , Chinese yam , liquid fungus , pectin and sugar are studied respectively by single factor experiment and L9(34) orthogonal experiment to find the best ratio of every ingredients. The result shows that ratio of every ingredient can be:peanut red skin∶Chinese yam and liquid fungus∶pectin∶sugar is 5∶40∶4∶50.%以花生红衣、山药、银耳为主要原料,添加果胶、白砂糖等研制出保健软糖。对花生红衣量、山药和银耳浆、果胶和白砂糖4个因素分别进行单因素和正交试验,得到最佳制取配方,即:花生红衣∶山药银耳浆∶果胶∶白砂糖为(质量比)5∶40∶4∶50。

  12. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these foods. Sauces. Many cooks use peanuts or peanut butter to thicken chili and other sauces. Always proceed ... the knife another family member used to make peanut butter sandwiches is not used to butter your bread ...

  13. 几种常见有机酸对黑花生衣色素的辅色效果研究%Study on the Copigmentation of the Black Peanut Skin Pigment with Several Common Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王精明

    2012-01-01

    It was studied that the copigmentation of several kinds of organic acid with black peanut skin pigment(BPSP). It was adopted 60% acid alcohol as black peanuts skin pigment extractant, making the black peanuts skin pigment concentrate. It was studied that changes in the pigment solution absorbance when different organin acids were added. The results indicated that the malonic acid, maleic acid,lactic acid and oxalic acid were able to increase the absorbency of the BPSP solution in the concentration of 0.1%. Besides succinic acid,in the concentration of 0.1% to 0. 6% , other organic acid concentration positively correlated with the absorbency of the BP- SP.%研究了几种有机酸对黑花生衣色素的辅色作用效果,采用60%酸性乙醇作为黑花生衣色素的提取剂,制取黑花生衣色素浓缩液,分别添加不同的有机酸,研究色素溶液吸光度的变化。结果表明0.1%的丙二酸、顺丁烯二酸、乳酸和草酸能增加黑花生衣色素的吸光度。除丁二酸外,在0.1%~0.6%范围内,添加有机酸的浓度与色素的吸光度呈正相关。

  14. Argentine radiation protection society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

  15. 黑花生衣色素抗氧化作用的研究%Study on antioxidant activities of black peanut skin pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜蕾; 李新华; 陈芳芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the antioxidant activities of black peanut skin pigment (BPSP), reducing ability and scavenging activities of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical and antioxidative activity on lipid of the BPSP were determined. Results showed that the UV spectrum of BPSP had two maximum absorb summit at 223nm and 278nm,it was the same as other natural antioxidant such as cocoa pigment and sorghum red pigment,and their IC50 to hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion radical and DPPH radical were 0.601,0.496, and 0.208 mg/mL respectively and the antioxidative activity on lipid was strong,it was an excellent natural antioxidant.%为研究黑花生衣色素的抗氧化能力,对黑花生衣色素溶液进行紫外一可见光谱扫描。并分别测定黑花生衣色素的还原能力,清除羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基的能力以及扰脂质过氧化功能。结果表明:黑花生衣色素的紫外光谱图显示在223nm和278nm处有两个最大吸收峰,与可可色素和高粱红色素等天然抗氧化物质的紫外吸收图谱相似;对羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基的半抑制能力IC5D分别为0.601、0.496、0.208mg/mL,对脂质过氧化有很强的抑制作用,是一种效果较好的天然抗氧化剂。

  16. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  17. Argentine National Pharmacopoeia (Argentine Codex Medicamentarius). 6. ed., suppl. 1982.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards of mandatory application, established by Law No. 22729 of February, 1983, on radiopharmaceuticals and radiosterilization of products for medical use, issued as a supplement to the text of the Argentine National Pharmacopoeia. In particular, the general characteristics, identification and purity tests, radioactivity valuation, top date of utilization, and form of conservation of different radiopharmaceuticals are described. (C.A.K.)

  18. Release of OLe peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  19. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  20. Registration of VENUS peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENUS is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. VENUS is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for optimal performance in the South...

  1. Nucleoelectric energy in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text intends to reflect a coherent and sustained management in the Argentine nucleoelectrical policy. Through individual thematic unities connected between them, the basic structure consists of three principal parts. The first part introduces a broad panorama of atomic energy in the world, in the international treaties and organizations. Also the technical, economic and political aspects which had influence in the Argentine nuclear policies, particularly in the electrical production with nuclear power plants, are considered in this part. The second part describes the historical sequence of the principal achievements of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in the nuclear industry. A mention of particular criteria adopted in each situation and the intention and motivations that guide the decisions are also considered. Finally, an actual balance of the nucleoelectrical technology situation in Argentine and in the world is presented. (Author)

  2. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  3. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  4. Functional properties of peanut fractions on the growth of probiotics and foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfei; Bitsko, Elizabeth; Biswas, Debabrata

    2015-03-01

    Various compounds found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) have been shown to provide multiple benefits to human health and may influence the growth of a broad range of gut bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of peanut white kernel and peanut skin on 3 strains of Lactobacillus and 3 major foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens. Significant (P microbes. We also found that within 72 h, PF inhibited growth of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), while PSE significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited Listeria monocytogenes but promoted the growth of both EHEC and Salmonella Typhimurium. The cell adhesion and invasion abilities of 3 pathogens to the host cells were also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.5% PF and 0.5% PSE. These results suggest that peanut white kernel might assist in improving human gut flora as well as reducing EHEC, whereas the beneficial effects of peanut skins require further research and investigation.

  5. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties. PMID:27596394

  6. Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony J

    2004-04-01

    Human skin provides a barrier between the host and the physical, chemical, and biological environment. It is also a potential portal of entry for hazardous or infectious agents and a potential target of environmental toxins. Cutaneous vulnerability may take on many forms in the embryo, infant, child, and adolescent. Teratogenic agents may occasionally target skin, as appreciated in the proposed association of the antithyroid medication methimazole, with the congenital malformation known as aplasia cutis congenita. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied substances and the potential for resultant drug toxicities are important considerations in the child. Many topical agents have been associated with systemic toxicity, including alcohol, hexachlorophene, iodine-containing compounds, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, and lindane. Percutaneous toxicity is of greatest concern in the premature infant, in whom immaturity of the epidermal permeability barrier results in disproportionately increased absorption. Immature drug metabolism capabilities may further contribute to the increased risk in this population. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, which increases an individual's risk of cutaneous carcinogenesis, may be a particularly significant risk factor when it occurs during childhood. The "critical period hypothesis" suggests that UV exposure early in life increases the risk of eventual development of malignant melanoma. Other risk factors for malignant melanoma may include severe sunburns during childhood, intense intermittent UV exposure, and increased susceptibility of pediatric melanocytes to UV-induced DNA damage. Last, percutaneous exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals, such as insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, may differ between children and adults for several reasons, including behavioral patterns, anatomic and physiologic variations, and developmental differences of vital organs. PMID:15060207

  7. Effect Of GAMMA Irradiation On THEANTIOXIDANT Activity Of Ethanolic Extracts From Peanut Hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut skins and hulls are by-products of the peanut industry that has low economic value despite its high contents of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels 4 and 8 kGy on total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity were studied and the composition of irradiated and non-irradiated ethanolic extracts of peanut skins and hulls (Giza-80 variety) was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The results showed that ethanolic extracts of peanut hull samples had a higher content of total phenolic compounds than samples of ethanolic extracts of peanut skins and exhibited antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Based on these results, the hulls of Giza-80 variety were selected as the best antioxidant as compared to peanut skins because of their high contents of total phenolic compounds and scavenging effect on DPPH radical. Thus, the biological experiment indicated that addition of non-irradiated and irradiated ethanolic extracts of peanut hulls to animal diets caused a significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) while very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was decreased significantly. These results are very beneficial to protect the heart against coronary heart diseases risks.

  8. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  9. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valerie; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Giraud, Tatiana;

    2010-01-01

    ) and secondary introductions (from sites with established invasive supercolonies) were important in the global expansion of the Argentine ant. In combination with the similar social organization of colonies in the native and introduced range, this indicates that invasiveness did not evolve recently as a unique...

  10. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  11. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  12. DOES THE REDUCTION IN PEANUT PRICES BENEFIT PEANUT BUTTER CONSUMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Nadolnyak, Denis A.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2004-01-01

    Using monthly data, we find evidence of both short- and long-run asymmetry of price transmission from peanut to peanut butter prices. This suggests that the asymmetry is more likely a result of imperfect competition than of competitive profit maximizing inventory management. Effects of producer support policy changes are discussed.

  13. DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF PEANUT BUTTER ADVERTISING ON PEANUT BUTTER DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Deodhar, Satish Y.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1998-01-01

    Using error correction approach and nonlinear three-stage-squares, long-run and short-run effects of aggregate brand advertising on the U.S demand for peanut butter are estimated. Results indicate that demand for peanut butter is more responsive to advertising in the long-run. Moreover, demand is responsive to price only in the short-run.

  14. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.

  15. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  16. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as...

  17. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  18. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  19. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  20. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author)

  1. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  2. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  3. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  4. Exploration of Possible Astroblemes in the Argentine Puna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Alonso, R.; Rocca, M.; Klajnik, K.; Tálamo, E.

    2014-09-01

    Potential three new astrobleme sites have been detected by remote sensors and checked in situ in Argentine Puna: an elevated plateau that it has remained stable and invariable across long geological periods.

  5. Framing crime: moral panic in Argentine newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ARUGUETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Píparo was shot a few minutes after withdrawing cash from a bank branch. This case outraged the public opinion because she was eight months pregnant at the moment of the assault. She had to undergo a caesarean section and her baby only survived one week. Through an exploratory and inductive research we will analyze how the Argentine newspapers presented the case. We aim at elaborating a content analysis code book that can be validated in future similar researches on the subject. We apply the Framing theory in order to detect the frames used in the news coverage and to observe if they are compatible with the idea of «moral panic» proposed by Stanley Cohen.

  6. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  8. Economically Feasible Crop Production Alternatives to Peanuts in Southwestern Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Devkota, Shankar; Holcomb, Rodney B.; Taylor, Merritt J.; Epplin, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the U.S. peanut program have resulted in drastically decreased planted acres and forced many peanut producers in the Southwest to consider alternative crops. This study examined the economic risk associated with producing peanuts and common alternatives to peanuts. Seedless watermelon is an alternative for risk preferring farmers whereas, irrigated peanut is the best choice for risk averse farmers.

  9. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  10. 75 FR 53731 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Contemporary Argentine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks... of August 28, 2000, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  11. Re-defining Anglo-Argentine literature: from travel writing to travelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    Ferradas, Claudia Mónica

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a definition of Anglo-Argentine literature, a literary corpus that has not been explicitly defined, and provides a reading list of Anglo-Argentine works on the basis of that definition. The research is based on the presupposition that Anglo-Argentine texts can be used to contribute to an intercultural approach to language and literature teaching in the Argentine higher education context. Such texts can encourage reflection on how writing on Argentina in English has co...

  12. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its post

  13. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  14. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k......Da. A master leaf polypeptide profile was generated based on the consistently expressed protein pattern. Proteins present in 205 spots were identified using GPS software and Viridiplantae database (NCBI). Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, glyoxisomal malate...

  15. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07% followed by peanut skin (15.17% and grape marc (7.92%. In terms of lyophilized sample, total phenolics did not vary significantly among the residues evaluated (average of 60.33mg EAG g-1; however, when they were expressed as dry extract grape marc exhibited the highest total phenolic (768.56±116.35mg GAE g-1, followed by peanut skin (404.40±13.22mg GAE g-1 and mango bagasse (160.25±4.52mg GAE g-1, Peanut skin exhibited the highest content of total flavonoids (2.44mg QE g-1, while grape marc (1.76mg QE g-1 and mango bagasse (1.70 mg QE g-1 showed no significant differences. The extraction yield showed strong negative linear correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoid. This study showed that peanut skin was the sample with the highest antioxidant activity and it was strongly influenced by total flavonoids. All extracts of byproducts showed antioxidant activity comparable to α-tocopherol, and they can be a source of natural compounds with potential to replace synthetic antioxidants such as BHT.

  16. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from visible Aspergillus flavus. (c) Segregation 2. “Segregation 2 peanuts” means farmers stock peanuts... rancidity, mold, or decay and which are free from visible Aspergillus flavus. (d) Segregation 3. “Segregation 3 peanuts” means farmers stock peanuts with visible Aspergillus flavus....

  17. Maintaining Roads : The Argentine Experience with Output-Based Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Liautaud, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The Argentine government is using output-based contracts with the private sector for rehabilitation and maintenance of its nonconcessioned road network. The multiyear lump sum contracts, funded by the government, specify required road service outputs and use incentive-based payment schedules to ensure the quality of the work. After three years of operation the 60 contracts (averaging US$10...

  18. A view on the future of Argentine nuclear exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to anticipate the possibilities of future nuclear technology exports, the technological capacities of the organizations and companies that make up the Argentine nuclear sector are analyzed together with the evolution of their possible markets. The main export opportunities are seen in the field of the research reactors, nuclear fuel elements, heavy water and radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications

  19. Sino-Argentine SLR station making new progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Argentine satellite laser ranging (SLR) system ranks second in the pass total of satellites it has observed among the SLR satellite observatories worldwide, according to statistics of the International Laser Ranging Service from October 2007 to September 2008. In addition, it tops the world in observing high orbit satellites, a difficult task to perform.

  20. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  1. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  2. Enzymatic treatment of peanut butter to reduce the concentration of major peanut allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzymatic treatment of peanut butter on two-major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Home-made and commercial peanut butter samples were treated with alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin or the combination of these enzymes and incubated at room temperature for 24�h or at 37��C for 3�h. Treated peanut butter samples were sampled weekly for evaluation of total soluble proteins and extractable Ara h 1/Ara h 2. Data show that 1:1 alpha-chymotrypsin: trypsin at 0...

  3. Comparative Studies on Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Water and Ethanol Extracts from Peanut Skin%花生红衣乙醇和水提取物的抗氧化性与抑菌活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊柳; 张磊; 张吉民; 孙庆杰

    2012-01-01

    采用乙醇和水做溶剂提取花生红衣,并对得到的花生红衣提取物进行猪油的抗氧化性考察,对食品中常见污染菌的抗菌活性研究。结果表明:两种花生红衣提取物均可以明显的降低猪油的过氧化值,延缓猪油的氧化,当花生红衣乙醇提取物加入量为0.8‰效果最好;且抗氧化性具有剂量依赖性。两种花生红衣提取物抑菌作用均显著,其抗菌活性随着剂量增加而增强;花生红衣乙醇提取物对细菌和真菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC)分别为0.44‰和0.62‰,花生红衣水提取物对细菌和真菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC)分别为0.38‰和0.56‰。%The antioxidant effects of water and ethanol extracts from peanut skin on lard and the antibacterial activity against common bacterial pollutants were investigated in the present study. The results showed that both extracts could remarkably inhibit the increase of peroxide value of lard, and delay the oxidation of lard. The ethanol extract revealed the best inhibitory effect at the dosage of 0.8‰ and the antioxidant effect was in a dosage-dependent fashion. Furthermore, the two extracts exhibited obvious dose-dependent antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ethanol extract against bacteria and fungi were 0.44‰ and 0.62‰, and of the water extract 0.38‰and 0.56‰, respectively.

  4. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  5. 78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Nominations should be sent to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit...

  6. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... to Jennie M. Varela, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...

  7. Other-initiated repair in Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Other-initiated repair is an essential interactional practice to secure mutual understanding in everyday interaction. This article presents evidence from a large conversational corpus of a sign language, showing that signers of Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or ‘LSA’), like users of spoken languages, use a systematic set of linguistic formats and practices to indicate troubles of signing, seeing and understanding. The general aim of this article is to provide a...

  8. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Senesi; Fabio Ribas Chaddad; Hernán Palau

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS) and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultu...

  9. Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M.; Nelson, Erik H; Varela, Lucia G; Battany, Mark; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Rust, M K

    2008-01-01

    Liquid ant baits are an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays conventionally used to control Argentine ants. We review the development of liquid ant baits, which capitalize on the ants’ sugar-feeding requirements and social structure to deliver small doses of toxicant throughout the colony. The ant bait program described here, developed for commercial vineyards, also has the potential to facilitate the use of biological controls for mealybug and scale pests. The implementation of a...

  10. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  11. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  12. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  13. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides. PMID:21080075

  14. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  15. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  16. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  17. XXXVIII Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology (AATN 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 38th Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology was organized by the AATN (Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear) in Buenos Aires, Argentine, between the 14 and 18 November of 2011. In this event 146 papers in 16 Sessions, with 13 Plenary Conferences and 3 Roundtables were presented.

  18. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  19. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  20. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  1. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  2. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos del cáncer no melanoma de piel en un servicio de dermatología de la ciudad de Santa Fe - Argentina 2007 Epidemiologic aspects to the skin cancer non melanoma in a dermatologic office of the Santa Fe city - Argentine 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L M Lukaszuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del cáncer no melanoma de piel (CNMP, principalmente en países tropicales ha aumentado en grandes proporciones. La identificación de lesiones sospechosas y aquellas relacionadas directamente con el cáncer de piel es efectuada en ocasiones por colegas de muchas especialidades médicas. Objetivos: estudiar las características de la frecuencia del CNMP en relación con ciertos factores de riesgo en el Hospital José María Cullen, de la ciudad de Santa Fe, capital de la provincia del mismo nombre, Argentina. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, no experimental, descriptivo y de corte transversal. La muestra quedó conformada por 61 pacientes de ambos sexos y de 1 a 83 años. Se confeccionó una historia clínica completa de los pacientes candidatos a la toma de biopsia, que luego fue analizada por el Servicio de Anatomía Patológica. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 11.5, mediante el cual se usó la prueba de Chi cuadrado y tablas de contingencia para relacionar las variables y comparar los datos. Se estableció una asociación estadísticamente significativa cuando se halló un valor de pBackground: The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, mainly in tropical countries has increased in large proportions. The identification of suspicious lesions and those directly related to the skin cancer is made by colleagues of many medical specialities. Objectives: Study the characteristics of the frequency of NMSC and their relation with certain risk factors in the Hospital José María Cullen, city of Santa Fe, capital of the province of the same name, Argentina. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, not experimental, descriptive and transversal cut study. The sample was composed by 61 patients of both sexs and from 1 to 83 years old. A complete clinical history of patients with suspected lesions were developed. After the biopsy collection, the Department of

  4. Research Hot Spots of Black Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the research papers on black peanut in National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)as data sources,we determine the research hot spots on black peanut using word frequency analysis,and analyze the main research directions that change over the years.The results show that the relevant researches on black peanut are mainly concentrated in six themes(study of varieties,physiological property,cultivation management,development prospects,relationship with agriculture,and molecular level);varieties,physiology,cultivation and other aspects are the focus of current research hot spots;the researches on selection and breeding of variety and various physiological and ecological mechanisms,still need a breakthrough.

  5. Establishing the diagnosis of peanut allergy in children never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history: a cross-Canada study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Kagan, Rhoda; Primeau, Marie-Noël; Alizadehfar, Reza; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Harada, Laurie; Dufresne, Claire; Allen, Mary; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Clarke, Ann

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of peanut allergy (PA) can be complex especially in children never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history. The aim of the study is to determine which diagnostic algorithms are used by Canadian allergists in such children. Children 1-17 yrs old never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history having an allergist-confirmed diagnosis of PA were recruited from the Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH) and allergy advocacy organizations. Data on their clinical history and confirmatory testing were compared to six diagnostic algorithms: I. Skin prick test (SPT) >or=8 mm or specific IgE >or=5 kU/l or positive food challenge (+FC); II. SPT >or=8 or IgE >or=15 or +FC; III. SPT >or=13 or IgE >or=5 or +FC; IV. SPT >or=13 or IgE >or=15 or +FC; V. SPT >or=3 and IgE >or=5 or IgE >or=5 or +FC; VI. SPT >or=3 and IgE >or=15 or IgE >or=15 or +FC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the use of each algorithm. Of 497 children recruited, 70% provided full data. The least stringent algorithm, algorithm I, was applied in 81.6% (95% CI, 77-85.6%) of children and the most stringent, algorithm VI, in 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).The factor most associated with the use of all algorithms was diagnosis made at the MCH in those never exposed to peanut. Other factors associated with the use of specific diagnostic algorithms were higher paternal education, longer disease duration, and the presence of hives, asthma, eczema, or other food allergies. Over 18% (95% CI, 14.4-23.0%) of children were diagnosed with PA without fulfilling even the least stringent diagnostic criteria.

  6. New insights into diagnosis and treatment of peanut food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. PMID:23994086

  8. Argentine Radiation Protection Society Experience in RP education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) promotes all the radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public. To fulfill this objective, SAR organised training and refresher courses, seminars and workshops on RP subjects. During 2002, SAR organised 7 basic and specialized courses regarding the uses of radioactive materials in industrial applications and the course on medical response in radiological accidents, that was attended by Argentine and other Latin American participants. The programmes of the courses are developed in compliance with the legal requirements and also considering specifics needs. In this paper, the characteristics of the courses are enunciated and basic statistics regarding courses and participants are presented. For the 2003 and 2004, SAR foresees the organisation of 18 courses per year and has the capacity to deliver other courses by request. all the courses are delivered in Spanish language. Based on this educational experience SAR consider a priority the inclusion, of a RP module in all the scientific graduate programmes to generate awareness on the importance of RP. Taking into account the migration of professionals to Europe and North America and the Globalization, SAR advocates the harmonization of RP syllabus to attain an international recognition. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  10. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures un...

  11. Antagonizing Aspergillus parasiticus and Promoting Peanut Growth of Bacillus Isolated from Peanut Geocarposphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wei; YAN Pei-sheng; WU Han-qi; LIN Feng

    2014-01-01

    A set of 38 Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil were screened as potential biological control agent anti-Aspergillus parasiticus. Tip-culture method with rapid and quantitative characteristics was used to determine anti-A. parasiticus activity and the process of isolation could be accelerated with this method. 12 out of 38 Bacillus strains showed high anti-alfatoxin production activity. These 12 Bacillus strains were selected to identify the characteristics of promoting peanuts germination rate. Pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out by using these strains which can promote peanuts germination. Phytohormones in the fermentation broth were also detected as another important reference factor to select the isolates as biological control agent with PGPR features. These Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil not only had high ability anti-Aspergillus parasiticus, but also promoted peanut growth. Therefore, these Bacillus strains were well adapted to peanut production in the ifeld as biological control agent with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) features.

  12. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  13. Management and Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of peanuts with mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies. Most countries have adopted regulations that limit the quantity of aflatoxins in food and feed to 20 ppb or less; however, environmental conditions in m...

  14. The Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  15. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  16. Detection of Argentine onions treated with 60 Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has been the most important MERCOSUL's purchaser of fresh onions from Argentina. The increased claim for this fresh product has forced a consensus between the members nations, as regards to phytosanitary restrictions. The radio inhibition is described on National Food Codes in Brazil and Argentina. Methods of food irradiation detection must be performed, since they increase the consumer confidence. Quick and simple screening tests indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not. This present study verified the DNA fragments of argentine fresh onions, produced during radiation process and 6 months of storage period. The DNA fragments are analyzed for detection of irradiated foods. The irradiated onions presented extensive DNA migrations, as comets, when submitted to agarose gel electrophoresis. They also showed more shelf life compared to the unirradiated onions. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. This initial screen method showed to be effective for detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  17. Characterization of Argentine Loess and Paleosols by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigate iron-bearing mineral samples of loess and paleosols from a geologic section at La Plata, Argentina, 34 deg. 54' 14'' S and 58 deg. 2' W. Hematite is by far the dominant iron-bearing magnetic component in initial loess and paleosol samples. The samples were also subjected to magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched loess fractions show a remarkable increase in the content of magnetite. The enhancement of non-magnetic Fe3+ and a decrease of Fe2+ mineral phases in the paleosol layer seem to be a consequence of the process of pedogenesis which also caused a dissolution of magnetic iron oxides by weathering. The increase of magnetite in the silt fraction suggests that the wind could have been the main carrier of magnetic minerals, causing the major differences in the magnetic parameters between loess and paleosols in the Argentine loess plateau

  18. Knowledge management in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority has initiated a regulatory knowledge management process to face the loss of knowledge resulting from retiring experts, the generation gap, and the existing need to train new human resources. A number of projects have been started together with the technical assistance of the National Public Administration Institute to preserve knowledge and render it explicit for the coming generations. These projects include 'The History of the Expert's Learning Process' in which the majority of the most critical experts have been interviewed so far. The results of this project help envision a training structure and prospective projects. An Internet Site has also been created on the Intranet in order to render knowledge explicit and facilitate the tools for knowledge management initiatives. Furthermore, ARN's knowledge map project has also been started. (author)

  19. Native supercolonies of unrelated individuals in the invasive Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe; Krieger, Michael J. B.; Vogel, Valérie;

    2006-01-01

    Kinship among group members has long been recognized as a main factor promoting the evolution of sociality and reproductive altruism, yet some ants have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely among physically separated nests. This type of social...... organization is not only a key attribute responsible for the ecological dominance of these ants, but also an evolutionary paradox because relatedness between nestmates is effectively zero. Recently, it has been proposed that, in the Argentine ant, unicoloniality is a derived trait that evolved after its...... introduction into new habitats. Here we test this basic assumption by conducting a detailed genetic analysis of four native and six introduced populations with five to 15 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial gene. In contrast to the assumption that native populations consist of family-based colonies with...

  20. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  1. The Effects of Peanut Intercropping with Different Gramineous Species and Their Intercropping Model on Iron Nutrition of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yuan-mei; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of peanut intercropped with five different gramineous species with different phyto-siderophore release rate on iron nutrition of peanut were studied in field experiment. The rate of phyto-siderophore release of five gramineous species was as following: barley> oats> wheat>> maize> sorghum.The results showed that intercropping of peanut with five gramineous species could improve iron nutrition ofpeanut respectively. This indicated that root exudates, especially for phytosiderophore of gramineous plantsplayed an important role in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut. Although phytosiderophore release ratesof maize and sorghum were lower than those of barley, oats and wheat, the five gramineous species had thesame effects on iron improvement of peanut. The less phytosiderophore release of maize was enough to improveiron nutrition of peanut in intercropping system. For every intercropping system, intercropping model Ⅱ ( theratio of gramineous plants: peanut: gramineous plants was 2: 3 : 2) was much better in improvement of ironnutrition of peanut than that of intercropping model Ⅰ (the ratio of gramineous plants: peanut : gramineousplants was 2: 6: 2). This led to have greater rhizosphere effect of gramineous plants on iron nutrition of pea-nut in intercropping model Ⅱ than intercropping model Ⅰ .

  2. Annual Report ABACC 2003 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes the actions of the Brazil-Argentine of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), during the year of 2003. The developed work allowed to concluded that there is no event indicating that any nuclear material non-accounted for were deviated for non permitted activities by the Agreement for Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy between Argentine and Brazil and by the Four Parties Agreement among these countries, the ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  3. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Senesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  4. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  5. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  6. Economics of non-oil value chains in peanut: A case of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the extent of value-addition, employment generating potential and economics of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India. In the low-capacity peanut-candy units, the value-addition at the end of Stage-I (pod to kernel was $ 2.4/q, whereas, it was $ 2.2/q in the high-capacity units. In salted-peanut units, the value-addition in the low- and high-capacity was $2.2/q and $2.3/q, respectively. In Stage-II (kernel to final product, the value-addition was high across sizes and type of the processing units. Around 525 and 635 man-days of employment/month/unit were generated by low and high-capacity peanut-candy units, respectively. The employment generation was less in salted-peanut vis-à-vis peanut-candy units due to different processing methods. The kernel alone constituted 50 to 52 per cent of the total cost in peanut-candy, and 89 per cent in salted-peanut units. The sensitivity analysis revealed that change in the kernel price directly affected the magnitude of profits. The important policy implications emerged were: if the units process the pods to obtain kernel (Stage-I instead of procuring kernels from the market, considerable value-addition can be made, kernel price directly affects the profits and hence an appropriate mechanism like ‘contract farming’ would stabilise the kernel prices, majority of the units retrench labour during off-peak period due to less demand and hence diversification in processing will generate sufficient employment to retain the existing skilled employees, and appropriate policy intervention is necessary to address the capital, technology and marketing constraints of the peanut processing units.

  7. Gamma irradiation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine some effects of gamma radiation on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The biological parameters used to evaluate these effects were: % emergence of irradiated seeds, % survival of plants, growth rate, chlorophyll mutations, morphological changes and yield potential. Seeds were irradiated with dose levels of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 KK per hour of gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. In general, % of emergence and survival in the M1 gene ration decreased with increasing doses of gamma radiation. Morphological changes induced by gamma radiation in the M1 generation of peanut were: leaf flecks, thickened leaves, red purple seeds and red colored seed coat. Generally, frequency of these morphological changes increased with increasing doses of gamma radiation. Protein and fat contents were increased by 2.8% to 1.5% respectively, while starch content decreased with 2.6% in the M2. On the basis of the results obtained, gamma radiation is an effective mutagenic agent in inducing various morphological and genetic changes in peanut

  8. Process of peanut protein milk powder by dry preparation%花生蛋白奶粉的干法生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章宝; 单杨; 李高阳

    2011-01-01

    以去壳花生仁为原料,经低温烘烤、脱红衣、冷榨脱脂、超微粉碎等工艺生产出花生蛋白粉,将其与全脂奶粉混合生产花生蛋白奶粉,所得产品溶解度高、冲调性好、口感细腻、营养均衡,同时具有奶味和花生特有的香味。%Peanut protein milk powder was made by mixing whole milk powder with peanut protein powder,which was made by the technologies of low-temperature baking,taking the peanut red skin off,cold-pressed degreasing and ultra-fine pulverizatio by using shelled pea

  9. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  10. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  11. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  12. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  13. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  14. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Serap; Özcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). In the kernels an...

  15. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  16. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics. PMID:19000610

  17. Environmental Conditions During Transport of Shelled Peanuts in Overseas Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts exported overseas may be in transit from the shelling plant or cold storage to the overseas manufacturer for 30 d or more. In some instances, quality assurance testing at the overseas destination indicates that peanuts no longer meet contractual quality specifications. Considerable effort a...

  18. Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160504.html Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better Exposure therapy ... College of Medicine, the new study shows that allergy experts ''are continuing to refine the treatments for children with peanut allergy and other potentially ...

  19. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  20. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  1. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  2. Real-time monitoring of peanut drying parameters in semitrailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of peanut drying parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air, temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown into the peanuts and kernel moisture content is essential in managing the dryer for optimal drying rate. The optimal drying rate is required to...

  3. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence regarding potential benefits of supporting early rather than delayed peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on conse...

  4. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexat...

  5. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  6. Oral peanut challenge identifies an allergy but the peanut allergen threshold sensitivity is not reproducible.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Glaumann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge, DBPCFC, the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy, is time-consuming and potentially dangerous. A basophil allergen threshold sensitivity test, CD-sens, has shown promising results as a diagnostic tool in food allergy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reproducibility of oral peanut challenge and compare the outcome to CD-sens in peanut-sensitized children. METHODS: Twenty-seven children (4-19 years underwent a DBPCFC followed by a single-blind oral food-challenge. The peanut challenges (1 mg to 5 g were evaluated by severity scoring. Blood samples were drawn for CD-sens before the two first challenges. RESULTS: Thirteen children (48% did not react at any of the challenges. Fourteen reacted at both peanut challenges but not to placebo. Only two of these children reacted at the same threshold dose and with the same severity score. All other children scored differently or reacted at different doses. For children with a positive challenge the geometric mean of the ratio of the doses was 1.834 (p = 0.307 and the arithmetic mean of the difference between the severity scores was 0.143 (p = 0.952. No association was obtained between the two peanut challenges regarding severity score (r(s = 0.11, p = 0.71 or threshold dose (r(s = 0.35, p = 0.22. Among the children positive in peanut challenge, 12 were positive in CD-sens. Two were low-responders and could not be evaluated. Geometric mean of the ratio of CD-sens values in children with a positive challenge was 1.035 (p = 0.505 but unlike for the severity score and the threshold dose the association between the two CD-sens values was strong (r(s = 0.94, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: For a positive/negative test the reproducibility is 100% for both peanut challenge and CD-sens. However, a comparison of the degree of allergen threshold sensitivity between the two tests is not possible since the threshold dose and severity

  7. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  8. Nuclear trade: an approach on the Argentine situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine nuclear trade regime. Nuclear Materials. Definitions. Stages. From early times of nuclear development an actual and strict monopoly governed the transfers of nuclear materials. That meant: the Federal State took the control as user, producer, purchaser or seller. This policy was inspired and clearly echoed a similar one developed by countries with important development in the nuclear field. Types of contracts on nuclear commerce. Relation with costs implied with the nuclear industry. Uranium mining. System of supplies. Development of factories of nuclear supplies. Incentives. Nuclear Power. Radioisotopes. Human Resources. Ways of intervention of the State on nuclear Commerce. The right of veto. The ownership of shares in private or public corporations. Export- import controls. Security and Safety standards. National Act of Nuclear Activity. Veto of the Executive Power to the monopoly of the exclusive national supply of uranium. Comparative policies on other fields or products in Argentina. A proposal of lege ferenda. State's right of transformation applicable to purchases and sales of nuclear materials. Exchange and loans. Cosignature of contracts, etc. (author)

  9. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author)

  10. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

  11. Fragile-X mental retardation: molecular diagnosis in Argentine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Giliberto; Irene, Szijan; Veronica, Ferreiro

    2006-11-30

    Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.

  12. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  13. Assessing the utility of microwave kernel moisture sensing in peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently, in the peanut industry, peanut pods (unshelled peanuts) have to be shelled for kernel moisture content determination with the official moisture meter. This makes kernel moisture content determination laborious and limits efficiency during peanut drying. For field testing during the 2013 a...

  14. Can Peg Strength be used as a Predictor for Pod Maturity and Peanut Yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesocarp hull color is the current standard to estimate digging date and peanut maturity. The objective was to determine if peg strength could be used to predict peanut maturity instead of hull color. Peanut peg strength was collected on three peanut cultivars (Ga-O6G, Ga-O9B, and Tifguard), planted...

  15. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  16. Perspectives on Argentine Migration to Spain: Oral, Journal and Film Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes up our doctoral research –Argentine migrationto Spain- to share some theoretical-methodological considerations.We refer to the conceptualization of "transnational social spaces," an approach that allows us to consider migration in its double dimension origin/destination and is particularly useful to thing the relationship between migration and creation of social and cultural ties in the Hispano-Argentine or Argentine-Spanish space. Similarly, the transnational spaces approach allows to put in dialog diverse social groups involved in the phenomenon: the migrants themselves, whose life stories are analysed by using oral sources; the society of origin and the host society, analysing collective image through journal sources; the filmmakers, whose migration stories we discussmigration through various fiction films; and, of course, historians and other social scientists who study these migrations.

  17. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Comstock

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed.

  18. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  19. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  20. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  1. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  2. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s.

  3. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  4. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  5. Peanut protein structure, polyphenol content and immune response to peanut proteins in vivo are modulated by laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovic, L; Radosavljevic, J; Nordlund, E; Krstic, M; Bohn, T; Smit, J; Buchert, J; Cirkovic Velickovic, T

    2016-05-18

    Food texture can be improved by enzyme-mediated covalent cross-linking of different food components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. Cross-linking changes the biological and immunological properties of proteins and may change the sensitizing potential of food allergens. In this study we applied a microbial polyphenol oxidase, laccase, to cross-link peanut proteins. The size and morphology of the obtained cross-linked proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Structural changes in proteins were analyzed by CD spectroscopy and by using specific antibodies to major peanut allergens. The bioavailability of peanut proteins was analyzed using a Caco-2 epithelial cell model. The in vivo sensitizing potential of laccase-treated peanut proteins was analyzed using a mouse model of food allergy. Finally, peanut polyphenols were analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS, before and after the enzymatic reaction with laccase. Laccase treatment of peanut proteins yielded a covalently cross-linked material, with the modified tertiary structure of peanut proteins, improved bioavailability of Ara h 2 (by 70 fold, p isorhamnetin derivatives and procyanidin dimer B-type in detectable amounts. Treatment of complex food extracts rich in polyphenols with laccase results in both protein cross-linking and modification of polyphenol compounds. These extensively cross-linked proteins have unchanged potency to induce allergic sensitization in vivo, but certain immunomodulatory changes were observed. PMID:27138276

  6. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  7. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  8. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  9. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  10. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  11. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin condition cannot be diagnosed by the patient's history and what the physician finds on examination alone. Confirming a clinical diagnosis may also be necessary prior to starting therapy. Skin biopsy types are as follows: Shave biopsies Punch biopsies ...

  12. Skin tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  14. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  15. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  16. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  17. Study on Oxidation Resistance of Different Peanut Varieties%不同品种花生抗氧化能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梅; 王晶珊; 李文香

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the different oxidation resistance between different peanut varieties with or without skin,five peanut varieties, including Xuzhou 68-4 ( pink) , Karpts ( purple), Caihei 2,Huayu 23 and Linyi Xi-aomaguo were used as research objects. The superoxide anion resistance reactivity units,the hydroxyl free radical ability, the content of hydrogen peroxide (H202) ,the CAT activity,the SOD activity and total oxidation resistance were determined. The results showed that the oxidation resistance was different significantly in different varieties and peanut skin. The superoxide anion resistance reactivity units and the hydroxyl free radical ability of peanut with skin were higher than that of peanut without skin; there were a lot of antioxidant compositions in peanut skin. The highest total oxidation resistance and superoxide anion resistance reactivity was Xuzhou 68-4 with skin, the activity of CAT in Xuzhou 68-4 without skin was the highest among different peanut varieties, and the activity of SOD in Caihei 2 was the highest among different peanut varieties;CAT and SOD were induced enzymes.%为了探讨不同花生品种带种皮和脱种皮籽仁抗氧化活性的差异,以徐州68 -4(粉红)、Krapts(紫)、莱黑2、花育23(粉红)和临沂小麻果5个花生品种为研究对象,通过对其抗超氧阴离子活性、抗羟自由基活性、过氧化氢( H2O2)含量、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性及总抗氧化能力的测定,结果表明:不同花生品种之间其带种皮籽仁和脱种皮籽仁在抗氧化能力方面存在显著差异(P<0.05).带种皮的籽仁比不带种皮的籽仁其抗超氧阴离子和抑制羟自由基的能力均较高,且H2O2含量均比较低,表明花生的种皮中含有大量的抗氧化成分;带种皮的徐州68 -4籽仁总抗氧化能力和抗超氧阴离子能力明显高于其他品种,而脱种皮的徐州68 -4籽仁CAT活性明显比其他花生品种高,脱种皮的莱黑2

  18. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  19. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  20. Chemical composition of volatile fraction of pakistani peanut and its

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachis hypogaea Linn (peanut or groundnut) is an economically important crop. Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown in the world and studies have been carried out on these but, to the best of our knowledge, no salient work has been done on Pakistani cultivar so far. Here, we report the chemical composition of volatile fraction of Pakistani cultivar of peanut and its anti radical activities using 1,I-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and phospho molybdenum complex (PC) method. This study revealed that Pakistani cultivar exhibited an almost equal antioxidant potential to that of standard, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which was obvious from their IC/sub 50/ values. The IC/sub 50/ value of peanut extract was found to be 13.42 +- 26 macro L/mL, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene, having 12.1 +- 0.92 macro/mL. (author)

  1. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  2. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area

  3. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  4. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J; Hagen, Darren E; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R; Johnson, Reed M; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Moeller, Joseph A; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Marguerite C; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P; Placek, Jennifer E; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Smith, Chris R; Suarez, Andrew V; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K O; Wild, Alexander L; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2011-04-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism. PMID:21282631

  5. Abstracts of the 81. national meeting on physics of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts are presented at the 81 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics; classical and quantum physics: particles and fields; statistical physics and thermodynamics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; optic; fluid dynamics and plasmas; condensed matter; instrumentation; geophysics and astrophysics. refs., ills

  6. English as an Instrumental Language: Language Displacement in the Anglo-Argentine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Conde, Florencia

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 99 Anglo-Argentine students aged 10 through 18 at five Spanish-English bilingual schools in Buenos Aires about their language attitudes and usage. It found that, despite the prestige of the English language, Spanish had become the dominant language for most. Age and place of residency in Buenos Aires also had a significant effect on…

  7. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  8. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  9. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burow Mark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B, oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues.

  10. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV, chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads, and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation.

  11. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  12. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  13. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Chandrasekaran, Dileep; Nambisan, Bala; Anto, Ruby John

    2014-01-01

    The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs) [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr), cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp)]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO)] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  14. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxins during simulated storage of in-shell peanuts and peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Ding, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Limin; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome during 90 days storage at five conditions. The fungal diversity in in-shell peanuts was higher with 110 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 41 genera than peanut kernels (91 OTUs and 37 genera). This means that the micro-environment in shell is more suitable for maintaining fungal diversity. At 20–30 d, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were predominant in in-shell peanuts. In peanut kernels, Rhizopus (>30%) and Eurotium (>20%) were predominant at 10–20 d and 30 d, respectively. The relative abundances of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were higher than Aspergillus, because they were xerophilic and grew well on substrates with low water activity (aw). During growth, they released metabolic water, thereby favoring the growth of Aspergillus. Therefore, from 30 to 90 d, the relative abundance of Aspergillus increased while that of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia decreased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that peanuts stored for 60–90 days and for 10–30 days clustered differently from each other. Due to low aw values (0.34–0.72) and low levels of A. flavus, nine of 51 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:27180614

  15. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Usually the cause is staphylococcal (staph), but sometimes streptococcus (strep) can cause it, too. It is most ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease ...

  16. Curious Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of Henry Wellcome’s collection of tattoos on human skin will be on display in our forthcoming Skin exhibition. But how did the Parisian doctor from whom they were acquired come by his macabre collection of tattoos in the first place, and what did they mean to those whose skin they were on? It’s Gemma Angel‘s job to find out…

  17. Making Sense of an Unstable Legislature: Committee Assignments in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, 1946–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina Lilian Danesi; Carleton University; Ludovic Rheault; University of Montreal

    2012-01-01

    Latin American legislatures have gone largely unstudied, with the functioning of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies prior to the 1980s being an entirely unexplored subject. This paper fills that gap by examining the organization of the Chamber, with particular focus on its standing committee system from 1946 to 2001. We assess the portability of two U.S.-based theoretical approaches to legislative organization by applying them to committee assignments. An original data set of Argentine deputie...

  18. Indirect effects of Argentine ant and honeydew-producing insect mutualisms on California red scale in a citrus agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kizner, Michelle Cara

    2010-01-01

    In San Diego County, a major economic impact of the Argentine ant occurs in citrus agroecosystems, where ants interfere with biological control of key insect pests, especially California red scale. Ant control is considered a critical component of integrated pest management (IPM) of several citrus pests, but IPM recommendations fail to consider quantitative relationships between levels of Argentine ant abundance and those of the economic pests. This serious gap in understanding impedes develo...

  19. Argentine ant invasion associated with loblolly pines in the southeastern United States: minimal impacts but seasonally sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2010-08-01

    Invasive ants are notorious for directly displacing native ant species. Although such impacts are associated with Argentine ant invasions (Linepithema humile) worldwide, impacts within natural habitat are less widely reported, particularly those affecting arboreal ant communities. Argentine ants were detected in North Carolina mixed pine-hardwood forest for the first time but were localized on and around loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), probably because of association with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. We explored the potential impacts of L. humile on arboreal and ground-foraging native ant species by comparing interspersed loblolly pines invaded and uninvaded by Argentine ants. Impacts on native ants were assessed monthly over 1 yr by counting ants in foraging trails on pine trunks and in surrounding plots using a concentric arrangement of pitfall traps at 1, 2, and 3 m from the base of each tree. Of floristics and habitat variables, higher soil moisture in invaded plots was the only difference between plot types, increasing confidence that any ant community differences were caused by Argentine ants. Overall patterns of impact were weak. Composition differed significantly between Argentine ant invaded and uninvaded trunks and pitfalls but was driven only by the presence of Argentine ants rather than any resulting compositional change in native ant species. Native ant abundance and richness were similarly unaffected by L. humile. However, the abundance of individual ant species was more variable. Although numbers of the arboreal Crematogaster ashmeadi (Myrmicinae) declined on and around invaded pines, epigeic Aphaenogaster rudis (Myrmicinae) remained the most abundant species in all plots. Argentine ant densities peaked in late summer and fall, therefore overlapping with most native ants. Unexpected was their continued presence during even the coldest months. We provide evidence that Argentine ants can invade and persist in native North Carolina forests, probably

  20. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  1. Stability and Immunogenicity of Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Complexes During In Vitro Pepsin Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated d...

  2. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.;

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  3. Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Discusses effects of drought and heat on peanut plants and crop yield, and offers advice on if and when to irrigate fields, and for drought-tolerant varieties of peanuts to use in fields with a history of drought.

  4. 健康食品花生酱%All Peanut Butters Healthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Processed or Fresh, Peanut Butter Is Good Food无论是加工过还是新鲜的,花生酱都是好东西. Store-bought peanut butter is as good tor you as the fresh-ground-in-the-health-food-store variety, a study shows. That any kind of peanut butter is healthy seems too good to be true. But the lowly peanut is packed full of healthy oils and vitamin E.

  5. Quantifying the (X/peanut)-shaped structure in edge-on disc galaxies: length, strength, and nested peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.; Graham, Alister W.

    2016-06-01

    X-shaped or peanut-shaped (X/P) bulges are observed in more than 40 per cent of (nearly) edge-on disc galaxies, though to date a robust method to quantify them is lacking. Using Fourier harmonics to describe the deviation of galaxy isophotes from ellipses, we demonstrate with a sample of 11 such galaxies (including NGC 128) that the sixth Fourier component (B6) carries physical meaning by tracing this X/P structure. We introduce five quantitative diagnostics based on the radial B6 profile, namely: its `peak' amplitude (Πmax); the (projected major-axis) `length' where this peak occurs (RΠ, max); its vertical `height' above the disc plane (zΠ, max); a measure of the B6 profile's integrated `strength' (SΠ); and the B6 peak `width' (WΠ). We also introduce different `classes' of B6 profile shape. Furthermore, we convincingly detect and measure the properties of multiple (nested) X/P structures in individual galaxies which additionally display the signatures of multiple bars in their surface brightness profiles, thus consolidating further the scenario in which peanuts are associated with bars. We reveal that the peanut parameter space (`length', `strength' and `height') for real galaxies is not randomly populated, but the three metrics are inter-correlated (both in kpc and disc scalelength h). Additionally, the X/P `length' and `strength' appear to correlate with (vrot/σ⋆), lending further support to the notion that peanuts `know' about the galactic disc in which they reside. Such constraints are important for numerical simulations, as they provide a direct link between peanuts and their host disc. Our diagnostics reveal a spectrum of X/P properties and could provide a means of distinguishing between different peanut formation scenarios discussed in the literature. Moreover, nested peanuts, as remnants of bar buckling events, can provide insights into the disc and bar instability history.

  6. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  7. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were se

  8. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  9. Oral immunotherapy for the treatment of peanut allergy: systematic review of six case series studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, A.; Nurmatov, U.; Venderbosch, I.; Bischoff, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to peanuts is associated with considerable morbidity and, in a minority of cases, mortality. Natural resolution to peanut allergy occurs in only a few cases, hence the need to find effective interventions. Peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a potentially important new therapeutic

  10. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  11. Capacitance sensors for the nondestructive measurement of moisture content in in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. An instrument was developed earlier that would measure the capacitance and phase angle of a small sample of peanuts held between two circular parallel-plates at two frequencies 1 a...

  12. Documentation for release of a high oleic runner peanut cultivar (tested as TX 994313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the peanut acreage diminished in 2008 to 18,000 acres, the peanut crop remains a viable agricultural commodity in western and southwestern Oklahoma with an annual estimated value of $14 million. Production of peanut is adversely affected by soilborne pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor...

  13. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity.

  14. Peanut Paste/ Butter Consumption Frequency in the Republic of Uganda: Count Data Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan-Nambiar, Padmanand; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut paste/butter consumption frequency in the Republic of Uganda is analyzed using a household survey data. Estimation results from Zero-inflated Binomial regression conclude that education, household location, color of peanut paste, etc. are important. The ordinal logistic results conclude that peanut paste/butter consumption with vegetables is the most preferred option.

  15. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the upper Cambrian and Ordovician in the Argentine Precordillera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, A.N.; Peralta, S.; Gaucher, C.;

    2013-01-01

    We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America, and the nega......We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America......, and the negative isotope carbon excursion (SNICE) has been described for the first time in South America. We report here the record of the SPICE and SNICE in a single section in the Eastern Precordillera. In the Central Precordillera, a minor middle Darriwilian positive carbon isotope excursion (MDICE) and a late...

  16. Proceedings of the 6. Argentine congress on radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th Argentine Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the 22 and 24 of september of 1998. In this event, were presented almost 66 papers in the following sessions, about these subjects: 1.- Safety in nuclear installations. 2.- Control of nuclear material and physical protection of nuclear installations. 3.- Programs of quality assurance. 4.- Training, technical information and public information. 5.- Physical dosimetry. 6.- Physical dosimetry and occupational radiation protection. 7.- Exposure of the natural radiation. 8.- Environmental radiological safety. 9.- Biological effects of the ionizing radiations and biological dosimetry. 10.- Radiological protection of the medical practice and the radiological emergencies. 11.- Radioactive wastes management. 12.- Transport of radioactive materials

  17. How Argentine farmers overpowered Monsanto : the mobilization of knowledge-users and intellectual property regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno, Felipe Amin

    2013-01-01

    "Since the 1980s, governments and transnational corporations from core countries led by the United States have driven a global upward ratchet of intellectual property protection. In agriculture, this has meant strengthening the rights of seed companies over the plant varieties they develop and curtailing the rights of farmers over the seeds they cultivate. Exceptionally, from the 1990s to 2013, Argentine soy growers overcame the pressures from the seed industry, guaranteeing the right to free...

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  19. Industry-Wide Work Rules and Productivity: Evidence from Argentine Union Contract Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the Argentine government promoted a framework for productivity-based negotiations between firms and unions at low levels of organization. The policy weakened the industry-wide collective bargaining system, which sets working conditions for all firms in an industry. This paper employs newly developed quantile regression approaches to investigate the effect of union practices on productivity within the context of the reform. The findings show that (i) industry-wide practice...

  20. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  1. Efficacy of Argentine propolis formulation for topical treatment of canine otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    L.A Lozina; M.E Peichoto; S.I Boehringer; P. Koscinczuk; G.E Granero; O.C Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of Argentine propolis ear drop formulation on canine otitis externa were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs with symptoms of otitis externa were randomly assigned to double-blinded, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical formulation with propolis versus a topical placebo in the treatment of otitis externa. The propolis preparation and placebo were administrated into both external ear canals, twice daily for 14 days. Throughout the study, clinical examin...

  2. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rat...

  3. Uncertainty and Portfolio Dollarization. The Argentine Case in the Last Half Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Burdisso; Eduardo Ariel Corso

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this document is to quantify the effects of uncertainty over financial assets dollarization of the Argentine non financial private sector. Our main concern is to illustrate to what extent uncertainty affects the degree of substitution between assets denominated in local and foreign currencies. Using the optimal portfolio selection theory combined with the multivariate GARCH methodology in order to estimate a model with heteroskedastic covariance matrix, we are able to estimate the ...

  4. International Financial Contagion: Evidence from the Argentine Crisis of 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Boschi, Melisso

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to look for evidence of financial contagion suffered by several countries as a result of the latest Argentine crisis. I focus my attention on a set of countries: Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, Uruguay, and Venezuela. I also focus exclusively on three financial markets: foreign exchange, stock exchange, and sovereign debt. In order to test the hypothesis of contagion, Vector Autoregression (VAR) models and instantaneous correlation coefficients corrected for het...

  5. Managerial form, ownership and efficiency: a case-study of Argentine agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Marcos; Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.

    1994-01-01

    In agriculture, studies dealing with the separation of ownership from control have focused on sharecropping, paying little attention to the impact of management and ownership on efficiency. Using Argentine data, this study tests the hypothesis that efficiency is a function of type of management, concentration of ownership, and mechanisms for monitoring managers. Results show that management, ownership and monitoring have a greater impact on marketing efficiency than either on technical or cos...

  6. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher D.; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G.; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D.; Graur, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-b...

  7. Proceedings of the 76. meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works are presented at the 76 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association. The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics, mathematical methods, classical and quantum physics, mechanics and fields, statistical physics and thermodynamics, elementary particle physics and fields, nuclear physics, and molecular physics, atomic collisions, optics, fluid dynamics and plasmas, condensed matter, instrumentation, geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. refs., ills

  8. Food habits of the great horned owl in northwestern Argentine Patagonia: the role of introduced lagomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Travaini, Alejandro; Ceballos, Olga; Delibes, M.; Hiraldo, F.

    1997-01-01

    —Pellets of adult and nestling Great Horned Owls (Bitho tirginianus) were collected at 12 owl territories nearJunin de los Andes (Neuquen, Argentine Patagonia) during the breeding seasons of 1991— 92 and 1994—95. Mammals represented 69% of the total prey items (N = 1324) identified and Reithrodon auritus (16%), Lepuseuwpaeus (12%) and Ctenomys haigi (12%) were the most common species. Anhropods aecounted for 27% of the total prey by numbers. The two main prey items b...

  9. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven.

  10. Quality assurance programmes and normalization for the Argentine-Brazilian integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the tasks developed by the Argentine-Brazilian Contractors Coordination Committee in the nuclear area, which was at the beginning promoted by the Contractor Committee of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology, a working team was created between both countries in order to analyze the existing regulations and the Quality Assurance systems applied in Brazil and Argentina for their nuclear projects. This paper describes the steps to be followed so as to fulfill the compatibility of the rules, quality assurance and firm certification, laboratories, personnel and materials, and the applicable quality assurance programmes. At first, the methodology applied was the collection of the information and the existing regulations in each one of the countries, to exchange them, analyze them and arrange joint meetings and organize a seminar with experts from both countries to develop and discuss the objectives of this working team. As a result of these activities, the criteria adopted will allow, together with another actions, that both Argentine and Brazilian firms make exchanges and integrations in the nuclear field to supply Atucha II and Angra II. (Author)

  11. Comparison of six commercial ELISA kits for their specificity and sensitivity in detecting different major peanut allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasena, S.; Smits, M.; Fiechter, D.; Jong, A. de; Nordlee, J.; Baumert, J.; Taylor, S.L.; Pieters, R.H.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. The percentage recov

  12. Comparison of Six Commercial ELISA Kits for Their Specificity and Sensitivity in Detecting Different Major Peanut Allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasena, Shyamali; Smits, Mieke; Fiechter, Daniëlle; Jongh, Aard de; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L.; Pieters, Raymond; Koppelman, Stef J.

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: "Six commercial peanut enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were assessed for their ability to recover peanut from the standard reference material 2387 peanut butter and also for their specificity in detecting four major peanut allergens, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6. Th

  13. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number...

  14. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  15. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI ...

  16. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenying Peng; Lan Li; Lianqun Yang; Bin Zhang; Gao Chen; Yuping Bi

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide s...

  17. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection in a hair follicle) A skin ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90. Read More Boils Endocarditis Folliculitis MRSA Osteomyelitis Update Date 11/12/ ...

  18. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been ... Smoking increases your chance of problems such as slow healing. Ask your doctor or nurse for help ...

  19. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F;

    2014-01-01

    the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...... products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization...

  1. Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-07-23

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy.

  2. Risk estimates of liver cancer due to aflatoxin exposure from peanuts and peanut products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichter, C.R.

    1984-06-01

    An assessment was undertaken of the risk of liver cancer in the USA associated with aflatoxin ingestion from peanuts. Both laboratory-animal data and epidemiological data collected from the scientific literature and several prominent mathematical extrapolation techniques were used. Risk estimates differed by a factor of greater than 1000 when the extrapolated results of three selected animal studies were analysed. Dose-response data for the male Fischer rat, the most sensitive mammalian species studied, produced an estimate of 158 cases of liver cancer per year in the USA at current levels of aflatoxin exposure. An estimate of 58 annual cases was predicted on the basis of epidemiological data of populations in Africa and Thailand.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Baozhu; Natalie D Fedorova; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequenc...

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter.

  6. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  7. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  8. Cross-reactivity among peanuts and tree nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of peanut allergic individuals also have allergies to tree nuts and vise versa. Our previous work has shown that the structural data base for allergic proteins (SDAP) can identify similar IgE binding areas that may be important for cross-reactivity between allergens. Using SPOTs me...

  9. Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanut and Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  10. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulato

  11. Particle Shape Anisotropy in Pickering Emulsions: Cubes and Peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; Hutter, E.M.; Castillo, S.I.R.; Klop, K.E.; Philipse, A.P.; Kegel, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform

  12. Induction of allergic responses to peanut allergen in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L Van Gramberg

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA or house dust mite (HDM extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40-50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy.

  13. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

  14. Contribution of phytochelatins to cadmium tolerance in peanut plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Eliana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Del Carmen Tordable, María; Fabra, Adriana; Hernández, Luis E; Castro, Stella

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well known heavy metal considered as one of the most toxic metals on Earth, affecting all viable cells that are exposed even at low concentration. It is introduced to agricultural soils mainly by phosphate fertilizers and causes many toxic symptoms in cells. Phytochelatins (PCs) are non-protein thiols which are involved in oxidative stress protection and are strongly induced by Cd. In this work, we analyzed metal toxicity as well as PCs implication on protection of peanut plants exposed to Cd. Results showed that Cd exposure induced a reduction of peanut growth and produced changes in the histological structure with a deposit of unknown material on the epidermal and endodermal cells. When plants were exposed to 10 μM Cd, no modification of chlorophyll, lipid peroxides, carbonyl groups, or hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content was observed. At this concentration, peanut leaves and roots glutathione (GSH) content decreased. However, peanut roots were able to synthesize different types of PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4). In conclusion, PC synthesis could prevent metal disturbance on cellular redox balance, avoiding oxidative damage to macromolecules.

  15. Physiological Response to Drought Stress at Different Stages in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a major factor in reducing productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the response patterns of relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry mater content (LDMC) to drought stress at three stages of 30 60, and ...

  16. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  17. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulatory processes might be made more useful to consumers.

  18. Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Bo; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethan...

  19. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. PMID:26920259

  20. Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts Maní tostado y molido conduce a una menor respuesta glicémica postprandial comparado con maní crudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the effect of nuts processing on the glycemic response and satiety. Objective: To evaluate the effect of peanut processing on glycemic response, and energy and nutrients intake. Method: Thirteen healthy subjects (4 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 28.5 ± 10 years, BMI 22.7 ± 2.5 kg/m², and body fat 23.7 ± 5.7% participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial. After 10-12 h of fasting, one of the following types of test meals were consumed: raw peanuts with skin (RPS, roasted peanuts without skin, ground-roasted peanuts without skin (GRPWS or control meal. The test meals had the same nutrient composition, and were consumed with 200 ml of water in 15 minutes. Glycemic response was evaluated 2 hours after each meal. Energy and nutrients intake were assessed through diet records reflecting the habitual food intake and food consumption 24 hours after the ingestion of test meal. Result: The area under the glycemic response curve after GRPWS was lower (p = 0.02 the one obtained for RPS. There was no treatment effect on energy intake, macronutrients and fiber consumption after the test meal. Conclusion: The consumption of ground-roasted peanuts may favor the control and prevention of diabetes due to its reduction on postprandial glucose response. However, more prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.Introducción: Escasos estudios han evaluado el efecto del procesado industrial de los frutos secos sobre la respuesta glicérica y la saciedad. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto del procesamiento de maní sobre la respuesta glicémica y la ingesta de energía y nutrientes. Métodos: Trece sujetos sanos (4 hombres y 9 mujeres, con una edad media de 28,5 ± 10 años, IMC 22,7 ± 2,5 kg/m², y un porcentaje de grasa corporal de 23,7 ± 5,7% participaron en este ensayo clínico aleatorizado y cruzado. Tras 10-12 h de ayuno uno de los siguientes tipos de comidas test fueron consumidas: man

  1. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  2. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-risk Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischer, David M.; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim g

  3. The peanut allergy epidemic: allergen molecular characterisation and prospects for specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria P; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2007-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, with increasing prevalence worldwide. To date, there is no cure for peanut allergy, and, unlike many other food allergies, it usually persists through to adulthood. Prevention of exposure to peanuts is managed through strict avoidance, which can be compromised by the frequent use of peanuts and peanut products in food preparations. Conventional subcutaneous-injection allergen immunotherapy using crude peanut extract is not a recommended treatment because of the risk of severe side effects, largely as a result of specific IgE antibodies. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a suitable peanut allergen preparation that can induce specific clinical and immunological tolerance to peanuts in allergic individuals without adverse side effects. This requires detailed molecular and immunological characterisation of the allergenic components of peanut. This article reviews current knowledge on clinically relevant peanut allergens, in particular Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3, together with options for T-cell-reactive but non-IgE-binding allergen variants for specific immunotherapeutic strategies. These include T-cell-epitope peptide and hypoallergenic mutant vaccines. Alternative routes of administration such as sublingual are also considered, and appropriate adjuvants for delivering effective treatments at these sites examined. PMID:17210088

  4. Hydrological cycles and trends in the NW Argentine Andes since 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variability characterizes the hydrometeorological pattern in the NW Argentine Andes, draining parts of the most populated and economically important areas of South America. During the summer monsoon season (DJF), the eastern flanks of the central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to extreme hydrometeorological events. These often result in floods and landslides with disastrous effects on the local populations. Here, we analyze river discharge to explore long-term hydrological variability in NW Argentine Andes and the linked climate controlling processes. We rely on 13 daily river discharge time series relevant to drainage basins spanning several size orders (102-104 km2) starting in 1914 and define different hydro-climate indices both for the mean and the extreme hydrological events. We apply quantile regression to investigate long-term trends and spectral analysis associated with cross-correlation with SST-based climate indices to identify links to large-scale climate variability modes. River discharge presents a pronounced and coherent variability signal in South America, particularly for wide drainage basins, such as the Amazon and Paraná/La Plata rivers, strongly associated to Pacific and Atlantic Oceans Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies (i.e. ENSO, PDO, AMO). Our analysis evidences that in the NW Argentine Andes, mean discharge values are characterized by statistically significant, mostly positive, long-term trends since 1940, whereas the extreme events present a more non-unidirectional trend pattern. Also, coherent multi-annual to multi-decadal cycles characterizing the discharge pattern have been identified, suggesting that processes linked to SST anomaly-modes strongly control the hydrometeorology variability in the NW Argentina Andes.

  5. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  6. Musical Preferences of Argentines and Uruguayans Living in Australia: Implications for Music Therapy Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christobel C Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the elements that impact on the cultural identity of Argentines and Uruguayans in Australia, their relationship to music and the implications for music therapy clinical practice. A survey collected quantitative data on musical preferences and qualitative data on what respondents associated with different genres. The final sample of 12 respondents was not representative of the Australian communities, but collected data was congruent with the reviewed literature and significant internal consistency was observed.Classical music, ballads, folk and tango had the highest preference across age groups with consistent associations on musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and abstract levels.

  7. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.

  8. Graphic correlation of Argentine Precordillera and North American Lower/Middle Ordovician sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter C.Sweet; Guillermo L.Albanesi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Present work demonstrates that a level equivalent to the proposed Whiterockian basal GSSP can be located graphically in a composite section anchored by the Niquivil section of the Argentine Precordillera. The FAD of Cooperignathus aranda in the Niquivil composite section, a candidate for GSSP of the Lower/Middle Ordovician boundary, projects to a level very close to the FAD of Tripodus laevis in the Whiterockian reference section. The conodont-based framework reported here includes the potential for recognition of the proposed Whiterock Canyon-based GSSP, the Cooperignathus aranda-based GSSP, and, possibly, the Baltoniodus triangularisbased GSSP, recently proposed.

  9. Social and cognitive determinants in entrepreneurial interest: an exploratory study among argentine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA ROMERO MARTÍNEZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the intentions in creating a business on the part of a group of Argentine students in Strategic Human Resources Management in the University of Buenos Aires. The results of the study show that these students want to create their own business, but their possibilities depend on several factors. Among all of them, self-effi cacy stands out; those students who show more self-effi cacy are those who demonstrate more intention for creating a business. This intention is minor for the students who possess more social support. Neither family charges nor previous experience in entrepreneurship have a signifi cant effect.

  10. Food habits of common barn-owls along an elevational gradient in Andean Argentine Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, Alejandro; Donázar, José A.; Ceballos, Olga; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Hiraldo, F.; Delibes, M.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the diet of Common Barn-owls (Tyto alba) along an elevational gradient in Argentine Patagonia. Small mammals (mainly rodents) were the main prey accounting for 93.2% of total prey items. Consumption of rodents appeared to be dependent on their availability. Sizes of mam­ malian prey were variable but most ranged from 10—100 g in body mass. We concluded that the diet of these barn owls could be used as an index of cricetid rodent populations along ...

  11. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  12. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar

    Full Text Available The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr, cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  13. Promoters and Deterrents of Developing Mechanization of Peanut Cultivation in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zehtab Naebi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing cost of peanut production is a major concern in Iran. Therefore, developing the mechanization of peanut production is a necessity. In this regard, a three-phase Delphi study was conducted to identify the promoting and deterring factors affecting peanut cultivation mechanization in Guilan Province, the main peanut-producing region in Iran. After preliminary studies, 26 experts were selected as respondents for the study. Based on the final results, ‘allocating provincial and national funds to develop mechanization’ (with the agreement of 98.07% of respondents, ‘Organizing training programs to increase farmers’ technical knowledge’ (97.12%, and ‘conducting the pilot and model projects’(95.19% were found to be the most important promoting factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Moreover, ‘the small size and fragmentation of peanut farms’ (with 96.15% of respondents agreeing, ‘problems with the national and provincial programs of peanut mechanization’ (95.19%, and ‘low technical knowledge of farmers and craftsmen about peanut farming mechanization’ (94.23% were identified as the most important deterring factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Given the small area dedicated to peanut cultivation and the low income levels of peanut farmers in north of Iran, it seems that provincial and national funding allocation and peer-planned programming to import appropriate farm machinery are the most urgent plans to improve the status of mechanization of peanut cultivation in north of Iran.

  14. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schwager; Skadi Kull; Susanne Krause; Frauke Schocker; Arnd Petersen; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Uta Jappe

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was ...

  15. European Union Import Demand for In-Shell Peanuts: The Source Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Boonsaeng, Tullaya; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2007-01-01

    This research estimates import demand elasticities for in-shell peanuts in the European Union from four different sources: China, the United States, South America, and Africa. The null hypothesis of aggregation over product sources is rejected at conventional levels of significance suggesting that peanuts from different sources are differentiated by EU consumers which might attributed to their different quality characteristics. Conditional expenditure elasticities for U.S. in-shell peanuts ar...

  16. Detection of peanut traces in wheat flour through NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Puneet; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Roger, Jean-Michel; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Herrero Langreo, Ana; Lleó García, Lourdes; Gorretta, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    - NIR Hyperspectral images (1000-2200 nm) allowed the detection of peanut traces down to adulteration percentages 0.01 % - Determination coefficient of R2= 0.946 was found for the quantification of peanut adulteration from 10% to 0.1%. - The obtained results shows the feasibility of using HSI systems for the detection of peanut traces in conjuction with chemical procedures, such as RT-PCR and ELISA to facilitate quality control surveyance on food product processing lines.

  17. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-01-01

    Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure) were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Amb...

  18. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  19. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  20. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  1. Mutagenic response of peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominant seeds of peanut were treated with varying doses of fast neutrons employing efficient pre- and post-irradiation techniques for determination of various plant responses useful in a long range program of mutation breeding. Mean reductions in seedling height and frequency of M1 somatic mutations increased with increasing radiation dose. No reduction in M1 seedset was obtained even in the dose above the LD50 of 1600 rads. The frequency of M2 macromutations ranged from only 3.60 - 5.65 per 100 M2 plants. The genetic basis of each of these radiation responses is briefly discussed. The high sensitivity of M1 peanut seedlings and growing plants to fast neutrons is probably due to the highly differentiated seed embryo at the time of irradiation while the radioresistance exhibited by the matured plant appears to be related to the polyploid genome of the species. (Auth.)

  2. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  3. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  4. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  5. Efficacy of Argentine propolis formulation for topical treatment of canine otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A Lozina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of Argentine propolis ear drop formulation on canine otitis externa were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs with symptoms of otitis externa were randomly assigned to double-blinded, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical formulation with propolis versus a topical placebo in the treatment of otitis externa. The propolis preparation and placebo were administrated into both external ear canals, twice daily for 14 days. Throughout the study, clinical examination and microbiological analysis of dogs ear exudates were made. The most frequent microorganisms isolated in culture media were: Malassezia pachydermatis (54.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, Candida albicans (18.8%, Proteus mirabilis (16.7%, Streptococcus spp. (16.7%, Enteroccocus faecalis (12.5%, Escherichia coli (12.5%, Staphylococcus intermedius (6.3%, Klebsiella spp. (4.2%, andCandida glabrata (2.1%. Whereas the control group did not recover from the infectious ear disease, the propolis preparation exhibited antimicrobial activity against most of the microorganisms isolated from samples of the treated group. In addition, no propolis-adverse effects were observed. This allowed propolis-treated patients to show a significant improvement of the clinical parameters. Thus, this new Argentine propolis ear drop formulation may be used for topical treatment of otitis externa in dogs.

  6. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films. PMID:27404576

  7. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  8. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  9. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  10. Halotolerant Rhizobacteria Promote Growth and Enhance Salinity Tolerance in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Jayant; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 μg ml−1). The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 μg phosphate /mg dry weight), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 μmol α-kB/μg protein/h) and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 μmol C2H4 mg protein/h). These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N) content (up to 76%) was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4 to 8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants. PMID:27790198

  11. Collimated directional emission from a peanut-shaped microresonator

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with the emission divergence as small as 2.5o. The mechanism of the collimated emission is explained with the short-term ray trajectory and the intuitive lens model in detail. Wave simulation also confirms these results. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds a great ...

  12. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, M. M.M.; El- Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller’s e...

  13. Histological Studies of Ditylenchus africanus Within Peanut Pods

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, C.; van Aswegen, G.; Meyer, A.J.; De Waele, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ditylenchus africanus entered the immature pegs and pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Sellie) at the peg-connection and subsequently invaded the parenchymatous regions of the hull exocarp and endocarp, and eventually the seed testa. The nematode caused malformations of the cells of infected tissues, cell wall breakage, and cell collapse. The damage appeared to be due to enzymatic activity. In some testae the entire parenchyma region, which aids in protection of the seed, was destroyed. In ...

  14. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  15. Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2016-02-17

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergic sensitization as a result of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGEs of a peanut allergen were probed with nano-scale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Amadori product ions matched to expected peptides and yielded fragments that included a loss of three waters and HCHO. As a result of the paucity of b and y ions in the MS/MS spectrum, standard search algorithms do not perform well. Reactions with isotopically labeled sugars confirmed that the peptides contained Amadori products. An algorithm was developed on the basis of information content (Shannon entropy) and the loss of water and HCHO. Results with test data show that the algorithm finds the correct spectra with high precision, reducing the time needed to manually inspect data. Computational and technical improvements allowed for better identification of the chemical differences between modified and unmodified proteins. PMID:26811263

  16. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  17. Kinetics and isotherms of Neutral Red adsorption on peanut husk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Runping; HAN Pan; CAI Zhaohui; ZHAO Zhenhui; TANG Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of Neutral Red (NR) onto peanut husk in aqueous solutions was investigated at 295 K. Experiments were carded out as function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Toth isotherm models. The results indicated that the Toth and Langmuir models provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The adsorption capacity of peanut husk for the removal of NR was determined with the Langmuir and found to be 37.5 mg/g at 295 K. The adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic equations. It was seen that the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic equations could describe the adsorption kinetics. The intraparticle diffusion model was also used to express the adsorption process at the two-step stage. It was implied that peanut husk may be suitable as adsorbent material for adsorption of NR from aqueous solutions.

  18. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  20. Estimating aflatoxin in farmers' stock peanut lots by measuring aflatoxin in various peanut-grade components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, T B; Hagler, W M; Giesbrecht, F G; Dorner, J W; Dowell, F E; Cole, R J

    1998-01-01

    Five, 2 kg test samples were taken from each of 120 farmers' stock peanut lots contaminated with aflatoxin. Kernels from each 2 kg sample were divided into the following grade components: sound mature kernels plus sound splits (SMKSS), other kernels (OK), loose shelled kernels (LSK), and damaged kernels (DAM). Kernel mass, aflatoxin mass, and aflatoxin concentration were measured for each of the 2400 component samples. For 120 lots tested, average aflatoxin concentrations in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components were 235, 2543, 11,775, and 69,775 ng/g, respectively. Aflatoxins in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components represented 6.9, 7.9, 33.3, and 51.9% of the total aflatoxin mass, respectively. Cumulatively, 3 aflatoxin risk components--OK, LSK, and DAM--accounted for 93.1% of total aflatoxin, but only 18.4% percent of test sample mass. Correlation analysis suggests that the most accurate predictor of aflatoxin concentration in the lot is the cumulative aflatoxin mass in the high 3 risk components OK + LSK + DAM (correlation coefficient, r = 0.996). If the aflatoxin in the combined OK + LSK + DAM components is expressed in concentration units, r decreases to 0.939. Linear regression equations relating aflatoxin in OK + LSK + DAM to aflatoxin concentration in the lot were developed. The cumulative aflatoxin in the OK + LSK + DAM components was not an accurate predictor (r = 0.539) of aflatoxin in the SMKSS component. Statistical analyses of 3 other data sets published previously yielded similar results. PMID:9477563

  1. Bahiagrass, corn, cotton rotations, and pesticides for managing nematodes, diseases, and insects on peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Burton, G W; Culbreath, A K; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H

    1999-06-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  2. Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

  3. Spatial Ecology and Remote Sensing in the Precision Management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)in Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Erin

    2002-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a common polyphagous pest in peanut agroecosystems. The mite has caused serious economic losses to peanut farmers in the Virginia-Carolina area, where approximately 20% of the peanuts are produced annually in the United States. Peanut farmers depend on pesticides to control mite populations. Because TSSM has developed resistance to many acaricides and there are restrictions on the use of pesticides, an alternative approach, su...

  4. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  5. The agreement between the Argentine Republic and Australia on the cooperation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its fitting to the Argentine Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the legal aspects of the cooperation agreement between Australia and Argentina signed in Camberra on August 8, 2001, the authors elaborate upon the following points: 1. The interpretation of the constitutional texts. Its need; 2. Facts: the development of nuclear energy in Argentina. The contract INVAP-ANSTO. The cooperation agreement Argentina-Australia; 3. The great publicity campaign. The appeal to fear; 4. The difference with the case of power reactors. Distinction between power and research reactors; 5. The difference with the Chernobyl case; 6. Shipment safety; 7. Other clarifications; 8. Factual and juridical distinction between spent fuel and radioactive waste concepts; 9. The regulatory framework of the difference; 10. The essence of the adjective 'Immediate'. Its juridical meaning; 11. The concept of 'entry'. The need to overcome an intentional literalness; 12. The harmonious interpretation of the constitution; 13. The engagement with the future generations; 14. The adaptation to the global trends. The Kyoto protocol; 15. The bases of the constitutional doctrine. They conclude that nothing in the agreement is contrary to the Argentine constitution

  6. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  7. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  8. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish adole......, the case history should be evaluated together with examination for pollen sensitization....

  9. Analysis of germination of castor and peanuts seeds by 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination of castor and peanut seeds was followed by 13C NMR. Results are comparable to those observed for soybean seeds and reveal that this technique is generally applicable in cases in which a reasonable amount of soluble material is present during germination. Different pathways for oil degradation by castor and peanut seeds may be distinguished. (Author)

  10. Real-time monitoring of drying parameters in semitrailers during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient control of drying parameters is essential to ensure that peanuts are dried at the optimal rate, preserving quality and desired flavor. The present peanut drying process has limitations in means for measuring parameters such as temperature and relative humidity of the air being blown in...

  11. A LOW-COST IMPEDANCE METER FOR SENSING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF IN-SHELL PEANUTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A low cost impedance meter developed at the National Peanut Research Laboratory described here was used to generate RF signals at frequencies of 1, 5 and 9 MHz. The RF signals were applied to a parallel-plate capacitor holding a sample of peanuts and the capacitance (C), phase angle (') and impedanc...

  12. Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Blanc; Y.M. Vissers; K. Adel-Patient; N.M. Rigby; A.R. Mackie; A.P. Gunning; N.K. Wellner; P.S. Skov; L. Przybylski-Nicaise; B. Ballmer-Weber; L. Zuidmeer-Jongejan; Z. Szepfalusi; J. Ruinemans-Koerts; A.P.H. Jansen; H. Bernard; J.M. Wal; H.F.J. Savelkoul; H.J. Wichers; E.N.C. Mills

    2011-01-01

    Scope: Roasting rather than boiling and Maillard modifications may modulate peanut allergenicity. We investigated how these factors affect the allergenic properties of a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1. Methods and results: Ara h 1 was purified from either raw (N-Ara h 1) or roasted (R-Ara h 1) peanu

  13. Allergen Ara h 1 occurs in peanuts as a large oligomer rather than as a trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Beers, M.M.C. van; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w

  14. Allergen Ara h 1 Occurs in Peanuts as a Large Oligomer Rather Than as a Trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Beers, van M.M.C.; Koppelman, S.J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, is known as a stable trimeric protein. Nevertheless, upon purification of native Ara h 1 from peanuts using only size exclusion chromatography, the allergen appeared to exist in an oligomeric structure, rather than as a trimeric structure. The oligomeric structure w

  15. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Science.gov (United States)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  16. Comparison of peanut gentics and physical maps provided insights on collinearity, reversions and translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and physical maps are the valuable resources for peanut research community in understanding genome organization and serving as the basis for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection. Physical maps of two diploid wild peanut progenitor species, Arachis duranensis (A genome) and A. ipae...

  17. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and-susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  18. Microstructures of oil roasted peanuts as affected by initial moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil roasting of peanuts is a unit operation equal to that of deep frying of higher moisture foods. Retention of the oil taken up by the peanuts from oil roasting during the shelf life of the packaged product is necessary to prevent an unappealing greasy appearance. Properties of the end product we...

  19. First Report of the Natural Occurrence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Peanuts in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  20. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Cercospora arachidicola, Causal Agent of Early Leaf Spot in Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora arachidicola, an economically important pathogen of peanut, is the cause of early leaf spot disease. Despite its significance, insufficient genetic information is available for utilization. Understanding the genetic diversity of this pathogen is crucial for peanut breeding programs to d...

  2. Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

  3. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time. - Highlights: • Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation (1, 2 and 3 kGy). • The change in physicochemical properties of peanut oil was determined. • Gamma irradiation process had no effect on physicochemical properties of peanut oil. • The peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time

  4. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  5. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality, and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory has a very diverse scientific staff conducting research to address the needs of the United States peanut industry. Research is conducted in the fields of mycology, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, breeding, agronomy, economics, and engineering....

  6. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  7. Investigating kernel moisture content at the front and back of semitraliers during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of peanut drying can be influenced by many factors. Such factors include temperature and relative humidity of the air used for aeration, air velocity through the peanuts, and any obstructions to air flow caused by foreign material. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that a semitraile...

  8. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the

  9. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  10. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (Pmeat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  11. Organochlorinated pesticides in the Argentine Antarctic sector and Atlantic coastline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, J C; Casabella, A N; Marzi, A A; Astolfi, E; Roses, O; Donnewald, H; Villamil, E

    1979-01-01

    The presence of organochlorinated pesticides in water samples drawn in the Argentine Antarctic Sector and Atlantic coastline has been proved. In general, these samples showed quantities that varied between a few hundredths of a ppmm to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides, depending on the locations, the levels found were definitely higher. With the exception of Dieldrin, which appeared in only one sample/in what would seem to be its course few hundredths of a ppm, to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides found were the same as those reported in previous investigations. The isolated cases of high pesticide contents in water samples drawn at wharves and of snow in the vicinity of Almirante Brown Base show up clearly the influence of human activity on the contamination of the environment.

  12. Use of remote sensing and GIS to identify Flamingo habitat in the Argentine Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Susan C.; Hoffer, Roger M.; Boyle, Terence P.; Bucher, Enrique H.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine altiplano is a remote area which has never been adequately mapped. It is an arid region with harsh climate, little vegetation, sparse population, and an average elevation of over 3,500 feet. Little is known about the large populations of three species of flamingos which nest and feed in the altiplano lakes. In a study funded by the National Geographic Society satellite data (Landsat MSS and TM data) were used to map the location of major water bodies and to analyze the spectral characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems in the altiplano. A comparison of the two images revealed dramatic changes in the size, depth, and spectral reflectance of the lakes utilized by the flamingos.

  13. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine

  14. Dynamics and genetic structure of Argentine ant supercolonies in their native range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valérie; Pedersen, Jes S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia;

    2009-01-01

    analyses revealed the presence of 11 supercolonies (width 1 to 515 m) over a 3-km transect. As in the introduced range, there was always strong aggression between but never within supercolonies. The genetic data were in perfect agreement with the behavioral tests, all nests being assigned to identical...... units. Genetic and chemical distances between supercolonies were positively correlated, but there were no other significant associations between geographic, genetic, chemical, and behavioral distances. A comparison of supercolonies sampled in 1999 and 2005 revealed a very high turnover, with about one......Some introduced ant populations have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely within large supercolonies. We investigated whether this mode of social organization also exists in native populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Behavioral...

  15. RECENT TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE ARGENTINE OIL INDUSTRY: THE YPF CASE, 1989-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Serrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyze the path of the state oil company YPF, from privatization to its expropriation (1989-2012. In this process, it has a special emphasis on the identification and analysis of national peculiarities that explain why in the ‘90s YPF, one of the nation’s premier companies in history, was fully privatized (counter to the regional experience in Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil; and how, just twenty years later, the same company was again in state control, with an expropriation which was widely popular and parliamentary support. It also reviews the main consequences of deregulation and the opening in the Argentine oil sector, especially in the performance of --- since acquired all shares of YPF in 1999, to explain this path.

  16. Copi et Puig, ovnis du théâtre argentin ?

    OpenAIRE

    Souquet, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    C’est en 1968 que Copi (Raúl Damonte Botana, 1939-1987) publie sa première pièce, La journée d’une rêveuse puis, un an plus tard, la très iconoclaste Eva Peron. Par son milieu familial, Copi a baigné dès l’enfance dans la vie théâtrale internationale et a été fortement influencé par sa grand-mère, la dramaturge anarcho-féministe Salvadora Medina Onrubia de Botana. Mais, vivant en exil avec sa famille, Copi est coupé de la réalité de la scène argentine et il écrit d’ailleurs ses premières pièc...

  17. Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, M.; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Keller, L.

    2005-01-01

    the phylogenies of Wolbachia and its arthropod hosts indicate that infection is frequently lost, but the causes of symbiont extinction have so far remained elusive. Here, we report data showing that colonisation of new habitats is a possible mechanism leading to the loss of infection. The presence and prevalence...... of Wolbachia were studied in three native and eight introduced populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The screening shows that the symbiont is common in the three native L. humile populations analysed. In contrast, Wolbachia was detected in only one of the introduced populations. The loss...... of infection associated with colonisation of new habitats may result from drift (founder effect) or altered selection pressures in the new habitat. Furthermore, a molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the Wolbachia wsp gene indicates that L. humile has been infected by a single strain. Horizontal...

  18. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  19. Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts.

  20. Proceedings of the eighth scientific meeting; second latin american meeting; first engineering and argentine nuclear industry exposition at Buenos Aires, 5-10 november 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of 59 papers of different authors, most of whom are personnel from the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the others belonging to the firms involved in the development of the Argentine Nuclear Programme. The papers are arranged in 7 sections comprising the following groups of subjects; experimental and power reactors; fuel elements' fabrication study; prospection, extraction, production and study of nuclear materials; radiological and nuclear safety; instrumentation and control; quality assurance, and technological applications. (R.J.S.)

  1. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  2. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcón, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David

    2015-01-01

    Ants often visit flowers, but have only seldom been documented to provide effective pollination services. Floral visitation by ants can also compromise plant reproduction in situations where ants interfere with more effective pollinators. Introduced ants may be especially likely to reduce plant reproductive success through floral visitation, but existing experimental studies have found little support for this hypothesis. Here, we combine experimental and observational approaches to examine the importance of floral visitation by the nonnative Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on plant species native to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. First, we determine how L. humile affects floral visitor diversity, bee visitation rates, and levels of pollen limitation for the common, focal plant species island morning glory (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia). Second, we assess the broader ecological consequences of floral visitation by L. humile by comparing floral visitation networks between invaded and uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant and native ants both visited island morning glory flowers, but L. humile was much more likely to behave aggressively towards other floral visitors and to be the sole floral occupant. The presence of L. humile in morning glory flowers reduced floral visitor diversity, decreased rates of bee visitation, and increased levels of pollen limitation. Network comparisons between invaded and uninvaded. sites revealed differences in both network structure and species-level attributes. In. invaded sites, floral visitors were observed on fewer plant species, ants had a higher per-plant interaction strength relative to that of other visitors, and interaction strengths between bees and plants were weaker. These results illustrate that introduced ants can negatively affect plant reproduction and potentially disrupt pollination services at an ecosystem scale. PMID:26236907

  3. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  4. The effect of airborne particles and weather conditions on pediatric respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of estimated PM10 on respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine as well as the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions and education. We analyzed upper and lower respiratory infections and applied a time-series analysis with a quasi-Poisson distribution link function. To control for seasonally varying factors we fitted cubic smoothing splines of date. We also examined community-specific parameters and differences in susceptibility by sex. We found a significant association between particles and respiratory infections. This relationship was affected by mean temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. These effects were stronger in fall, winter and spring for upper respiratory infections while for lower respiratory infections the association was significant only during spring. Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of respiratory infections. These findings add useful information to understand the influence of airborne particles on children health in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Few information is available on children respiratory health from developing countries. ► We modeled the association between PM10 and children's respiratory infections. ► We checked the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions, education and sex. ► Temperature, pressure and wind speed modified the effect of particles. ► Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of infections. - The concentration of airborne particles as well as low socio-economic conditions and low education levels are significant risk factors for upper and lower respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine.

  5. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  6. Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

  7. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  8. Overexpression of peanut diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Peng

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2 genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3. Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a-GST, or AhDGAT2b-GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2b-GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4-2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction. The total fatty acid (FA levels of the AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2a-GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  9. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  10. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  11. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incontinence - skin care ... or bowels (called incontinence) are at risk of skin problems around the buttocks, hips, genitals, and the ... rectum (perineum). Excess moisture in these areas makes skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast ...

  12. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....

  13. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....

  14. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim......; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk...... of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology....

  15. Mémoire d’un saccage. Argentine, le hold-up du siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Welter

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Memoria del saqueo – la oscura trama de la corrupcion Documentaire argentin de Fernando SOLANAS, 2004, 120mn. Sortie de la dictature, l’Argentine ne pensait jamais connaître une nouvelle fois le cauchemar d’un désastre social. Ce pays, naguère le plus riche d’Amérique du Sud, a en effet tout tenté pour s’éloigner des régimes autoritaires conduisant à l’asservissement du peuple. Tout tenté, même l’extrême opposé, l’ultralibéralisme. En revenant sur ces années d’une politique en apparence ouver...

  16. Nestor Kirchner (2003-2007) : rupture ou continuite du peronisme ? Les mutations du populisme en Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Doz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Ce texte est un extrait du quatrième chapitre de la thèse « Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007) : Rupture ou continuité du péronisme. Les mutations du populisme en Argentine ». Le 25 mai 2003, le peuple argentin assistait à l’investiture présidentielle du candidat du Frente Para la Victoria, Néstor Kirchner. Suite à la défection de Carlos Menem pendant l’entre-deux tours, il est élu avec 22% des suffrages. Malgré cette faible légitimité, il réussit à insuffler un changement certain dans la politique ...

  17. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  18. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  19. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI principal component (IPCA1 explained 42.3% of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction.Sixteen of the twenty lines/cultivars under evaluation presented medium to high stability. Genotypes L127, L118, L123 line andRunner IAC 886 accounted for the greatest part of GxE interaction. Lines L132, L149 and L1-50P presented the higheststability and pod yields, above the overall mean, reflecting outstanding potential for cultivar recommendation.

  20. Peanut Seed Vigor Evaluation Using a Thermal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Grey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted from 2007 to 2009 evaluated germination of 11 peanut runner-type cultivars. Germination was evaluated in Petridishes incubated over a thermal gradient ranging from 14 to 30°C at 1.0 C increments. Beginning 24 hr after seeding, peanut was counted as germinated when radicles were greater than 5 mm long, with removal each day. Germination was counted daily for seven days after seeding. Growing-degree day (GDD accumulation for each temperature increment was calculated based on daily mean temperature for that Petri dish. Two indices were obtained from a logistic growth curve used to elucidate seed germination by cultivar: (1 maximum indices of germination and (2 GDD value at 80% germination (Germ80, an indication of seed vigor the lower the Germ80 value, the greater the seed lot vigor. Based on the two indices, seed lots “AT 3081R”, “AP-3”, “GA-06G”, and “Carver” had the strongest seed vigor (Germ80 26 to 47 GDD and a high maximum incidence of germination rate (80 to 94%. Seed lots of “C99-R”, “Georgia-01R”, “Georgia-02C”, and “Georgia-03L” had inconsistent seed performance, failing to achieve 80% germination in at least two of three years.

  1. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1% followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.. All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  2. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  3. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  4. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  5. CONTROL OF AFLATOXIGENIC Aspergillus flavus IN PEANUTS USING NONAFLATOXIGENIC A. flavus, A. niger and Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Trichoderma harzianum inoculated into planting media on toxigenic A. flavus infection and its aflatoxin production in peanut kernels at harvest were investigated together with (1 the moisture content of planting media before peanut planting, at the time of inflorescence, and at harvest, (2 the population of aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus, A. niger and T. harzianum in peanut planting media before peanut planting, at the time of inflorescence, and at harvest, (3 the moisture content of peanut kernels at harvest, and (4 toxigenic A. flavus invasion in peanut plant parts (r oots, stems, petioles, leaves and flowers at the time of inflorescence. The fungal isolates were inoculated into planting media at the same time with the planting of peanut seeds. Peanut plants were grown under glasshouse conditions. Treated planting media were inoculated with the combined use of (1 toxigenic and nontoxigenic A. flavus, (2 toxigenic A. flavus and A. niger, and (3 toxigenic A. flavus and T. harzianum. Planting media inoculated only with each fungal isolat e and uninoculated planting media were used as controls. Two watering treatments of peanut plants were carried out, i.e. watering un til harvest and not watering for 15 days before harvest. The populations of the fungal isolates in the planting media and peanut kernels were determined using dilution method followed by pour plate method; the percentages of toxigenic A. flavus and test fungal colonizations in peanut plant parts were de termined using plating method; the moisture content of planting media and peanut kernels were determined using oven method; the aflatoxin content of peanut kernels was determined using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The results indicated that at the time of harvest the decr ease in moisture contents of planting media not watered for 15 days before harvest was higher than those watered until harvest. The

  6. Motives for inter-firm cooperation on R&D and innovation: empirical evidence from Argentine and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Schachter, Mónica; Anlló, Guillermo; Castro-Martínez, Elena; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Motives and determinants supporting inter-firm technological cooperation have been extensively investigated in developed countries but scarcely addressed in developing countries. This paper addresses these issues, investigating empirically several factors influencing the likelihood to cooperate on R&D and innovation between Argentine and Spanish firms, their strategic motives and firms characteristics which influence cooperation. We draw upon data collected through a survey of 104 firms and c...

  7. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  8. Communication of 31 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 31 March 2000 from the Resident Representative of the Argentine Republic, including as attachment the declaration of the Advisory and Political Harmonisation Forum of MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay), Bolivia and Chile, issued on 27 March 2000, with regard to the 30th Anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  9. Moderls of Internationzation of Two Argentine Pharmaceutical Companies in Historical Perspective: The Cases of Bagó and Sidus

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization is not a simple decision but rather a complex strategy that requires the presence of tangible and intangible resources that, in the case of a family firm, call for careful analysis. To understand this process, the present study reconstructs the historical trajectories of two important Argentine laboratories, Bagó and Sidus, in historical perspective, using the stage approach of the Uppsala school (U-model) and the perspective of resources and capacities (resource-based vi...

  10. Molina’s Touch and Dorda’s Music: The Schizophrenia of Gender in Post-dictatorial Argentine Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaumik, Munia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyze the “woman question” in relation to tropes of schizophrenia in post-dictatorial queer Argentine fiction. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guttari’s claim in Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia states: “schizoanalysis must devote itself with all its strength to the necessary destructions….. Destroying beliefs and representations, theatrical scenes. And when engaged in this task no activity will be too malevolent.” Similarly, Manuel Puig’s El Beso de la mujer ...

  11. Samosprávné podniky v Argentině jako sociální hnutí

    OpenAIRE

    Virtová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to elaborate a case study of self-managed factories, which has been emerging in Argentina after the economic crisis in 2001. Mainly the conflictive origin, organization, role of the state and the dynamics of the movement of self-managed factories is discussed. This paper is based on European tradition of social movements' analysis and seeks to characterize movement of Argentine self-managed factories as so called old or new social movement. This dividing line will ultimately ...

  12. Effect of biochar amendment on yield and photosynthesis of peanut on two types of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Hosseini-Bai, Shahla; Hao, Yanbin; Rachaputi, Rao C N; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Zhihong; Wallace, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has significant potential to improve crop performance. This study examined the effect of biochar application on the photosynthesis and yield of peanut crop grown on two soil types. The commercial peanut cultivar Middleton was grown on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol (Queensland, Australia) amended with a peanut shell biochar gradient (0, 0.375, 0.750, 1.50, 3.00 and 6.00%, w/w, equivalent up to 85 t ha(-1)) in a glasshouse pot experiment. Biomass and pod yield, photosynthesis-[CO2] response parameters, leaf characteristics and soil properties (carbon, nitrogen (N) and nutrients) were quantified. Biochar significantly improved peanut biomass and pod yield up to 2- and 3-folds respectively in red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. A modest (but significant) biochar-induced improvement of the maximum electron transport rate and saturating photosynthetic rate was observed for red ferrosol. This response was correlated to increased leaf N and accompanied with improved soil available N and biological N fixation. Biochar application also improved the availability of other soil nutrients, which appeared critical in improving peanut performance, especially on infertile redoxi-hydrosol. Our study suggests that application of peanut shell derived biochar has strong potential to improve peanut yield on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. Biochar soil amendment can affect leaf N status and photosynthesis, but the effect varied with soil type. PMID:25395326

  13. Development of a novel strategy to isolate lipophilic allergens (oleosins from peanuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwager

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins.A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins.Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis.

  14. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  15. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James A; Shepley-McTaggart, Ariel; Umpierrez, Michelle; Hurlburt, Barry K; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Mayfield, Stephen P; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between preparations complicates immunotherapy studies. Moreover, peanut immunotherapy is associated with frequent negative side effects and patients are often at risk of allergic reactions once immunotherapy is discontinued. Allergen-specific approaches using recombinant proteins are an attractive alternative because they allow more precise dosing and the opportunity to engineer proteins with improved safety profiles. We tested whether Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, two major peanut allergens, could be produced using chloroplast of the unicellular eukaryotic alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is novel host for producing allergens that is genetically tractable, inexpensive and easy to grow, and is able to produce more complex proteins than bacterial hosts. Compared to the native proteins, algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain and Ara h 2 have a reduced affinity for IgE from peanut-allergic patients. We further found that immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h 1 core domain confers protection from peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut allergy. PMID:26801740

  16. Effect of biochar amendment on yield and photosynthesis of peanut on two types of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Hosseini-Bai, Shahla; Hao, Yanbin; Rachaputi, Rao C N; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Zhihong; Wallace, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has significant potential to improve crop performance. This study examined the effect of biochar application on the photosynthesis and yield of peanut crop grown on two soil types. The commercial peanut cultivar Middleton was grown on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol (Queensland, Australia) amended with a peanut shell biochar gradient (0, 0.375, 0.750, 1.50, 3.00 and 6.00%, w/w, equivalent up to 85 t ha(-1)) in a glasshouse pot experiment. Biomass and pod yield, photosynthesis-[CO2] response parameters, leaf characteristics and soil properties (carbon, nitrogen (N) and nutrients) were quantified. Biochar significantly improved peanut biomass and pod yield up to 2- and 3-folds respectively in red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. A modest (but significant) biochar-induced improvement of the maximum electron transport rate and saturating photosynthetic rate was observed for red ferrosol. This response was correlated to increased leaf N and accompanied with improved soil available N and biological N fixation. Biochar application also improved the availability of other soil nutrients, which appeared critical in improving peanut performance, especially on infertile redoxi-hydrosol. Our study suggests that application of peanut shell derived biochar has strong potential to improve peanut yield on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. Biochar soil amendment can affect leaf N status and photosynthesis, but the effect varied with soil type.

  17. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  18. Bahiagrass, Corn, Cotton Rotations, and Pesticides for Managing Nematodes, Diseases, and Insects on Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Burton, G. W.; Culbreath, A. K.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S H

    1999-01-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated pl...

  19. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedo, R. H.; Nepote, V.; N. R. Grosso

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP) and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R), oregano (CP-O) and laurel (CP-L) essential oils and BHT (CPBHT) were prepared. Peroxide values (PV) and p-anisidine values (AV) and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C). CP-...

  20. Research on the Peanut Leaf Etiolation Prevention and Film Mulching Effect in Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changbing; YU; Yinshui; LI; Lihua; XIE; Xiaojia; HU; Boshou; LIAO; Fang; CHEN; Xing; LIAO

    2014-01-01

    The possible nutrient problems existing in leaf etiolation,the influence of film mulching on the yield of peanut and benefits of balanced fertilization were analyzed. The results showed that the deficiency of nutrient elements was not main limiting factor in leaf etiolation of peanut in Hong’an. Deep trench,film mulching,liming and organic manure could be used to prevent leaf etiolation. The film mulching could increase the yield of peanut by improving the rate of germination and seedling,the number of branches and full pod,and it was beneficial to playing the effect of balanced fertilization.

  1. A Vertical Resonance Heating Model for X- or Peanut-Shaped Galactic Bulges

    OpenAIRE

    Quillen, Alice C.; Minchev, Ivan; Sharma, Sanjib; Qin, Yu-Jing; Di Matteo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    We explore a second order Hamiltonian vertical resonance model for X-shaped or peanut-shaped galactic bulges. The X-shape is caused by the 2:1 vertical Lindblad resonance with the bar, with two vertical oscillation periods per orbital period in the bar frame. We examine N-body simulations and find that due to the bar slowing down and disk thickening during bar buckling, the resonance and associated peanut-shape moves outward. The peanut-shape is consistent with the location of the vertical re...

  2. Effects of grading on the main quality attributes of peanut kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiancheng ZHANG; Chuantang WANG; Yueyi TANG; Xiuzhen WANG

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of peanut kernels of different grades by mainly using advanced breeding lines derived from intersectional crosses in two experiments gave similar results, showing remarkable inter-grade variation in oil content of a specific entry. The effects of genotype on qualitative attributes proved to be predominant. No significant differences in protein content, oleic acid/linoleic acid content in total fatty acids, and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratio were detected among the No. 1, No, 2 and No. 3 grade peanut kernels of a given peanut genotype.

  3. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Dry skin public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  4. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  5. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken. The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels , hair follicles , and glands . Enlarge Anatomy of the skin, ...

  6. Stiff skin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  7. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, most often ...

  8. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Perpetuating Social Movements amid Declining Opportunity: The Survival Strategies of Two Argentine Piquetero Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Epstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent behaviour in Argentina of two national protest groups of socalled ‘piqueteros’ or picketers (impoverished unemployed individuals who used the blockage of strategic roads and bridges to force government concessions that emerged politically in the buildup to the crisis of 2001-2002. Using theoretical concepts developed by McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly in understanding social movements, the author analyses what he calls the ‘survival strategy’ adopted by their leaders as the political opportunities that produced their initial growth gave way to a more hostile environment with the normalization of Argentine politics under the Kirchner administration. While the two piquetero groups studied differ considerably in terms of their politics and ideology, both ended up depending on the same traditional tactic of utilizing important government contacts to obtain the resources necessary for organizational maintenance, despite their nominal identity as radical protesters against the present political system.Resumen: Perpetuando movimientos sociales y oportunidades decrecientes: las estrategias de sobrevivencia de dos grupos de piqueteros argentinesEste artículo examina el comportamiento reciente de dos grupos nacionales de protesta argentinos llamados ‘piqueteros’ (desempleados empobrecidos que usaron el bloqueo de calles y puentes estratégicos para forzar concesiones gubernamentales que aparecieron durante la crisis de 2001- 2002. Utilizando conceptos teóricos creados por McAdam, Tarrow, y Tilly en su discusión sobre los movimientos sociales, el autor analiza lo que describe como ‘estrategias de sobrevivencia’ adoptadas por sus dirigentes cuando las oportunidades que ocasionaron su crecimiento inicial cedieron ante un ambiente más hostil en el contexto de la normalización de la política argentina durante la administración de Kirchner. Aunque los dos grupos piqueteros estudiados se diferencian mucho en t

  10. An independent test of thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow beneath the Argentine Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohertz, Warren L.; Carlson, Richard L.

    1998-09-01

    We have used primary precision depth recorder and single channel seismic data from three cruises of the R/V Conrad to test thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow models for seafloor depth versus age in the Argentine Basin in the western South Atlantic. We found a region in the west central part of the basin where anomalously shallow depths, that can not be explained by any simple thermal or dynamic model, are associated with a local free-air gravity anomaly. Elsewhere, over ages ranging from 1 to 104 Ma, there is no evidence of the "flattening" of the depth/age trend that is characteristic of the plate cooling model for the thermal subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere. The halfspace thermal subsidence model accounts for nearly 98% of the variance of seafloor depth, but the slope, b=425±10 m Ma -1/2, implies improbably high mantle temperatures and/or low mantle densities. Moreover, there is some systematic misfit between the data and the halfspace model. A thermal subsidence model in which initial conditions vary with age accounts for the misfit, but also requires an implausible variation of mantle temperature and/or density. Alternatively, a model that includes the effect of induced flow in the asthenosphere eliminates the misfit and yields a reasonable rate of thermal subsidence b=330±20 m Ma -1/2. That the mantle temperature ( Tm˜1150±70)°C implied by the subsidence rate is slightly lower than normal is consistent with the hypothesis that this region has not been affected by hot spots or mantle plumes. The viscosity of the asthenosphere derived from the model (3-4 × 10 19 Pa s) is high, but consistent with viscosities estimated from plate dynamics models when the low mantle temperature is taken into account. Finally, the PMS flow model is consistent with measured heat flow in the region. These results lend weight to the hypothesis that the bathymetry of the Argentine Basin is influenced by induced flow in the asthenosphere, as well as by halfspace

  11. Chemical quality of different argentine honey varieties, irradiated to control american foulbrood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'American foulbrood' is a disease that seriously affects bees. Honey may be contaminated with spores of the related bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, which is a great drawback for trade. The scientific literature reports that these spores, resistant to heat and chemicals, are inactivated in honey when it is irradiated al 10 kGy, being this treatment mandatory in the Republic of Southafrica. Irradiated food wholesomeness is endorsed by the World Health Organization. Considering that Argentina is an important honey producer and exporter, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on some of its commercial chemical parameters along storage time. Honeys with different characteristics, coming from five different regions of the country: Middle, Patagonia, North, Litoral, Humid Pampa, were provided by producers from a commission called 'Packaged honey' of the National Food, Fishery and Agriculture Ministry. Fifteen kg of each honey variety were packaged in 500 g polypropylene recipes with polyethylene lids, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, 500,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 10 and 20 kilo Grays. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature for 10 months. Some standardized chemical analysis required by the Argentine Food Code (AFC) were performed on the first, fourth and tenth storage months: water content, acidity, diastase content, reducing sugars, and hydroxymethylfurfural. Reducing sugars and diastase activity slightly diminished, and acidity slightly increased, along storage which is typical in this product; no significant differences were found between control and irradiated samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural values, related to aging or thermal abuse, diminished slightly though significantly due to irradiation, which would not affect the product quality as regulations require not to surpass a maximum value, 40 mg/kg in the AFC. So ionizing

  12. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering.

  13. Gene expression profiling and identification of resistance genes to Aspergillus flavus infection in peanut through EST and microarray strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baozhu; Fedorova, Natalie D; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillusflavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering. PMID:22069737

  14. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas Tectónica activa en la Precordillera argentina y las Sierras Pampeanas occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.El antepais andino del centro-oeste de Argentina (28°S-33°S está caracterizado por deformaciones asociadas a la subducción horizontal activa de la placa de Nazca debajo de la litósfera de la placa Sudamericana. En esta región se concentra una importante actividad sísmica y fallamiento cortical activo. Para mejorar la identificación y caracterización de las fuentes sismogénicas en la región de San Juan, fueron integrados y combinados datos de sismología, geología estructural y geomorfología cuantitativa para establecer un modelo sismotectónico. El mismo considera al retroarco del oeste argentino como un antearco con convergencia oblicua donde las deformaciones plio-cuaternarias son particionadas en movimientos compresivos y de transcurrencia dextral. Dichos movimientos están localizados respectivamente en la Precordillera, una faja de pliegues y escurrimientos de cobertura con vergencia hacia el este, y en las Sierras

  15. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lei Su; Chuan-Zhi Zhao; Yu-Ping Bi; Shu-Bo Wan; Han Xia; Xing-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that includes proteins accumulated at late stages of seed development or in vegetative tissues in response to drought, salinity, cold stress and exogenous application of abscisic acid. In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project was carried out using a peanut seed cDNA library. From 6258 ESTs, 19 LEA-encoding genes were identified and could be classified into eight distinct groups. Expression of these genes in seeds at different developmental stages and in various peanut tissues was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that expression levels of LEA genes were generally high in seeds. Some LEA protein genes were expressed at a high level in non-seed tissues such as root, stem, leaf, flower and gynophore. These results provided valuable information for the functional and regulatory studies on peanut LEA genes.

  16. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of A. arachidicola is CBS 117610(T) =IBT 25020(T) and that of A. minisclerotigenes is CBS 117635(T) =IBT 27196(T). The Mycobank accession numbers for Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. and Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov...

  17. Effect of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L. on Dyslipidemia in Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Akter,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid lowering drugs are available in modern medicine but prolong use of these drugs may produce some side effects. Peanut due to some of its active component can improve lipid profile. Objective: To observe the effects of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. on dyslipidemia in young adults. Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka between 1st July 2013 and 30th June 2014. For this purpose 30 dyslipidemic young adults of both sexes with aged 30 to 40 years were included in this study and they were selected from Out Patient Department of Medicine of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka. They were studied three times i,e before supplementation with peanut (BSP, after 4 weeks supplementation with peanut (4 wks AP and after 8 weeks supplementation with peanut (8 wks AP. For assessing lipid profile TAG, LDL-C, TC and HDL-C of all subjects were estimated by enzymatic method. The statistical analysis was done by using paired sample‘t’ test as applicable. Results: In this study, the mean serum TAG, LDL-C and TC levels were significantly decreased after 8 weeks supplementation with peanut in comparison to those of after 4 weeks and before supplementation with peanut. However, these levels were also decreased after 4 weeks supplementation than those of before supplementation but it was significant only for TC (p<0.05 and LDL-C (p<0.001. Whereas, the mean serum HDL-C level was significantly (p<0.001 increased after 8 weeks supplementation when compared to those of after 4 weeks and before supplementation of peanut. Conclusion: The present study revealed that, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. has effect on improvement of lipid profile by lowering serum TAG, LDL-C, TC levels and by increasing serum HDL-C level. This lipid lowering effects of peanut may be due to its high Mg

  18. Les intellectuels espagnols exilés dans l'Argentine peroniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bonardi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno argentino del general Perón reveló ser un verdadero chaleco salvavidas para la dictadura española. Esta política de cooperación provoca una viva oposición en Argentina. Este trabajo propone un análisis de las reacciones de los intelectuales españoles exiliados en Argentina. Observaremos de que manera los intelectuales españoles lucharon contra la dictadura franquista durante el idilio hispano-argentino y analizaremos el “modus operandi” adoptado por el gobierno peronista para obstaculizar las actividades anti-franquistas en el exilio.__________________ABSTRACT:The Argentine government of general Perón becomes an authentic life jacket for the Spanish dictatorship. This policy of cooperation triggers ample dispproval in Argentina. We propose an analysis of the reactions of the spanish intellectuals exiled in Argentina. We will see how the Spanish intellectuals fight against the Franco dictatorship during the honeymoon Hispanic-Argentinean. Also we will analyze the modus operandi adopted by the Peronist government to prevent the antifrancoist activities of the exiliados.

  19. Lithologic identification and characterization using ETM+ (Landsat 7. Study case of the Upsala glacier basin, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lo Vecchio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study aims to evaluate and analyze digital image processing techniques applied to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, in order to demark and characterize the outcropping lithologies on the Upsala Glacier basin, Santa Cruz, Argentine Republic. The prolific technological and spatial development experienced in the last decades has given place to the generation, without precedents, of multiple remote sensors capable of capturing information of the terrestrial surface and also the improvement of digital image processing techniques and software; amongst them, the amazing possibilities in the detection and differentiation of diverse covers present on the terrestrial surface can be highlighted, such as glaciers, volcanoes, vegetation, soils, water, types of rock outcrops, etc. This situation improves mapping and monitoring of natural phenomenon in the Earth Sciences field. The proposed methodology includes radiometric corrections, elimination of unwanted covers, statistical evaluation in the combination of the most appropriate bands, application of the Z index, discretization of the statistical series, entailing tasks of spectral classification with field samples and a later validation. Valuable results were obtained by means of digital processing of images, that were validated yielding a 82% of accuracy in the proposed classification, which are good results taking into account the diversity of covers present and the lithological heterogeneity that makes up each pixel (30m. These results were also validated with existing geological maps, obtaining a good agreement.

  20. Screening of FSH receptor gene in Argentine women with premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Victoria; Chiauzzi, Violeta A; Escobar, Maria Eugenia; Dain, Liliana; Charreau, Eduardo H

    2004-07-30

    Diverse mutations in FSH-receptor (FSHR) gene have been described as possible cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). To investigate the presence of mutations and/or polymorphisms in FSHR gene, DNA from 20 POF, 5 of which were diagnosed as resistant ovary syndrome (ROS), and from 44 controls was isolated from peripheral lymphocytes. The complete coding sequence was analysed by PCR followed by SSCP, direct sequencing or restriction enzyme analysis. No mutations in FSHR gene were identified in the patients studied. The two already described polymorphisms in exon 10, A919G and A2039G, cosegregated in all the homozygous individuals, indicating that FSHR presents two isoforms: Ala307-Ser680 and Thr307-Asn680. OR results suggest that the 919G-2039G allelic variant or the homozygous genotype is not associated to disease risk. In addition, a heterozygous substitution T1022C (Val341Ala) was found in two control subjects. We suggest that mutations in FSHR gene are rare in women with POF in Argentine. Presence of a particular FSHR isoform does not appear to be associated with this disease.

  1. Training and the personnel accreditation of regulatory functions in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaching and the training are indispensable for the development of the human resources in all disciplines and occupations of the man in the world scale. About the applications of the radionuclides in the nuclear industry, in Argentina, during the last years, the efforts have been intensified. The necessity of improving the capacity of answer in radiation protection and nuclear safety demands an focus integrated in the teaching and the training. The radiological protection and the nuclear safety presents elements of the applied physics, the chemistry, the biology, the nuclear technology and other specialized subjects. However, in relation with the development of the human resources, specially those that belong to regulatory bodies and perform inspection functions, have important differences, necessities and specific problems. Some differences and problems emerge of the wide diversity and reach of the radiological and nuclear applications. Nowadays, in the world, the applications of the radiation and radioactive sources are being diversified in the medicine (diagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, the industry, the agricultures, and the investigation and teaching), that involve a permanent knowledge and actualization of the personnel of the regulatory bodies. For that exposed this work describe training program for the personnel with regulatory functions (inspectors) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the Argentine Republic. Also, this document includes the description of the basic formation and specialized in each case and it reach. (author)

  2. Reflections on the development of local suppliers for the Argentine nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has given recently a new start to its nuclear power activities. Looking for background and experiences that can be useful under the new reality, the paper is a survey of the past development of local suppliers for the national nuclear industry. Based on the intention to answer the questions: Why so early it was decided to build a nuclear power plant? Why it was decided to buy it under a turnkey basis rather than developing an indigenous design? and what was the meaning of the 'opening of the technology package' at that time?, the paper describes the actions that led to the purchase of the Atucha I, Embalse and Atucha II nuclear power plants and how these decisions were implemented in order to maximize local participation and the technology transfer. It also analyzes the influence of the Argentine Nuclear Plan of the late seventies on the development of endogenous technology and describes the facts that helped to preserve until now the technological nuclear capabilities of the country in spite of the stopping of the Atucha II construction, and to create positive expectations regarding the revival of the local industry as a supplier of nuclear goods and services. (author)

  3. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Irigoitia, M M; Holzer, A S; Timi, J T

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach. Three myxozoan species were recorded: Kudoa rosenbuschi, Myxoproteus meridionalis and Fabespora sp. Results of modelling species individually showed differential capabilities for detecting geographical population structure at different spatial scales, with K. rosenbuschi and Fabespora sp. allowing the discrimination of northern and southern stocks, but Fabespora sp. also as a promissory indicator of intrapopulation sub-structure due to different migratory routes during non-reproductive periods. This work confirms that myxozoans offer a set of suitable markers at different spatial scales, which can be selected individually or in any combination, depending on the geographical extent of the study, constituting tools adaptable to the objectives of further research on fish population structure.

  4. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Merín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL. This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

  5. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  6. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  7. Argentine activities related to the development of low enriched fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the RERTR Program and supported by the technical cooperation work agreed upon between the USA and Argentina in May 1979, the CNEA Nuclear Fuel Department - Low Enriched Fuel Elements Project (ECBE Project) has carried on its own program for developing fuels with low enrichment for research and test reactors. Up to the present, its main objective has been to replace the highly enriched fuel used in its only reactor (RA-3) for research, development and radioisotopes production. The basic stages of the Argentine Program are shown. The densities reached were within the range of 3.12 to 3.58 g/cm3 for U3O8-Al, 2.99 to 3.09 g/cm3 for UAl2-Al and 5.18 to 6.10 g/cm3 for U3Si-Al. If further miniplates can be irradiated, it is the purpose of the program to research uranium densities of 3.5 g/cm3 in UAl2-Al and 6.5 g/cm3 in U3Si-Al

  8. Magnetic and Moessbauer Studies of Quaternary Argentine Loessic Soils and Paleosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, R. C., E-mail: mercader@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Sives, F. R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Vandenberghe, R. E. [Ghent University, NUMAT, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics (Belgium)

    2005-02-15

    This paper is a review of the current status about the remaining problems that are found in the investigation of the Quaternary Argentine soils and loessic sediments, and the way that Moessbauer studies can assist in solving them. There are two main types of investigations that make use of the magnetic response of the samples to correlate them with information gathered by other methods. On the one hand, there is the stratigraphic and chronological research, which is of importance from the geological and paleontological points of view. On the other hand, the paleoclimatic records, of significance toward a possible model of the past climate, are also studied because of their close relation to the sediments history. However, there is not yet a model that can tell the difference between the modifications due to the climatic conditions at the time when the soils were buried from processes that occurred after burial. Some examples are given that show that Moessbauer studies can be applied with a certain degree of success when cross-checked with magnetic measurements toward understanding the processes that occurred in alluvial B (paleosols) and C horizons (loess) from the eastern part of Buenos Aires Province. Although the application of Moessbauer studies to hydromorphic processes in soils is not straightforward, there are cases in which Moessbauer spectroscopy, if applied properly and correlated with other techniques, is able to characterize the type of iron oxides existing in the materials and thus assist theories about its origin and history.

  9. Chemical defense by the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis against the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R Sorrells

    Full Text Available The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is established worldwide and displaces native ant species. In northern California, however, the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis persists in invaded areas. We found that in aggressive interactions between the two species, P. imparis employs a potent defensive secretion. Field observations were conducted at P. imparis nest sites both in the presence and absence of L. humile. These observations suggested and laboratory assays confirmed that P. imparis workers are more likely to secrete when outnumbered by L. humile. Workers of P. imparis were also more likely to secrete near their nest entrances than when foraging on trees. One-on-one laboratory trials showed that the P. imparis secretion is highly lethal to L. humile, causing 79% mortality. The nonpolar fraction of the secretion was chemically analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and found to be composed of long-chain and cyclic hydrocarbons. Chemical analysis of dissected P. imparis workers showed that the nonpolar fraction is derived from the Dufour's gland. Based on these conclusions, we hypothesize that this chemical defense may help P. imparis to resist displacement by L. humile.

  10. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  11. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  12. SURVEY OF PEANUT FUNGAL CONTAMINATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AMBIENT CONDITIONS IN THE BAZAR OF ZANJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rostami ، K. Naddafi ، A. Aghamohamadi ، H. Najafi saleh ، M. Fazlzadeh davil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different food products such as corn, wheat and peanut have shown high potential to be contaminated in suitableenvironmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Some fungi can produce toxins, like Aflatoxin,and some of them are carcinogen. The purpose of this research was to study fungal contamination in peanutsbeing sold in the BAZAR of the city of Zanjan. 20 samples of 50g roasted and salted peanuts and 16 samplesof 50g unsalted peanuts (pure were collected from Zanjan BAZAR. Ambient conditions such as light intensity,temperature and air flow of the BAZAR and also the relative humidity of peanuts were measured. Samples wereanalyzed for fungal colony and were identified using slide culture technique. Results showed that Mold fungiwere dominant among the colonies as. Aspergillus flavus (39.1%, Penicillium (9.2%, Rhizopus (7.2%, Mucor(2.5%, Alternaria (1.03% and Nigrospora (0.5%. Temperature and the samples relative humidity were higherthan the standard range. The results indicated a significant relation between relative humidity, light intensity,temperature and peanuts’ type (pure or salted with level of fungal contamination. Also, roasting and processingreduced the relative humidity of peanuts and the level of contamination. Hence roasting, salting and provision ofappropriate ambient conditions can be useful to peanut storage

  13. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houmiao; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Silong; Dai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Huifang; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus)–peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one (T1), three (T2) and seven (T3) days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops. PMID:26891328

  14. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houmiao Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus–peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R and -susceptible peanut (af_S at one (T1, three (T2 and seven (T3 days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops.

  15. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. PMID:26618608

  16. Intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation, and concentrations of metabolites in steers fed with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paulo Andrade; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Jaeger, Soraya Maria Palma Luz; de Paula Leite, Meiby Carneiro; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Correia, Braulio Rocha; de Santana Filho, Nivaldo Barreto

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated peanut cake as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of steers. We used five castrated Holstein × Zebu steers, fistulated, with average live weight 550 kg, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The diets were composed of Tifton hay and ground corn with peanut cake (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) as a replacement for soybean meal in the concentrate. Intake (kg/day) of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein were not affected by peanut cake, but ether extract intake increased linearly with the level of peanut cake in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter showed a quadratic effect, with a calculated maximum regression level of 56 % at 37 % replacement. There was no effect of the level of peanut cake on metabolizable energy intake and net energy, ammonia nitrogen, rumen pH, plasma urea, and glucose concentrations. We recommend replacing soybean meal in the concentrate with up to 40 % peanut cake.

  17. Effect of pressure blanching on sensory and proximate composition of peanut milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Yadav, Deep Narayan; Rajput, Hradesh; Bhatt, Devendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Small scale process for the production of peanut milk was developed from M-522 variety of peanut. Three treatments i.e. traditional, 1% NaHCO3 soaking and pressure blanching (at 121 °C, 15 psi for 2, 3 and 5 mins) were given for the preparation of peanut milk. The milks so obtained were analyzed for chemical composition and also subjected to organoleptic evaluation using nine point hedonic scale by semi trained panel of judges. Peanut milk prepared by pressure blanching (at 121 °C, 15 psi for 3 min) was found most acceptable method. The proximate composition of the most acceptable peanut milk prepared by pressure blanching (at 121 °C, 15 psi for 3 min) was found to be moisture 88.22%, ash 0.16%, fat 1.65%, protein 3.27%, total solids 11.78%. Based on the results it was concluded that the pressure blanching was found most acceptable method for the preparation of peanut milk beverage although it had the negative effect on the protein and total solid extraction.

  18. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-06-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a box/peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such box/peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models, it has been claimed in the past that box/peanut bulges are supported by `bananas', or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent made-to-measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45 per cent of the stellar mass.

  19. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Mengmeng; Ma, Chuanxin; Hao, Yi; Guo, Jing; Rui, Yukui; Tang, Xinlian; Zhao, Qi; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Zetian; Hou, Tianqi; Zhu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer. PMID:27375665

  20. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, M; Gerhard, O

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a Box/Peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such Box/Peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well-known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models it has been claimed in the past that Box/Peanut bulges are supported by "bananas", or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent Made-to-Measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45...

  1. Oral administration of IL-12 suppresses anaphylactic reactions in a murine model of peanut hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Huang, C K; Zhang, T F; Schofield, B H; Burks, A W; Bannon, G A; Sampson, H A; Li, X M

    2001-11-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for peanut allergy, which accounts for most life-threatening food allergic reactions. Since IL-12 has been found to inhibit allergic airway responses in a mouse model of asthma and to cure Th2 cytokine-mediated murine schistosomiasis, we hypothesized that IL-12 treatment might also inhibit peanut allergic reactions. Consequently, we investigated the effects of oral IL-12 treatment in a murine model of peanut allergy and found that oral administration of liposome encapsulated rIL-12 could both prevent and reverse peanut hypersensitivity and could reduce histamine release, peanut-specific serum IgE and IgG1, and fecal IgA levels. Oral IL-12 treatment also increased IFN-gamma but did not decrease IL-4 or IL-5 levels. We conclude that oral rIL-12 treatment has therapeutic as well as preventive effects on peanut allergy, which are associated with increased IFN-gamma production. PMID:11683581

  2. High-oleic peanuts increase diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences suggest that nuts consumption can improve energy metabolism. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effects of acute ingestion of high-oleic and conventional peanuts on appetite, food intake, and energy metabolism in overweight and obese men. Methods: Seventy one subjects (29.8 ± 2.4 kg/m² were assigned to the groups: control (CT, n = 24; conventional peanuts (CVP, n = 23; high-oleic peanuts (HOP, n = 24. Subjects consumed 56 g of peanuts (CVP and HOP or control biscuits (CT after overnight fasting. Thereafter, energy metabolism was evaluated over 200 minutes, during which diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and substrate oxidation were analyzed. Appetite sensation was recorded for 3 hours. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software considering 5% as the significance level. Results: Postprandial energy expenditure and DIT were significantly higher in HOP than in CVP. Substrate oxidation did not differ between groups. Only HOP presented score below 100 indicating incomplete compensation. CT and CVP showed a complete caloric compensation (scores > 100. Regarding appetite sensation, CVP group felt less "full" than HOP and CT. After 3 hours, satiety score of CVP returned to baseline, whereas HOP and CT remained significantly higher. Hunger scores returned to baseline in CVP and CT and they were maintained significantly lowered in HOP. Conclusion: High-oleic peanuts contributed to higher DIT, higher sensation of fullness and incomplete compensation for energy intake compared to conventional peanuts and may be useful to dietary intervention to reduce body weight.

  3. The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Debattista, V P; Mayer, L; Moore, B; Debattista, Victor P.; Mayer, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened...

  4. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method.

  5. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method. PMID:26471545

  6. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepote, V.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P, in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P, of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91% than T-P (48.95%. GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49% than GO-P (26.68%. GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively. In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad de pastas de cacahuete elaboradas a partir del cultivar alto oleico, Granoleico (GO-P, en comparación con el cultivar convencional, Tegua (T-P, de cacahuetes desarrollados en Argentina. GOP presentó mayor contenido de aceite (50.91% que T-P (48.95%. GO-P y T-P no mostraron diferencias en los contenidos de cenizas y carbohidratos. T-P presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (27.49% que GO-P (26.68%. GO-P mostró contenidos significativamente mayores de ácido oleico y menores de ácido linoleico (78.50% y 4.60%, respectivamente que T-P (45.80% y 33.30%, respectivamente. Además, GO-P mostró mayor porcentaje de ácido eicosenoico y

  7. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS ON CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD AND PURHCASE PATTERN OF IN-SHELL PEANUTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2000-01-01

    A nationwide household survey was used to examine U.S. consumers' attitude and purchase behavior toward in-shell peanuts. Fishbein's multiattribute model was the basis for evaluating the effects of perceived product attributes on attitudes toward in-shell peanuts. Consumer purchase behavior was analyzed using a count data model. The results suggest that attitudes toward in-shell peanuts were influenced by attributes such as fat, taste, and healthiness, and that taste was the only attribute in...

  9. Identification of seed proteins associated with resistance to pre-harvested aflatoxin contamination in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ling; Chen Xiaoping; Zhang Erhua; Wang Tong; Liang Xuanqiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-harvest infection of peanuts by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination is one of the food safety factors that most severely impair peanut productivity and human and animal health, especially in arid and semi-arid tropical areas. Some peanut cultivars with natural pre-harvest resistance to aflatoxin contamination have been identified through field screening. However, little is known about the resistance mechanism, which has slowed the incorporation of...

  10. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  11. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health, talk to your doctor or a physical therapist to find out what kinds of activities are ... the treatment of diseases of the skin. Follicle (FALL-lick-el). The opening in the skin where ...

  12. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  13. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  14. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  15. Skin lesion KOH exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KOH exam is a test to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin . How the Test is Performed ... Performed This test is done to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin. Normal Results No fungus is ...

  16. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  17. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  18. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. 15 June 2009 - President of the Argentine Nation C. Fernández visiting ATLAS experimental area.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1:President of the Argentine Nation, C. Fernández and Minister of Science, Technology and Innovative Production,L. Barañao Tirage 2-8:Arrival greetings Tirage 9-12:Introduction to CERN's activities by Director-General, R. Heuer Tirage 13-15:Signature of the guest book Tirage 16-25:M. Benedetti,R. Heuer and L.Barañao sit for the signature of the Agreement Tirage 26-33: Meeting with Argentinian scientists at CERN

  20. La construction territoriale de têtes de ponts antarctiques rivales : Ushuaia (Argentine) et Punta Arenas (Chili)

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Ushuaia et Punta Arenas sont les villes les plus australes de leurs pays d’appartenance,  l’Argentine et le Chili. Elles ont joué le rôle de ville frontière au service de la consolidation et la légitimation de ces territoires nationaux austraux localisés en position de bout du monde. Depuis cinquante ans, ces deux villes portuaires s’affirment comme les deux portes d’entrée internationales principales des relations avec le continent Antarctique, et en particulier avec la Péninsule Antarctique...

  1. Figurations of Islandness in Argentine Culture and Literature: Macedonio Fernández, Leopoldo Marechal, and César Aira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Cheadle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores islandness in the River Plate imaginary. Two modern foundational “island texts” – Thomas More’s Utopia and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe – have exerted a formative influence on the Spanish-American colonial imagination, an influence inflected by the particular historical experience of the River Plate region and its dominant city, Buenos Aires. The figuration of islandness is examined in three twentieth-century Argentine novels by Macedonio Fernández, Leopoldo Marechal, and César Aira. The article finds both continuity and evolution in the images of islandness in these novels.

  2. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  3. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  4. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  5. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  6. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  7. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eManrique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA. We describe a type of response termed a ‘freeze-look’, which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a ‘thinking’ face or hesitation, etc.. We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The ‘freeze-look’ results in the questioner ‘re-doing’ their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus we argue that the ‘freeze-look’ is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an ‘off-record’ practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying ‘Huh?’ or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  8. The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

  9. Ordovician K-bentonites in the Argentine Precordillera: relations to Gondwana margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Cingolani, C.A.; Astini, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'The proto- Andean margin of Gondwana', edited by R.J. Pankhurst and C.W. Rapela. Ordovician K-bentonites have now been recorded from >20 localities in the vicinity of the Argentine Precordillera. Most occur in the eastern thrust belts, in the San Juan Limestone and the overlying the Gualcamayo Formation, but a few ash beds are known also from the central thrust belts. The oldest occur in the middle Arenig I, victoriae lunatus graptolite (Oe. evae conodont) Zone, and the youngest in the middle Llanvirn P. elegans (P. suecicus) Zone. Mineralogical characteristics, typical of other Ordovician K-bentonites, include a matrix of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay and a typical felsic volcanic phenocryst assemblage: biotite, beta-form quartz, alkali and plagioclase feldspar, apatite, and zircon, with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene, titanite and Fe-Ti oxides. The proportions of the mineral phases and variations in their crystal chemistry are commonly unique to individual (or small groups of) K-bentonite beds. Glass melt inclusions preserved in quartz are rhyolitic in composition. The sequence is unique in its abundance of K-bentonite beds, but a close association between the Precordillera and other Ordovician sedimentary basins cannot be established. The ash distribution is most consistent with palaeogeographical reconstructions in which early Ordovician drifting of the Precordillera occurred in proximity to one or more volcanic arcs, and with eventual collision along the Andean margin of Gondwana during the mid-Ordovician Ocloyic event of the Famatinian orogeny. The Puna-Famatina terrane northeast of the Precordillera might have served as the source of the K-bentonite ashes, possibly in concert with active arc magmatism on the Gondwana plate itself.

  10. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola-Siri Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance. A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location. Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population.

  11. Scheme of 3 interfaces with local isostatic compensation on the Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza De Marchi, A. C.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tocho, C.

    2013-05-01

    The segment of Argentine continental margin located between 39°S and the Malvinas platform (~49°S) is of passive type and volcanic characteristics revealed by seaward-dipping seismic reflectors sequences (SDRs). The free air gravity edge-effect associated with passive continental margins is one of the most distinctive characteristics of gravity in marine regions. This effect is in large part due to the transition between continental and oceanic crusts, because of their different thicknesses. In this presentation we investigate the Airy type isostatic compensation scheme by using three interfaces in a forward calculation with different approximations of Parker's expression to obtain the isostatic anomaly. After that we perform the inversion of the anomaly thus obtained in order to find the Moho's deflection necessary to compensate it (or minimize it) by using the same scheme of interfaces and the iterative Parker-Oldenburg method (Oldenburg, D., 1974) with more terms in the inversion. The crust-mantle interface (Moho) thus calculated represents a more realistic surface than the one calculated using one term in the inversion and the surface estimated with topographic data and sediment thickness. Even considering that the experiment constitutes a schematic assumption just to test the numerical methods involved, we find that in the comparison with the only available digitized refraction profile, the inverted Moho interface reproduces fairly well the Moho that the seismic profile yields, for the case of the iterative method. This suggests that the inverse calculation with the iterative method is sensible to the presence of the SDRS, at least for this sole profile. Keywords: isostatic anomaly, Moho, passive continental margins Oldenburg, D., 1974. The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalíes, Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 526-536.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (ppeanut butter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

  14. The major peanut allergen Ara h 1 and its cleaved-off N-terminal peptide; possible implications for peanut allergen detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Beijer, de T.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2004-01-01

    Ara h 1 was purified from raw peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. N-Terminal amino acid sequences were determined after western blotting. Both purification procedures proved to be very consistent and resulted in identical chromatographic and electrophoret

  15. Aflatoxin production in six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes infected with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, isolated from peanut production areas of Cordoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, Ramon; Barrionuevo, Damian L; Giorda, Laura M; Nores, Maria L; Aldao, Mario A

    2005-11-16

    Aflatoxin contamination is one of the main factors affecting peanut seed quality. One of the strategies to decrease the risk of peanut aflatoxin contamination is the use of genotypes with resistance to Aspergillus infection. This laboratory study reports the resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination of six peanut genotypes inoculated with 21 Aspergillus isolates obtained from the peanut production region of Cordoba, Argentina. The resistance was investigated in the seed coat and cotyledons of three resistant genotypes (J11, PI 337394, and PI 337409) and three breeding lines (Manfredi 68, Colorado Irradiado, and Florman INTA) developed at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Manfredi Experimental Station, Cordoba, Argentina. Resistance to fungal colonization and aflatoxin contamination was found to be associated with seed coat integrity in the PI 337394, PI 337409, and J11 genotypes, whereas the INTA breeding lines such as Colorado Irradiado showed a moderate resistance and the Manfredi 68 and Florman INTA genotypes the least resistance. Furthermore, another type of resistance associated with cotyledons was found only in the PI 337394 genotype.

  16. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  17. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  18. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  19. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  20. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  1. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  2. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  3. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Renée S; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S

    2015-12-21

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng · g(-1) of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng · g(-1). This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other

  4. Improving Seed Germination and Peanut Yields by Cold Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shen, Minchong; Hou, Jinfeng; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua; Jiang, Jiafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, plant growth, and peanut yield. Cold plasma treatment improved germination and seedling growth, and the 120 W treatment produced the best effect. Germination potential and germination rate were markedly raised by 150% and 21%, respectively. Germination was accelerated and the uniformity of emergence improved. The apparent contact angle was decreased by 53%. Seedling shoot and root dry weights increased by 11% and 9%. Leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll contents, and dry weight at the fruiting stage, together with plant height, stem diameter, and root dry weight at the mature stage were all markedly raised by the cold plasma treatment. The cold plasma treatment enhanced yield components, such as branch numbers per plant, pod numbers per plant, and 100 pod weights by 8%, 13%, and 9%, respectively, compared to the control. Furthermore, the yield improved by 10%. These results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved germination, plant growth, and yield, which might be due to the cold plasma increasing the leaf area, nitrogen concentrations, and chlorophyll contents. supported by National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2012BAD05B04), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41201241), “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB15030301) and Jiangsu Province Science and Technology Support Program (No. BE2013452)

  5. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Genetics of Dothistromin Biosynthesis in the Peanut Pathogen Passalora arachidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie E. Bradshaw

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The peanut leaf spot pathogen Passalora arachidicola (Mycosphaerella arachidis is known to produce dothistromin, a mycotoxin related to aflatoxin. This is a feature shared with the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum (Mycosphaerella pini. Dothistromin biosynthesis in D. septosporum commences at an unusually early stage of growth in culture compared to most other fungal secondary metabolites, and the biosynthetic genes are arranged in fragmented groups, in contrast to aflatoxin gene clusters. Dothistromin biosynthetic genes were identified and studied in P. arachidicola to determine if the attributes described in D. septosporum are shared by another dothistromin-producing species within the Class Dothideomycetes. It was shown that dothistromin biosynthesis is very similar in the two species with regard to gene sequence and gene synteny. Functional complementation of D. septosporum mutants with P. arachidicola dothistromin genes was also possible. These similarities support a vertical mode of dothistromin gene transmission. P. arachidicola also produced dothistromin at an early growth stage in culture, suggesting that this type of regulation pattern may be relevant to the biological role of dothistromin.

  7. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  8. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production. PMID:26194243

  9. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  10. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernels to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut kernels inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia and uninoculated kernels were gamma irradiated. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of the inoculated mold was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 weeks incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μg/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels as 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. When uninoculated peanut kernels were irradiated and stored for 1 year at ambient and frozen conditions, molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 kGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  11. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  12. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  13. Eddy-driven sediment transport in the Argentine Basin: Is the height of the Zapiola Rise hydrodynamically controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, Wilbert; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Homoky, William B.; Polzin, Kurt L.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we address the question whether eddy-driven transports in the Argentine Basin can be held responsible for enhanced sediment accumulation over the Zapiola Rise, hence accounting for the existence and growth of this sediment drift. To address this question, we perform a 6 year simulation with a strongly eddying ocean model. We release two passive tracers, with settling velocities that are consistent with silt and clay size particles. Our experiments show contrasting behavior between the silt fraction and the lighter clay. Due to its larger settling velocity, the silt fraction reaches a quasisteady state within a few years, with abyssal sedimentation rates that match net input. In contrast, clay settles only slowly, and its distribution is heavily stratified, being transported mainly along isopycnals. Yet, both size classes display a significant and persistent concentration minimum over the Zapiola Rise. We show that the Zapiola Anticyclone, a strong eddy-driven vortex that circulates around the Zapiola Rise, is a barrier to sediment transport, and hence prevents significant accumulation of sediments on the Rise. We conclude that sediment transport by the turbulent circulation in the Argentine Basin alone cannot account for the preferred sediment accumulation over the Rise. We speculate that resuspension is a critical process in the formation and maintenance of the Zapiola Rise.

  14. Evaluation of agronomic and economic benefits of using RTK-GPS-based auto-steer guidance systems for peanut digging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) digger efficiency by accurate placement over the target rows could minimize damaged pods and yield losses. Producers have traditionally relied solely on tractor operator skills to harvest peanuts. However, as peanut production has shifted to new growing reg...

  15. Effect of Soil Moisture on Release of Low-MolecularWeight Organic Acids in Root Exudates and the Accumulation of Iron in Root Apoplasm of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A three-compartments rhizobox was designed and used to study the low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates and the root apoplastic iron of "lime-induced chlorosis" peanut grown on a calcareous soil in relation to different soil moisture conditions. Results showed that chlorosis of peanuts developed under condition of high soil moisture level (250 g kg-1), while peanuts grew well and chlorosis did not develop when soil moisture was managed to a normal level (150 g kg-1). The malic acid, maleic acid and succinic acid contents of chlorotic peanut increased by 108.723, 0.029 and 22.446μg cm-2, respectively,compared with healthy peanuts. The content of citric acid and fumaric acid also increased in root exudates of chlorotic peanuts. On Days 28 and 42 of peanut growth, the accumulation of root apoplastic iron in chlorotic peanuts was higher than that of healthy peanuts. From Day 28 to Day 42, the mobilization percentages of chlorotic peanuts and healthy peanuts to root apoplastic iron were almost the same, being 52.4% and 52.8%,respectively, indicating that the chlorosis might be caused by the inactivation of iron within peanut plant grown on a calcareous soil under high soil moisture conditions.

  16. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of disease resistance traits in peanut population Tifrunner x GT-C20

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic map of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with 426 SSR markers was constructed using a population of 162 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between ‘Tifrunner’ and ‘GT-C20’. Linkage groups (LGs) were assigned to chromosomes using published peanut reference maps. The total length of the...

  17. Assessment of real-time, in-shell kernel moisture content monitoring with a microwave moisture meter during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present-day peanut drying process lacks the capability of kernel moisture content determination in real-time. Samples of peanut pods have to be taken from the drying trailer, cleaned and shelled by an operator to test for the kernel moisture content. The frequency with which the operator samples...

  18. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated From Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, carcinogen-mycotoxins producers, infect peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here we report 9 genome sequences of Aspergillus spp. isolated from peanut seeds. The information obtained will allow conducting biodiv...

  19. Children with peanut allergy recognize predominantly Ara h2 and Ara h6, which remains stable over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, A.E.; Hoffen, E. van; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Koppelman, S.; Pasmans, S.G.; Hoekstra, M.O.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.; Knulst, A.C.; Knol, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In peanut-allergic adults, IgE is mainly directed to Ara h1 and Ara h2. More recently, a role for Ara h6 has been suggested. In contrast to adults, IgE in children can fluctuate over time. Therefore, children may have a more dynamic reactivity to peanut. Objective: To examine the IgE rea

  20. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  1. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Nan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  2. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  3. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  4. Investigations into the agronomic and economic aspects of using peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an on-farm biodiesel feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although farmers have benefited from the creation of transportation fuels from grain and oilseeds, little research has addressed single farm or community self-reliance on home-grown fuels. The Peanut Biodiesel Project is designed to determine if peanut is suitable for just such a concept through fi...

  5. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated from Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinye Monica; Palencia, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi produce carcinogenic mycotoxins in peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here, we report nine genome sequences of Aspergillus spp., isolated from Georgia peanut seeds in 2014. The information obtained will lead to further biodiversity studies that are essential for developing control strategies. PMID:27081142

  6. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  7. Quantifying the (X/Peanut)-Shaped Structure in Edge-on Disc Galaxies: Length, Strength, and Nested Peanuts

    CERN Document Server

    Ciambur, Bogdan C

    2016-01-01

    X-shaped or peanut-shaped (X/P) bulges are observed in more than 40% of (nearly) edge-on disc galaxies, though to date a robust method to quantify them is lacking. Using Fourier harmonics to describe the deviation of galaxy isophotes from ellipses, we demonstrate with a sample of 11 such galaxies (including NGC 128) that the sixth Fourier component ($B_6$) carries physical meaning by tracing this X/P structure. We introduce five quantitative diagnostics based on the radial $B_6$ profile, namely: its `peak' amplitude ($\\Pi_{\\rm max}$); the (projected major-axis) `length' where this peak occurs ($R_{\\Pi,max}$); its vertical `height' above the disc plane ($z_{\\Pi,max}$); the $B_6$ profile's integrated `strength' ($S_{\\Pi}$); and the $B_6$ peak `width' ($W_{\\Pi}$). We also introduce different `classes' of $B_6$ profile shape. Furthermore, we convincingly detect and measure the properties of multiple (nested) X/P structures in individual galaxies which additionally display the signatures of multiple bars in their ...

  8. Effect of end of season water deficit on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninbon, C; Jogloy, S; Vorasoot, N; Patanothai, A; Nuchadomrong, S; Senawong, T

    2016-04-01

    Terminal drought reduces pod yield and affected the phenolic content of leaves, stems and seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of end of season water deficit on phenolic content in drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes of peanuts. Five peanut genotypes were planted under two water regimes, field capacity and 1/3 available water. Phenolic content was analyzed in seeds, leaves, and stems. The results revealed that terminal drought decreased phenolic content in seeds of both tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Phenolic content in leaves and stems increased under terminal drought stress in both years. This study provides basic information on changes in phenolic content in several parts of peanut plants when subjected to drought stress. Future studies to define the effect of terminal drought stress on specific phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in peanut are warranted.

  9. Experience of the Argentine Radioprotection Society in training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radioprotection Society (SAR) has as basic purpose promoting all the aspects related with the radiological protection and the nuclear safety. Due to the great increment in the use of radioactive sources in diverse areas, soon it was evident for the SAR the importance and necessity to promote the knowledge of the radioprotection approaches between the users of radioactive sources and ionizing radiations in all its application fields, be these industrial, academic or doctors. From the year 2000, the SAR comes organizing in regular and periodical form basic and specialized courses about radiological safety of radioactive sources for industrial use and profile of oil wells, among others. In this work, the characteristics of the different dictated courses are described whose programs have been developed keeping in mind the requirements of the competent authorities of Argentina. Also, statistical information on the dictated courses and its participants is presented. The number of dictated courses was incremented from 6 (year 2000) up to 16 (year 2005), being also increased significantly the number of participants for course. The dictated courses are theoretical-practical, with a duration average of 20 hs. The educational body is constituted by specialists in the different topics with recognized experience. Its given to the participants notes and support material, as well as copies of the material presented to develop the course. When concluding the courses, its deliver to the participants certifies of attendance and/or approval, as it corresponds. In their headquarters the SAR has didactic facilities and specific equipment for the dictation of the courses. Also accounts with the easiness of dictating those courses outside of their headquarters. This is particularly advantageous for companies or organizations that are seated in points far from the main cities and they should qualify in radiological safety to the personnel but, by

  10. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Republic has extensive antecedents in education and training in radiological protection. From the beginning of the nuclear activity in the country was given preponderance to the aspects related with the radiological protection and the personnel's training involved in the employment of ionizing radiations. At the present time these educational activities already overcome the 50 years, there being accumulated a rich and important experience in the matter. In the country the organisms that have assigned by law the responsibility of the regulation and the control of practice them with ionizing radiations are the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Health and Atmosphere of the Nation. The first one has the mission of protecting people of the noxious effects of the ionizing radiations derived of nuclear activities, the second is in charge of the control of the equipment dedicated specifically to generate X-rays. This includes the responsibility of elaborating, to emit and to make complete the regulations, standards and other corresponding requirements, in particular - in the mark of the present work - regarding to establish demands and to promote education activities and training in radiological protection. The sure use of the benefits that offers the nuclear development in its diverse applications implies to overturn resources, experience and dedication for the personnel's training. In that sense the Argentina has committed recently to undertake the necessary actions to constitute a Regional Center of Education and Training for Latin America and the Caribbean, taking advantage of the important experience obtained in more of 25 years of imparting graduate degree courses in radiological protection and nuclear safety with inter regional and regional character. With that purpose a process of self evaluation has begun (self appraisal), following the limits settled down by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the document 'Education and

  11. The Pacific-Atlantic connection: Biogeochemical signals in the southern end of the Argentine shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, J. E. Cardona; Martínez, A. M.; Barrera, F.; Pfaff, F.; Koch, B. P.; Freije, R. H.; Gómez, E. A.; Lara, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Cape Horn Current transports low-salinity waters from the SE Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, which are transported further north by the Malvinas current. Biogeochemical signals of this connection were studied by characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMc), and DOM humification index (HIX). Further, inorganic nutrients, salinity, temperature, stable isotopic composition of particulate organic nitrogen (δ15N) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in March 2012. Three water types were characterized: waters of the Beagle Channel (BCW), coastal waters (CW) and oceanic waters (OW). Highest values of ammonium, DOC, FDOMc and HIX were found in BCW, the lowest in OW, suggesting that terrigenous input is a main source of ammonium and refractory carbon, which is supported by a highly significant inverse correlation of these parameters with salinity. In turn, lowest concentrations of nitrate, silicate and phosphate were found in BCW and CW, and highest in OW, with highly significant correlations of these nutrients with salinity, indicating the contribution of the saltier, nutrient-rich Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the Pacific-Atlantic connection system. In general there was an inverse distribution pattern between Chla and those nutrients contributed by the ACC, which is consistent with the transition from coastal waters to the low-silicate, high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll, iron-limited setting of the Subantarctic oceanic waters north of the Polar Front. In contrast, in the low-salinity, internal BCW, high values of ammonium, DOC, HIX and FDOM indicate continental inputs, likely including iron complexes, which could have led to the observed high Chla values. δ15N values were positive in the study region, and same as ammonium, reached a maximum in the inner part of the BCW, declining towards OW. This does not support a

  12. The Information Center of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is addressed particularly to the scientific community users and, as a whole, to any individual in society, whichever his profession or working environment, who is interested in getting acquainted of improving his/her knowledge in the areas of radiological protection and nuclear safety, as well as in other related areas of medicine, biology, engineering, mathematics and physics. The purpose of this paper is the diffusion of the broad spectrum of bibliography and the introduction of the technological-computerized media utilized as tools by the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation in providing responses to a huge number of both internal and external requests for information. There is a large number of professionals and/or researchers who visit the facilities of our Information Center or who get in touch - through the post service, e-mail or telephone - consulting on the available material, either in paper (books, periodical publications, etc.) or in the form of microfilms, video, tapes, CD-ROM, etc. This paper is both descriptive and explanatory; a description is provided of the bibliographical material managed by the Information Center and a brief explanation is given on the techniques and methods used in providing the information requested by the users. Fundamentally, the Center's bibliographical material includes: periodical publications, books, reports, microfilms, etc., all of them related to radiological protection and nuclear safety. Data bases are available in CD-ROM, the most important one being the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Center has also its own data bases, such as the GPRS (primary documents) and standards (both domestic and international), UNESCO's MicroIsis software is used for the Center's data bases: PERSIS (periodical publications), DOCSIS (books) and ARCAL (magazines from the Latin American territory). This paper will definitely serve as a safe

  13. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  14. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  15. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  16. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been......Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy Anette Stensgaard, Audrey DunnGalvin, Dorthe Nielsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen (Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, ORCA (Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark) Aim......: International research shows that Food Allergy has an impact on the quality of life for the affected child, adolescent and even in adulthood – as well for the parents. The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge on quality of life for Danish patients diagnosed with peanut, egg or/and hazelnut allergy...

  17. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  18. Induced Mutagenesis for Oil Quality Enhancement in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) significantly improves the nutritional and quality attributes of the crop. The lack of sufficient genetic variation in fatty acid composition, particularly the O/L ratio, in peanut germplasm and presently grown cultivars make the creation of such variability necessary. Mutation breeding of peanut was initiated with the objective of identifying stable peanut mutants with altered fatty acid composition for improved oxidative stability and nutritional quality. Seeds of peanut cultivars 'GPBD-4' and 'TPG-41' were treated with γ-radiation and/or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Randomly selected mutants were advanced based on single plant selection up to the M4 generation and the harvest of M4 plants was evaluated for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Highly significant variation for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acid was observed. EMS (0.5%) and 200Gy treatments were found to be effective in increasing the variability in fatty acid content in GPBD-4 and TPG-41, respectively. The variability was skewed towards high levels of oleic acid (38-67%) and low levels of linoleic acid (15-41%). Mutants selected for improved oil quality were significantly superior for O/L ratio and had reduced palmitic acid. Oil with reduced palmitic acid and increased O/L ratio is desired nutritionally. Hence, these mutants can be exploited for the improvement of oil quality. The mutants GE-87 and T3-105 recorded the highest O/L ratios, of 4.30 and 3.91, compared to control values of 1.75 and 2.60, respectively. A significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid and iodine values, and weak inverse relationship with oil content indicates the possibility of selection for improved fatty acid composition. These high oleic acid lines could be utilized further in breeding programmes for improvement of peanut oil quality. (author)

  19. Induced mutagenesis for oil quality enhancement in peanut (Arachis hypogaea l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) significantly improves the nutritional and quality attributes of the crop. The lack of sufficient genetic variation for fatty acid profile, particularly O/L ratio in peanut germplasm and presently grown cultivars has necessitated the creation of variability. Mutation breeding of peanut was therefore initiated with the objective of identifying stable peanut mutants with altered fatty acid composition for improved oxidative stability and nutritional quality. Seeds of peanut cultivars 'GPBD-4' and 'TPG-41' were treated with γ-radiation and/or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Randomly selected mutants were advanced based on single plant selection up to M4 generation and the harvest of M4 plants was evaluated for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Highly significant variation for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidic acid was observed. EMS (0.5%) and 200Gy treatment were found to be effective in increasing the variability for fatty acid content in GPBD-4 and TPG-41 respectively. The variability was skewed towards high levels of oleic (38-66.58%) and low levels of linoleic acid (15-41%). Mutants with improved oil quality selected were significantly superior for O/L ratio and had reduced palmitic acid. Oil with reduced palmitic acid and increased O/L ratio is nutritionally desired. Hence these mutants can be exploited in improvement of oil quality. The mutant GE-87 and T3-105, recorded highest O/L ratio of 4.30 and 3.91 as against control value of 1.75 and 2.60 respectively. A significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid, palmitic acid and iodine value and weak inverse relationship with oil content indicates the possibility of selection for improved fatty acid composition. These high oleic acid lines could be utilized further in breeding programs for improvement of peanut oil quality. (author)

  20. Dietary management of peanut and tree nut allergy: what exactly should patients avoid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, H A; Turner, P J; Wright, T; Fox, A T; Taylor, S L; Warner, J O; Lack, G

    2015-05-01

    Peanut and tree nut allergies are the commonest cause of life-threatening food-allergic reactions and significantly affect quality of life in children and their families. Dietary nut avoidance and provision of emergency medication is currently the mainstay of treatment. Nut avoidance has consequences on both quality of life and nutrition. We review the terminology that may cause confusion and lead to unnecessary dietary restrictions. In peanut or tree nut-allergic children, introduction of specific nuts to which the child is not allergic may improve quality of life and should be considered in patients with multiple foods allergies, vegan or ethnic-specific diets, in whom nuts are an important source of protein. Nut-allergic consumers do not just need to avoid foods containing nuts as an ingredient, but also contend with pre-packed foods which frequently have precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) referring to possible nut contamination. Although the published rate of peanut contamination in 'snack' foods with PAL (see Box ) ranges from 0.9-32.4%, peanut contamination in non-snack items with PAL is far less common. We propose that in some peanut-allergic patients (depending on history of reactivity to trace levels of peanut, reaction severity, other medical conditions, willingness to always carry adrenaline, etc.), consideration may be given to allow the consumption of non-snack foods containing PAL following discussion with the patient's (and their family's) specialist. More work is needed to provide consumers with clearer information on the risk of potential nut contamination in pre-packed food. We also draw attention to the change in legislation in December 2014 that require mandatory disclosure of allergens in non-pre-packed foods. PMID:25443673