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Sample records for argentine humid pampa

  1. Integral Study of Atrazine Behaviour in Field Lysimeters in Argentinean Humid Pampas Soils Estudio Integral del Comportamiento de Atrazina en Lisímetros de Campo en Suelos de la Pampa Húmeda Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Hang; Adrián Andriulo; Carolina Sasal; Mirtha M Nassetta; Silvina Portela; Ana I Cañas

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine behavior during crop maize (Zea mays L.) production in soils of Argentine humid pampas was investigated. Lysimeters (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m) with a Typic Argiudoll (Pergamino) and others with a Typic Hapludoll (Junín) were monitored for drainage water content and atrazine concentrations in soil and water. Soil profiles were sampled in four depths in three dates, and water drainage pooled in four periods. Most of atrazine loss in drainage occurred within 30 d of atrazine application being ...

  2. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

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    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  3. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

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    Belén Carbonetto

    Full Text Available Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional

  4. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  5. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

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    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  6. Generation of Gridded Daily Weather Ensembles for Decision Support in the Argentine Pampas

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    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Katz, R. W.; Podesta, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a stochastic weather generator for the variables of minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation occurrence. Temperature variables are modeled in vector autoregressive framework, conditional on precipitation occurrence. Precipitation occurrence arises via a probit model, and both temperature and occurrence are spatially correlatedusing spatial Gaussian processes. Additionally, local climate is included by spatially-varying model coefficients, allowing spatially-evolving relationships between variables. The method is illustrated on a network of stations in the Pampas region of Argentina where nonstationary relationships and historical spatial correlation challenge existing approaches. The covariancestructure of this network of stations is then used to produce daily gridded weather scenarios which can be used to drive hydrologic models. Inclusion of other covariates such as seasonal total precipitation and global climate drivers allows the potential for decadal projections, an increasingly useful tool for decision support.

  7. Pathways towards to improve the feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentine

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    Elena Angón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, pastoral systems have been intensified in response to an increasing demand for meat and milk, by generating environmental and social problems due to its high dependence on external inputs. The objective of this research was to analyze the economic feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentina. The main successful factors were identified through technical efficiency analysis, and subsequently improvement actions were suggested. The technique data envelopment analysis creates efficiency indexes by comparing the performance of each farm with the best practice, which defines the production frontier. The farms were classified attending to two criteria: first, the level of efficiency, second, the regular use of supplementation feed. The results showed that about 40% of the farms were efficient and the efficiency rate of the farms without supplementary feed was 80%. A 70% of the farms uses their own grassland resources adjusting milk yield to the capacity of the pasture. The technical efficiency for this group is 14% higher than the rest. Inefficient farms can adopt different strategies to enhance by practicing benchmarking. One of the examples studied shows two ways to do it: on the one hand the extensification by producing at a minimum cost; on the other hand, the technification, linked to the increase of stocking rate and the use of strategic supplementation. Finally, small changes in the management of the farms positively impact on performance, use of resources, and the sustainability of the system.

  8. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

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    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  9. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

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    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services. PMID:22303477

  10. Agriculturization in the Argentinean Northern Humid Pampas: the Impact on Soil Structure and Runoff

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    Sasal, M. C.; Léonard, J.; Andriulo, A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Argentina is among the countries with the largest cropped area under no-tillage (NT). No tillage was adopted in the northern Humid Pampas to reduce the widespread soil degradation by water erosion. With the advent of genetically modified soybean varieties, NT has developed exponentially. This evolution, combined with the influence of the international market trend, has resulted in large changes in crop sequence composition toward the disappearance of pastures and the expansion of soybean monoculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term consequences of these changes on the topsoil structure and the way in which the evolution of soil structure relates to the simplification of the crop sequence and to runoff at a regional scale. We analyzed the topsoil structure of 25 sites with Argiudolls having 4 to 29 consecutive years of NT using the cultural profile approach. An intensification sequence index (ISI) was calculated as the ratio between the length of the growth period and the length of the year. Fifteen natural-rainfall runoff plots (100 m2) with 3.5% slope were used to analyze the relationship between soil structural state, crop sequence and runoff for four years. Four types of soil structures were identified and a general pattern of vertical soil structure organization was revealed. The top centimeters of 72% of the sites were dominated by a granular structure. Platy soil structure development was omnipresent: all sites exhibited a horizontal platy structure (cropping systems under NT favors the extension of platy soil structure and increases runoff. More than 70% of the agricultural area of the northern Humid Pampas region is currently covered by soybean cultivation, mostly as a single annual crop (ISI=0.38). Our results thus suggest that promoting management practices such as the expansion of wheat/soybean double crop (ISI=0.83) could limit soil structure degradation and reduce runoff and the associated environmental risks.

  11. Integral Study of Atrazine Behaviour in Field Lysimeters in Argentinean Humid Pampas Soils Estudio Integral del Comportamiento de Atrazina en Lisímetros de Campo en Suelos de la Pampa Húmeda Argentina

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    Susana Hang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine behavior during crop maize (Zea mays L. production in soils of Argentine humid pampas was investigated. Lysimeters (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m with a Typic Argiudoll (Pergamino and others with a Typic Hapludoll (Junín were monitored for drainage water content and atrazine concentrations in soil and water. Soil profiles were sampled in four depths in three dates, and water drainage pooled in four periods. Most of atrazine loss in drainage occurred within 30 d of atrazine application being 0.13% and 0.03% of the total atrazine applied for Pergamino and Junín, respectively. Under laboratory conditions half-life average in both profiles was 16 d. Atrazine extractable residues (AER in lysimeters showed differences in quantity and distribution between both profiles. Extractable residues were 25.7 (Pergamino and 69.4 g ha-1 (Junín. At the 30th day of application, AER represented 25% of total AER in Junín and 88% in Pergamino in the first 30 cm. Occurrence of preferential flow through the Bt horizon (Pergamino may explain differences detected. High proportion of AER in Junín profile suggests low atrazine affinity and should be followed through time in order to evaluate actual stability of these residues and if they constitute a potential risk for aquifers.Se estudió el comportamiento de atrazina durante el ciclo de un cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L. en suelos de la pampa húmeda Argentina. Se monitoreó el total de agua drenada y la concentración de atrazina en suelo y agua, mediante el uso de seis lisímetros (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m tres de ellos llenados con un Argiudoll Típico (Pergamino y otros tres con un Hapludoll Típico (Junín. Se tomaron muestras de cuatro horizontes en cada perfil de suelo en tres fechas y el agua drenada se agrupó en cuatro períodos. La mayor parte de las pérdidas de atrazina en el drenaje ocurrieron dentro de los primeros 30 días desde la aplicación de atrazina. Los porcentajes recuperados respecto de la cantidad

  12. Continuities and ruptures in Argentine's regional discourse: The process of conceptual construction of the Pampa Continuidades y rupturas en el discurso regional argentino: El proceso de construcción conceptual de la Pampa

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    Esteban Salizzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to compare the main proposals of regionalization of the argentine territory seeking to establish -from its survey, analysis and comparison- continuities and ruptures around the conceptual construction of the Pampa. This concern is set within the perspective that points out that regional geography -as geographical writing mode that appeals to the distinction, nomination and order of subnational entities to provide overall interpretations about the territory and society of a country-, in its various proposals, involves ways to represent and address the internal asymmetries of a society. It deepens, then, both in the various paradigms on which these proposals have been established as in the constructions that these have developed of the region in question. Geographical unit that has been repeatedly imagined as possessing a supposed centrality based on the population and industrial weight, the level of agricultural productivity, the generating of huge economic wealth, its history, and the agglutinating/articulating role of the economy and politicsEl presente artículo tiene como objetivo comparar las principales propuestas de regionalización del territorio argentino buscando establecer -a partir de su relevamiento, análisis y comparación- continuidades y rupturas en torno a la construcción conceptual de la Pampa. Esta preocupación se establece dentro de la perspectiva que señala que la geografía regional -en tanto modalidad de escritura geográfica que apela a la distinción, nominación y ordenamiento de entidades subnacionales para ofrecer interpretaciones de conjunto sobre el territorio y la sociedad de un país-, en sus diversas propuestas, implica modos de representar y de abordar las asimetrías internas de una sociedad. Se profundiza, entonces, tanto en los diversos paradigmas sobre los cuales se han establecido dichas propuestas como en las construcciones que estas han desarrollado de la región en cuesti

  13. Effect of Continuous Agriculture of Grassland Soils of the Argentine Rolling Pampa on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen

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    Luis A. Milesi Delaye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soil organic carbon (SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON following cultivation of grassland soils (100/120-year tillage (T + 20/30-year no tillage (NT of the Rolling Pampa were studied calibrating the simple AMG model coupled with the natural 13C abundance measurements issued from long-term experiments and validating it on a data set obtained by a farmer survey and by long-term NT experiments. The multisite survey and NT trials permitted coverage of the history of the 140 years with agriculture. The decrease in SOC and SON storage that occurred during the first twenty years by a loss through biological activity was 27% for SOC and 32% for SON. The calibrated model described the SOC storage evolution very well and permitted an accurate simultaneous estimation of their three parameters. The validated model simulated well SOC and SON evolution. Overall, the results analyzed separately for the T and NT period indicated that the active pool has a rapid turnover (MRT ~9 and 13 years, resp. which represents 50% of SOC in the native prairie soil and 20% of SOC at equilibrium after NT period. NT implementation on soils with the highest soil organic matter reserves will continue to decrease (17% for three decades later under current annual addition.

  14. Residence time distribution in a large unconfined-semiconfined aquifer in the Argentine Pampas using 3H/3He and CFC tracers

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    Martínez, D. E.; Fourré, E.; Londoño, O. M. Quiroz; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Galli, M. Glok; Dapoigny, A.; Grondona, S. I.

    2016-08-01

    The Pampa region in Argentina includes vast unconfined-semiconfined aquifers that local economies depend upon, but detailed knowledge of the associated water resources is still lacking. The Pampeano aquifer in the Pampa plain of Argentina covers around 1.5 million km2. In order to achieve a better understanding of the hydrogeological system through the estimation of mean residence times (MRT), water samples were taken from 12 monitoring wells, drilled at different depths in four locations, and analyzed for environmental tracers. The concentrations of 3H, tritiogenic 3He and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can be explained by mixtures of young waters adjusted to exponential piston flow models (EPM) or dispersion models (DM), and different proportions of tracer-free waters (dead water). The sampling site located very close to the water divide shows a dominance of young waters: 85 % of water best represented by a DM model with a MRT of 3 years. For the shallow wells at other sites, best-fitting models result in a DM with MRT between 20 and 35 years, and proportions of dead water between 40 and 60 %. These results lead to important updates in the conceptual model of the Pampeano aquifer. Large proportions of dead water at a few meters depth can be the consequence of upward flows in a multilayered aquifer or diffusive retardation in the inter-bedded clay layers.

  15. Flora apícola primaveral en la región del Monte de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Springtime beekeeping flora in the Monte region of La Pampa province (Argentine

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    Ofelia Naab

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la flora utilizada por Apis mellifera L. fueron analizadas muestras de miel inmadura y cargas corbiculares de dos apiarios demostradores ubicados en la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Monte, Provincia de La Pampa. Las muestras se extrajeron periódicamente durante la primavera y fueron analizadas aplicando las técnicas melisopalinológicas convencionales. La vegetación arbustiva nativa presentó la mayor abundancia y el mayor número de especies en óptima floración en noviembre. Las familias más representadas en los espectros polínicos de mieles inmaduras y de cargas corbiculares fueron: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae ( Lycium sp., Asteraceae ( Senecio subulatus Don ex Hook. & Arn. y Verbenaceae ( Glandularia sp. - Junellia sp. - Verbena sp.. Los análisis polínicos evidenciaron que las especies nativas ofrecieron al mismo tiempo recursos nectaríferos y poliníferos sin embargo se observó una alta selección de pocos recursos florales. La oferta floral produjo mieles monoflorales de L. divaricata , C. microphylla y Lycium sp. Ambos apiarios pudieron diferenciarse teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de tipos polínicos y la presencia de ciertos taxones en las categorías de polen dominante y secundario.In order to evaluate the utilized flora by Apis mellifera L. we analized inmmature honey samples and corbicular pollen loads from two demonstrative apiaries located in the Monte Phytogeographical Province of La Pampa. The samples were periodically collected during springtime and were analyzed using the conventional melissopalynological techniques. The native flora presented the major abundance and the highest number of species at an optimum flowering level in november. The most represented families in the pollen spectrum of immature honeys and corbicular loads were: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae

  16. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi identified in rural dogs and cats in the humid Argentinean Chaco

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    ENRIQUEZ, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; OROZCO, M.M.; LANATI, L.; Schijman, A.G.; GÜRTLER, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi that infect domestic dogs and cats have rarely been studied. With this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional xenodiagnostic survey of dog and cat populations residing in two infested rural villages in Pampa del Indio, in the humid Argentine Chaco. Parasites were isolated by culture from 44 dogs and 12 cats with a positive xenodiagnosis. DTUs were identified from parasite culture samples using a strategy based on multiple polymerase-chain ...

  17. Sediment and Phosphorus losses by Surface Runoff from a Catchment in the Humid Pampa Landscape, Argentina Republic

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    Méndez M., A.; Díaz E., L.; Lenzi M., L.; Lado, M.; Vidal-Vázquez, E.

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of sediment and phosphorus transfers from soil into watersheds as a result of agricultural activity is a key aspect for characterizing the sustainability of current land use systems. The objective of the present study was to quantify the temporal evolution of suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses from the upper basin of the Gualeguaychú River. The studied catchment has an area of 483 Km2 and is located in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina Republic. The climate is subtropical humid with average annual rainfall of 1200 mm. Soils are characterized by very low infiltration rates. Land use was assessed by remote sensing and GIS tools, and consists of: 31% abandoned rice fields, 20% naturalized fields, 20% soybean (second cycle), 10% soybean (first cycle), 7% rice, 4% Pasture, and the remaining 7% is devoted to civil and road works, native forests and other crops. Low soil infiltration capacity, together with landscape geomorphological traits of the studied landscape and zonal rainfall regime, typically originates periods with high surface runoff volumes, mainly in autumn, spring and summer months. The study was conducted during a period of eight years. Instantaneous water flow measurements (discharge) were estimated in a control section of Gualeguaychú River from hydrometer reading and the rating curve of height-flow. In addition, 134 water samples of 2000 cm3 were collected during the study period to analyze the concentration of suspended sediments and dissolved phosphorus. The instantaneous flow was estimated with the hydrometer reading and the application of curve of height - flow. The discharge range was from 0.14 to 128 m3/sec, indicating a high variability in the response of the catchment to seasonal rainfall. On average suspended sediment and dissolved phosphorus losses of the experimental catchment were 1.42 Mg and 0.335 Kg per hectare/year, respectively. It was also shown that few events of high rainfall that generate excess

  18. Model to the evolution of the organic matter in the pampa`s soil. Relation with cultivation systems; Modelizacion de la evolucion de la materia organica de los suelos de la Pampa. Relacion con los sistemas de cultivo

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    Andriulo, Adrian [INTA-EEA Pergamino, Pergamino (Argentina); Mary, Bruno; Guerif, Jerome [INRA. Unite d` Agronomie de Laon, Laon (France); Balesdent, Jerome [INRA. Laboratoire de Biogeochimie Isotopique, Paris (France)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the work is to present a model to describe the evolution of the organic matter in soils of the Argentine`s pampa. This model can be utilised to evaluate the evolution of the soil`s fertility in the agricultural production at this moment. Three kinds of assay were done. The determination of organic carbon made possible to prove the Henin-Dupuis model and a derived model

  19. Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes

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    Silvia Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding. Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment.

  20. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

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    Eduardo A. Mondino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB- for extracting nucleic acid (DNA from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  1. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils.

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    Mondino, Eduardo A; Covacevich, Fernanda; Studdert, Guillermo A; Pimentel, João P; Berbara, Ricardo L L

    2015-01-01

    We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB-) for extracting nucleic acid (DNA) from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  2. Chemical quality of different argentine honey varieties, irradiated to control american foulbrood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'American foulbrood' is a disease that seriously affects bees. Honey may be contaminated with spores of the related bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae larvae, which is a great drawback for trade. The scientific literature reports that these spores, resistant to heat and chemicals, are inactivated in honey when it is irradiated al 10 kGy, being this treatment mandatory in the Republic of Southafrica. Irradiated food wholesomeness is endorsed by the World Health Organization. Considering that Argentina is an important honey producer and exporter, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on some of its commercial chemical parameters along storage time. Honeys with different characteristics, coming from five different regions of the country: Middle, Patagonia, North, Litoral, Humid Pampa, were provided by producers from a commission called 'Packaged honey' of the National Food, Fishery and Agriculture Ministry. Fifteen kg of each honey variety were packaged in 500 g polypropylene recipes with polyethylene lids, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, 500,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 10 and 20 kilo Grays. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature for 10 months. Some standardized chemical analysis required by the Argentine Food Code (AFC) were performed on the first, fourth and tenth storage months: water content, acidity, diastase content, reducing sugars, and hydroxymethylfurfural. Reducing sugars and diastase activity slightly diminished, and acidity slightly increased, along storage which is typical in this product; no significant differences were found between control and irradiated samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural values, related to aging or thermal abuse, diminished slightly though significantly due to irradiation, which would not affect the product quality as regulations require not to surpass a maximum value, 40 mg/kg in the AFC. So ionizing

  3. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  4. Argentine radiation protection society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

  5. The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

  6. Argentine National Pharmacopoeia (Argentine Codex Medicamentarius). 6. ed., suppl. 1982.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards of mandatory application, established by Law No. 22729 of February, 1983, on radiopharmaceuticals and radiosterilization of products for medical use, issued as a supplement to the text of the Argentine National Pharmacopoeia. In particular, the general characteristics, identification and purity tests, radioactivity valuation, top date of utilization, and form of conservation of different radiopharmaceuticals are described. (C.A.K.)

  7. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  8. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  9. Methodology for risk characterization in contamination site. Abra Pampa case (Jujuy-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ricardo Castro Mariscal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main regions of mining activity of the Argentine Northwest is the aride land of Jujuy. There it Abra Pampa grew like center of concentration of resources and people. One of its main establishments of mineral processing was the Smeltery Metal Huasi. Great amounts of dreg of the metallurgical processes were accumulated after decades of operation, which, after the dismantling of the factory, at the beginning of the ninety, stayed as environmental liabilities in the center of the city. The negative effects for the health of these residues just were related to a situation of risk in the middle of the present decade. The Group of Investigation INQA elaborated, in collaboration with other centers, an intervention strategy, that was based on a methodology of identification and evaluation of risk in contaminated sites and it began with the recognition and determination of physical samples, until the measurement of the lead levels in blood in the exhibited infantile population. Their results would be integrated in a scheme of Evaluation of the Risk. The study was complemented with clinical analyses, neuroconductuales tests in the group under study, consultations and interchange with the community, besides qualification with local educative actors. Like main result, it was confirmed to Abra Pampa like a contaminated site, with an elevated level of the infantile population affected by the exhibition and with the challenge to undertake his remediación. Still with the study in phase to complete the complete categorisation of the risk, the Province advanced in the removal and transfer of dregs, procedure whose impact will have to be put under new evaluations in terms of health of the population and the atmosphere.

  10. Nucleoelectric energy in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text intends to reflect a coherent and sustained management in the Argentine nucleoelectrical policy. Through individual thematic unities connected between them, the basic structure consists of three principal parts. The first part introduces a broad panorama of atomic energy in the world, in the international treaties and organizations. Also the technical, economic and political aspects which had influence in the Argentine nuclear policies, particularly in the electrical production with nuclear power plants, are considered in this part. The second part describes the historical sequence of the principal achievements of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in the nuclear industry. A mention of particular criteria adopted in each situation and the intention and motivations that guide the decisions are also considered. Finally, an actual balance of the nucleoelectrical technology situation in Argentine and in the world is presented. (Author)

  11. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Ottone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  12. Aspectos de los sobrenatural en Pampas-La Florida (Chancay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lausent

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available La Pacarina del pueblo de "San Salvador del Mundo" de Pampas (valle de Chancay es el cerro Mango. Las repetidas Extirpaciones de Idolatría que sufrieron "sus hijos", el mestizaje y el transcurso del tiempo han, poco a poco, hecho desaparecer los mitos que frataban del Mango. La tradición oral de Pampas que da mucha importercia al mundo de lo sobrenatural sigue, sin embargo, ofreciendo numerosos cuentos y leyendas mencionando este cerro ya no como pacarina sino como una mina fuente de riqueza y lugar de encanto.El análisis que sigue ha sido realizado a partir de Ics cuentos recopilados por Jorgc Osterling durante la Semana Santa del año de 1980 en el rnismo Pampas La Florida.

  13. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  14. Presupuesto del Poder Judicial en la provincia de La Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Yamila Ethel Magiorano

    2014-01-01

    El tema abordado en este artículo corresponde al proyecto “Génesis y transformación del Poder Judicial deLa Pampa: reconstrucción histórica a través de un relevamiento documental y testimonial”, acreditado enla Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Jurídicas dela Universidad Nacional de La Pampa en el año 2013.  El objetivo del presente trabajo es considerar y analizar las características del presupuesto, en especial el que corresponde al Poder Judicial, para conocer su uso y funcionamiento en el...

  15. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  16. Hydatidosis in the province of La Pampa, Argentina, 1998. Hidatidosis en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lamberti; Claudio Calvo; Arian Pombar; Lilia Gino; Emiliano Alvarez E.; Carlos Aguado; Edmundo Larrieu

    1999-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the agent that causes the classical hydatidosis or cystic echinoccosis. The most spread cycle in South America is the sheep-dog cycle, and offers favorable conditions for the development of the parasite. As the province of La Pampa shows an endemic presence with notification of cases and infected dogs, the present work has the aim of contributing to the study of the distribution and prevalence of the disease in the distritc of Maracó, La Pampa, Argentina. Dogs of 36...

  17. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valerie; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Giraud, Tatiana;

    2010-01-01

    ) and secondary introductions (from sites with established invasive supercolonies) were important in the global expansion of the Argentine ant. In combination with the similar social organization of colonies in the native and introduced range, this indicates that invasiveness did not evolve recently as a unique...

  18. Spore loads of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in heavily infected grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) of the Argentine Pampas and Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Bardi, Christian J; Lange, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Paranosema locustae, an entomopathogen of grasshoppers and locusts, remains the only microsporidium registered as a biocontrol agent. After introductions from North America, it became established in grasshopper communities of Argentina. We measured the infection intensity of field collected, heavily infected male and female adults of individuals belonging to six grasshopper species, five melanoplines (Melanoplinae) (Baeacris pseudopunctulatus, Dichroplus maculipennis, Dichroplus vittatus, Neopedies brunneri, Scotussa lemniscata), and one gomphocerine (Gomphocerinae) (Staurorhectus longicornis). Average spore load among heavily infected grasshoppers ranged from 8.7±0.5×10(7) to 1.1±0.7×10(9). Only females of B. pseudopunctulatus and S. longicornis showed significantly higher spore loads than the males. PMID:23796497

  19. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus courtship and mating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Piñeyrúa Jéssica T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758, is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive.

  20. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  1. Presupuesto del Poder Judicial en la provincia de La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiorano, Yamila Ethel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El tema abordado en este artículo corresponde al proyecto “Génesis y transformación del Poder Judicial deLa Pampa: reconstrucción histórica a través de un relevamiento documental y testimonial”, acreditado enla Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Jurídicas dela Universidad Nacional de La Pampa en el año 2013.  El objetivo del presente trabajo es considerar y analizar las características del presupuesto, en especial el que corresponde al Poder Judicial, para conocer su uso y funcionamiento en el marco del contexto institucional pampeano. Asimismo, se busca poner de manifiesto las instancias que permiten al ciudadano tener un papel más activo y responsable en la organización pública. Se efectúa un análisis descriptivo e interpretativo del presupuesto, la cuenta de inversión, y su articulación con la normativa aplicable. Los aspectos desarrollados comprenden el proceso de elaboración del presupuesto en la provincia deLa Pampacon indicación de los actores intervinientes, la clasificación del gasto del poder judicial y la información pública del personal judicial. Asimismo se invita a la reflexión sobre la necesidad de transparentar y modernizar el sistema presupuestario judicial de la provincia de La Pampa, cuya regulación legal tiene una antigüedad superior a los 50 años.

  2. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  3. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Perez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  4. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  5. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author)

  6. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  7. Exploration of Possible Astroblemes in the Argentine Puna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Alonso, R.; Rocca, M.; Klajnik, K.; Tálamo, E.

    2014-09-01

    Potential three new astrobleme sites have been detected by remote sensors and checked in situ in Argentine Puna: an elevated plateau that it has remained stable and invariable across long geological periods.

  8. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Redescription of the worker of Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and first record from La Pampa (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M. Quirán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.The worker of Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr is redescribed and mentioned for the first time for La Pampa province (Argentina. The material studied was integrated by workers and was collected on Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae at Santa Rosa, La Pampa within galls of Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae.

  9. Framing crime: moral panic in Argentine newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ARUGUETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Píparo was shot a few minutes after withdrawing cash from a bank branch. This case outraged the public opinion because she was eight months pregnant at the moment of the assault. She had to undergo a caesarean section and her baby only survived one week. Through an exploratory and inductive research we will analyze how the Argentine newspapers presented the case. We aim at elaborating a content analysis code book that can be validated in future similar researches on the subject. We apply the Framing theory in order to detect the frames used in the news coverage and to observe if they are compatible with the idea of «moral panic» proposed by Stanley Cohen.

  10. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  12. 75 FR 53731 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Contemporary Argentine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks... of August 28, 2000, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  13. Methodology for risk characterization in contamination site. Abra Pampa case (Jujuy-Argentina Metodología para caracterizar el riesgo en sitio contaminado. Caso Abra Pampa (Jujuy-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ana Rojas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main regions of mining activity of the Argentine Northwest is the aride land of Jujuy. There it Abra Pampa grew like center of concentration of resources and people. One of its main establishments of mineral processing was the Smeltery Metal Huasi. Great amounts of dreg of the metallurgical processes were accumulated after decades of operation, which, after the dismantling of the factory, at the beginning of the ninety, stayed as environmental liabilities in the center of the city. The negative effects for the health of these residues just were related to a situation of risk in the middle of the present decade. The Group of Investigation INQA elaborated, in collaboration with other centers, an intervention strategy, that was based on a methodology of identification and evaluation of risk in contaminated sites and it began with the recognition and determination of physical samples, until the measurement of the lead levels in blood in the exhibited infantile population. Their results would be integrated in a scheme of Evaluation of the Risk. The study was complemented with clinical analyses, neuroconductuales tests in the group under study, consultations and interchange with the community, besides qualification with local educative actors. Like main result, it was confirmed to Abra Pampa like a contaminated site, with an elevated level of the infantile population affected by the exhibition and with the challenge to undertake his remediación. Still with the study in phase to complete the complete categorisation of the risk, the Province advanced in the removal and transfer of dregs, procedure whose impact will have to be put under new evaluations in terms of health of the population and the atmosphere.Una de las principales regiones de actividad minera del Noroeste Argentino es la Puna de Jujuy. Abra Pampa creció allí como centro de concentración de recursos y personas. Uno de sus principales establecimientos de procesamiento de

  14. Re-defining Anglo-Argentine literature: from travel writing to travelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    Ferradas, Claudia Mónica

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a definition of Anglo-Argentine literature, a literary corpus that has not been explicitly defined, and provides a reading list of Anglo-Argentine works on the basis of that definition. The research is based on the presupposition that Anglo-Argentine texts can be used to contribute to an intercultural approach to language and literature teaching in the Argentine higher education context. Such texts can encourage reflection on how writing on Argentina in English has co...

  15. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  16. Crop Production Risk in the Pampas: A Bayesian Weather Generator for Climate Change and Land Use Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Podesta, G. P.; Bert, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a space-time stochastic weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature, developed within a Bayesian hierarchical framework (hereafter BayGEN). This framework offers a unique advantage: it provides robust estimation of uncertainty that is typically under-represented in traditional weather generators. Realistic estimates of uncertainty are of utmost importance for studying climate variability and change, impacts on land use, and crop production. BayGEN is applied to a network of weather stations in the Salado basin of the Argentine Pampas, a region that saw immense agricultural expansion towards climatically marginal (i.e., semi-arid) regions, in part due to significant trends in annual precipitation from 1970-2000. Since the turn of the century, observed conditions suggest a decrease in precipitation, which begs the question: "Are the existing agricultural production systems viable in a drier future?" The use of process based (i.e., hydrologic, crop simulation) models in conjunction with BayGEN will allow for complete analysis of the system's response to an ensemble of plausible future scenarios. Precipitation occurrence at each site is modeled at the first level of hierarchy using probit regression with covariates for seasonality, where the latent process is Gaussian -- positivity in the latent process implies occurrence. The precipitation amounts are modeled using a transformed gamma regression (i.e., gamma generalized linear model), similarly with seasonality covariates. Minimum and maximum temperatures are conditional on precipitation occurrence and are decomposed into two processes: (i) climate -- linear regressions on seasonality covariates, and (ii) weather -- realizations from mean-zero Gaussian random fields. The use of seasonality covariates allows the generation of daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal forecasts or projected multi-annual trends, an increasingly important practice for risk assessment in climatically marginal

  17. Utilization of satellite images to understand the dynamics of Pampas shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aliaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze satellite images of different spatial resolutions to interpret the morphometric behavior of six shallow lakes of the Pampas, Argentina. These are characterized by having different rainfall regimes. Morphometric response considering each location, site conditions and dry and wet extreme events is analyzed. Standardized Precipitation Index (IEP for determination of wet, dry and normal years was used. This analysis showed that the Pampas shallow lakes do not behave in the same way to the rainfall events. Its origin, socio-economic use and rainfall patterns affect their spatiotemporal variation and morphometric.

  18. Capitalist agriculture between countryside and the city A study of two cases in Argentinean Pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ivan Bober

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes transformations in agriculture, agrarian structure and population dynamics in the context of economic expansion in Argentinean Pampas in recent decades. Increase of crops va­lues, new technology packages available and local dynamics generate changes and new relationships between rural and urban areas. The study is a comparison of two different cases: one, is an example of processes of soybean production at Pampas region and the other exposes diversified dynamics of agriculture and urban expansion. 

  19. Maintaining Roads : The Argentine Experience with Output-Based Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Liautaud, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The Argentine government is using output-based contracts with the private sector for rehabilitation and maintenance of its nonconcessioned road network. The multiyear lump sum contracts, funded by the government, specify required road service outputs and use incentive-based payment schedules to ensure the quality of the work. After three years of operation the 60 contracts (averaging US$10...

  20. A view on the future of Argentine nuclear exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to anticipate the possibilities of future nuclear technology exports, the technological capacities of the organizations and companies that make up the Argentine nuclear sector are analyzed together with the evolution of their possible markets. The main export opportunities are seen in the field of the research reactors, nuclear fuel elements, heavy water and radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications

  1. Sino-Argentine SLR station making new progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Argentine satellite laser ranging (SLR) system ranks second in the pass total of satellites it has observed among the SLR satellite observatories worldwide, according to statistics of the International Laser Ranging Service from October 2007 to September 2008. In addition, it tops the world in observing high orbit satellites, a difficult task to perform.

  2. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  3. Massive airborne Endosulfan inputs related to intensive agriculture in Argentina's Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astoviza, Malena J; Cappelletti, Natalia; Bilos, Claudio; Migoya, Maria C; Colombo, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of intensive agriculture on air quality in the most productive and populated Argentina's Pampas, a comprehensive assessment of airborne Endosulfan (∑Endo) was performed using polyurethane passive samplers deployed from 2010 to 2013 covering the critical period of Endosulfan restrictions at twenty nine sites in the Rural Pampa and Great Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (GBA: Horticultural and Urban subareas). ∑Endo concentrations were very high and variable (0.01-63 ng m(-3)), exceeding worldwide reported maxima at Horticultural GBA and Rural Pampa with lowest values at Urban GBA (geometric means: 3.1, 1.1 and 0.53 ng m(-3), respectively). The composition was relatively fresh with strong predominance of Endo I (72 ± 18%) over Endo II (23 ± 15%) and Endo SO4 (5 ± 10%). Airborne ∑Endo was significantly correlated to annual soybean crop in Rural Pampa. ∑Endo concentrations showed a temporal pattern defined by consistent peaks enriched in Endo I during summer application periods, cold temperature minima with higher proportions of Endo SO4 and a general exponentially declining trend over time related to incipient control policies.

  4. Physical-chemical and microbiological monitoring of the water in the Pampa stream Novo Hamburgo - RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian environmental law determines the monitoring and classification of streams that pass through urban centers, with subsequent publication of results, however, in most cases this does not occur effectively. The objective was to monitor the Pampa stream and Bells river upstream of the mouth of the brook, in the city of Novo Hamburgo - RS. The determination of the physical-chemical and microbiological tests included: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total phosphorus (P and total nitrogen (N. These tests were performed by the Analytical Center at the University Feevale. The waters of the Pampa stream had, for some parameters, similar to domestic sewage. The impact caused the waters of the Rio dos Sinos by the stream is related to domestic sewage. The solution to the current bad conditions chemical and microbiological water from the stream Pampa inevitably the construction and operation of systems for treatment of domestic sewage.Key-words: water quality; monitoring; Pampa Stream.

  5. On the formations of the Pampas inthe footsteps of Darwin: south of the Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zárate

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In1833 during his journey across the Buenos Aires Pampas, Charles Darwin madeobservations that reflected his thoughts on two major landscape units, Pampa interserrana and Pampa deprimida, later identified byother authors. Darwin grouped the Pampean sediments into a single unit, the PampeanFormation, based upon the lithological homogeneity and the large extensionof the deposits; the unit was thought to be of estuarine-marine origin andattributed to the Recent Epoch considering the paleontological content(vertebrates and mollusks. At present, the Pampean sedimentary succession,which accumulated approximately during the last 11-12 Ma, is interpreted as a pedosedimentarysequence due to the ubiquity of pedogenetic features throughout the deposits.Four main subcycles of sedimentation are identified related to reactivations ofthe Pampean landscape. At a regional scale, the outcrop distribution of Pampeansediments of different ages suggests the dominance of more stable conditionssince the late Miocene-Pliocene in a vast area of Pampa interserrana, documented by theformation of calcretes. However, sedimentation during the latePliocene-Pleistocene was active within the domain of the Salado tectonic basin andSierras de Tandil. The regional disparity shown by the Pampean stratigraphicrecord reveals the major morphostructural differences of its basement.

  6. Redescripción de la obrera de Solenopsis leptanilloides (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita de la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Redescription of the worker of Solenopsis leptanilloides (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and first record from La Pampa Province, (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis M. Pall

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de Solenopsis leptanilloides Santschi es incompleta hasta el presente, por ello en esta contribución se redescribe la obrera y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado, compuesto por obreras, fue recolectado en el interior de los nidos de Acromyrmex striatus Roger en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.Description of Solenopsis leptanilloides Santschi is presently incomplete. This contribution includes a redescription of the worker and the species is mentioned for the first time from the Province of La Pampa (Argentina. The material studied - comprising workers only - was collected from within nests of Acromyrmex striatus Roger in the environs of the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa province.

  7. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  8. Humidity without Mystification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates how a simple graph can be effectively used in teaching the concept, measurement, and use of humidity. Science activities for upper elementary, secondary, and higher education students are suggested and definitions of terms are presented. (Author/DB)

  9. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic conditions, relief, general and slope position, erosion, natural vegetation and agricultural crops. Indeed the computed available water (AW) content and easily available water (EAw) content values depended on bulk density, field capacity and permanent wilting point, but also they were affected by the soil penetration resistance measured to a depth of 80 cm; this parameter limits the extent of the soil volume explored by plant roots and therefore EAw content. Moreover, soil penetration resistance enables to take into account the concept of optimal water interval, which indicates how soil compaction limits the levels of easily available water that really can be extracted by the crop. The estimated values of EAw water ranged from 74 to 133 mm for the profiles studies. When including the concept of mechanical resistance to penetration to obtain the value of the optimal water interval, the above values decreased, ranging between 34 and 57 mm; this was mainly explained on the basis of the true depth of exploration by plant roots of the soil profiles. Based on the recorded values of the soil mechanical resistance to penetration, it was concluded that sunflower and corn crops will be mostly affected on their growth and root development. Subsequently, and for a maximum consumptive use of 10 mm/day, the commonly used irrigation interval of 13 days, should decrease to 6 days, if the new methodology is used i.e. if the limitations of soil depth exploration by crop roots are taken into account. This result is consistent with those from current practices under non irrigated conditions, where it has been shown that crop yields are affected by water shortage provided that an important precipitation doesn't occur among such interval.

  10. The IAF's Argentine Grantees: Caught in the Crisis. Indigenous Awakening; Self-Help and the Cities; Storm Clouds and Hope on the Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines how Inter-American Foundation's grantees in Argentina are coping with the country's economic crisis of 2001. Describes community development projects in Indigenous regions, the role of urban schools as the only functioning public institution providing human services, literacy education in Patagonia, job training and support for…

  11. Upper-tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gierens; Eleftheratos, K.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. Considered view is that the atmosphere, getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study we show that the upper-tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function,...

  12. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gierens, Klaus; Eleftheratos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. The considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function ...

  13. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Gierens, Klaus; Eleftheratos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. Considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function that defines UTH changes ...

  14. Other-initiated repair in Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Other-initiated repair is an essential interactional practice to secure mutual understanding in everyday interaction. This article presents evidence from a large conversational corpus of a sign language, showing that signers of Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or ‘LSA’), like users of spoken languages, use a systematic set of linguistic formats and practices to indicate troubles of signing, seeing and understanding. The general aim of this article is to provide a...

  15. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Senesi; Fabio Ribas Chaddad; Hernán Palau

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS) and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultu...

  16. Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M.; Nelson, Erik H; Varela, Lucia G; Battany, Mark; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Rust, M K

    2008-01-01

    Liquid ant baits are an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays conventionally used to control Argentine ants. We review the development of liquid ant baits, which capitalize on the ants’ sugar-feeding requirements and social structure to deliver small doses of toxicant throughout the colony. The ant bait program described here, developed for commercial vineyards, also has the potential to facilitate the use of biological controls for mealybug and scale pests. The implementation of a...

  17. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  18. Optical humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  19. EL ROSTRO OCULTO DE ESPÍRITU PAMPA, VILCABAMBA, CUSCO (Avance/Advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeological studies carried out in the Vilcabamba region, northwest of Cusco, resulted in the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial at the site of Espíritu Pampa. This finding is unique in many respects: first, rich burials belonging to the Wari State have not been excavated scientifically; second, this is the first tangible evidence for the existence of high rank individuals within the Wari State; and third, this finding is the first of its kind coming from the tropical rain forest region. In this report, I describe the main finding coming from Espíritu Pampa, thus making available the new data to the scientific community.

  20. Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.

  1. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  2. Ethnobotany and antioxidant evaluation of commercialized medicinal plants from the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Pinheiro Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of medicinal plants for the healthcare of local people, the knowledge about medicinal species used in the Pampa biome has been neglected over the years. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was employed aiming to characterize the species richness and diversity of commercialized medicinal plant species in five cities within the Brazilian Pampa. Additionally, among the listed plants, ten species were selected for in vitro testing of their potential antioxidant activity. A total of 56 plant species belonging to 33 botanical families were listed by the 115 interviewees. No significant difference in commercialized medicinal plant species, and very similar species richness was observed among the cities, indicating that the local knowledge is consistently preserved across the studied cities. According to the biochemical analysis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Malva parviflora and Struthanthus flexicaulis emerged as very promising species for antioxidant activity. Further studies are recommended to advance our knowledge about the richness of medicinal plant species in the Brazilian Pampa, and to assess their therapeutic potential.

  3. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  4. Pampa del Palo: an anomalous composite marine terrace on the uprising coast of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, L.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C.; Macharé, J.

    1996-11-01

    Quaternary sediments along the southern Perúvian coast occur as staircase terraces of coastal and shallow-marine deposits in response to continuous uplift related to the active boundary between the Nazca and South-American plates. However, near ILO (in the same coastal stretch) the emergent Pampa del Palo terrace consists of a relatively-thick, vertical stack of shallow-marine, coastal and lagoonal deposits that indicate a rather different geodynamic behaviour. Coastal deposits are correlatable with the successive marine highstands of isotopic stages 7 (?) and 5 (substages 5e and 5c). Combining aerial photo-interpretation, geomorphological mapping, sedimentological analysis, chronostratigraphical data, and structural observations, the Pampa del Palo feature is interpreted as a faulted block that moved independently of the remaining southern Peruvian coast and, for some time between the end of Middle Pleistocene (before ca. 220 ka) and the early Late Pleistocene (ca. 120 ka), it rose more slowly or was even down-faulted relative to the rest of the southern Peruvian margin. The independent block movements ceased after substage 5e, when the Pampa del Palo "terrace" was incorporated into the regional uplift of the area. Since ca. 100 ka, measured uplift rates in the Ilo area amounted up to {160 mm}/{10 3y } when the area has been affected by a few active, NE-SE trending faults only.

  5. Desempenho de bovinos simulado pelo modelo Pampa Corte e obtido por experimentação Animal performance simulated by Pampa Corte model with experimental records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a confiabilidade do Modelo Pampa Corte na predição de desempenho de bovinos de corte, em sistemas de pastejo. Para tanto, foram confrontados os valores preditos pelo modelo com dados disponíveis na literatura. Foram verificados coeficientes de correlação acima de 90% entre os dados reais e os simulados em todas as alternativas testadas. O banco de dados do Modelo precisa ser ampliado em termos de alternativas de produtividade das forrageiras, em diferentes condições climáticas. Os parâmetros qualitativos degradabilidade da proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da consorciação aveia preta e azevém necessitam ainda ser pesquisados, assim como o desempenho de animais em pastagens singulares de aveia ou azevém.This study had the objective to evaluate Pampa Corte Model’s reliability in predicting beef cattle performance in grazing systems. For this purpose, model’s predicted values were compared to available data base of published papers. Correlation coefficients above 90 % were obtained between simulated and real data in all tested alternatives. Model’s data base should be enlarged by forage productivity data in different climatic conditions. Mixtures of Italian ryegrass and oat need more studies to obtain qualitative parameters (crude protein degradability and neutral detergent fiber, as well, animal performance in the single pastures of oat or Italian ryegrass.

  6. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  7. XXXVIII Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology (AATN 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 38th Annual meeting of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology was organized by the AATN (Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear) in Buenos Aires, Argentine, between the 14 and 18 November of 2011. In this event 146 papers in 16 Sessions, with 13 Plenary Conferences and 3 Roundtables were presented.

  8. A comparative study of the in vitro permeation of ibuprofen in mammalian skin, the PAMPA model and silicone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Patel, Avnish; Sinko, Balint; Bell, Michael; Wibawa, Judata; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-05-30

    Human skin remains the membrane of choice when conducting in vitro studies to determine dermal penetration of active pharmaceutical ingredients or xenobiotics. However there are ethical and safety issues associated with obtaining human tissue. For these reasons synthetic membranes, cell culture models or in silico predictive algorithms have been researched intensively as alternative approaches to predict dermal exposure in man. Porcine skin has also been recommended as an acceptable surrogate for topical or transdermal delivery research. Here we examine the in vitro permeation of a model active, ibuprofen, using human or porcine skin, as well as the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeation Assay (PAMPA) model and silicone membrane. Finite dose studies were conducted in all models using commercial ibuprofen formulations and simple volatile ibuprofen solutions. The dose applied in the PAMPA model was also varied in order to determine the amount of applied formulation which best simulates typical amounts of topical products applied by patients or consumers. Permeation studies were conducted up to 6h for PAMPA and silicone and up to 48h for human and porcine skin. Cumulative amounts permeated at 6h were comparable for PAMPA and silicone, ranging from 91 to 136μg/cm(2) across the range of formulations studied. At 48h, maximum ibuprofen permeation in human skin ranged from 11 to 38μg/cm(2) and corresponding values in porcine skin were 59-81μg/cm(2). A dose of 1μL was confirmed as appropriate for finite dose studies in the PAMPA model. The formulation which delivered the greatest amount of ibuprofen in human skin was also significantly more efficient than other formulations when evaluated in the PAMPA model. The PAMPA model also discriminated between different formulation types (i.e. gel versus solution) compared with other models. Overall, the results confirm the more permeable nature of the PAMPA, silicone membrane and porcine tissue models to ibuprofen compared with

  9. Redescripción de la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y primera cita para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M. QUIRÁN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la obrera de Myrmelachista gallicola Mayr y se cita por primera vez para la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina. El material estudiado está compuesto por obreras y fue recolectado sobre Prosopis caldenia Burkart (Fabaceae, dentro de las agallas de Tetradiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, en la periferia de la ciudad de Santa Rosa, provincia de La Pampa.

  10. Argentine Radiation Protection Society Experience in RP education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) promotes all the radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public. To fulfill this objective, SAR organised training and refresher courses, seminars and workshops on RP subjects. During 2002, SAR organised 7 basic and specialized courses regarding the uses of radioactive materials in industrial applications and the course on medical response in radiological accidents, that was attended by Argentine and other Latin American participants. The programmes of the courses are developed in compliance with the legal requirements and also considering specifics needs. In this paper, the characteristics of the courses are enunciated and basic statistics regarding courses and participants are presented. For the 2003 and 2004, SAR foresees the organisation of 18 courses per year and has the capacity to deliver other courses by request. all the courses are delivered in Spanish language. Based on this educational experience SAR consider a priority the inclusion, of a RP module in all the scientific graduate programmes to generate awareness on the importance of RP. Taking into account the migration of professionals to Europe and North America and the Globalization, SAR advocates the harmonization of RP syllabus to attain an international recognition. (Author)

  11. Autopercepción de la salud en mujeres rurales de la provincia de La Pampa Health self-perception in the rural women of La Pampa Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Giacomino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo atraviesa el proceso en el que se configura la autopercepción de la salud en mujeres rurales del oeste de la provincia de La Pampa. Describe la parte de la subjetividad que conforma los sistemas de sentido y significación que intervienen en la construcción del concepto, donde se entrecruzan sobredeterminaciones tales como contexto, género, etnia y clase social. Se describen las relaciones entre géneros y salud considerando dos dimensiones: las relaciones de poder que se expresan entre: varones/mujeres y mujeres /efectores de salud (incluyendo sexo del mismo y las asimetrías jerárquicas en ambas duplas. Adicionalmente se proponen algunas dimensiones analíticas: se señalan las diversas vías que transita la elaboración del concepto de "cuidado"; se realizan consideraciones acerca del mandato de "no enfermar" y se culmina analizando el impacto de la vinculación pacientes/efectores de salud.This article refers to the process in which health self-perception in rural women of La Pampa province west is shaped. It describes the part of subjectivity that involves the meaning and sense systems. They take part in the construction of concept where over determinations such as context, genre, ethnic and social class interweave. The relationships between gender and health considering two dimensions are described: the power relationships that are expressed between men/women and women/health effectors (considering its sex and the asymmetrical rank in both pairs. Additionally, some analytical dimensions are proposed: the different ways in making the concept of "caring" are pointed out, considerations about the instruction "don't get sick" and it finishes analyzing the impact of patient/health effectors association.

  12. EL ROSTRO OCULTO DE ESPÍRITU PAMPA, VILCABAMBA, CUSCO (Avance/Advance)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fonseca Santa Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Recent archaeological studies carried out in the Vilcabamba region, northwest of Cusco, resulted in the unprecedented discovery of an elite Wari burial at the site of Espíritu Pampa. This finding is unique in many respects: first, rich burials belonging to the Wari State have not been excavated scientifically; second, this is the first tangible evidence for the existence of high rank individuals within the Wari State; and third, this finding is the first of its kind coming from the tropical r...

  13. Predicting both passive intestinal absorption and the dissociation constant toward albumin using the PAMPA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujard, Alban; Sol, Marine; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Martel, Sophie

    2014-10-15

    The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high-throughput screening (HTS) method that is widely used to predict in vivo passive permeability through biological barriers, such as the skin, the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The PAMPA technique has also been used to predict the dissociation constant (Kd) between a compound and human serum albumin (HSA) while disregarding passive permeability. Furthermore, the assay is based on the use of two separate 5-point kinetic experiments, which increases the analysis time. In the present study, we adapted the hexadecane membrane (HDM)-PAMPA assay to both predict passive gastrointestinal absorption via the permeability coefficient logPe value and determine the Kd. Two assays were performed: one in the presence and one in the absence of HSA in the acceptor compartment. In the absence of HSA, logPe values were determined after a 4-h incubation time, as originally described, but the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) percentage and pH were altered to be compatible with the protein. In parallel, a second PAMPA assay was performed in the presence of HSA during a 16-h incubation period. By adding HSA, a variation in the amount of compound crossing the membrane was observed compared to the permeability measured in the absence of HSA. The concentration of compound reaching the acceptor compartment in each case was used to determine both parameters (logPe and logKd) using numerical simulations, which highlighted the originality of this method because these calculations required only two endpoint measurements instead of a complete kinetic study. It should be noted that the amount of compound that reaches the acceptor compartment in the presence of HSA is modulated by complex dissociation in the receptor compartment. Only compounds that are moderately bound to albumin (-3companies to obtain permeability measurements; moreover, this approach is fast (96-well plate format), economical and easy

  14. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  15. Una forma territorial alternativa: la tribu de Coliqueo en la pampa bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Yuln

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante gran parte del siglo XIX la pampa de Buenos Aires fue dominio de los indígenas, propiciando así el retrato de un espacio salvaje. Luego de ser controlado por el Estado este territorio sufrió un proceso de transformación en el cual se utilizó la cuadrícula para subdividir las tierras fiscales. Así, la extensión ilimitada de una grilla regular se asoció a la instrumentación de un orden regulador. El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de formas territoriales alternativas que ponen en cuestión esa imagen de una pampa enteramente cuadriculada y por lo tanto cuestionan la prevalencia de la regularidad física y administrativa como única forma de ocupación del espacio. Para ello se indaga una experiencia particular en un sector de la frontera bonaerense durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX: la tribu de Coliqueo. Mapas y planos serán analizados junto con la legislación de tierras del período y a ello se incorpora el ámbito geográfico en su estado actual como herramienta de análisis.

  16. [Soil texture as a regulating factor of Escherichia coli adsorption in a Rolling Pampa basin (Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends Kraemer, Filipe; Chagas, Celio I; Cosentino, Diego J; Paz, Marta; Moretton, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    Increase of bovine livestock rates in fragile areas of the Rolling Pampa entails a high risk of biological contamination. This biological contamination is regulated by edaphic variables such as texture, which control biological contaminants transport towards water bodies. In this work bacterial adsorption was correlated with individual particle sizes in 27 soils of a typical basin of the Rolling Pampa with slow centrifugation techniques. Bacterial adsorption values, using E. coli (ATCC 8739), ranged between 25.3 and 73.3% and significant correlation (R² = 0.6) was found between bacterial adsorption and clay content. This correlation was improved when particles smaller than 3 µm were considered (R² = 0.64) highlighting the capacity of very fine silt in adsorption mechanisms. Data obtained were compared with those proposed by Ling et al. (2002), finding similar slope but different intercept. This difference disappeared when a wild strain, isolated from bovine manures present in the basin, was used, since a bacterial adsorption increase of 48% was found. PMID:21731969

  17. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Heemann Junges

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  18. Detection of Argentine onions treated with 60 Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has been the most important MERCOSUL's purchaser of fresh onions from Argentina. The increased claim for this fresh product has forced a consensus between the members nations, as regards to phytosanitary restrictions. The radio inhibition is described on National Food Codes in Brazil and Argentina. Methods of food irradiation detection must be performed, since they increase the consumer confidence. Quick and simple screening tests indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not. This present study verified the DNA fragments of argentine fresh onions, produced during radiation process and 6 months of storage period. The DNA fragments are analyzed for detection of irradiated foods. The irradiated onions presented extensive DNA migrations, as comets, when submitted to agarose gel electrophoresis. They also showed more shelf life compared to the unirradiated onions. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. This initial screen method showed to be effective for detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  19. Characterization of Argentine Loess and Paleosols by Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigate iron-bearing mineral samples of loess and paleosols from a geologic section at La Plata, Argentina, 34 deg. 54' 14'' S and 58 deg. 2' W. Hematite is by far the dominant iron-bearing magnetic component in initial loess and paleosol samples. The samples were also subjected to magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched loess fractions show a remarkable increase in the content of magnetite. The enhancement of non-magnetic Fe3+ and a decrease of Fe2+ mineral phases in the paleosol layer seem to be a consequence of the process of pedogenesis which also caused a dissolution of magnetic iron oxides by weathering. The increase of magnetite in the silt fraction suggests that the wind could have been the main carrier of magnetic minerals, causing the major differences in the magnetic parameters between loess and paleosols in the Argentine loess plateau

  20. Knowledge management in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority has initiated a regulatory knowledge management process to face the loss of knowledge resulting from retiring experts, the generation gap, and the existing need to train new human resources. A number of projects have been started together with the technical assistance of the National Public Administration Institute to preserve knowledge and render it explicit for the coming generations. These projects include 'The History of the Expert's Learning Process' in which the majority of the most critical experts have been interviewed so far. The results of this project help envision a training structure and prospective projects. An Internet Site has also been created on the Intranet in order to render knowledge explicit and facilitate the tools for knowledge management initiatives. Furthermore, ARN's knowledge map project has also been started. (author)

  1. Native supercolonies of unrelated individuals in the invasive Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe; Krieger, Michael J. B.; Vogel, Valérie;

    2006-01-01

    Kinship among group members has long been recognized as a main factor promoting the evolution of sociality and reproductive altruism, yet some ants have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely among physically separated nests. This type of social...... organization is not only a key attribute responsible for the ecological dominance of these ants, but also an evolutionary paradox because relatedness between nestmates is effectively zero. Recently, it has been proposed that, in the Argentine ant, unicoloniality is a derived trait that evolved after its...... introduction into new habitats. Here we test this basic assumption by conducting a detailed genetic analysis of four native and six introduced populations with five to 15 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial gene. In contrast to the assumption that native populations consist of family-based colonies with...

  2. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando

    2010-05-01

    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  3. Recent records, range loss, and current threats to the pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Mammalia, Cervidae in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Benedet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The native grasslands in the micro-region of Lages are the natural habitat of the pampas deer, and the locality of Coxilha Rica, known for its short grass, is its largest refuge in the state of Santa Catarina. Recent novel records of the pampas deer in this state are published here for the first time, as well as evidence of a reduction in its historical distribution. In a grassland environment that is increasingly invaded by plantations of exotic species, partition of land, and burning of grasslands, adequate management of the areas where the pampas deer still persist may be decisive for the survival of remaining populations.

  4. Assessment of Water Pollution Signs in the Brazilian Pampa Biome Using Stress Biomarkers in Fish (Astyanax sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in southern Brazil, the Pampa biome has been under constant threat due to improper management of human effluents and use of pesticides. These contaminants accumulate mainly in water resources resulting in chronic poisoning of aquatic biota. Up to date, no studies on the assessment of environmental quality in the Brazilian portion of Pampa biome have been undertaken. Thereby, our main goal in this study was to investigate the ecotoxicological risks caused by human activity in the Santa Maria River, a major water course in the Brazilian Pampa biome. Brain and muscle tissues were used for determining oxidative stress and cholinesterase biomarkers in fish (Astyanax sp. exposed to urban and agricultural effluents. A substantial decrease in fish muscle acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in exposed animals, compared to controls (kept under laboratory conditions. In parallel, increased lipid peroxidation and significant changes in stress-responsive antioxidant enzymes (GST, CAT, GPx, and TrxR were detected. In the fish brain, a significant increase in GST activity is reported. In conclusion, our results showed significant changes in biomarkers of water contamination in Astyanax captured in Santa Maria River, pointing to important levels of water pollution in the region and validating the use of Astyanax in biomonitoring programs within the Pampa biome borders.

  5. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  6. The defense of provincial identity in a literary association: the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bassa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the notion of provincial identity in the Pampean Association of Writers of Santa Rosa, province of La Pampa. Although the group was shaped around literature, discourses and actions overflow this purpose and present a particular ideological stance regarding Pampean identity. Analysis focuses on interviews to members and documents produced both by local writers and the Association.

  7. Annual Report ABACC 2003 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes the actions of the Brazil-Argentine of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), during the year of 2003. The developed work allowed to concluded that there is no event indicating that any nuclear material non-accounted for were deviated for non permitted activities by the Agreement for Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy between Argentine and Brazil and by the Four Parties Agreement among these countries, the ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  8. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Senesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  9. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Kuibo; Xie, Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wan, Shu; Sun, Litao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2013-01-01

    Humidity sensors have been extensively used in various fields, and numerous problems are encountered when using humidity sensors, including low sensitivity, long response and recovery times, and narrow humidity detection ranges. Using graphene oxide (G-O) films as humidity sensing materials, we fabricate here a microscale capacitive humidity sensor. Compared with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the G-O based humidity sensor has a sensitivity of up to 37800% which is more than 10 tim...

  10. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author)

  11. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  12. Prevalencia de teniosis y seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Perú 2008 Taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, Peru 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Cordero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar la prevalencia de teniosis y la seroprevalencia de cisticercosis humana en la población del distrito de Pampa Cangallo, en la sierra central de Perú (Ayacucho; se realizó un estudio transversal en el año 2008, con 368 personas de 5 a 70 años de edad. El diagnóstico de teniosis se efectuó mediante la prueba coproparasitológica (sedimentación rápida mientras que para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis se realizó un tamizaje con la prueba de ELISA, y los casos positivos fueron confirmados por inmunoblot. Se encontró cinco casos positivos a huevos de Taenia sp, lo que representa una prevalencia de teniosis de 1,4% (IC95%: 0,2 - 2,5%, siendo los individuos entre los 20 a 49 años los que presentan la mayor proporción. Se encontró una seroprevalencia de cisticercosis de 3,3% (IC95%: 1,4 - 5,1% por 12 casos positivos, siendo más frecuente en mujeres. No se encontró asociación con ninguno de los factores estudiados. Si bien la prevalencia es baja, se confirma la existencia de la teniosis y cisticercosis en esta población, por lo que se sugiere el establecimiento de estrategias de prevención y control, con énfasis en la educación comunitaria.To estimate the taeniosis prevalence and human cysticercosis seroprevalence in a rural town from the Peruvian central Andes (Pampa Cangallo, Ayacucho, we performed a cross sectional study in 2008, included 368 people between 5 and 70 years. Fast sedimentation technique and direct examination of stool samples were used to taeniosis diagnosis, and ELISA are used as screening test to cysticercosis, positives cases were confirmed with immunoblot. We found five positives cases to Taenia sp. eggs, which represents a 1.4% (95%CI: 0.2 - 2.5% of a taeniosis prevalence, being individuals between the 20 to 49 years those which presented high proportion. We found 3.3% (95%CI: 1.5 - 5.1% of cysticercosis prevalence for 12 positives cases, being most frequent in women. No association with evaluated

  13. Effect of the californian red worm (Eisenia foetida) during the composteo and vermicomposteo in properties of the Experimental Station of the Academic Rural Unit Carmen Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Paco Gabriel; Loza-Murguía Manuel; Mamani Francisco; Sainz Humberto

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biotransformación of the organic residuals, of kitchen (Rc) remains, pulp of coffee (Pc) and cardboard (C) by means of compostaje methods and vermicompostaje. The investigation was taken I end up in the Experimental Station, module of lombricultura of the Career of Agronomic Engineering of Carmen Pampa Unit Academic Campesina, located in the community of Carmen Pampa of the Municipality of Coroico Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The used de...

  14. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  15. Reproductive period of female Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes, 1836, in a dam reservoir in the Pampa Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cristina Gomes Galarça

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypostomus commersoni belongs to the family Loricariidae and is native to the Uruguay River Basin. It is commonly found in lentic environments, and their biology is poorly known in the Pampa regions of Brazil. The reproductive period was determined by analysis of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, hepatosomatic index (HSI, and condition factor (∆K, in addition to the macroscopic observation of the gonadal development stage. The results indicated that the species under study had a reproductive period lasting from September to January, with reproduction peaking in November. ΔK and HSI were highest in October, showing respectively a better gonadal condition and an accumulation of lipid reserves to provide energy for vitellogenesis, in the month preceding peak breeding. Thus, ΔK and HSI are good indicators of the reproduction period of H. commersoni.

  16. Dynamics and genesis of calcic accumulations in soils and sediments of the Argentinean Pampa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alsu Kuznetsova; Olga Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    abstract Micromorphology of calcic accumulations (calcite, whewellite and gypsum) and geochemical indices were considered as indicators of genesis and evolution of pedogenic accumulations in soils and paleosediments of the Argentinean Pampa. Two groups of separate and independent calcic accumula-tions were studied using scanning electron microscopy:(i) in situ Argiudolls, reflecting the current soil formation; (ii) in the layers of calcrete (locally named tosca), reflecting the past environments and conditions of these layers sedimentation. New pedogenic gypsum accumulations in Argiudolls were described and possible ways of their formation were suggested. Combined analyses of morphology of carbonate accumulations and geochemical indices in different horizons of Argiudolls and layers of tosca showed that the tosca is paleopedocomplex with complicated formation history. Influence of current environment on tosca morphology is absent, so it is possible to use these pedofeatures for paleor-econstructions in further studying.

  17. The Argentinean network for the assessment and monitoring of Pampean shallow-lakes (PAMPA2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarese, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Pampa region of Argentina is an extensive wetland containing nearly 200,000 shallow-lakes. The region is under increasing agricultural pressure resulting from climate change (increased temperature and precipitation) and the substitution of cattle breeding and traditional cultures by transgenic soy. Among the many services that they provide, shallow-lakes are highly responsive to changes in climate and land use. Therefore, long-term studies of shallow-lakes provide useful clues to understand and track changes occurring in their complex watersheds. PAMPA2 is a recently funded, long-term network project, with wide geographic coverage, aimed at studying Pampean shallow-lakes. Thirteen network sites (i.e., shallow lakes) occurring along the precipitation gradient (from 1000 mm y-1) form the core of the project. The network integrates various research teams from eight universities and research centers, with a strong multidisciplinary component. The approaches combine traditional sampling; high-rate monitoring using automated sensors; and remote sensing. The network develops and manufactures most the instruments, including automated buoys and unmanned aircrafts. In this presentation, we will provide details on the structure and state of development of the PAMPA2 network, and present a long-term case study of a large Pampean shallow-lake, exemplifying the strong dependence of lake processes on weather variables. Laguna Chascomús is a large, hypertrophic shallow-lake. Chascomús is one of the PAMPA2 study sites that have been more extensively studied. In this shallow-lake, high nutrient availability permits the development of a dense microbial plankton community, which in turn translates into exceptionally high water turbidity. Phytoplankton primary production is strongly limited by light availability. As a consequence, turbidity is strongly and positively correlated to the incoming solar radiation, resulting in a remarkable seasonal pattern of water transparency

  18. Humidity sensing with doped polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shilpa; Chakane, Sanjay D. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Samui, A. B.; Krishnamurthy, V. N.

    2001-03-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was doped with different dopants like camphosulphoric acid (CSA), diphenyl phosphate (DPPH), Sulphonic acid (S) and Maleic acid (MAC) by chemical method. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets as well as films. Polyaniline doped with Maleic acid was found to be mechanically and chemically stable as compared to other dopants and therefore the effect of humidity on conductivity was further investigated. Films prepared out of styrene buryl acrylate copolymer with different concentrations of PANI Maleic acid were used for sensing humidity ranging between 20% to 90% relative humidity. A maximum change in the conductivity of three to four orders of magnitude was obtained for the Maleic acid doped polyaniline pellet while two orders of magnitude change was obtained for the film samples over the range of humidity measured.

  19. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  20. Nuclear trade: an approach on the Argentine situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine nuclear trade regime. Nuclear Materials. Definitions. Stages. From early times of nuclear development an actual and strict monopoly governed the transfers of nuclear materials. That meant: the Federal State took the control as user, producer, purchaser or seller. This policy was inspired and clearly echoed a similar one developed by countries with important development in the nuclear field. Types of contracts on nuclear commerce. Relation with costs implied with the nuclear industry. Uranium mining. System of supplies. Development of factories of nuclear supplies. Incentives. Nuclear Power. Radioisotopes. Human Resources. Ways of intervention of the State on nuclear Commerce. The right of veto. The ownership of shares in private or public corporations. Export- import controls. Security and Safety standards. National Act of Nuclear Activity. Veto of the Executive Power to the monopoly of the exclusive national supply of uranium. Comparative policies on other fields or products in Argentina. A proposal of lege ferenda. State's right of transformation applicable to purchases and sales of nuclear materials. Exchange and loans. Cosignature of contracts, etc. (author)

  1. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author)

  2. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.

  3. [Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the Argentine Mesopotamia, 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Oscar D; Fernandez, Maria S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina; Montiel, Natalia; Ramos, Marina A; Rosa, Juan R; Szelag, Enrique A; Martinez, Mariela F

    2011-01-01

    The first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Argentina was reported in 2006 in Posadas, Misiones. During the summer 2008-2009 Lutzomyia longipalpis, the VL vector, and canine VL cases were already spread along the province of Corrientes. In order to know the distribution of VL risk, systematic captures of the vector were performed between February and March 2010, in 18 areas of the provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes, and the city of Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, with a total of 313 traps/night. We confirmed the presence of Lu. longipalpis, for the first time in Chajarí (Entre Ríos), Alvear, La Cruz, Curuzú Cuatiá and Bella Vista (Corrientes), and Puerto Iguazú (Misiones). In Santo Tome and Monte Caseros (Corrientes), where the vector had been previously reported, traps with more samples were obtained with 830 and 126 Lu. Longipalpis trap/site/night respectively. These results show that the vector of urban VL continues spreading in the Argentine territory. Simultaneously, the spread of the parasite and the resulting human VL cases are associated with the dispersion of reservoirs, infected dogs, with or without clinical symptoms or signs, due to human transit. PMID:21296716

  4. Fragile-X mental retardation: molecular diagnosis in Argentine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Giliberto; Irene, Szijan; Veronica, Ferreiro

    2006-11-30

    Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.

  5. Los marsupiales (Mammalia) del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Visconti, G; Montalvo, C. I.; Goin, F J

    2000-01-01

    We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene). Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina), at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these...

  6. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  7. A PAMPA Assay as Fast Predictive Model of Passive Human Skin Permeability of New Synthesized Corticosteroid C-21 Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina D. Karljikovic-Rajic; Vladimirov, Sote M.; Jadranka V. Odovic; Cudina, Olivera A.; Bojan D. Markovic

    2012-01-01

    The permeation properties of twenty newly synthesized α-alkoxyalkanoyl and α-aryloxyalkanoyl C-21 esters of standard corticosteroids: Fluocinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide and hydrocortisone were established using a PAMPA assay (70% silicone oil and 30% isopropyl myristate). The data were compared with parent corticosteroids with addition of mometasone furoate and hydrocortisone acetate. All newly synthesized corticosteroid C-21 esters have effective permeability coef...

  8. Perspectives on Argentine Migration to Spain: Oral, Journal and Film Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes up our doctoral research –Argentine migrationto Spain- to share some theoretical-methodological considerations.We refer to the conceptualization of "transnational social spaces," an approach that allows us to consider migration in its double dimension origin/destination and is particularly useful to thing the relationship between migration and creation of social and cultural ties in the Hispano-Argentine or Argentine-Spanish space. Similarly, the transnational spaces approach allows to put in dialog diverse social groups involved in the phenomenon: the migrants themselves, whose life stories are analysed by using oral sources; the society of origin and the host society, analysing collective image through journal sources; the filmmakers, whose migration stories we discussmigration through various fiction films; and, of course, historians and other social scientists who study these migrations.

  9. Biotic and abiotic controls of argentine ant invasion success at local and landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S.B.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.; Holway, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the ecological success of introduced species hinges on biotic interactions and physical conditions, few experimental studies - especially on animals - have simultaneously investigated the relative importance of both types of factors. The lack of such research may stem from the common assumption that native and introduced species exhibit similar environmental tolerances. Here we combine experimental and spatial modeling approaches (1) to determine the relative importance of biotic and abiotic controls of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasion success, (2) to examine how the importance of these factors changes with spatial scale in southern California (USA), and (3) to assess how Argentine ants differ from native ants in their environmental tolerances. A factorial field experiment that combined native ant removal with irrigation revealed that Argentine ants failed to invade any dry plots (even those lacking native ants) but readily invaded all moist plots. Native ants slowed the spread of Argentine ants into irrigated plots but did not prevent invasion. In areas without Argentine ants, native ant species showed variable responses to irrigation. At the landscape scale, Argentine ant occurrence was positively correlated with minimum winter temperature (but not precipitation), whereas native ant diversity increased with precipitation and was negatively correlated with minimum winter temperature. These results are of interest for several reasons. First, they demonstrate that fine-scale differences in the physical environment can eclipse biotic resistance from native competitors in determining community susceptibility to invasion. Second, our results illustrate surprising complexities with respect to how the abiotic factors limiting invasion can change with spatial scale, and third, how native and invasive species can differ in their responses to the physical environment. Idiosyncratic and scale-dependent processes complicate attempts to forecast where

  10. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity...

  11. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s.

  12. DNA Barcoding Identifies Argentine Fishes from Marine and Brackish Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín; Hanner, Robert; Zhang, Junbin; González Castro, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species), and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org). Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125) examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. Conclusions/Significance This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha taxonomy, barcodes provide

  13. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  14. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min-1. The element can lift objects ~85 times heavier and can transport cargos ~20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  15. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  16. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  17. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area

  18. Schooling and Governance: Pedagogical Knowledge and Bureaucratic Expertise in the Genesis of the Argentine Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of the Argentine Federal Government by the 1870s aimed to modernise local society, establish state institutions and reach political stabilisation. Building a modern schooling system articulated both utopia and bureaucracy by establishing the use of knowledge as an instrument of social intervention, vindicating and legitimising…

  19. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D; Graur, Dan; Grubbs, Kirk J; Hagen, Darren E; Helmkampf, Martin; Holley, Jo-Anne; Hu, Hao; Viniegra, Ana Sofia Ibarraran; Johnson, Brian R; Johnson, Reed M; Khila, Abderrahman; Kim, Jay W; Laird, Joseph; Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Moeller, Joseph A; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Murphy, Marguerite C; Nakamura, Rin; Nigam, Surabhi; Overson, Rick P; Placek, Jennifer E; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Reese, Justin T; Robertson, Hugh M; Smith, Chris R; Suarez, Andrew V; Suen, Garret; Suhr, Elissa L; Tao, Shu; Torres, Candice W; van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Viljakainen, Lumi; Walden, Kimberly K O; Wild, Alexander L; Yandell, Mark; Yorke, James A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2011-04-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-based funding rather than federal grant support. Manual annotation of >1,000 genes from a variety of different gene families and functional classes reveals unique features of the Argentine ant's biology, as well as similarities to Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Distinctive features of the Argentine ant genome include remarkable expansions of gustatory (116 genes) and odorant receptors (367 genes), an abundance of cytochrome P450 genes (>110), lineage-specific expansions of yellow/major royal jelly proteins and desaturases, and complete CpG DNA methylation and RNAi toolkits. The Argentine ant genome contains fewer immune genes than Drosophila and Tribolium, which may reflect the prominent role played by behavioral and chemical suppression of pathogens. Analysis of the ratio of observed to expected CpG nucleotides for genes in the reproductive development and apoptosis pathways suggests higher levels of methylation than in the genome overall. The resources provided by this genome sequence will offer an abundance of tools for researchers seeking to illuminate the fascinating biology of this emerging model organism. PMID:21282631

  20. Abstracts of the 81. national meeting on physics of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts are presented at the 81 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics; classical and quantum physics: particles and fields; statistical physics and thermodynamics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; optic; fluid dynamics and plasmas; condensed matter; instrumentation; geophysics and astrophysics. refs., ills

  1. English as an Instrumental Language: Language Displacement in the Anglo-Argentine Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Conde, Florencia

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 99 Anglo-Argentine students aged 10 through 18 at five Spanish-English bilingual schools in Buenos Aires about their language attitudes and usage. It found that, despite the prestige of the English language, Spanish had become the dominant language for most. Age and place of residency in Buenos Aires also had a significant effect on…

  2. Estrutura e organização espacial de duas comunidades de anuros do bioma Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Lipinski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pampa é o menor bioma brasileiro e está entre os mais ameaçados devido ao rápido avanço das culturas agropastoris e da silvicultura; é um dos biomas com menor representação no sistema de unidades de conservação. Neste estudo são apresentadas informações sobre a estrutura e a organização espacial das comunidades de anuros de duas das quatro regiões fisiográficas em que o bioma é dividido. Foram amostrados dez corpos d’água em cada região entre os meses de setembro de 2011 e agosto de 2012. Foram registradas 24 espécies caracterizadas como generalistas, de ampla distribuição e típicas de ambientes abertos. A curva de acumulação de espécies apresentou a formação de uma assíntota após o 12° mês de amostragem. A análise de similaridade mostrou uma segregação na estrutura das duas comunidades, que foram influenciadas pelos descritores ambientais e da paisagem.

  3. Microbial quality of soil from the Pampa biome in response to different grazing pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different grazing pressures on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria. We performed a long-term experiment in Eldorado do Sul, southern Brazil, that assessed three levels of grazing pressure: high pressure (HP, with 4% herbage allowance (HA, moderate pressure (MP, with 12% HA, and low pressure (LP, with 16% HA. Two reference areas were also assessed, one of never-grazed native vegetation (NG and another of regenerated vegetation after two years of grazing (RG. Soil samples were evaluated for microbial biomass and enzymatic (β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase and urease activities. The structure of the bacterial community and the population of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated by RFLP of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes, respectively. The diversity of diazotrophic bacteria was assessed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The presence of grazing animals increased soil microbial biomass in MP and HP. The structures of the bacterial community and the populations of diazotrophic bacteria were altered by the different grazing managements, with a greater diversity of diazotrophic bacteria in the LP treatment. Based on the characteristics evaluated, the MP treatment was the most appropriate for animal production and conservation of the Pampa biome.

  4. Conflict and resistances in the margins of The Pampas (1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forms of production of material and immaterial territories come into tension and are juxtaposed when spaces dominated by peasant territoriality are revalued by the capital and seek to impose its spatiality. In the pampas West end in the period 1990-2012, as well as new rationales and practices of farmers, they advanced the process of commodification and the actions of foreign productores-empresarios. In this context, conflicts over the use and appropriation of resources, way of life and the social construction of space emerged. The Organization of families practising possession acts to preserve the shape of "open fields" management and control of the territory, gave rise to the formation of collective strategies. Before conflicts generated by the use of the monte and the shrinking of the fields for the last ten years by the arrival of new agents that surrounds the properties and dismantle the circuits of grazing, many families of the place began to organize with the support of urban organizations to denounce the space of shared grazing reductions. In order to analyse the changes and rebuild rural organization strategies, we use different empirical materials that combine analysis of statistics with interviews in depth and interpretation of various documents.

  5. Late Quaternary paleosols, stratigraphy and landscape evolution in the Northern Pampa, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Rob A.; Zárate, Marcelo; Toms, Phillip; King, Matthew; Sanabria, Jorge; Arguello, Graciella

    2006-07-01

    The field properties, micromorphology, grain-size, geochemistry, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of two late Quaternary sections have been used to reconstruct the sequence of pedosedimentary processes and to provide insights into landscape evolution in part of the Northern Pampa of Argentina. Paleosols developed in paludal sediments adjacent to the Paraná river at Baradero and in loess at Lozada can both be correlated and linked to other sites, thus enabling for the first time the tentative recognition and tracing of a diachronous soil stratigraphic unit that probably spans the equivalent of at least part of marine oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 5. The paleosol at Lozada was truncated and buried beneath fluvial sediments during the time span of OIS 4 and 3. Eolian gradually replaced paludal inputs at Baradero over this period, and there were also two clearly defined breaks in sedimentation and development of paleosols. The period corresponding to OIS 2 was marked by significant loess accumulation at both sites with accretion continuing into the mid-Holocene only at Lozada. The more developed nature of the surface soil at Baradero probably reflects a combination of a moister climate and a longer soil-forming interval.

  6. Summer periphyton community in two streams of the Pampa Plain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquius Karina Soledad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2001, periphytic algae associated to the giant bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae were studied in Los Padres and La Tapera streams (Pampa Plain, Argentina. One hundred and seven taxa were determined, being 76 of them common to both sampling sites. Diversity, total number of taxa and abundance of periphytic algae were greater in stems from the effl uent (La Tapera Stream. Diatoms were the most important group in both streams, according to their richness and abundance. Periphyton from the infl uent (Los Padres Stream was characterized by the dominance of the diatom Navicula cryptocephala and the codominance of another three algae. In contrast in La Tapera Stream, not any species could be recognized as dominant. Periphyton community architecture was more complex in the effl uent, with a high development of fi ve physiognomic groups. In conclusion, algal community attached to S. californicus differs in terms of diversity, abundance and community complexity, possibly due to the diffe rences registered in certain abiotic parameters, mainly in water transparency and velocity.

  7. Powerful motors: Kinship, citizenship and the transformation of the Argentine oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shever, Elana

    The privatization of the Argentine oil industry has been described as an unprecedented transfer of property, capital and control from the state to the corporate sphere, but this study demonstrates that the privatization process is better understood as a transformation of the historical configurations of oil-fueled development, political communities and human subjectivities. This dissertation probes the development of the state-led oil industry, and the shift to a corporate-led one, through an ethnography of Argentines differently positioned in relation to the global oil industry. The ethnography explores the lives of middle class oil workers and their families in Northwest Patagonia, impoverished residents of the shanty neighborhoods near the refineries in metropolitan Buenos Aires, and affluent employees of the translocal corporations operating in the Argentine oil fields. After the Introduction delineates this study's four principal interventions into anthropological scholarship, each subsequent chapter engages a particular problem that cuts across the Argentine oil fields and the anthropological theoretical fields. Chapter Two scrutinizes the historical construction of the Argentine subterritory as a "natural" space of value. Chapters Three and Four investigate the articulation of capitalist production and filial reproduction. These chapters argue that sentiment is a crucial generative force that has shaped the oil industry, company towns and worker families from the founding of the state-owned oil company in beginning of the twentieth century to its conversion into a corporate-owned one at the century's close. Chapters Five and Six examine the emergence of consumer citizenship and corporate citizenship out of Argentine neoliberalismo and its transformation of the oil industry. They argue that consumer and corporate citizenship are both reformulations of the older traditions of liberalism and Peronism. All the chapters of this dissertation illustrate that the

  8. Survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Souto Vieira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a survey of Leptospira spp in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus in the Pantanal wetlands of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Seventy pampas deer were captured in the dry season and surveyed using PCR, microscopic agglutination test (MAT (n = 51 and by both techniques (n = 47. PCR detected infections in two pampas deer and MAT detected infections in three. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, the PCR-amplified fragment detected in deer was identified as Leptospira interrogans. Serovars Pomona and Butembo were detected using MAT and the highest titre was 200 for serovar Pomona. Epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.

  9. PAMPA--a drug absorption in vitro model. 5. Unstirred water layer in iso-pH mapping assays and pKa(flux)--optimized design (pOD-PAMPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, Jeffrey A; Tsinman, Konstantin L; Avdeef, Alex

    2003-12-01

    Iso-pH mapping unstirred parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) was used to measure the effective permeability, P(e), as a function of pH from 3 to 10, of five weak monoprotic acids (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, salicylic acid, benzoic acid), an ampholyte (piroxicam), five monoprotic weak bases (imipramine, verapamil, propranolol, phenazopyridine, metoprolol), and a diprotic weak base (quinine). The intrinsic permeability, P(o), the unstirred water layer (UWL) permeability, P(u), and the apparent pK(a) (pK(a)(flux)) were determined from the pH dependence of logP(e). The underlying permeability-pH equations were derived for multiprotic weak acids, weak bases and ampholytes. The average thickness of the unstirred water layer on each side of the membrane was estimated to be nearly 2000 microm, somewhat larger than that found in Caco-2 permeability assays (unstirred). Since the UWL thickness in the human intestine is believed to be about forty times smaller, it is critical to correct the in vitro permeability data for the effect of the UWL. Without such correction, the in vitro permeability coefficient of lipophilic molecules would be indicative only of the property of water. In single-pH PAMPA (e.g. pH 7.4), the uncertainty of the UWL contribution can be minimized if a specially-selected pH (possibly different from 7.4) were used in the assay. From the analysis of the shapes of the log P(e)-pH plots, a method to improve the selection of the assay pH, called pK(a)(flux)-optimized design (pOD-PAMPA), was described and tested. From an optimally-selected assay pH, it is possible to estimate P(o), as well as the entire membrane permeability-pH profile. PMID:14659483

  10. Phosphorus Placement Effects on Phosphorous Recovery Efficiency and Grain Yield of Wheat under No-Tillage in the Humid Pampas of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Barbieri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No-till (NT affects dynamics of phosphorus (P applied. Wheat response to P fertilization can be affected by available soil P, grain yield, placement, rate, and timing of fertilization. Furthermore, mycorrhizal associations could contribute to improving plant P uptake. Three experiments were used to evaluate P rate (0, 25, and 50 kg P ha−1 and fertilizer placement (broadcasted or deep-banded effects in NT wheat on P recovery efficiency (PRE yield and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (AMC which was assessed in one experiment. Fertilization increased dry matter (DM and accumulated P. Broadcasted P produced lower P accumulation than deep-banded P only at tillering. Phosphorus rate decreased PRE, and placement method did not affect it. Grain yield response was increased by P rate (857 and 1805 kg ha−1 for 25 and 50 kg P ha−1, resp. and was not affected by placement method (4774 and 5333 kg ha−1 for broadcasted and deep-banded, resp.. Deep-banded P depressed root AMC compared with broadcast applications. Highest AMC in P broadcasted treatments could help to explain the lack of differences between placement methods. These results indicate that Mollisol have low P retention capacity. Therefore, broadcasted P could be used as an alternative of fertilizer management for NT wheat.

  11. ESA based fiber optical humidity sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiao

    2002-01-01

    Several techniques for measuring humidity are presented. The goal of the study is to use the electrostatic self-assembled monolayer synthesis process to fabricate a Fabry-Parot Cavity based optical fiber humidity sensor. The sensing scheme bases on the refractive index change with relative humidity of the film applied to the end of optical fiber. That is, the change in reflected optical power indicates certain humidity. To achieve this, some chemicals induce on specific coating materials were...

  12. A Surface Micromachined CMOS MEMS Humidity Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Qiu Huang; Fei Li; Min Zhao; Kai Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a CMOS MEMS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor micro electromechanical system) piezoresistive humidity sensor fabricated by a surface micromachining process. Both pre-CMOS and post-CMOS technologies were used to fabricate the piezoresistive humidity sensor. Compared with a bulk micromachined humidity sensor, the machining precision and the sizes of the surface micromachined humidity sensor were both improved. The package and test systems of the sensor were designed. A...

  13. Los marsupiales (Mammalia) del Mioceno Superior de la formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de la Pampa, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Goin, Francisco Javier; Montalvo, Claudia; Visconti, G

    2000-01-01

    Se describe la asociación de marsupiales sudamericanos fósiles de edad Huayqueriense (Mioceno tardío) más completa hasta ahora conocida. Los ejemplares fueron exhumados de varias localidades fosilíferas nuevas del centro y norte de la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina central), en sedimentos asignables a la Formación Cerro Azul: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco y Laguna Chillhué. El conjunto de las sedimentitas loessoides analizadas en los diferentes afloramientos de esta formación ind...

  14. Humidity and Buildings. Technical Paper No. 188.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Modified and controlled relative humidity in buildings for certain occupancies is discussed. New criteria are used in determining the needs, desirability and problems associated with humidities in a building. Severe winter climate requires that special attention be given to the problems associated with increased indoor humidities during cold…

  15. Making Sense of an Unstable Legislature: Committee Assignments in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, 1946–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Silvina Lilian Danesi; Carleton University; Ludovic Rheault; University of Montreal

    2012-01-01

    Latin American legislatures have gone largely unstudied, with the functioning of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies prior to the 1980s being an entirely unexplored subject. This paper fills that gap by examining the organization of the Chamber, with particular focus on its standing committee system from 1946 to 2001. We assess the portability of two U.S.-based theoretical approaches to legislative organization by applying them to committee assignments. An original data set of Argentine deputie...

  16. Indirect effects of Argentine ant and honeydew-producing insect mutualisms on California red scale in a citrus agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kizner, Michelle Cara

    2010-01-01

    In San Diego County, a major economic impact of the Argentine ant occurs in citrus agroecosystems, where ants interfere with biological control of key insect pests, especially California red scale. Ant control is considered a critical component of integrated pest management (IPM) of several citrus pests, but IPM recommendations fail to consider quantitative relationships between levels of Argentine ant abundance and those of the economic pests. This serious gap in understanding impedes develo...

  17. Argentine ant invasion associated with loblolly pines in the southeastern United States: minimal impacts but seasonally sustained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Alexei D; Silverman, Jules

    2010-08-01

    Invasive ants are notorious for directly displacing native ant species. Although such impacts are associated with Argentine ant invasions (Linepithema humile) worldwide, impacts within natural habitat are less widely reported, particularly those affecting arboreal ant communities. Argentine ants were detected in North Carolina mixed pine-hardwood forest for the first time but were localized on and around loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), probably because of association with honeydew-producing Hemiptera. We explored the potential impacts of L. humile on arboreal and ground-foraging native ant species by comparing interspersed loblolly pines invaded and uninvaded by Argentine ants. Impacts on native ants were assessed monthly over 1 yr by counting ants in foraging trails on pine trunks and in surrounding plots using a concentric arrangement of pitfall traps at 1, 2, and 3 m from the base of each tree. Of floristics and habitat variables, higher soil moisture in invaded plots was the only difference between plot types, increasing confidence that any ant community differences were caused by Argentine ants. Overall patterns of impact were weak. Composition differed significantly between Argentine ant invaded and uninvaded trunks and pitfalls but was driven only by the presence of Argentine ants rather than any resulting compositional change in native ant species. Native ant abundance and richness were similarly unaffected by L. humile. However, the abundance of individual ant species was more variable. Although numbers of the arboreal Crematogaster ashmeadi (Myrmicinae) declined on and around invaded pines, epigeic Aphaenogaster rudis (Myrmicinae) remained the most abundant species in all plots. Argentine ant densities peaked in late summer and fall, therefore overlapping with most native ants. Unexpected was their continued presence during even the coldest months. We provide evidence that Argentine ants can invade and persist in native North Carolina forests, probably

  18. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R

    2014-10-01

    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 μl, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 μm, width 4.4 ± 0.01 μm, area 28.1 ± 0.07 μm(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 μm. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections. PMID:25104472

  19. Assessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rojas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multi-model approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty.

  20. Assessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multi-model approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty.

  1. A PAMPA Assay as Fast Predictive Model of Passive Human Skin Permeability of New Synthesized Corticosteroid C-21 Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina D. Karljikovic-Rajic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The permeation properties of twenty newly synthesized α-alkoxyalkanoyl and α-aryloxyalkanoyl C-21 esters of standard corticosteroids: Fluocinolone acetonide, dexamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide and hydrocortisone were established using a PAMPA assay (70% silicone oil and 30% isopropyl myristate. The data were compared with parent corticosteroids with addition of mometasone furoate and hydrocortisone acetate. All newly synthesized corticosteroid C-21 esters have effective permeability coefficients higher then -6, mostly followed with high values of retention factors and low permeation. The examined compounds were grouped through relationship between obtained retention factors and permeation parameters (groups I–III. The classification confirmed group I (membrane retentions as well as permeation lower then 30% for all corticosteroid standards except mometasone furoate, a potent topical corticosteroid which, with high membrane retention (81% and low permeation (7.7% fits into group III. The largest number of new synthesized corticosteroids C-21 esters, among them all fluocinolone acetonide C-21 esters, have high membrane retentions (32.4%–86.5% and low permeations (1.3%–27.1%, fitting in group III. The classification was related to previously obtained anti-inflammatory activity data for the fluocinolone acetonide C-21 esters series. According to the PAMPA results the new synthesized esters could be considered as potential new prodrugs with useful benefit/risk ratio.

  2. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the upper Cambrian and Ordovician in the Argentine Precordillera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, A.N.; Peralta, S.; Gaucher, C.;

    2013-01-01

    We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America, and the nega......We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America......, and the negative isotope carbon excursion (SNICE) has been described for the first time in South America. We report here the record of the SPICE and SNICE in a single section in the Eastern Precordillera. In the Central Precordillera, a minor middle Darriwilian positive carbon isotope excursion (MDICE) and a late...

  3. Proceedings of the 6. Argentine congress on radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th Argentine Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the 22 and 24 of september of 1998. In this event, were presented almost 66 papers in the following sessions, about these subjects: 1.- Safety in nuclear installations. 2.- Control of nuclear material and physical protection of nuclear installations. 3.- Programs of quality assurance. 4.- Training, technical information and public information. 5.- Physical dosimetry. 6.- Physical dosimetry and occupational radiation protection. 7.- Exposure of the natural radiation. 8.- Environmental radiological safety. 9.- Biological effects of the ionizing radiations and biological dosimetry. 10.- Radiological protection of the medical practice and the radiological emergencies. 11.- Radioactive wastes management. 12.- Transport of radioactive materials

  4. How Argentine farmers overpowered Monsanto : the mobilization of knowledge-users and intellectual property regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Filomeno, Felipe Amin

    2013-01-01

    "Since the 1980s, governments and transnational corporations from core countries led by the United States have driven a global upward ratchet of intellectual property protection. In agriculture, this has meant strengthening the rights of seed companies over the plant varieties they develop and curtailing the rights of farmers over the seeds they cultivate. Exceptionally, from the 1990s to 2013, Argentine soy growers overcame the pressures from the seed industry, guaranteeing the right to free...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  6. Industry-Wide Work Rules and Productivity: Evidence from Argentine Union Contract Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the Argentine government promoted a framework for productivity-based negotiations between firms and unions at low levels of organization. The policy weakened the industry-wide collective bargaining system, which sets working conditions for all firms in an industry. This paper employs newly developed quantile regression approaches to investigate the effect of union practices on productivity within the context of the reform. The findings show that (i) industry-wide practice...

  7. The executive and legislative branches and trade unions in the Argentine social security reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.

  8. Efficacy of Argentine propolis formulation for topical treatment of canine otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    L.A Lozina; M.E Peichoto; S.I Boehringer; P. Koscinczuk; G.E Granero; O.C Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of Argentine propolis ear drop formulation on canine otitis externa were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs with symptoms of otitis externa were randomly assigned to double-blinded, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical formulation with propolis versus a topical placebo in the treatment of otitis externa. The propolis preparation and placebo were administrated into both external ear canals, twice daily for 14 days. Throughout the study, clinical examin...

  9. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Stuble, Katharine L.; Nuñez, Martin A.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is increasingly clear that exotic invasive species affect seed-dispersal mutualisms, a synthetic examination of the effect of exotic invasive species on seed-dispersal mutualisms is lacking. Here, we review the impacts of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on seed dispersal. We found that sites with L. humile had 92 per cent fewer native ant seed dispersers than did sites where L. humile was absent. In addition, L. humile did not replace native seed dispersers, as rat...

  10. Uncertainty and Portfolio Dollarization. The Argentine Case in the Last Half Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Burdisso; Eduardo Ariel Corso

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this document is to quantify the effects of uncertainty over financial assets dollarization of the Argentine non financial private sector. Our main concern is to illustrate to what extent uncertainty affects the degree of substitution between assets denominated in local and foreign currencies. Using the optimal portfolio selection theory combined with the multivariate GARCH methodology in order to estimate a model with heteroskedastic covariance matrix, we are able to estimate the ...

  11. International Financial Contagion: Evidence from the Argentine Crisis of 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Boschi, Melisso

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to look for evidence of financial contagion suffered by several countries as a result of the latest Argentine crisis. I focus my attention on a set of countries: Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, Uruguay, and Venezuela. I also focus exclusively on three financial markets: foreign exchange, stock exchange, and sovereign debt. In order to test the hypothesis of contagion, Vector Autoregression (VAR) models and instantaneous correlation coefficients corrected for het...

  12. Managerial form, ownership and efficiency: a case-study of Argentine agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Marcos; Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.

    1994-01-01

    In agriculture, studies dealing with the separation of ownership from control have focused on sharecropping, paying little attention to the impact of management and ownership on efficiency. Using Argentine data, this study tests the hypothesis that efficiency is a function of type of management, concentration of ownership, and mechanisms for monitoring managers. Results show that management, ownership and monitoring have a greater impact on marketing efficiency than either on technical or cos...

  13. Draft genome of the globally widespread and invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Christopher D.; Zimin, Aleksey; Holt, Carson; Abouheif, Ehab; Benton, Richard; Cash, Elizabeth; Croset, Vincent; Currie, Cameron R; Elhaik, Eran; Elsik, Christine G.; Fave, Marie-Julie; Fernandes, Vilaiwan; Gadau, Jürgen; Gibson, Joshua D.; Graur, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Ants are some of the most abundant and familiar animals on Earth, and they play vital roles in most terrestrial ecosystems. Although all ants are eusocial, and display a variety of complex and fascinating behaviors, few genomic resources exist for them. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a particularly widespread and well-studied species, the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which was accomplished using a combination of 454 (Roche) and Illumina sequencing and community-b...

  14. Proceedings of the 76. meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works are presented at the 76 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association. The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics, mathematical methods, classical and quantum physics, mechanics and fields, statistical physics and thermodynamics, elementary particle physics and fields, nuclear physics, and molecular physics, atomic collisions, optics, fluid dynamics and plasmas, condensed matter, instrumentation, geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. refs., ills

  15. Food habits of the great horned owl in northwestern Argentine Patagonia: the role of introduced lagomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A.; Travaini, Alejandro; Ceballos, Olga; Delibes, M.; Hiraldo, F.

    1997-01-01

    —Pellets of adult and nestling Great Horned Owls (Bitho tirginianus) were collected at 12 owl territories nearJunin de los Andes (Neuquen, Argentine Patagonia) during the breeding seasons of 1991— 92 and 1994—95. Mammals represented 69% of the total prey items (N = 1324) identified and Reithrodon auritus (16%), Lepuseuwpaeus (12%) and Ctenomys haigi (12%) were the most common species. Anhropods aecounted for 27% of the total prey by numbers. The two main prey items b...

  16. VAB Temperature and Humidity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Muktarian, Edward; Nurge, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 17 data loggers were placed in the VAB to measure temperature and humidity at 10-minute intervals over a one-year period. In 2013, the data loggers were replaced with an upgraded model and slight adjustments to their locations were made to reduce direct solar heating effects. The data acquired by the data loggers was compared to temperature data provided by three wind towers located around the building. It was found that the VAB acts as a large thermal filter, delaying and reducing the thermal oscillations occurring outside of the building. This filtering is typically more pronounced at higher locations in the building, probably because these locations have less thermal connection with the outside. We surmise that the lower elevations respond more to outside temperature variations because of air flow through the doors. Temperatures inside the VAB rarely exceed outdoor temperatures, only doing so when measurements are made directly on a surface with connection to the outside (such as a door or wall) or when solar radiation falls directly on the sensor. A thermal model is presented to yield approximate filter response times for various locations in the building. Appendix A contains historical thermal and humidity data from 1994 to 2009.

  17. Quality assurance programmes and normalization for the Argentine-Brazilian integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the tasks developed by the Argentine-Brazilian Contractors Coordination Committee in the nuclear area, which was at the beginning promoted by the Contractor Committee of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology, a working team was created between both countries in order to analyze the existing regulations and the Quality Assurance systems applied in Brazil and Argentina for their nuclear projects. This paper describes the steps to be followed so as to fulfill the compatibility of the rules, quality assurance and firm certification, laboratories, personnel and materials, and the applicable quality assurance programmes. At first, the methodology applied was the collection of the information and the existing regulations in each one of the countries, to exchange them, analyze them and arrange joint meetings and organize a seminar with experts from both countries to develop and discuss the objectives of this working team. As a result of these activities, the criteria adopted will allow, together with another actions, that both Argentine and Brazilian firms make exchanges and integrations in the nuclear field to supply Atucha II and Angra II. (Author)

  18. Electrolyte-based Wireless Humidity Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis was initiated in the Organic Electronics group at Linköping University within a project called ‘Brains & Bricks’. The purpose was to develop a prototype of a wireless humidity sensor with a solid polyelectrolyte as the humidity sensing material. The humidity levels can be estimated from the resonant frequency of a testing circuit. The readings were performed by a wireless method between two coils. Both the testing circuit and the simulation programs were designed in thi...

  19. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  20. Trajectory Simulations of Upper Tropospheric Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Sherwood, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present comparisons of simulations of upper tropospheric humidity at 215 and 146 hPa with satellite measurements. Our model uses diabatic trajectories to advect water vapor from an initial condition of 100% relative humidity to the final state. The model does not allow parcels' relative humidity to exceed 100%, and in this way crudely incorporates condensation. We find that this simple model does a good job of simulating the observations. Sensitivity studies suggest that one must have realistic wind velocities in order to accurately simulate the humidity distribution; microphysical parameterizations seem to be less important. Comparisions between simulations using UKMO and NCEP horizontal winds will be discussed.

  1. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  2. Principles and Applications of Ceramic Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pelino; Carlo Cantalini; Marco Faccio

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the state of the art in humidity and gas ceramic sensors R&D; it also describes the principle, fabrication and application of the humidity-sensitive Si-doped a-hematite (α-Fe2O3) sintered compacts. The humidity signal response is characterized by volt-amperometric and impedance spectroscopy techniques in the 0-97% relative humidity (RH) range. The response time of the sensor is evaluated by 0-60% RH variations. Experimental techniques used to measure the ...

  3. Análisis fractal de la precipitación anual en el este de la Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Pérez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El este de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina se ubica en la franja de transición entre el área sudoccidental de la Región Pampeana, para la cual el documento oficial del Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC proyecta un descenso en las precipitaciones de entre 10 a un 20 %, y el área nordeste, para la cual proyecta un ascenso de entre un 10 a un 20 %. Con la finalidad de determinar en cuál de las dos tendencias se encuentra comprendido el este de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina se estudió la dimensión fractal de 10 series de precipitación anual de la zona aplicando el coeficiente de Hurst (H, a fin de determinar si las mismas muestran persistencia, y se evaluó, por medio de la prueba de Mann Kendall cuáles fueron la significación y signo de las tendencias observadas. Los resultados confirman que la precipitación anual en el este de la Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina puede ser caracterizada a través de su dimensión fractal, alcanzando valores de dimensión fractal D cercanos a 1, que corroboran un alto nivel de persistencia. Las tendencias positivas estadísticamente significativas a muy significativas exhibidas por todas las localidades utilizadas indican que el régimen de precipitaciones de la zona observó un incremento temporal de sus valores dentro del período analizado, por lo que puede concluirse que el este de la provincia de La Pampa se encuentra incluido dentro del área oriental prevista por el IPCC.Eastern La Pampa Province (Argentina is located in the transition band between the south-western area of the Pampa Region, where the Intergovernmental Panel Climatic Change (IPCC official document projects a decrease in the rainfalls between 10 to 20%, and the north-eastern area, where an increase between 10 to 20% is projected. With the purpose of determining in which of the two trends the Eastern La Pampa Province (Argentina is included, the fractal dimension of 10 series of annual rainfall of the zone

  4. Riego complementario en un Argiudol típico de la Pampa Ondulada argentina bajo siembra directa: efectos sobre algunas propiedades químicas y físicas del suelo Supplementary irrigation in a typic Argiudoll of the Argentine Rolling Pampas under no-tillage: effects on soil physical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Torres Duggan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El riego complementario permite incrementar y estabilizar los rendimientos de los cultivos de granos. Sin embargo, cuando se utilizan aguas de mala calidad, pueden generar procesos de degradación de las propiedades edáficas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el impacto del riego complementario, con agua de baja conductividad eléctrica y sodicidad intermedia, sobre algunas propiedades físicas y químicas de un suelo Argiudol típico, franco, en siembra directa. Los tratamientos fueron: i: Riego durante 13 años; ii: Secano en zonas adyacentes (esquinas. Las propiedades se evaluaron en tres sectores dentro del lote diferenciando en círculo de riego y esquinas, con un diseño de t-apareado. El tratamiento Riego incrementó significativamente el pH y el porcentaje de sodio intercambiable (P0,05. La resistencia a la penetración fue superior a 2 MPa en ambos tratamientos en todo el perfil medido (0-40 cm, lo cual estuvo posiblemente asociado al tránsito vehicular y la cosecha en suelo húmedo. La estabilidad de agregados fue muy alta en ambos tratamientos, atribuible al contenido elevado de materia orgánica en superficie y al manejo en siembra directa.Supplementary irrigation increases and stabilizes crop yields. However, when irrigation water of poor quality is applied, it can adversely affect soil properties. The objective of this study was to: evaluate the influence of supplementary irrigation on some physical and chemical properties under no- till cultivation systems. A field experiment was performed on a loamy Typical Argiudoll, managed under no- tillage. The treatments were: 1-Irrigated soil during 13 years, 2-Adjacent Rainfed soil. Soil chemical (pH, electric conductivity, exchangeable sodium percentage, organic carbon, total N, exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity, extractable P and physical properties (infiltration rate, soil penetration resistance, bulk density, gravimetric water content, structural instability were evaluated. Irrigation significantly increased the pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (P 2Mpa in both treatments, probably due to the effects of the cultivation and harvest machinery under high soil water contents. The soil structural instability was very low (i.e. high structural stability in both treatments, probably associated to the high organic matter content and the no- till cultivation system.

  5. Eolian depositional phases during the past 50 ka and inferred climate variability for the Pampean Sand Sea, western Pampas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripaldi, Alfonsina; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    The Pampean Sand Sea, which occurs from the Argentinian Pampas to the eastern Andean piedmont, hosts presently stabilized dune fields spanning the late Quaternary. This study integrates previous results and presents new geomorphic, stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronologic data for nineteen >2 m-thick eolian successions for the San Luis paleo-dune field, western Pampas, to better constrain the depositional history. Six eolian depositional phases are identified spanning the past 50 ka, interposed with paleosols and/or bounded by erosive surfaces. Age control was from 61 OSL ages of small aliquots of quartz grains from eolian stratigraphic units. The inferred timing of eolian phases are at ca. 70 ± 10 yr, 190 ± 20 yr, 12 to 1 ka, 22 to 17 ka, 29 to 24 ka, and 40 to 32 ka. A maximum span for periods of pedogenesis at ca. 12 to 17 ka, 22 to 24 ka, and 29 to 32 ka was provided by bounding OSL ages, which broadly overlap with high stands of pluvial lakes and glacier advances in the central Andes. We infer that the added precipitation may reflect expansion of the Southern Hemisphere monsoon, associated with Northern Hemisphere Heinrich events, leading to episodes of significantly wetter conditions (>350 mm MAP) to at least 35° S. Most of the Holocene (12 ka to 0.8 ka) was characterized by sand sheet deposit under drier than present conditions (100-450 mm MAP), associated with Monte-type vegetation (shrub steppe). The latest two eolian depositional phases, occurred at ca. 190 and 70 yr ago, during the historic period with European settlement and are related to anthropogenic landscape disturbance, though the youngest phase was concomitant with 1930s drought. Wet conditions dominated since ca. AD 1970 with new lakes and rivers forming across this eolian terrain; an incongruous environmental response in reference to drier conditions for most of the Holocene.

  6. Hydrological cycles and trends in the NW Argentine Andes since 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Strong spatiotemporal variability characterizes the hydrometeorological pattern in the NW Argentine Andes, draining parts of the most populated and economically important areas of South America. During the summer monsoon season (DJF), the eastern flanks of the central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to extreme hydrometeorological events. These often result in floods and landslides with disastrous effects on the local populations. Here, we analyze river discharge to explore long-term hydrological variability in NW Argentine Andes and the linked climate controlling processes. We rely on 13 daily river discharge time series relevant to drainage basins spanning several size orders (102-104 km2) starting in 1914 and define different hydro-climate indices both for the mean and the extreme hydrological events. We apply quantile regression to investigate long-term trends and spectral analysis associated with cross-correlation with SST-based climate indices to identify links to large-scale climate variability modes. River discharge presents a pronounced and coherent variability signal in South America, particularly for wide drainage basins, such as the Amazon and Paraná/La Plata rivers, strongly associated to Pacific and Atlantic Oceans Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies (i.e. ENSO, PDO, AMO). Our analysis evidences that in the NW Argentine Andes, mean discharge values are characterized by statistically significant, mostly positive, long-term trends since 1940, whereas the extreme events present a more non-unidirectional trend pattern. Also, coherent multi-annual to multi-decadal cycles characterizing the discharge pattern have been identified, suggesting that processes linked to SST anomaly-modes strongly control the hydrometeorology variability in the NW Argentina Andes.

  7. Hantavirus reservoir Oligoryzomys longicaudatus spatial distribution sensitivity to climate change scenarios in Argentine Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Paula LM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (colilargo is the rodent responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in Argentine Patagonia. In past decades (1967–1998, trends of precipitation reduction and surface air temperature increase have been observed in western Patagonia. We explore how the potential distribution of the hantavirus reservoir would change under different climate change scenarios based on the observed trends. Methods Four scenarios of potential climate change were constructed using temperature and precipitation changes observed in Argentine Patagonia between 1967 and 1998: Scenario 1 assumed no change in precipitation but a temperature trend as observed; scenario 2 assumed no changes in temperature but a precipitation trend as observed; Scenario 3 included changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed; Scenario 4 assumed changes in both temperature and precipitation trends as observed but doubled. We used a validated spatial distribution model of O. longicaudatus as a function of temperature and precipitation. From the model probability of the rodent presence was calculated for each scenario. Results If changes in precipitation follow previous trends, the probability of the colilargo presence would fall in the HPS transmission zone of northern Patagonia. If temperature and precipitation trends remain at current levels for 60 years or double in the future 30 years, the probability of the rodent presence and the associated total area of potential distribution would diminish throughout Patagonia; the areas of potential distribution for colilargos would shift eastwards. These results suggest that future changes in Patagonia climate may lower transmission risk through a reduction in the potential distribution of the rodent reservoir. Conclusion According to our model the rates of temperature and precipitation changes observed between 1967 and 1998 may produce significant changes in the rodent

  8. Land access and conservation strategies among ranqueles (Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, first half of 20th century Estrategias de acceso y conservación de la tierra entre los ranqueles [Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Salomón Tarquini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the late 19th century, indigenous populations in Argentina's regions of Pampa, Patagonia and Chaco were subordinately incorporated into capitalist economy, through a series of genocidal and destribalization policies that have been thoroughly examined in previous studies. However, the circumstances of their integration and the strategies that indigenous actors displayed have not been systematically analyzed yet. This paper is focused on ranquel population in Territorio Nacional de La Pampa to study land use and access ways, as well as the development of such settlings and their reproduction strategies during the first half of the 20th century.A partir de fines del siglo XIX la población indígena de Pampa, Patagonia y Chaco (Argentina fue incorporada en forma subordinada a la economía política capitalista, a través de una serie de prácticas genocidas y destribalizadoras que han sido exhaustivamente analizadas. No obstante, las circunstancias de su incorporación y las estrategias que los actores indígenas ensayaron no fueron aún abordadas de manera sistemática. Este artículo se focaliza en la población ranquel del Territorio Nacional de La Pampa para estudiar las formas de acceso y usos de la tierra, la evolución de sus asentamientos y sus estrategias de reproducción durante la primera mitad del siglo XX.

  9. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  10. Musical Preferences of Argentines and Uruguayans Living in Australia: Implications for Music Therapy Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christobel C Moore

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the elements that impact on the cultural identity of Argentines and Uruguayans in Australia, their relationship to music and the implications for music therapy clinical practice. A survey collected quantitative data on musical preferences and qualitative data on what respondents associated with different genres. The final sample of 12 respondents was not representative of the Australian communities, but collected data was congruent with the reviewed literature and significant internal consistency was observed.Classical music, ballads, folk and tango had the highest preference across age groups with consistent associations on musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal and abstract levels.

  11. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.

  12. Graphic correlation of Argentine Precordillera and North American Lower/Middle Ordovician sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter C.Sweet; Guillermo L.Albanesi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Present work demonstrates that a level equivalent to the proposed Whiterockian basal GSSP can be located graphically in a composite section anchored by the Niquivil section of the Argentine Precordillera. The FAD of Cooperignathus aranda in the Niquivil composite section, a candidate for GSSP of the Lower/Middle Ordovician boundary, projects to a level very close to the FAD of Tripodus laevis in the Whiterockian reference section. The conodont-based framework reported here includes the potential for recognition of the proposed Whiterock Canyon-based GSSP, the Cooperignathus aranda-based GSSP, and, possibly, the Baltoniodus triangularisbased GSSP, recently proposed.

  13. Social and cognitive determinants in entrepreneurial interest: an exploratory study among argentine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA ROMERO MARTÍNEZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the intentions in creating a business on the part of a group of Argentine students in Strategic Human Resources Management in the University of Buenos Aires. The results of the study show that these students want to create their own business, but their possibilities depend on several factors. Among all of them, self-effi cacy stands out; those students who show more self-effi cacy are those who demonstrate more intention for creating a business. This intention is minor for the students who possess more social support. Neither family charges nor previous experience in entrepreneurship have a signifi cant effect.

  14. Food habits of common barn-owls along an elevational gradient in Andean Argentine Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Travaini, Alejandro; Donázar, José A.; Ceballos, Olga; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Hiraldo, F.; Delibes, M.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the diet of Common Barn-owls (Tyto alba) along an elevational gradient in Argentine Patagonia. Small mammals (mainly rodents) were the main prey accounting for 93.2% of total prey items. Consumption of rodents appeared to be dependent on their availability. Sizes of mam­ malian prey were variable but most ranged from 10—100 g in body mass. We concluded that the diet of these barn owls could be used as an index of cricetid rodent populations along ...

  15. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira; Clement, Charles R.; Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. ...

  16. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica) implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Javier; Smeltekop Hugh; Cuba Nicanor; Loza-Murguia Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampli...

  17. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, L. C.; Batista, J. E. S.; Zemolin, A. P. P.; Nunes, M. E. M.; Lippert, D. B.; Royes, L. F. F.; Soares, F. A.; Pereira, A. B.; Posser, T.; Franco, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxid...

  18. Humidity Effects on Conductivity of DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xun-Ling; DONG Rui-Xin; LIN Qing-De

    2006-01-01

    We present a model related to the humidity to describe the conductivity of homogeneous DNA molecule,where the hydration of phosphate group and bases are taken into account. The calculated results show the oscillation feature of dⅠ/dⅤ-Ⅴ curves and the semiconductor behavior of DNA. With the relative humidity increasing, the voltage gap becomes narrow and the maximum of conductance increases nonlinearly. The conductivity of DNA approaches to stabilization when the relative humidity reaches a certain value. These results are in agreement with experimental measurements.

  19. Tropical Atmospheric Circulations with Humidity Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hsia, Chun-Hsiung; Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the effect of the moisture on the planetary scale atmospheric circulation over the tropics. The modeling we adopt is the Boussinesq equations coupled with a diffusive equation of humidity and the humidity dependent heat source is modeled by a linear approximation of the humidity. The rigorous mathematical analysis is carried out using the dynamic transition theory. In particular, we obtain the same types of transitions and hence the scenario of the El Ni\\~no mechanism as described in \\cite{MW2,MW3}. The effect of the moisture only lowers slightly the magnitude of the critical thermal Rayleigh number.

  20. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  1. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.;

    1999-01-01

    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations and...... experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  2. Assessment of water pollution in the Brazilian Pampa biome by means of stress biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TG Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa biome is currently under constant threat due to increase of agriculture and improper management of urban effluents. Studies with a focus on the assessment of impacts caused by human activities in this biome are scarce. In the present study, we measured stress-related biomarkers in tadpoles of the leaf frog Phyllomedusa iheringii, an endemic species to the Pampa biome, and tested its suitability as a bioindicator for the assessment of potential aquatic contamination in selected ponds (S1 and S2 nearby agricultural areas in comparison to a reference site. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. The levels of total-hydroperoxides were increased in S2 site. In parallel, increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in S2 when compared to S1 and reference. Further studies are necessary in order to correlate the changes observed here with different chemical stressors in water, as well as to elucidate mechanisms of toxicity induced by pesticides in amphibian species endemic to the Pampa biome. Nevertheless, our study validates Phyllomedusa iheringii as a valuable bioindicator in environmental studies.

  3. A new PAMPA model using an in-house brain lipid extract for screening the blood-brain barrier permeability of drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Falcão, Amílcar

    2016-03-30

    The determination of the permeability of drug candidates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a fundamental step during drug discovery programs. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) is a high throughput screening tool applied to evaluate the passive permeability and adapted to predict BBB penetration. Herein, a new PAMPA model was developed using an in-house brain lipid extract capable of discriminating BBB permeable from non-permeable compounds. The apparent permeability (Papp) of 18 reference molecules and 10 test compounds was assessed and compared with phosphatidylcholine and commercial porcine polar brain lipid (PBL). The physicochemical selectivity of the in-house brain lipid extract was demonstrated by correlating Papp values with physicochemical properties and its predictive capacity estimated by establishing in vitro-in vivo correlations. The strong correlations achieved between 2% (w/v) in-house lipid extract and PBL for reference (r(2)=0.77) and test compounds (r(2)=0.94) support an equivalent discriminatory capacity and validate the presented model. Moreover, PAMPA studies performed with PBL and in-house lipid extract exhibited a higher correlation with the in vivo parameter logBB (r(2)=0.76 and r(2)=0.72, respectively) than phosphatidylcholine (r(2)=0.51). Overall, the applied lipid extraction process was reproducible, economical and provided lipid extracts that can be used to reliably assess BBB permeation.

  4. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures. PMID:26909626

  5. Número de curva de escurrimiento para una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo labranza convencional y siembra directa Runoff curve number for a Rolling Pampa watershed under conventional and no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I Chagas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la aplicabilidad del método de Número de Curva (CN del USDA para una microcuenca agrícola de 300 ha de Pampa Ondulada, bajo labranza convencional (LC durante el período 1994-1998 y posteriormente bajo siembra directa (SD durante el período 1999-2004 a partir del análisis de lluvias y escurrimientos medidos in situ. El uso de la tierra consistió predominantemente en cultivos anuales, siendo la soja el cultivo más frecuente. De las 583 lluvias analizadas, tan solo el 11% provocó escurrimientos registrables. La mayoría de los escurrimientos ocurrió bajo condición antecedente de humedad (AMC I, situación que fue definida por la lluvia caída los 5 días anteriores al evento considerado, lo cual muestra un aspecto de discusión crítica para el uso de esta metodología. A través del análisis de la serie ordenada de datos, se observó que LC y SD presentaban valores prácticamente coincidentes entre sí tanto para AMC II (CN 82 como para AMC III (CN 96. Sin embargo, al considerar AMC I (correspondiente al 10% inferior de dicha serie, la labranza convencional presentó una tendencia a generar menores escurrimientos que siembra directa (CN 56 y 68, respectivamente particularmente durante el período otoño invernal, época en que se realizaron las labores primarias de remoción del suelo que dejaron el suelo rugoso y por ende, con alta capacidad de infiltración.The aim of this paper was to study the applicability of the Curve Number method (CN, USDA for a small arable watershed of 300 ha belonging to the Rolling Pampa under conventional tillage from 1994 to 1998 and subsequently under no tillage until 2004. This analysis was performed by studying rainfall and runoff paired data recorded in situ. Land use consisted mainly of annual crops, particularly soybean. Considering a data pool of 583 rainfall events, only 11% produced appreciable surface runoff. Most of the runoff occurred under

  6. Análisis de los escurrimientos de una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo diferentes sistemas de labranza Runoff analysis of a watershed belonging to the rolling Pampa under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Castiglioni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de escurrimiento del agua juega un rol crítico en la determinación de la pérdida de suelo en las tierras agrícolas. En la última década la siembra directa se ha difundido en la Pampa Ondulada en forma considerable, siendo escasos los estudios a nivel microcuenca en los cuales se analice sus efectos sobre los escurrimientos respecto a otros sistemas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar distintos parámetros correspondientes a la respuesta hidrológica superficial de una microcuenca de la Pampa Ondulada, ante cambios en los sistemas de labranza empleados. La microcuenca bajo estudio posee una superficie de 300 ha y está ubicada en la vertiente norte de la cuenca media del Arroyo del Tala, San Pedro, provincia de Bs. As. Los suelos presentes corresponden a la serie Ramallo (Argiudol vértico y sus fases por erosión. Se confeccionaron los hidrogramas y hietogramas correspondientes a las distintas tormentas ocurridas durante el período 1995-2002, analizándose los escurrimientos en forma global y los tramos ascendentes y descendentes de los caudales de agua obtenidos en forma separada. El sistema de labranza siembra directa originó valores de curva número mayores respecto al sistema convencional. La duración de los escurrimientos fue mayor bajo siembra directa debido a un alargamiento de la fase descendente de los hidrogramas. Los caudales de escurrimiento generados por unidad de lluvia caída fueron siempre menores bajo el sistema de siembra directa respecto al sistema de labranza convencional. Los milímetros escurridos durante la fase descendente de los hidrogramas no fue diferente entre sistemas de labranza ya que el menor caudal registrado bajo la siembra directa fue compensado por una mayor duración de este período en dicho sistema de labranza.The runoff rate constitutes a key factor in the determination of soil losses in arable lands. In the last decade, no tillage system became widespread in the

  7. Efficacy of Argentine propolis formulation for topical treatment of canine otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A Lozina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of Argentine propolis ear drop formulation on canine otitis externa were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs with symptoms of otitis externa were randomly assigned to double-blinded, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of topical formulation with propolis versus a topical placebo in the treatment of otitis externa. The propolis preparation and placebo were administrated into both external ear canals, twice daily for 14 days. Throughout the study, clinical examination and microbiological analysis of dogs ear exudates were made. The most frequent microorganisms isolated in culture media were: Malassezia pachydermatis (54.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.0%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, Candida albicans (18.8%, Proteus mirabilis (16.7%, Streptococcus spp. (16.7%, Enteroccocus faecalis (12.5%, Escherichia coli (12.5%, Staphylococcus intermedius (6.3%, Klebsiella spp. (4.2%, andCandida glabrata (2.1%. Whereas the control group did not recover from the infectious ear disease, the propolis preparation exhibited antimicrobial activity against most of the microorganisms isolated from samples of the treated group. In addition, no propolis-adverse effects were observed. This allowed propolis-treated patients to show a significant improvement of the clinical parameters. Thus, this new Argentine propolis ear drop formulation may be used for topical treatment of otitis externa in dogs.

  8. Portrayals of character smoking and drinking in Argentine-, Mexican- and US-produced films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Hernandez, Rosaura; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess film character portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use in US and nationally-produced films that were popular in Argentina and Mexico from 2004-2012. We performed a content analysis of these films (n=82 Argentine, 91 Mexican, and 908 US films, respectively). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to compare characteristics of characters who smoked or drank by country of movie production. Then data from all countries were pooled, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to determine independent correlates of character smoking or drinking. There were 480 major characters for Argentine-, 364 for Mexican-, and 4962 for US-produced films. Smoking prevalence among movie characters was similar to population smoking prevalence in Mexico (21%) and Argentina (26%), but about half in the US (11%), where movie product placements are restricted. Movie smoking declined over the period in all three countries. Movie alcohol prevalence was 40-50% across all countries and did not change with time. Demographic predictors of character smoking included: being male, 18 and older, having negative character valence. Movie smoking was not associated with lower SES. Predictors of character drinking included: being age 18 and older and positive character valence. Smoking and drinking predicted each other, illicit drug use, and higher scores for other risk behaviors. This suggests that policy development in Mexico and Argentina may be necessary to reduce the amount of character tobacco and alcohol use in films. PMID:27404576

  9. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  10. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Qian; Zhijian Peng; Zhenguang Shen; Zengying Zhao; Guoliang Zhang; Xiuli Fu

    2016-01-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via sing...

  11. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow is...... controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied. In the...... design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature and...

  12. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  13. ¿Existen relaciones entre los factores ambientales rurales y la salud reproductiva en la Pampa Húmeda Argentina? Is there any relationship between rural environmental factors and reproductive health in the Pampa Humeda in Argentina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oliva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre factores ambientales y salud es un hecho reconocido. La influencia de ambientes rurales sobre la salud reproductiva ha sido fehacientemente probada en diferentes regiones del mundo, tanto en la fauna como en humanos. En América Latina pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas en este campo. El presente proyecto se establece sobre la base de la describir las relaciones entre salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en poblaciones rurales, caracterizada por aspectos ambientales particulares. Tres variables han sido evaluadas: relación de nacimientos masculinos/femeninos; incidencia de malformaciones uro-genitales masculinas (hipospadias y criptorquidias; e incidencia de cánceres hormono-dependientes. Se seleccionaron cinco comunidades rurales de la Pampa Húmeda de Argentina, comparándose los datos obtenidos con medias nacionales. Los datos bio-médicos y las fuentes ambientales de riesgo fueron relacionados entre sí a través de un sistema de geo-referenciación. La relación de nacimientos no mostró significación. Las malformaciones presentaron una muy significativa incidencia. Los cánceres hormono-dependientes presentaron incidencia mayores a las medias nacionales, particularmente en algunas de las comunidades estudiadas. Se concluye que existe una relación entre condiciones de salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en esta región.The relationship between environmental factors and health is well known. Rural environmental influences on reproductive health have been properly proved, both in animals and humans. In Latin America, few studies have been conducted in this area. The current project is based on the description of relationships between reproductive health and environmental factors in rural populations, characterized by specific environmental characteristics. Three variables were evaluated: male-to-female birth ratio, male urogenital malformations (cryptorchidism and hypospadias, and endocrine

  14. Interpretación de una sección gravimagnetométrica sobre Pampa de las Invernadas, Sierra Grande de San Luis Interpretation of a gravimagnetometric section over Pampa de las Invernadas, Sierra Grande de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Kostadinoff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un perfil gravimétrico y magnetométrico realizado en el sector noroeste de la Sierra Grande de San Luis mostró máximos relativos de gravedad en una zona donde se hallan afloramientos de rocas máficas-ultramáficas incluidas en cuerpos graníticos ordovícicos. Asimismo se pudo comparar las anomalías gravimétricas de Bouguer con las del campo magnético terrestre. Los modelos geofísicos fueron elaborados en base a las densidades determinadas para las rocas aflorantes en esta región (granitoides, gneises, máficas y ultramáficas y el valor teórico para la corteza superior. Como resultado se sugiere que las inclusiones de rocas máficas-ultramáficas en los cuerpos graníticos representan el 40 % del volumen de estas últimas. Por ello se considera que el área de pampa de las Invernadas es potencialmente interesante desde el punto de vista económico debido a que las anomalías gravimagnetométricas indican la posibilidad de hallar en profundidad rocas máficas-ultramáficas mineralizadas dado que los parámetros geofísicos medidos son similares a los obtenidos en el área de Río de Las Águilas, en el sector sur de estas sierras.A geophysical profile in the NW part of the Sierra Grande de San Luis has shown the existence of gravity field anomalies in an area with outcrops of mafic-ultramafic rocks hosted by Ordovician granitic bodies. Bouguer gravity anomalies where compared with those of the earth magnetic field. Geophysical models were constructed based on the measured density of the units outcropping in this area (granitoids, gneisses, mafic and ultramafic rocks and the theoretical value of the upper crust. As a result, it is suggested that mafic-ultramafic inclusions in the granitic bodies constitute up to 40 % of the total volume of the last ones. These results suggest that Pampa de las Invernadas area could be of economic significance, since its geophysical signature is similar to that of the Río de Las Águilas mafic

  15. Upper Atmosphere Humidity Measurement with Drycap Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtola, Terhi Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a significant greenhouse gas. To gain proper understanding of the impact of water vapor on the climate, atmospheric water vapor profiles should be measured with high precision and accuracy. Due to challenging environmental conditions including extremely low temperatures and humidity concentrations, few research grade instruments are capable of measuring humidity accurately in upper troposphere and stratosphere. Laborious utilization or inadequate resolution of the e...

  16. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity......The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...... are proposed. The limits relating to respiratory requirements are much more stringent than those relating to skin humidity....

  17. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirón J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  18. On the formations of the Pampas inthe footsteps of Darwin: south of the Salado Sobre las formaciones de las Pampasen los pasos de Darwin: al sur del Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zárate

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In1833 during his journey across the Buenos Aires Pampas, Charles Darwin madeobservations that reflected his thoughts on two major landscape units, Pampa interserrana and Pampa deprimida, later identified byother authors. Darwin grouped the Pampean sediments into a single unit, the PampeanFormation, based upon the lithological homogeneity and the large extensionof the deposits; the unit was thought to be of estuarine-marine origin andattributed to the Recent Epoch considering the paleontological content(vertebrates and mollusks. At present, the Pampean sedimentary succession,which accumulated approximately during the last 11-12 Ma, is interpreted as a pedosedimentarysequence due to the ubiquity of pedogenetic features throughout the deposits.Four main subcycles of sedimentation are identified related to reactivations ofthe Pampean landscape. At a regional scale, the outcrop distribution of Pampeansediments of different ages suggests the dominance of more stable conditionssince the late Miocene-Pliocene in a vast area of Pampa interserrana, documented by theformation of calcretes. However, sedimentation during the latePliocene-Pleistocene was active within the domain of the Salado tectonic basin andSierras de Tandil. The regional disparity shown by the Pampean stratigraphicrecord reveals the major morphostructural differences of its basement.Durante su viaje por la Pampa bonaerense en 1833 CharlesDarwin efectuó observaciones que reflejaban las dos grandes unidades de paisajeposteriormente reconocidas en la región, la Pampa interserrana y la Pampadeprimida. La homogeneidad litológica y la vasta extensión de los depósitosfueron los criterios básicos empleados para agruparlos en una única unidad, la FormaciónPampeano; basado en criterios paleontológicos le atribuyó origenestuárico-marino y la asignó a la época Reciente. Si bien han existido otraspropuestas estratigráficas, Formación Pampeano o simplemente Pampeano, sondenominaciones

  19. The agreement between the Argentine Republic and Australia on the cooperation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its fitting to the Argentine Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the legal aspects of the cooperation agreement between Australia and Argentina signed in Camberra on August 8, 2001, the authors elaborate upon the following points: 1. The interpretation of the constitutional texts. Its need; 2. Facts: the development of nuclear energy in Argentina. The contract INVAP-ANSTO. The cooperation agreement Argentina-Australia; 3. The great publicity campaign. The appeal to fear; 4. The difference with the case of power reactors. Distinction between power and research reactors; 5. The difference with the Chernobyl case; 6. Shipment safety; 7. Other clarifications; 8. Factual and juridical distinction between spent fuel and radioactive waste concepts; 9. The regulatory framework of the difference; 10. The essence of the adjective 'Immediate'. Its juridical meaning; 11. The concept of 'entry'. The need to overcome an intentional literalness; 12. The harmonious interpretation of the constitution; 13. The engagement with the future generations; 14. The adaptation to the global trends. The Kyoto protocol; 15. The bases of the constitutional doctrine. They conclude that nothing in the agreement is contrary to the Argentine constitution

  20. Trends in tropospheric humidity from reanalysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Davis, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    A recent paper (Paltridge et al., 2009) found that specific humidity in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis declined between 1973 and 2007, particularly in the tropical mid and upper troposphere, the region that plays the key role in the water vapor feedback. If borne out, this result suggests potential problems in the consensus view of a positive water vapor feedback. Here we consider whether this result holds in other reanalyses and what time scale of climate fluctuation is associated with the negative specific humidity trends. The five reanalyses analyzed here (the older NCEP/NCAR and ERA40 reanalyses and the more modern Japanese Reanalysis (JRA), Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)-interim reanalyses) unanimously agree that specific humidity generally increases in response to short-term climate variations (e.g., El Niño). In response to decadal climate fluctuations, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is unique in showing decreases in tropical mid and upper tropospheric specific humidity as the climate warms. All of the other reanalyses show that decadal warming is accompanied by increases in mid and upper tropospheric specific humidity. We conclude from this that it is doubtful that these negative long-term specific humidity trends in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis are realistic for several reasons. First, the newer reanalyses include improvements specifically designed to increase the fidelity of long-term trends in their parameters, so the positive trends found there should be more reliable than in the older reanalyses. Second, all of the reanalyses except the NCEP/NCAR assimilate satellite radiances rather than being solely dependent on radiosonde humidity measurements to constrain upper tropospheric humidity. Third, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis exhibits a large bias in tropical upper tropospheric

  1. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  2. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  3. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  4. Dactylogyrid monogeneans parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae) from the Pampas region, Argentina: new and previously described species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on dactylogyrid monogeneans in Argentina have been carried out during 1980s and 1990s. Many of these species have been later synonymised and other remain under a confusing taxonomic status, particularly those parasitising Cyphocharax voga (Hensel) (Teleostei: Curimatidae). In order to clarify the identity of dactylogyrids, new material was collected from fishes in Lake Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. A total of four species was found in the gills of C. voga. Two known species, Curvianchoratus singularis (Suriano, 1980) Suriano, 1986 and Palombitrema triangulum (Suriano, 1981) Suriano, 1997, are redescribed and their generic and specific status discussed, and two new species are described. Urocleidoides surianoae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by having an anterior medial projection in the ventral bar and a laminar ligament connecting the base of the male copulatory organ and accessory piece. Annulotrematoides bonaerensis n. sp. differs from its congeners principally by having a ventral bar with an anterior medial projection. The diversity of dactylogyrids harboured by C. voga indicates the need of further studies in the Pampas region, which will provide interesting and valuable sources of evidence for future zoogeographical and evolutionary research on dactylogyrids in the Neotropics. PMID:27522368

  5. ¿Existen relaciones entre los factores ambientales rurales y la salud reproductiva en la Pampa Húmeda Argentina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oliva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre factores ambientales y salud es un hecho reconocido. La influencia de ambientes rurales sobre la salud reproductiva ha sido fehacientemente probada en diferentes regiones del mundo, tanto en la fauna como en humanos. En América Latina pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas en este campo. El presente proyecto se establece sobre la base de la describir las relaciones entre salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en poblaciones rurales, caracterizada por aspectos ambientales particulares. Tres variables han sido evaluadas: relación de nacimientos masculinos/femeninos; incidencia de malformaciones uro-genitales masculinas (hipospadias y criptorquidias; e incidencia de cánceres hormono-dependientes. Se seleccionaron cinco comunidades rurales de la Pampa Húmeda de Argentina, comparándose los datos obtenidos con medias nacionales. Los datos bio-médicos y las fuentes ambientales de riesgo fueron relacionados entre sí a través de un sistema de geo-referenciación. La relación de nacimientos no mostró significación. Las malformaciones presentaron una muy significativa incidencia. Los cánceres hormono-dependientes presentaron incidencia mayores a las medias nacionales, particularmente en algunas de las comunidades estudiadas. Se concluye que existe una relación entre condiciones de salud reproductiva y factores ambientales en esta región.

  6. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  7. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (Pmeat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  8. Organochlorinated pesticides in the Argentine Antarctic sector and Atlantic coastline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, J C; Casabella, A N; Marzi, A A; Astolfi, E; Roses, O; Donnewald, H; Villamil, E

    1979-01-01

    The presence of organochlorinated pesticides in water samples drawn in the Argentine Antarctic Sector and Atlantic coastline has been proved. In general, these samples showed quantities that varied between a few hundredths of a ppmm to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides, depending on the locations, the levels found were definitely higher. With the exception of Dieldrin, which appeared in only one sample/in what would seem to be its course few hundredths of a ppm, to slightly more than 1 ppmm, although in some cases and for certain pesticides found were the same as those reported in previous investigations. The isolated cases of high pesticide contents in water samples drawn at wharves and of snow in the vicinity of Almirante Brown Base show up clearly the influence of human activity on the contamination of the environment.

  9. Use of remote sensing and GIS to identify Flamingo habitat in the Argentine Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Susan C.; Hoffer, Roger M.; Boyle, Terence P.; Bucher, Enrique H.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine altiplano is a remote area which has never been adequately mapped. It is an arid region with harsh climate, little vegetation, sparse population, and an average elevation of over 3,500 feet. Little is known about the large populations of three species of flamingos which nest and feed in the altiplano lakes. In a study funded by the National Geographic Society satellite data (Landsat MSS and TM data) were used to map the location of major water bodies and to analyze the spectral characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems in the altiplano. A comparison of the two images revealed dramatic changes in the size, depth, and spectral reflectance of the lakes utilized by the flamingos.

  10. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine

  11. Dynamics and genetic structure of Argentine ant supercolonies in their native range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valérie; Pedersen, Jes S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia;

    2009-01-01

    analyses revealed the presence of 11 supercolonies (width 1 to 515 m) over a 3-km transect. As in the introduced range, there was always strong aggression between but never within supercolonies. The genetic data were in perfect agreement with the behavioral tests, all nests being assigned to identical...... units. Genetic and chemical distances between supercolonies were positively correlated, but there were no other significant associations between geographic, genetic, chemical, and behavioral distances. A comparison of supercolonies sampled in 1999 and 2005 revealed a very high turnover, with about one......Some introduced ant populations have an extraordinary social organization, called unicoloniality, whereby individuals mix freely within large supercolonies. We investigated whether this mode of social organization also exists in native populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Behavioral...

  12. RECENT TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE ARGENTINE OIL INDUSTRY: THE YPF CASE, 1989-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Serrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyze the path of the state oil company YPF, from privatization to its expropriation (1989-2012. In this process, it has a special emphasis on the identification and analysis of national peculiarities that explain why in the ‘90s YPF, one of the nation’s premier companies in history, was fully privatized (counter to the regional experience in Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil; and how, just twenty years later, the same company was again in state control, with an expropriation which was widely popular and parliamentary support. It also reviews the main consequences of deregulation and the opening in the Argentine oil sector, especially in the performance of --- since acquired all shares of YPF in 1999, to explain this path.

  13. Copi et Puig, ovnis du théâtre argentin ?

    OpenAIRE

    Souquet, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    C’est en 1968 que Copi (Raúl Damonte Botana, 1939-1987) publie sa première pièce, La journée d’une rêveuse puis, un an plus tard, la très iconoclaste Eva Peron. Par son milieu familial, Copi a baigné dès l’enfance dans la vie théâtrale internationale et a été fortement influencé par sa grand-mère, la dramaturge anarcho-féministe Salvadora Medina Onrubia de Botana. Mais, vivant en exil avec sa famille, Copi est coupé de la réalité de la scène argentine et il écrit d’ailleurs ses premières pièc...

  14. Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, M.; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Keller, L.

    2005-01-01

    the phylogenies of Wolbachia and its arthropod hosts indicate that infection is frequently lost, but the causes of symbiont extinction have so far remained elusive. Here, we report data showing that colonisation of new habitats is a possible mechanism leading to the loss of infection. The presence and prevalence...... of Wolbachia were studied in three native and eight introduced populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The screening shows that the symbiont is common in the three native L. humile populations analysed. In contrast, Wolbachia was detected in only one of the introduced populations. The loss...... of infection associated with colonisation of new habitats may result from drift (founder effect) or altered selection pressures in the new habitat. Furthermore, a molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the Wolbachia wsp gene indicates that L. humile has been infected by a single strain. Horizontal...

  15. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  16. Humidity Dependent Extinction of Clay Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, M. E.; Attwood, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the Earth’s radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing radiation. The magnitude of aerosol forcing can be altered by changes in relative humidity which cause aerosol size, shape and refractive index to vary. To quantify these effects, a custom cavity ring down instrument operated at 532 nm with two sample channels measures aerosols extinction under dry conditions and at elevated humidity. The optical growth, fRH(ext), is determined as a ratio of the extinction cross section at high relative humidity to that under dry conditions. Three key clay components of mineral dust and mixtures of clay components with ammonium sulfate are investigated using this method. Experimentally obtained optical growth is compared with physical growth factors from the literature and our work determined using several different techniques. Further, Mie theory calculations based on published optical constants are compared with experimental results. Differences between theory and experiment will be discussed.

  17. Proceedings of the eighth scientific meeting; second latin american meeting; first engineering and argentine nuclear industry exposition at Buenos Aires, 5-10 november 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of 59 papers of different authors, most of whom are personnel from the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the others belonging to the firms involved in the development of the Argentine Nuclear Programme. The papers are arranged in 7 sections comprising the following groups of subjects; experimental and power reactors; fuel elements' fabrication study; prospection, extraction, production and study of nuclear materials; radiological and nuclear safety; instrumentation and control; quality assurance, and technological applications. (R.J.S.)

  18. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  19. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces bee visitation and plant seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Naughton, Ida; Boser, Christina; Alarcón, Ruben; Hung, Keng-Lou James; Holway, David

    2015-01-01

    Ants often visit flowers, but have only seldom been documented to provide effective pollination services. Floral visitation by ants can also compromise plant reproduction in situations where ants interfere with more effective pollinators. Introduced ants may be especially likely to reduce plant reproductive success through floral visitation, but existing experimental studies have found little support for this hypothesis. Here, we combine experimental and observational approaches to examine the importance of floral visitation by the nonnative Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) on plant species native to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA. First, we determine how L. humile affects floral visitor diversity, bee visitation rates, and levels of pollen limitation for the common, focal plant species island morning glory (Calystegia macrostegia ssp. macrostegia). Second, we assess the broader ecological consequences of floral visitation by L. humile by comparing floral visitation networks between invaded and uninvaded sites. The Argentine ant and native ants both visited island morning glory flowers, but L. humile was much more likely to behave aggressively towards other floral visitors and to be the sole floral occupant. The presence of L. humile in morning glory flowers reduced floral visitor diversity, decreased rates of bee visitation, and increased levels of pollen limitation. Network comparisons between invaded and uninvaded. sites revealed differences in both network structure and species-level attributes. In. invaded sites, floral visitors were observed on fewer plant species, ants had a higher per-plant interaction strength relative to that of other visitors, and interaction strengths between bees and plants were weaker. These results illustrate that introduced ants can negatively affect plant reproduction and potentially disrupt pollination services at an ecosystem scale. PMID:26236907

  20. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  1. The effect of airborne particles and weather conditions on pediatric respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of estimated PM10 on respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine as well as the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions and education. We analyzed upper and lower respiratory infections and applied a time-series analysis with a quasi-Poisson distribution link function. To control for seasonally varying factors we fitted cubic smoothing splines of date. We also examined community-specific parameters and differences in susceptibility by sex. We found a significant association between particles and respiratory infections. This relationship was affected by mean temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. These effects were stronger in fall, winter and spring for upper respiratory infections while for lower respiratory infections the association was significant only during spring. Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of respiratory infections. These findings add useful information to understand the influence of airborne particles on children health in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Few information is available on children respiratory health from developing countries. ► We modeled the association between PM10 and children's respiratory infections. ► We checked the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions, education and sex. ► Temperature, pressure and wind speed modified the effect of particles. ► Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of infections. - The concentration of airborne particles as well as low socio-economic conditions and low education levels are significant risk factors for upper and lower respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine.

  2. Consequences of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), invasion on pollination of Euphorbia characias (L.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancafort, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto

    2005-07-01

    We have studied the influence of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, on the pollination of Euphorbia characias, a deciduous insect-pollinated shrub. The observations were made in two adjacent areas (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile) in a Mediterranean cork-oak forest. In the invaded area, L. humile has replaced most of the native ants that climb up this plant's inflorescences. Five native ant species were detected in the non-invaded areas and only one in the invaded area. The number of visitors to infested inflorescences (1.54 ± 1.86 visitors/10 min observation) was lower than in non-infested inflorescences in the invaded area (3.74 ± 4.19 visitors/10'), and in the non-invaded areas (4.16 ± 5.00 visits/10'). For several species of flower-visiting insects, no differences were detected between the time spent in the flowers and the number of flowers visited in the two areas, except for Eristalis tenax, a dipteran which visited more flowers (15.2 ± 11.1 flowers visited/10') and spent more time (9.4 ± 5.8 sec) in the non-invaded area than in the invaded area (7.8 ± 8.2 flowers visited/10' and 5.3 ± 2.1 sec, respectively). The relative representation of insect orders in the two areas was not different. A significant reduction in fruit-set and seed-set was detected in the invaded area. These results suggest that the Argentine ant may greatly affect the reproductive success of components of the Mediterranean flora.

  3. Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

  4. ANALYSIS OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMIDITY SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hiromi; Matsui, Tsuyoshi

    1984-01-01

    For adequate measurement of air humidity in plant environment, characteristics of humidity sensors of ventilated psychrometer of resistance thermometers (Ps), lithium chloride relative humidity sensor (Lr), electric capacitance meter with filter (Ec), electric capacitance meter without filter (Ec-n) and absolute humidity sensor of thermistors (Ab) were examined. Static characteristics indicated that all sensors used can be applied to humidity measurement with sufficient accuracies in steady s...

  5. Humidity sensor failure: a problem that should not be neglected

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; N. Tang

    2014-01-01

    The problem of abnormally dry bias induced by radiosonde humidity sensor failure in the low and mid-troposphere is studied based on the global operational radiosonde relative humidity observations from December 2008 to November 2009. The concurrent humidity retrievals from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation mission are also used to assess the quality of the radiosonde humidity observations. It is found that extremely dry relative humidity are common in the low and mid-trop...

  6. Sedimentitas marinas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Marine sediments of the Barranca Final Formation (Middle-Upper Miocence of the Colorado Basin in south-east La Pampa province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Visconti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen sedimentitas carbonáticas, silicoclásticas y evaporíticas del Mioceno de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Sobre la base de la litología, las estructuras sedimentarias y los fósiles se identificaron siete facies y dos asociaciones de facies, correspondientes a ambientes marino somero (intermareal a supramareal y fluvial, para las secciones analizadas. Las sedimentitas marinas infrayacen a las areniscas fluviales de la Formación Río Negro y se consideran correlacionables con las sedimentitas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior, depositadas en la cuenca del Colorado durante la transgresión "Entrerriense". El hallazgo de estos niveles confirma la presencia de este mar en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa.This paper describes Miocene carbonatic, siliciclastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Basin, from southeast of La Pampa Province, Argentina. Seven facies and two facies assemblages of shallow marine (intertidal and supratidal settings and fluvial environments are inferred on the basis of lithology, sedimentary structures, and fossil content. The thin marine level underlies the fluvial sandstones of the Río Negro Formation, and is considered contemporary with the Barranca Final Formation (middle-upper Miocene, of the Colorado Basin, which is the depositional record of the "Entrerriense" transgression. The occurrence of these sedimentary rocks confirms the presence of the "Entrerriense" sea in the south-east of La Pampa Province during the Miocene.

  7. Aplicación del modelo hidrológico-swat-en una microcuenca agrícola de La Pampa ondulada Application of the hydrologic model - swat - on a micro agricultural basin of the rolling Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Behrends Kraemer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El modelado hidrológico es a menudo el primer paso en el desarrollo de sistemas de decisión espacial para identificaráreas vulnerables a la contaminación por nutrientes, pesticidas así como también a contaminantes biológicos. En este sentido el SWAT (Soil and Water Assesment Tool fue desarrollado para predecir impactos de las prácticas de manejo de las tierras en las aguas, sedimentos y agroquímicos en cuencas hidrográficas con diferentes suelos, usos y prácticas en largos períodos de tiempo. Aunque el mismo está siendo aplicado en todo el mundo, todavía no esta difundido su uso en la Argentina, no encontrándose al momento reportes al respecto. Este modelo se utilizó en una microcuenca agrícola de la Pampa Ondulada (Argentina y fue calibrado y validado utilizando los valores de escurrimientos medidos in situ. Se encontraron buenas eficiencias a escala diaria (R²: 0,55; R² ENS: 0,52 y pobres a escala mensual (R²: 0,34; R² ENS: 0,04. En la calibración, los escurrimientos fueron sobreestimados en un 31,8% y 32,6% para la escala mensual y diaria respectivamente, mientras que en la validación se sobreestimó un 42,5% para los valores mensuales y un 41,2% para los diarios. La aplicación del SWAT en esta microcuenca agrícola resultó auspiciosa y conduce a la inclusión de dicho modelo en futuros trabajos.A hydrological model is often the first step for the development of spatial decision systems in order to identify vulnerable areas to the pollution by nutrients, pesticides as well as biological contaminants. The SWAT model was developed to predict the impact of land management on water, agrochemicals and sediments in hydrographical basins with different soils, land uses and practices for long time periods. This model is being used all over the world but it has not been applied in Argentina until present. The SWAT model was used in an agricultural microbasin in the Rolling Pampa (Argentina and was calibrated and validated

  8. Lotus tenuis Seedling Establishment and Biomass Production in Flooding Pampa Grasslands (Buenos Aires , Argentina Establecimiento de Plántulas y Producción de Biomasa de Lotus tenuis en Pastizales de la Pampa Deprimida (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo R Vignolio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and plant density of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. have been reported in decreasing in grasslands and pastures. Our objective was to determine if L. tenuis biomass and plant density can be increased in grassland through seed addition. Two separated experiments under cattle grazing exclusion were conducted in three paddocks of a Flooding Pampa grassland. The first experiment was from autumn 2004 to autumn 2006 and the second from autumn 2005 to autumn 2007. Different L. tenuis seed additions (0, 57, 229, 917 and 1833 seeds m-² were broadcast into experimental plots. In the second experiment, besides seed additions there was a reseeding of approximately 900 seed m-² from seed rain produced by plants of grassland. Seed density explained the 81% and 19% of the variation in seedling density and L. tenuis biomass, respectively. Seedling emergence occurred mainly between autumn and early spring, while seedling mortality was mainly between late spring and early summer. Lotus tenuis adult plant density and biomass production increased with seed additions. Total biomass production in the plant community varied between 589.94 ± 26.89 and 1042.44 ± 54.39 g m-² yr-1 and the differences were principally attributed to precipitations. Lotus tenuis biomass contribution was of approximately 10%. The results suggest that L. tenuis seedling and plant establishment and biomass production can be increased through seed addition and/or seed rain through grazing exclusion during reproductive period.En pastizales y pasturas ha sido documentada la reducción de la densidad de plantas y de la biomasa de Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si su densidad de plantas y su producción de biomasa pueden ser incrementadas en un pastizal mediante la adición de semillas. Dos experimentos sin pastoreo fueron realizados en tres potreros de un pastizal de la Pampa Deprimida. El primer experimento fue realizado entre otoño 2004

  9. The Effects of Salinity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio on the Water Retention and Hydraulic Conductivity Curves of Soils From The Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M. S.; Munoz, J.; Suarez, F. I.; Fierro, V.; Moreno, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa del Tamarugal is located in the Atacama Desert, the most arid desert of the world. It has important reserves of groundwater, which are probably fed by infiltration coming from the Andes Mountain, with groundwater levels fluctuating between 3 and 10-70 m below the land surface. In zones where shallow groundwater exists, the capillary rise allows to have a permanently moist vadose zone, which sustain native vegetation such as the Tamarugos (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) and Algarrobos (Prosopis alba Griseb.). The native vegetation relies on the soil moisture and on the evaporative fluxes, which are controlled by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils. The soils associated to the salt flats of the Pampa del Tamarugal are a mixture of sands and clays, which have high levels of sulfates, chloride, carbonates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, with high pH and electrical conductivity, and low organic matter and cationic exchange capacity. In this research, we are interested in evaluating the impact of salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soil, i.e., water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Soils were collected from the Pampa del Tamarugal and brought to the laboratory for characterization. The evaporation method (HYPROP, UMS) was used to determine the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity curve was estimated combining the evaporation method with direct measurements using a variable head permeameter (KSAT, UMS). It was found that higher sodium concentrations increase the water retention capacity and decrease the soiĺs hydraulic conductivity. These changes occur in the moist range of the hydrodynamic characteristics. The soil's hydraulic properties have significant impact on evaporation fluxes, which is the mayor component of the water balance. Thus, it is important to quantify them and incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution effect on the hydrodynamic properties to correctly

  10. Energy saving systems in hot humid climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjilambi, A.; D'Aquilo, A.; Rodenberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. The aim of this manual is the description and comparison of several systems and strategies for cooling buildings in hot humid climates. To cool down a building you need to move the energy from a space or fro

  11. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  12. Agricultural producers, undulated pampa and edaphic problems. A study of case in the Buenos Aires north-east Productores agropecuarios, pampa ondulada y problemáticas edáficas. Un estudio de caso en el noreste bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tsakoumagkos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Social, economic and production diversity of agriculturalization is evident in the various types of producers of the Wet Pampa. Agriculturalization is associated with changes in land quality, socio-productive structure, applied production strategies and forms of soil usage. Often arises, however, that the problems associated with that agriculturization, are the result of the implementation of relatively uniform technological packages, regardless of the different types of producers are carried out. Our hypothesis is, however, that deterioration in Argiudolls typical Pampas is the result, given different positions of the relief, complex combinations of various production strategies adopted by different types of producers. We worked in the locality of Luján. We typified producers by taking into consideration their capitalization levels (capitalized and non-capitalized and work organization (family, non-family. We defined five production strategies (4 agricultural strategies: one or two crops a year, no-till or conventional tillage; and 1 livestock production strategy and two environments (hill and low land. Based on the municipal land registry, we surveyed a statistically representative stratified sample by location and plot size. A sampling allowed us to analyze the following parameters: horizon depth, apparent density, organic matter, acidity, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. We calculated the content of organic matter and nitrogen by hectare, and the relative deterioration. We carried out a hypothesis test of comparison of mean values, test F and test t, and finally calculated the relative deteriorations. We used the organic matter content by hectare as indicator, due to its higher sensitivity towards changes in soil conditions. According to two of our main findings, firstly, when sowing in hill with no-till technique, all types of producers evidenced the lowest relative deterioration values, except for non capitalized family producers who

  13. Ambient humidity and the skin: the impact of air humidity in healthy and diseased states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, N; Gawkrodger, D J

    2016-08-01

    Humidity, along with other climatic factors such as temperature and ultraviolet radiation, can have an important impact on the skin. Limited data suggest that external humidity influences the water content of the stratum corneum. An online literature search was conducted through Pub-Med using combinations of the following keywords: skin, skin disease, humidity, dermatoses, dermatitis, eczema, and mist. Publications included in this review were limited to (i) studies in humans or animals, (ii) publications showing relevance to the field of dermatology, (iii) studies published in English and (iv) publications discussing humidity as an independent influence on skin function. Studies examining environmental factors as composite influences on skin health are only included where the impact of humidity on the skin is also explored in isolation of other environmental factors. A formal systematic review was not feasible for this topic due to the heterogeneity of the available research. Epidemiological studies indicated an increase in eczema with low internal (indoors) humidity and an increase in eczema with external high humidity. Other studies suggest that symptoms of dry skin appear with low humidity internal air-conditioned environments. Murine studies determined that low humidity caused a number of changes in the skin, including the impairment of the desquamation process. Studies in humans demonstrated a reduction in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (a measure of the integrity of the skin's barrier function) with low humidity, alterations in the water content in the stratum corneum, decreased skin elasticity and increased roughness. Intervention with a humidifying mist increased the water content of the stratum corneum. Conversely, there is some evidence that low humidity conditions can actually improve the barrier function of the skin. Ambient relative humidity has an impact on a range of parameters involved in skin health but the literature is inconclusive. Further

  14. For an ecology of scientific work: science, politics and the case of streams Pampa and Luiz Rau in Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, M; Pedde, V; Figueiredo, J A S

    2015-12-01

    If, like Weber writes, every knowledge is objective in terms of evolving the interests of researchers and the agencies, in this article, we investigate that, which has been researched about two streams: Pampa and Luiz Rau. In doing so, in addition to highlighting what has caught the researchers' attention, this paper manages to point out a few gaps and fruitful fields of study which extend beyond the hard sciences. This study is, therefore, characterized as an essay review paper that sets out to use anthropology of science to think about the limitations and advances the studies about the two streams have achieved, as well as their social impact.

  15. Cuantificación de biomasa y carbono en bosques nativos de Prosopis caldenia (Burkart) en la Pampa semiárida, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Risio Allione, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Los bosques del sur-oeste de la pampa Argentina están dominados por caldén (Prosopis caldenia). En la actualidad resta el 18 % de su superficie original. Existen iniciativas que reconocen a los bosques su rol de oferentes de servicios ambientales pero para alcanzar esta recompensa económica es necesario cuantificar la cantidad de carbono almacenado en ellos. En este trabajo se desarrolló un modelo de estimación de biomasa para caldén a partir de 38 árboles apeados y seccionados. Se ajustó un ...

  16. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR), PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA; Agnolín, Federico L.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior), procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable a...

  17. Mémoire d’un saccage. Argentine, le hold-up du siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Welter

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Memoria del saqueo – la oscura trama de la corrupcion Documentaire argentin de Fernando SOLANAS, 2004, 120mn. Sortie de la dictature, l’Argentine ne pensait jamais connaître une nouvelle fois le cauchemar d’un désastre social. Ce pays, naguère le plus riche d’Amérique du Sud, a en effet tout tenté pour s’éloigner des régimes autoritaires conduisant à l’asservissement du peuple. Tout tenté, même l’extrême opposé, l’ultralibéralisme. En revenant sur ces années d’une politique en apparence ouver...

  18. Nestor Kirchner (2003-2007) : rupture ou continuite du peronisme ? Les mutations du populisme en Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Doz, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Ce texte est un extrait du quatrième chapitre de la thèse « Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007) : Rupture ou continuité du péronisme. Les mutations du populisme en Argentine ». Le 25 mai 2003, le peuple argentin assistait à l’investiture présidentielle du candidat du Frente Para la Victoria, Néstor Kirchner. Suite à la défection de Carlos Menem pendant l’entre-deux tours, il est élu avec 22% des suffrages. Malgré cette faible légitimité, il réussit à insuffler un changement certain dans la politique ...

  19. Motives for inter-firm cooperation on R&D and innovation: empirical evidence from Argentine and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Schachter, Mónica; Anlló, Guillermo; Castro-Martínez, Elena; Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Mabel; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Motives and determinants supporting inter-firm technological cooperation have been extensively investigated in developed countries but scarcely addressed in developing countries. This paper addresses these issues, investigating empirically several factors influencing the likelihood to cooperate on R&D and innovation between Argentine and Spanish firms, their strategic motives and firms characteristics which influence cooperation. We draw upon data collected through a survey of 104 firms and c...

  20. Workers select mates for queens: a possible mechanism of gene flow restriction between supercolonies of the invasive Argentine ant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Eiriki; Hoshizaki, Sugihiko; Sakamoto, Hironori; Fujii, Takeshi; Nishisue, Koji; Suzuki, Shun; Terayama, Mamoru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro

    2011-05-01

    Some invasive ants form large networks of mutually non-aggressive nests, i.e., supercolonies. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile forms much larger supercolonies in introduced ranges than in its native range. In both cases, it has been shown that little gene flow occurs between supercolonies of this species, though the mechanism of gene flow restriction is unknown. In this species, queens do not undertake nuptial flight, and males have to travel to foreign nests and cope with workers before gaining access to alien queens. In this study, we hypothesized that male Argentine ants receive interference from workers of alien supercolonies. To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral and chemical experiments using ants from two supercolonies in Japan. Workers attacked males from alien supercolonies but not those from their own supercolonies. The level of aggression against alien males was similar to that against alien workers. The frequency of severe aggression against alien males increased as the number of recipient workers increased. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, which serve as cues for nestmate recognition, of workers and males from the same supercolony were very similar. Workers are likely to distinguish alien males from males of their own supercolony using the profiles. It is predicted that males are subject to considerable aggression from workers when they intrude into the nests of alien supercolonies. This may be a mechanism underlying the restricted gene flow between supercolonies of Argentine ants. The Argentine ant may possess a distinctive reproductive system, where workers participate in selecting mates for their queens. We argue that the aggression of workers against alien males is a novel form of reproductive interference.

  1. Communication of 31 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 31 March 2000 from the Resident Representative of the Argentine Republic, including as attachment the declaration of the Advisory and Political Harmonisation Forum of MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay), Bolivia and Chile, issued on 27 March 2000, with regard to the 30th Anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  2. Moderls of Internationzation of Two Argentine Pharmaceutical Companies in Historical Perspective: The Cases of Bagó and Sidus

    OpenAIRE

    Campins, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization is not a simple decision but rather a complex strategy that requires the presence of tangible and intangible resources that, in the case of a family firm, call for careful analysis. To understand this process, the present study reconstructs the historical trajectories of two important Argentine laboratories, Bagó and Sidus, in historical perspective, using the stage approach of the Uppsala school (U-model) and the perspective of resources and capacities (resource-based vi...

  3. Molina’s Touch and Dorda’s Music: The Schizophrenia of Gender in Post-dictatorial Argentine Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaumik, Munia

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyze the “woman question” in relation to tropes of schizophrenia in post-dictatorial queer Argentine fiction. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guttari’s claim in Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia states: “schizoanalysis must devote itself with all its strength to the necessary destructions….. Destroying beliefs and representations, theatrical scenes. And when engaged in this task no activity will be too malevolent.” Similarly, Manuel Puig’s El Beso de la mujer ...

  4. Samosprávné podniky v Argentině jako sociální hnutí

    OpenAIRE

    Virtová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to elaborate a case study of self-managed factories, which has been emerging in Argentina after the economic crisis in 2001. Mainly the conflictive origin, organization, role of the state and the dynamics of the movement of self-managed factories is discussed. This paper is based on European tradition of social movements' analysis and seeks to characterize movement of Argentine self-managed factories as so called old or new social movement. This dividing line will ultimately ...

  5. Very long pahoehoe inflated basaltic lava flows in the Payenia volcanic province (Mendoza and la Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pasquarè

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremely long basaltic lava flows are here presented and described. The flows originated from the great, polygenetic, fissural Payen Volcanic Complex, in the Andean back-arc volcanic province of Payenia in Argentina. The lava flows outpoured during the Late Quaternary from the summit rift of a shield volcano representing the first volcanic centre of this complex. One of these flows presents an individual tongue-like shape with a length of 181 km and therefore is the longest known individual Quaternary lava flow on Earth. Leaving the flanks of the volcano this flow reached the Salado river valley at La Pampa and, in its distal portion, maintained its narrow and straight shape without any topographic control over a flat alluvial plain. It has a hawaiite composition with low phenocryst content of prevailing olivine and minor plagioclase. Rare Earth element patterns are typical of Na-alkaline basalts, but incompatible trace element patterns and Sr -Nd isotope ratios, suggest a geodynamic setting transitional to the orogenic one. The flow advanced following the thermally efficient "inflation" mechanism, as demonstrated by a peculiar association of well developed morphological, structural and textural features. The temperature of 1130-1160°C and the viscosity of 3-73 Pa*s, calculated by petrochemical data, may be considered, together with a very low cooling rate and a sustained and long lasting effusion rate, the main causes of the extremely long transport system of this flow. Both the extreme length of the flow and the partial lack of topographic control may provide new constraints on the physics of large inflated flows, which constitute the largest volcanic provinces on Earth and probably also on the terrestrial planets.

  6. Efecto del gradiente altitudinal sobre la vegetación de las sierras de Lihue Calel (La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B. Mazzola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Las Sierras de Lihue Calel constituyen un sistema serrano de escasa altitud ubicado en el sudeste de la provincia del Monte. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar las variaciones espaciales y temporales del microhábitat, asociadas con la topografía e identificar el efecto que estas tienen sobre la distribución de las especies vegetales. Se establecieron transectas de exposición norte y sur y se caracterizó el ambiente de las mismas a lo largo del gradiente altitudinal. Se midieron temperatura, viento, radiación, propiedades edáficas y la abundancia-cobertura de las plantas vasculares. La ladera norte recibe mayor radiación y es más cálida y rocosa que la ladera sur. Factores ligados a la exposición y elevación como la temperatura, humedad, pH del suelo y la rocosidad explicaron el 64% de la variación ambiental en las laderas. La composición florística siguió un patrón de tolerancia a la sequía y disponibilidad de luz, donde las especies C4 y CAM dominaron en la ladera norte más cálida y las C3 en la sur más sombreada y fresca. Nuestras observaciones reconocen la importancia de los cambios topográficos en los factores ambientales y su efecto sobre la distribución de las especies en los sistemas serranos de poca altitud.Efect of the altitudinal gradient on the vegetation of Lihue Calel sierras (La Pampa, Argentina

  7. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (Tyto alba nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (Tyto alba è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a Prosopis caldenia. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi Calomys sp., Akodon molinae and Eligmodontia typus, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  8. Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation in native Prosopis caldenia Burkart secondaries woodlands in the semi-arid Argentinean pampas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The woodlands in the south-west of the Argentinean pampas are dominated by Prosopis Caldenia Burkart (calden). The current deforestation rate of this woodlands is 0.82% per year. Different compensation initiatives have begun that recognize the role of forests as environmental service providers. The financial incentives they offer make it necessary to quantify the amount of carbon stored in the forest biomass. A model for estimating calden biomass was developed. Thirty-eight trees were selected, felled and divided into sections. An equation system was fitted using joint generalized regression to ensure the additivity property. A weighted regression was used to avoid heteroscedasticity. In these woodlands fire is the main disturbance and it can modify tree allometry, due this all models included the area of the base of the stem and tree height as independent variables since it indirectly collects this variability. Total biomass and the stem fraction had the highest R2Adj. values (0.75), while branches with a diameter less than 7 cm had the lowest (0.58). Tree biomass was also analyzed by partitioning into the basic fractions of stem, crown, roots, and the root/shoot ratio. Biomass allocation was greatest in the crown fraction and the mean root/shoot ratio was 0.58. The carbon stock of the caldenales considering only calden tree biomass is 20.2 Mg ha−1. While the overall carbon balance of the region is negative (deforestation and biomass burning, the remnant forested area has increased their calden density and in an indirect way his carbon sequestration capacity could also be increased. - Highlights: • A model for estimating aboveground and belowground Prosopis caldenia biomass was developed. • Biomass allocation into the tree and the root/shoot ratio were analyzed. • The equation systems presented had made it possible to more accurately estimate the biomass stored in calden woodlands

  9. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  10. Perpetuating Social Movements amid Declining Opportunity: The Survival Strategies of Two Argentine Piquetero Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Epstein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the recent behaviour in Argentina of two national protest groups of socalled ‘piqueteros’ or picketers (impoverished unemployed individuals who used the blockage of strategic roads and bridges to force government concessions that emerged politically in the buildup to the crisis of 2001-2002. Using theoretical concepts developed by McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly in understanding social movements, the author analyses what he calls the ‘survival strategy’ adopted by their leaders as the political opportunities that produced their initial growth gave way to a more hostile environment with the normalization of Argentine politics under the Kirchner administration. While the two piquetero groups studied differ considerably in terms of their politics and ideology, both ended up depending on the same traditional tactic of utilizing important government contacts to obtain the resources necessary for organizational maintenance, despite their nominal identity as radical protesters against the present political system.Resumen: Perpetuando movimientos sociales y oportunidades decrecientes: las estrategias de sobrevivencia de dos grupos de piqueteros argentinesEste artículo examina el comportamiento reciente de dos grupos nacionales de protesta argentinos llamados ‘piqueteros’ (desempleados empobrecidos que usaron el bloqueo de calles y puentes estratégicos para forzar concesiones gubernamentales que aparecieron durante la crisis de 2001- 2002. Utilizando conceptos teóricos creados por McAdam, Tarrow, y Tilly en su discusión sobre los movimientos sociales, el autor analiza lo que describe como ‘estrategias de sobrevivencia’ adoptadas por sus dirigentes cuando las oportunidades que ocasionaron su crecimiento inicial cedieron ante un ambiente más hostil en el contexto de la normalización de la política argentina durante la administración de Kirchner. Aunque los dos grupos piqueteros estudiados se diferencian mucho en t

  11. An independent test of thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow beneath the Argentine Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohertz, Warren L.; Carlson, Richard L.

    1998-09-01

    We have used primary precision depth recorder and single channel seismic data from three cruises of the R/V Conrad to test thermal subsidence and asthenosphere flow models for seafloor depth versus age in the Argentine Basin in the western South Atlantic. We found a region in the west central part of the basin where anomalously shallow depths, that can not be explained by any simple thermal or dynamic model, are associated with a local free-air gravity anomaly. Elsewhere, over ages ranging from 1 to 104 Ma, there is no evidence of the "flattening" of the depth/age trend that is characteristic of the plate cooling model for the thermal subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere. The halfspace thermal subsidence model accounts for nearly 98% of the variance of seafloor depth, but the slope, b=425±10 m Ma -1/2, implies improbably high mantle temperatures and/or low mantle densities. Moreover, there is some systematic misfit between the data and the halfspace model. A thermal subsidence model in which initial conditions vary with age accounts for the misfit, but also requires an implausible variation of mantle temperature and/or density. Alternatively, a model that includes the effect of induced flow in the asthenosphere eliminates the misfit and yields a reasonable rate of thermal subsidence b=330±20 m Ma -1/2. That the mantle temperature ( Tm˜1150±70)°C implied by the subsidence rate is slightly lower than normal is consistent with the hypothesis that this region has not been affected by hot spots or mantle plumes. The viscosity of the asthenosphere derived from the model (3-4 × 10 19 Pa s) is high, but consistent with viscosities estimated from plate dynamics models when the low mantle temperature is taken into account. Finally, the PMS flow model is consistent with measured heat flow in the region. These results lend weight to the hypothesis that the bathymetry of the Argentine Basin is influenced by induced flow in the asthenosphere, as well as by halfspace

  12. So far away, yet so close: strong genetic structure in Homonota uruguayensis (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae, a species with restricted geographic distribution in the Brazilian and Uruguayan Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F Felappi

    Full Text Available The Pampas is a biologically rich South American biome, but is poorly represented in phylogeographic studies. While the Pleistocene glacial cycles may have affected the evolutionary history of species distributed in forested biomes, little is known about their effects on the habitats that remained stable through glacial cycles. The South American Pampas have been covered by grasslands during both glacial and interglacial periods and therefore represent an interesting system to test whether the genetic structure in such environments is less pronounced. In this study, we sampled Pampean populations of Homonota uruguayensis from Southern Brazil and Uruguay to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence, using both morphological measurements and molecular markers. Our results indicate that, in spite of its narrow geographic distribution, populations of H. uruguayensis show high levels of genetic structure. We found four major well-supported mtDNA clades with strong geographic associations. Estimates of their divergence times fell between 3.16 and 1.82 million years before the present. Populations from the central portion of the species distribution, on the border between Uruguay and Brazil, have high genetic diversity and may have undergone a population expansion approximately 250,000 years before the present. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of morphological characters, and most individuals could be correctly assigned to their parental population based on morphology alone. Finally, we discuss the biogeographic and conservation implications of these findings.

  13. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  14. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIELE P. MARAGNO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  15. A survey of a pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster (Arctiodactyla, Cervidae, population in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, using the distance sampling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás, W. M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer is an endangered South American species which occurs in open grasslands and savannas. This aim of this survey was to evaluate the use of the distance sampling technique to estimate densities of the species in the Pantanal wetland, as well as to analyze the applicability of the method for a monitoring program. The surveys were conducted on roads from vehicles and also on foot along 26 parallel transects in November 1999 and 2000 at Campo Dora ranch, south-central Pantanal, Brazil. Deer densities were estimated using the program DISTANCE, and the program MONITOR was used to run a power analysis to estimate the probability of detection of a decline in the population. The deer density estimated from vehicles, with data from both years, was 9.81±3.8 individual/km2, and 5.53±0.68 individuals/km2 from transects sampled on foot. The power analysis of these data revealed a monitoring program would require at least two surveys per year over seven years to obtain a 90% chance of detecting a 5% decline in the population. Our results also indicate surveys from roads are not recommended for pampas deer counts as the animals appear to keep a relatively safe distance from cars.

  16. Calibration of Relative Humidity Sensors using a Dew Point Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Milo

    2010-01-01

    A relative humidity sensor can be calibrated using a dew point generator to continuously supply an air stream of known constant humidity and a temperature chamber to control the dew point and ambient temperature.

  17. Preliminary Study on Smart Humidity Sensor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mečņika, V; Schwarz, A.; Krieviņš, I

    2013-01-01

    Determination of relative and absolute humidity is essential for industrious, in-home, healthcare and a number of other applications. Although there is a large variety of a different type of commercial sensors, some specific applications might require solutions that flexible, cover large-areas, relatively low-cost and simple in production. Smart textiles and sensing properties may provide solutions for areas facing challenging requirements, whether bring improvement to some aspects in constru...

  18. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  19. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  20. Humidity Sensitive Properties of a Silicone-containing Polyelectrolyte Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jie YANG; Zong Wu YAO; You Si CHEN; Yang LI

    2006-01-01

    Resistive-type film humidity sensors were prepared with a silicone-containing polyelectrolyte (Si-PE) and their humidity sensitive properties have been investigated. The sensors so obtained show high sensitivity to humidity variation over a wide range of RH (20-96%).In addition, they exhibit high reversibility, quick response and well long-term stability.

  1. Fibre-optic sensor technologies for humidity and moisture measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, T. L.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K.T.V.

    2008-01-01

    A review of the use of fibre-optic sensor technologies for humidity sensing is presented. The paper first provides a brief overview on the basic concept of what is meant by humidity and on conventional detection methods. This is followed by an extensive review on the various fibre-optic techniques reported for humidity sensing, covering both intrinsic and extrinsic sensor configurations.

  2. A Standard CMOS Humidity Sensor without Post-Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Nizhnik; Kazusuke Maenaka; Kohei Higuchi

    2011-01-01

    A 2 µW power dissipation, voltage-output, humidity sensor accurate to 5% relative humidity was developed using the LFoundry 0.15 µm CMOS technology without post-processing. The sensor consists of a woven lateral array of electrodes implemented in CMOS top metal, a Intervia Photodielectric 8023-10 humidity-sensitive layer, and a CMOS capacitance to voltage converter.

  3. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F....

  5. Les intellectuels espagnols exilés dans l'Argentine peroniste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bonardi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El gobierno argentino del general Perón reveló ser un verdadero chaleco salvavidas para la dictadura española. Esta política de cooperación provoca una viva oposición en Argentina. Este trabajo propone un análisis de las reacciones de los intelectuales españoles exiliados en Argentina. Observaremos de que manera los intelectuales españoles lucharon contra la dictadura franquista durante el idilio hispano-argentino y analizaremos el “modus operandi” adoptado por el gobierno peronista para obstaculizar las actividades anti-franquistas en el exilio.__________________ABSTRACT:The Argentine government of general Perón becomes an authentic life jacket for the Spanish dictatorship. This policy of cooperation triggers ample dispproval in Argentina. We propose an analysis of the reactions of the spanish intellectuals exiled in Argentina. We will see how the Spanish intellectuals fight against the Franco dictatorship during the honeymoon Hispanic-Argentinean. Also we will analyze the modus operandi adopted by the Peronist government to prevent the antifrancoist activities of the exiliados.

  6. Lithologic identification and characterization using ETM+ (Landsat 7. Study case of the Upsala glacier basin, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lo Vecchio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study aims to evaluate and analyze digital image processing techniques applied to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+, in order to demark and characterize the outcropping lithologies on the Upsala Glacier basin, Santa Cruz, Argentine Republic. The prolific technological and spatial development experienced in the last decades has given place to the generation, without precedents, of multiple remote sensors capable of capturing information of the terrestrial surface and also the improvement of digital image processing techniques and software; amongst them, the amazing possibilities in the detection and differentiation of diverse covers present on the terrestrial surface can be highlighted, such as glaciers, volcanoes, vegetation, soils, water, types of rock outcrops, etc. This situation improves mapping and monitoring of natural phenomenon in the Earth Sciences field. The proposed methodology includes radiometric corrections, elimination of unwanted covers, statistical evaluation in the combination of the most appropriate bands, application of the Z index, discretization of the statistical series, entailing tasks of spectral classification with field samples and a later validation. Valuable results were obtained by means of digital processing of images, that were validated yielding a 82% of accuracy in the proposed classification, which are good results taking into account the diversity of covers present and the lithological heterogeneity that makes up each pixel (30m. These results were also validated with existing geological maps, obtaining a good agreement.

  7. Screening of FSH receptor gene in Argentine women with premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Victoria; Chiauzzi, Violeta A; Escobar, Maria Eugenia; Dain, Liliana; Charreau, Eduardo H

    2004-07-30

    Diverse mutations in FSH-receptor (FSHR) gene have been described as possible cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). To investigate the presence of mutations and/or polymorphisms in FSHR gene, DNA from 20 POF, 5 of which were diagnosed as resistant ovary syndrome (ROS), and from 44 controls was isolated from peripheral lymphocytes. The complete coding sequence was analysed by PCR followed by SSCP, direct sequencing or restriction enzyme analysis. No mutations in FSHR gene were identified in the patients studied. The two already described polymorphisms in exon 10, A919G and A2039G, cosegregated in all the homozygous individuals, indicating that FSHR presents two isoforms: Ala307-Ser680 and Thr307-Asn680. OR results suggest that the 919G-2039G allelic variant or the homozygous genotype is not associated to disease risk. In addition, a heterozygous substitution T1022C (Val341Ala) was found in two control subjects. We suggest that mutations in FSHR gene are rare in women with POF in Argentine. Presence of a particular FSHR isoform does not appear to be associated with this disease.

  8. Training and the personnel accreditation of regulatory functions in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaching and the training are indispensable for the development of the human resources in all disciplines and occupations of the man in the world scale. About the applications of the radionuclides in the nuclear industry, in Argentina, during the last years, the efforts have been intensified. The necessity of improving the capacity of answer in radiation protection and nuclear safety demands an focus integrated in the teaching and the training. The radiological protection and the nuclear safety presents elements of the applied physics, the chemistry, the biology, the nuclear technology and other specialized subjects. However, in relation with the development of the human resources, specially those that belong to regulatory bodies and perform inspection functions, have important differences, necessities and specific problems. Some differences and problems emerge of the wide diversity and reach of the radiological and nuclear applications. Nowadays, in the world, the applications of the radiation and radioactive sources are being diversified in the medicine (diagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, the industry, the agricultures, and the investigation and teaching), that involve a permanent knowledge and actualization of the personnel of the regulatory bodies. For that exposed this work describe training program for the personnel with regulatory functions (inspectors) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the Argentine Republic. Also, this document includes the description of the basic formation and specialized in each case and it reach. (author)

  9. Reflections on the development of local suppliers for the Argentine nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has given recently a new start to its nuclear power activities. Looking for background and experiences that can be useful under the new reality, the paper is a survey of the past development of local suppliers for the national nuclear industry. Based on the intention to answer the questions: Why so early it was decided to build a nuclear power plant? Why it was decided to buy it under a turnkey basis rather than developing an indigenous design? and what was the meaning of the 'opening of the technology package' at that time?, the paper describes the actions that led to the purchase of the Atucha I, Embalse and Atucha II nuclear power plants and how these decisions were implemented in order to maximize local participation and the technology transfer. It also analyzes the influence of the Argentine Nuclear Plan of the late seventies on the development of endogenous technology and describes the facts that helped to preserve until now the technological nuclear capabilities of the country in spite of the stopping of the Atucha II construction, and to create positive expectations regarding the revival of the local industry as a supplier of nuclear goods and services. (author)

  10. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Irigoitia, M M; Holzer, A S; Timi, J T

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach. Three myxozoan species were recorded: Kudoa rosenbuschi, Myxoproteus meridionalis and Fabespora sp. Results of modelling species individually showed differential capabilities for detecting geographical population structure at different spatial scales, with K. rosenbuschi and Fabespora sp. allowing the discrimination of northern and southern stocks, but Fabespora sp. also as a promissory indicator of intrapopulation sub-structure due to different migratory routes during non-reproductive periods. This work confirms that myxozoans offer a set of suitable markers at different spatial scales, which can be selected individually or in any combination, depending on the geographical extent of the study, constituting tools adaptable to the objectives of further research on fish population structure.

  11. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Merín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL. This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

  12. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  13. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  14. Argentine activities related to the development of low enriched fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the RERTR Program and supported by the technical cooperation work agreed upon between the USA and Argentina in May 1979, the CNEA Nuclear Fuel Department - Low Enriched Fuel Elements Project (ECBE Project) has carried on its own program for developing fuels with low enrichment for research and test reactors. Up to the present, its main objective has been to replace the highly enriched fuel used in its only reactor (RA-3) for research, development and radioisotopes production. The basic stages of the Argentine Program are shown. The densities reached were within the range of 3.12 to 3.58 g/cm3 for U3O8-Al, 2.99 to 3.09 g/cm3 for UAl2-Al and 5.18 to 6.10 g/cm3 for U3Si-Al. If further miniplates can be irradiated, it is the purpose of the program to research uranium densities of 3.5 g/cm3 in UAl2-Al and 6.5 g/cm3 in U3Si-Al

  15. Magnetic and Moessbauer Studies of Quaternary Argentine Loessic Soils and Paleosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, R. C., E-mail: mercader@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Sives, F. R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Vandenberghe, R. E. [Ghent University, NUMAT, Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics (Belgium)

    2005-02-15

    This paper is a review of the current status about the remaining problems that are found in the investigation of the Quaternary Argentine soils and loessic sediments, and the way that Moessbauer studies can assist in solving them. There are two main types of investigations that make use of the magnetic response of the samples to correlate them with information gathered by other methods. On the one hand, there is the stratigraphic and chronological research, which is of importance from the geological and paleontological points of view. On the other hand, the paleoclimatic records, of significance toward a possible model of the past climate, are also studied because of their close relation to the sediments history. However, there is not yet a model that can tell the difference between the modifications due to the climatic conditions at the time when the soils were buried from processes that occurred after burial. Some examples are given that show that Moessbauer studies can be applied with a certain degree of success when cross-checked with magnetic measurements toward understanding the processes that occurred in alluvial B (paleosols) and C horizons (loess) from the eastern part of Buenos Aires Province. Although the application of Moessbauer studies to hydromorphic processes in soils is not straightforward, there are cases in which Moessbauer spectroscopy, if applied properly and correlated with other techniques, is able to characterize the type of iron oxides existing in the materials and thus assist theories about its origin and history.

  16. Chemical defense by the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis against the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R Sorrells

    Full Text Available The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is established worldwide and displaces native ant species. In northern California, however, the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis persists in invaded areas. We found that in aggressive interactions between the two species, P. imparis employs a potent defensive secretion. Field observations were conducted at P. imparis nest sites both in the presence and absence of L. humile. These observations suggested and laboratory assays confirmed that P. imparis workers are more likely to secrete when outnumbered by L. humile. Workers of P. imparis were also more likely to secrete near their nest entrances than when foraging on trees. One-on-one laboratory trials showed that the P. imparis secretion is highly lethal to L. humile, causing 79% mortality. The nonpolar fraction of the secretion was chemically analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and found to be composed of long-chain and cyclic hydrocarbons. Chemical analysis of dissected P. imparis workers showed that the nonpolar fraction is derived from the Dufour's gland. Based on these conclusions, we hypothesize that this chemical defense may help P. imparis to resist displacement by L. humile.

  17. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    (3.5 and 3.3 Mg ha-1 corresponding to 31Y and 80Y, respectively). The lower loss of carbon in 80Y compared to 30Y can be explained by the accumulation of stable SOC fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

  18. Pollen deposition in tauber traps and surface soil samples in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, pampa grasslands (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Latorre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of airborne pollen loadings deposited in Tauber traps were studied in a coastal lagoon from south-eastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina, in order to assess their relationship with surface samples and to interpret the representativeness of local, regional and extraregional vegetation. Three different environments were considered: a coastal dune barrier with a psammophytic community, a salt marsh with a halophytic community in Mar Chiquita lagoon, and a freshwater community at Hinojales freshwater lake. Based on a record of surface samples taken from a previous paper, a parametric model was built to classify Tauber samples gathered from the natural vegetation communities of the study area. Results revealed that just like their surface counterparts, Tauber trap records qualitatively reflect the predominant vegetation types, although ecological groups feature different quantitative representations depending on the record type. Pollen loadings showed that airborne pollen transport was predominantly of local range, in accordance with previous results from the same study area. Airborne - surface samples relationships enrich our knowledge of the present environment that could be useful to improve paleoecological interpretations of the area.Se estimó el depósito polínico atmosférico de trampas Tauber en una laguna costera del sudeste de la estepa pampeana argentina, con el objetivo de analizar su relación con muestras de polen superficial e interpretar la representatividad de la vegetación local, regional y extraregional. Se consideraron tres ambientes diferentes: una barrera costera de dunas con vegetación psamofítica, la marisma de la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, con vegetación halofítica, y la laguna continental Hinojales, con vegetación hidrofítica. En base a las muestras de superficie y análisis de un trabajo previo, se construyó un modelo paramétrico para clasificar las muestras Tauber tomadas en la vegetación natural del

  19. Contracción de agregados de Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada diferenciados en su mineralogía de arcillas Shrinkage of soil aggregates from rolling Pampa Argiudolls differentiated by their clay mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guillermo Castiglioni

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La contracción y expansión del suelo afecta su comportamiento físico y químico. Mc Garry & Malafant desarrollaron un modelo en el que se separan tres zonas de contracción y a través del cual es posible estimar parámetros que tienen significado físico, siendo estos de utilidad para diferenciar a distintos suelos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar que propiedades y características de algunos Argiudoles de la Pampa Ondulada, diferenciados en su mineralogía de arcillas, influyen en los parámetros del modelo de expansión-contracción de Mc Garry & Malafant. Con la finalidad de determinar el cambio de volumen específico del suelo, a partir de variaciones en su contenido hídrico, se utilizaron agregados de distintos horizontes de tres suelos no disturbados. Se hicieron análisis de correlación entre los parámetros estimados del modelo de tres líneas con diferentes propiedades y características de los suelos analizados. El distinto comportamiento en el cambio de volumen de los horizontes argílicos con mineralogías contrastantes, fue principalmente a bajos contenidos de agua, mientras que el contenido de arcilla incidió sobre la pendiente de la zona normal de contracción y sobre algunos parámetros del modelo que se estiman a altos contenidos de agua edáfica. Independientemente del tipo de arcilla presente, el punto de entrada de aire de los horizontes argílicos fue registrado a contenidos de agua difíciles de ser hallados a campo. En los horizontes BC y C la acción conjunta de la CIC y del contenido de arcilla mostró una mejor correlación con la pendiente de la zona residual de contracción, respecto al efecto de estos dos parámetros tomados en forma separada. En los horizontes A y BA la CIC resultó ser el mejor estimador de la pendiente residual de contracción. Analizando en forma conjunta el comportamiento de los horizontes A, BA, BC y C, la humedad equivalente y la densidad de partícula fueron las

  20. Very long pahoehoe inflated basaltic lava flows in the Payenia volcanic province (Mendoza and la Pampa, Argentina Flujos de lava basáltica pahoehoe muy extendidos en la provincia volcánica Payenia (Mendoza y La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pasquarè

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extremely long basaltic lava flows are here presented and described. The flows originated from the great, polygenetic, fissural Payen Volcanic Complex, in the Andean back-arc volcanic province of Payenia in Argentina. The lava flows outpoured during the Late Quaternary from the summit rift of a shield volcano representing the first volcanic centre of this complex. One of these flows presents an individual tongue-like shape with a length of 181 km and therefore is the longest known individual Quaternary lava flow on Earth. Leaving the flanks of the volcano this flow reached the Salado river valley at La Pampa and, in its distal portion, maintained its narrow and straight shape without any topographic control over a flat alluvial plain. It has a hawaiite composition with low phenocryst content of prevailing olivine and minor plagioclase. Rare Earth element patterns are typical of Na-alkaline basalts, but incompatible trace element patterns and Sr -Nd isotope ratios, suggest a geodynamic setting transitional to the orogenic one. The flow advanced following the thermally efficient "inflation" mechanism, as demonstrated by a peculiar association of well developed morphological, structural and textural features. The temperature of 1130-1160°C and the viscosity of 3-73 Pa*s, calculated by petrochemical data, may be considered, together with a very low cooling rate and a sustained and long lasting effusion rate, the main causes of the extremely long transport system of this flow. Both the extreme length of the flow and the partial lack of topographic control may provide new constraints on the physics of large inflated flows, which constitute the largest volcanic provinces on Earth and probably also on the terrestrial planets.En este trabajo se presentan y describen flujos de lava extremadamente largos. Estos flujos se originaron en el complejo volcánico fisural Payen, dentro de la provincia volcánica Payenia en el retroarco andino. Los flujos de lava

  1. Atributos del suelo y paisaje asociados a la variabilidad de rendimientos de maíz en la pampa arenosa Soil attributes associated to corn yield variability in the sandy pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Urricariet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La variabilidad espacial de las propiedades de los suelos y su asociación con la posición en el paisaje es requerida en la aplicación de tecnología manejo sitio-específico. Los rendimientos de los cultivos son altamente variables dentro de un lote como resultado de complejas interacciones entre topografía, atributos del suelo y prácticas de manejo. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: caracterizar la distribución espacial de la capacidad de agua disponible utilizando funciones de edafotransferencia e identificar los atributos de suelo asociados a la variabilidad de rendimientos de maíz a escala de lote en suelos de la Pampa Arenosa. En dos lotes de producción de maíz, se delimitaron parcelas de 8 ha y 10 ha obteniéndose a cosecha el mapa de rendimiento. Previo a la siembra del cultivo, se realizó un muestreo de suelos georreferenciado con un diseño en grilla. Se tomaron 32 muestras en el Sitio 1 (8 ha y 42 muestras en el Sitio 2 (10 ha y se determinó CO y composición granulométrica. Mediante funciones de edafotransferencia se estimó la capacidad de agua disponible (CAD. En tres perfiles representativos de los suelos presentes (Hapludol Típico, Hapludol Éntico y Hapludol Éntico, fase convexa se determinó el agua retenida a -33 kPa y -1.500 kPa, composición granulométrica y CO para seleccionar la función de edafotransferencia de mayor ajuste. Se utilizaron procedimientos geoestadísticos para el análisis de los resultados. La CAD del perfil hasta un metro de profundidad fue de 121 mm para el Hapludol Típico y 78-79 mm para ambos Hapludoles Énticos. El Sitio 1 presentó mayor variabilidad entre posiciones topográficas en el contenido de arena (40 a 81% que el Sitio 2 (43 a 73% mostrando moderada asociación espacial de los resultados. La CAD presentó asociación espacial moderada en el Sitio 1 mientras que en el Sitio 2 no se observó comportamiento espacial. En el Sitio 1 los rendimientos presentaron fuerte dependencia

  2. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-06

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  3. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  4. Sensitivity of Honeybee Hygroreceptors to Slow Humidity Changes and Temporal Humidity Variation Detected in High Resolution by Mobile Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Tichy; Wolfgang Kallina

    2014-01-01

    The moist cell and the dry cell on the antenna of the male honeybee were exposed to humidities slowly rising and falling at rates between -1.5%/s and +1.5%/s and at varying amplitudes in the 10 to 90% humidity range. The two cells respond to these slow humidity oscillations with oscillations in impulse frequency which depend not only on instantaneous humidity but also on the rate with which humidity changes. The impulse frequency of each cell was plotted as a function of these two parameters ...

  5. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Azul Pampa, Cordillera Oriental de Jujuy los depósitos cambro-ordovícicos se encuentran ampliamente representados. La columna estratigráfica se inicia con el Grupo Mesón (Cambrico Inferior - Medio, el cual registra sedimentación en un ambiente marino somero dominado por mareas. Este incluye las Formaciones Lizoite, Campanario y Chalhualmayoc. Las Formaciones Lizoite y Chalhualmayoc contienen depósitos de barras submareales similares a aquellas descriptas anteriormente hacia el sur en la región de la quebrada de Humahuaca y en las áreas circundantes. La Formación Campanario incluye depósitos de canales y planicies intermareales, representando un máximo regresivo para el Grupo Mesón. Sobreyacente al Grupo Mesón se sucede un intervalo cámbrico superior-arenigiano referido previamente como Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. Los estudios integrados, tanto sedimentológicos, paleontológicos como estratigráficos secuenciales, indican que ambas unidades son litológicamente similares y temporalmente equivalentes a la Formación Santa Rosita (Cámbrico Superior - Tremadociano y a la Formación Acoite (Arenigiano, respectivamente, las cuales son ampliamente aceptadas en las áreas adyacentes, por lo que se recomienda el abandono de la nomenclatura Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. El intervalo inferior de la Formación Santa Rosita está representado por depósitos de estuarios dominado por mareas del Miembro Pico de Halcón. El intervalo superior se incluye dentro del Miembro Alfarcito y consiste en depósitos marino someros dominados por el oleaje, variando desde shoreface superior hasta offshore inferior, representando una serie de ciclos transgresivos-regresivos. La Formación Acoite registra un episodio de máximo transgresivo a escala de cuenca y se encuentra dominada por depósitos de plataforma con depósitos subordinados de offshore. Los análisis icnológicos revelan la ausencia o la escasez de

  6. Jesuítas e índios nas “Missões Austrais”: uma experiência na pampa argentina (século XVIII) * Indians and jesuits in the “Austral Missions”: an experience on the “pampa argentina” in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA CRISTINA BOHN MARTINS

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: A missão por redução foi uma prática amplamente utilizada pelos padres da Companhia de Jesus em suas intervenções junto às sociedades indígenas. As condições em que se originaram e desenvolveram estes “pueblos de indios” contudo, conheceram particularidades relacionadas, entre outras coisas, às características particulares dos grupos abordados. Este texto analisa as missões constituídas junto aos índios “pampas e serranos” da campanha bonaerense nos meados do século XVIII, procurando ...

  7. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian R Descamps; Carolina Sánchez Chopa

    2011-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of...

  8. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  9. Breadboard CO2 and humidity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A regenerable CO2 and humidity control system is being developed for potential use on shuttle as an alternate to the baseline lithium hydroxide (LiOH)/condensing heat exchanger system. The system utilizes a sorbent material, designated HS-C, to adsorb CO2 and water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The material is regenerated by exposing it to space vacuum. A half-size breadboard system, utilizing a flight representative HS-C canister, was designed, built, and performance tested to shuttle requirements for total CO2 and total humidity removal. The use of a new chemical matrix material allowed significant optimization of the system design by packing the HS-C chemical into the core of a heat exchanger which is manifolded to form two separate and distinct beds. Breadboard system performance was proven by parametric testing and simulated mission testing over the full range of shuttle crew sizes and metabolic loadings. Vacuum desorption testing demonstrated considerable savings in previously projected shuttle vacuum duct sizing.

  10. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  11. 15 June 2009 - President of the Argentine Nation C. Fernández visiting ATLAS experimental area.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tirage 1:President of the Argentine Nation, C. Fernández and Minister of Science, Technology and Innovative Production,L. Barañao Tirage 2-8:Arrival greetings Tirage 9-12:Introduction to CERN's activities by Director-General, R. Heuer Tirage 13-15:Signature of the guest book Tirage 16-25:M. Benedetti,R. Heuer and L.Barañao sit for the signature of the Agreement Tirage 26-33: Meeting with Argentinian scientists at CERN

  12. La construction territoriale de têtes de ponts antarctiques rivales : Ushuaia (Argentine) et Punta Arenas (Chili)

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Ushuaia et Punta Arenas sont les villes les plus australes de leurs pays d’appartenance,  l’Argentine et le Chili. Elles ont joué le rôle de ville frontière au service de la consolidation et la légitimation de ces territoires nationaux austraux localisés en position de bout du monde. Depuis cinquante ans, ces deux villes portuaires s’affirment comme les deux portes d’entrée internationales principales des relations avec le continent Antarctique, et en particulier avec la Péninsule Antarctique...

  13. Figurations of Islandness in Argentine Culture and Literature: Macedonio Fernández, Leopoldo Marechal, and César Aira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Cheadle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores islandness in the River Plate imaginary. Two modern foundational “island texts” – Thomas More’s Utopia and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe – have exerted a formative influence on the Spanish-American colonial imagination, an influence inflected by the particular historical experience of the River Plate region and its dominant city, Buenos Aires. The figuration of islandness is examined in three twentieth-century Argentine novels by Macedonio Fernández, Leopoldo Marechal, and César Aira. The article finds both continuity and evolution in the images of islandness in these novels.

  14. Temperature and humidity responses of the arctic-alpine seed bug Nysius groenlandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcher, Jens J.; Nachman, Gösta

    2001-01-01

    Nysius groenlandicus, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, temperature, humidity, preference, Atctic, Greenland......Nysius groenlandicus, Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, temperature, humidity, preference, Atctic, Greenland...

  15. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  16. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eManrique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA. We describe a type of response termed a ‘freeze-look’, which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a ‘thinking’ face or hesitation, etc.. We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The ‘freeze-look’ results in the questioner ‘re-doing’ their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus we argue that the ‘freeze-look’ is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an ‘off-record’ practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying ‘Huh?’ or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  17. Ordovician K-bentonites in the Argentine Precordillera: relations to Gondwana margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Cingolani, C.A.; Astini, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is included in the Special Publication entitled 'The proto- Andean margin of Gondwana', edited by R.J. Pankhurst and C.W. Rapela. Ordovician K-bentonites have now been recorded from >20 localities in the vicinity of the Argentine Precordillera. Most occur in the eastern thrust belts, in the San Juan Limestone and the overlying the Gualcamayo Formation, but a few ash beds are known also from the central thrust belts. The oldest occur in the middle Arenig I, victoriae lunatus graptolite (Oe. evae conodont) Zone, and the youngest in the middle Llanvirn P. elegans (P. suecicus) Zone. Mineralogical characteristics, typical of other Ordovician K-bentonites, include a matrix of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay and a typical felsic volcanic phenocryst assemblage: biotite, beta-form quartz, alkali and plagioclase feldspar, apatite, and zircon, with lesser amounts of hornblende, clinopyroxene, titanite and Fe-Ti oxides. The proportions of the mineral phases and variations in their crystal chemistry are commonly unique to individual (or small groups of) K-bentonite beds. Glass melt inclusions preserved in quartz are rhyolitic in composition. The sequence is unique in its abundance of K-bentonite beds, but a close association between the Precordillera and other Ordovician sedimentary basins cannot be established. The ash distribution is most consistent with palaeogeographical reconstructions in which early Ordovician drifting of the Precordillera occurred in proximity to one or more volcanic arcs, and with eventual collision along the Andean margin of Gondwana during the mid-Ordovician Ocloyic event of the Famatinian orogeny. The Puna-Famatina terrane northeast of the Precordillera might have served as the source of the K-bentonite ashes, possibly in concert with active arc magmatism on the Gondwana plate itself.

  18. Circadian analysis of myocardial infarction incidence in an Argentine and Uruguayan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola-Siri Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of variations in the spectrum of cardiovascular disease between different regions of the world and ethnic groups have been the subject of great interest. This study report the 24-h variation of myocardial infarction (MI occurrence in patients recruited from CCU located in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods A cohort of 1063 patients admitted to the CCU within 24 h of the onset of symptoms of an acute MI was examined. MI incidence along the day was computed in 1 h-intervals. Results A minimal MI incidence between 03:00 and 07:00 h and the occurrence of a first maximum between 08:00 and 12:00 h and a second maximum between 15:00 and 22:00 h were verified. The best fit curve was a 24 h cosinor (acrophase ~ 19:00 h, accounting for 63 % of variance together with a symmetrical gaussian bell (maximum at ~ 10:00 h, accounting for 37 % of variance. A similar picture was observed for MI frequencies among different excluding subgroups (older or younger than 70 years; with or without previous symptoms; diabetics or non diabetics; Q wave- or non-Q wave-type MI; anterior or inferior MI location. Proportion between cosinor and gaussian probabilities was maintained among most subgroups except for older patients who had more MI at the afternoon and patients with previous symptoms who were equally distributed among the morning and afternoon maxima. Conclusion The results support the existence of two maxima (at morning and afternoon hours in MI incidence in the Argentine and Uruguayan population.

  19. Scheme of 3 interfaces with local isostatic compensation on the Argentine continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza De Marchi, A. C.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tocho, C.

    2013-05-01

    The segment of Argentine continental margin located between 39°S and the Malvinas platform (~49°S) is of passive type and volcanic characteristics revealed by seaward-dipping seismic reflectors sequences (SDRs). The free air gravity edge-effect associated with passive continental margins is one of the most distinctive characteristics of gravity in marine regions. This effect is in large part due to the transition between continental and oceanic crusts, because of their different thicknesses. In this presentation we investigate the Airy type isostatic compensation scheme by using three interfaces in a forward calculation with different approximations of Parker's expression to obtain the isostatic anomaly. After that we perform the inversion of the anomaly thus obtained in order to find the Moho's deflection necessary to compensate it (or minimize it) by using the same scheme of interfaces and the iterative Parker-Oldenburg method (Oldenburg, D., 1974) with more terms in the inversion. The crust-mantle interface (Moho) thus calculated represents a more realistic surface than the one calculated using one term in the inversion and the surface estimated with topographic data and sediment thickness. Even considering that the experiment constitutes a schematic assumption just to test the numerical methods involved, we find that in the comparison with the only available digitized refraction profile, the inverted Moho interface reproduces fairly well the Moho that the seismic profile yields, for the case of the iterative method. This suggests that the inverse calculation with the iterative method is sensible to the presence of the SDRS, at least for this sole profile. Keywords: isostatic anomaly, Moho, passive continental margins Oldenburg, D., 1974. The inversion and interpretation of gravity anomalíes, Geophysics, vol. 39, no. 4, p. 526-536.

  20. A Trial Intercomparison of Humidity Generators at Extremes of Range Using Relative Humidity Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M.; Benyon, R.; Bell, S. A.; Vicente, T.

    2008-10-01

    In order to effectively implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), national metrology institutes (NMIs) are required to support their claims of calibration and measurement capability (CMC) with a quality system compliant with ISO/IEC 17025, and with suitable evidence of participation in key or supplementary comparisons. The CMC review process, both at regional and inter-regional levels, uses criteria that combine the provisions mentioned above, together with additional evidence demonstrating scientific and technical competence of the institutes. For dew-point temperatures, there are key comparisons in progress under the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) and under the European regional metrology organisation (EUROMET), together with information available on past regional supplementary comparisons. However, for relative humidity there are, to date, no such comparisons available to support CMC entries. This paper presents and discusses the results of a preliminary investigation of the use of relative humidity and temperature transmitters in order to determine their suitability for the intercomparison of standard humidity generators in support of CMC claims for the calibration of relative humidity instruments. The results of a recent bilateral comparison between 2 NMIs at the extremes of the range up to 98%rh at 70 °C, and down to 1%rh at -40 °C are reported. Specific precautions and recommendations on the use of the devices as transfer standards are presented.

  1. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623

  2. High Temperature Convective Drying of a Packed Bed with Humid Air at Different Humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sghaier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drying a packed bed of porous particle at high temperature with varying humidity of hot air is an attractive process. Despite, many researches on experimental and simulation on a fixed bed drying at low and average temperature are proposed. Few studies showed drying at high temperature with humid air or using superheated steam. The latest is compared to dry air. Approach: In this study, we show an experimental and numerical study of humid air drying of a fixed bed of moist porous alumina particles. The air velocity, the air temperature and the vapor pressure were varied from 1.7-2.3 m.sec-1, 120-160°C and 0.1-0.65 bar, respectively and the experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Then a mathematical describing heat and mass transfer during drying is developed. This model is based on the averaging volume approach using two scale changes. Results: From the experimental works, the solid temperature and the bed moisture content have been presented at different drying conditions. The previous results show that an increase in humidity leads to an increase of the wet bulb temperature and a decrease in the drying time. At the same drying temperature, the variation in the gas velocity affects also the drying time. In addition, we note that the drying time increases if the bed depth increases. The predicted results deduced from the developed model were compared with the experiment. Conclusion: The experimental and predicted results obtained from this study describing drying of a packed bed illustrate clearly the effect of the air humidity on the drying kinetics.

  3. Transversalidad de conceptos de educación ambiental para un desarrollo sostenible presentes en la legislación argentina Environmental education as a crosscutting issue for sustainable developement concepts included in Argentine regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré

    2007-07-01

    instituciones de educación superior. Se asegura el derecho a la información, todo habitante podrá obtener de las autoridades la información ambiental que administren y que no se encuentre contemplada legalmente como reservada. Los aspectos más importantes acerca de la educación ambiental y el desarrollo sostenible son ejes transversales de leyes de distinta jurisdicción, pero deberá bregarse por el cumplimiento y control de dichos principios, debido a las características con las que se percibe al derecho ambiental, de baja eficacia y eficiencia.Population environmental education must be conveyed in all educational levels, in order to contribute to a deep knowledge of environmental protection laws. These include contents about environmental education, but with scarce diffusion and low adhesion. If environmental education could force a detailed knowledge about regulations, its application could be demanded by community actions. Moreover, environmental education is considered in regulations as a fundamental tool for sustainable development. There is a profuse legislation in Argentina, with more than 3,000 legal instruments of different hierarchical order and jurisdictional level. Three argentine laws were studied and compared: Environmental General Law (national: Law 25,675; La Pampa Environmental Law (province order: Law 1,914; and Environmental Education Law of Buenos Aires (city order: Law 1,687. These laws regulate the incorporation of environmental education in formal system (public and private schools and institutions, for all levels: initial, primary, secondary and university studies, non formal system (extra-curricular activities and/or extension inside the institutions, and non formal education (by means of massive instruments of communication and information. Environmental education is considered as the basic tool to generate values, behavior and attitudes according to a balanced environment, tending to the preservation of natural resources and their sustainable

  4. Effect of the californian red worm (Eisenia foetida during the composteo and vermicomposteo in properties of the Experimental Station of the Academic Rural Unit Carmen Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biotransformación of the organic residuals, of kitchen (Rc remains, pulp of coffee (Pc and cardboard (C by means of compostaje methods and vermicompostaje. The investigation was taken I end up in the Experimental Station, module of lombricultura of the Career of Agronomic Engineering of Carmen Pampa Unit Academic Campesina, located in the community of Carmen Pampa of the Municipality of Coroico Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The used design was totally at random with 3 treatments and 3 repetitions, to compare among obtaining methods in quality it used the test of fixed effects and it stops quantity the test "t" of Student. The quantity of initial sustrato studied in compostaje was of 1m3 and 0,02m3 vermicompostaje ending up culminating the investigation in 120 days. The results in decomposition are obtained in smaller time by means of the method vermicompostaje in Pc in advance of three months of 98.33% continued by C and Rc; while in compostaje it was the treatment with Rc of 3 months with 3 weeks with 90.40% of decomposition, continued by Pc and C. In quantity, starting from 1m3 of initial sustrato bigger bioabono was obtained with Pc 271.62 kg, 465.83 kg, Rc 249.71 kg, 446.00 kg and C 212.48 kg, 404.00 kg, in compost and vermicompost respectively. The chemical composition of the bioabonos of Rc, Pc, C in N and P is tipificados like first floor, high K, Ca in low compost and half vermicompost, half Mg, MO under and lightly alkaline pH to neuter in the two obtaining methods.

  5. Procesos de subalternización de la población indígena en Argentina: los ranqueles en La Pampa, 1870-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Tarquini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the military campaigns of 1878-1885, known in Argentina as “The Conquest of the Desert”, the indigenous populations tried different strategies to face the adverse conditions and the policies that sought their subalternization and invisibilization. This work explores the peculiarities of the process carried out by the ranquel ethnic group, in the Pampa (initially a National Territory that later became a province in 1952 from the last years of their autonomy up until the 1970s. The study is based on the cross-checking of different sources that, reducing the range of the analysis uses the trajectory of the groups that were tied to the cacique Ramon Cabral, El Platero, as an example of such processes.A partir de las campañas militares de 1878-1885, conocidas en Argentina como «Conquista del Desierto», las poblaciones indígenas ensayaron distintas estrategias para enfrentar las condiciones adversas y las políticas que pretendían su subalternización e invisibilización. Este trabajo explora las particularidades del proceso protagonizado por el grupo étnico ranquel en La Pampa (primero Territorio Nacional y luego provincia a partir de 1952 desde los últimos años de su autonomía y hasta la década de 1970. El estudio se basa en una triangulación de fuentes de diverso tipo que, reduciendo la escala de análisis, toma como ejemplo la trayectoria de las agrupaciones ligadas al cacique Ramón Cabral, El Platero.

  6. Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Ferman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assemble data on the summer feeding ecology of the Great Pampa-finch, Embernagra platensis at the Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to explore the differences related to the dietary patterns for each sex between winter and summer when possible. The stomach contents of 43 birds were analyzed. The animal fraction was composed of Hymenoptera (45.1%, Coleoptera (32.4%, Lepidoptera (6.0%, Araneae (5% and Orthoptera (3.2%. The application of the index of relative importance (IRI resulted in 1490.4 for Coleoptera, 428.5 for Hymenoptera and 162.5 for Lepidoptera caterpillars. The vegetal fraction consisted of Triticum aestivum (26.9%, Cyperaceous (25%, Poaceae (Gramineae (19.3% and Panicum sp. (11.2%. The IRI values were 893.8 for Triticum aestivum, 174.5 for Gramineae, 126.5 for Panicum sp. and 112.8 for Scirpus sp. The food niche width was 0.33 for both sexes; the diversity index resulted in 1.06 for females and 1.33 for males and specific diversity ranged from 1.87 to 2.84. A canonical component analysis (CCA was performed on environmental and morphometric variables, and a Monte Carlo test confirmed the canonical correlations. A t-test showed that some birds harmonized with a logarithmic model and some with a geometric curve. During the summer, Embernagra platensis ingests Hymenoptera and Coleoptera more often than seeds, suggesting that two biological mechanisms could be taking place in this bird.O objetivo deste estudo foi reunir dados referentes à ecologia alimentar do Sabiá-do-banhado, Embernagra platensis, na laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, e explorar as diferenças relacionadas aos padrões dietéticos para cada sexo entre inverno e verão, quando possível. O conteúdo estomacal de 43 pássaros foi analisado. A fração animal foi composta por Hymenoptera (45,1%, Coleoptera (32,4%, Lepidoptera(6,0%, Araneae (5% e Orthoptera (3,2%. A aplicação do índice de importância relativa (IRI

  7. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangming Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs.

  8. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  9. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Barthelmie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy developments offshore focus on larger turbines to keep the relative cost of the foundation per MW of installed capacity low. Hence typical wind turbine hub-heights are extending to 100 m and potentially beyond. However, measurements to these heights are not usually available, requiring extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes.

  10. Optical humidity-sensitive mechanism based on refractive index variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyuan Wang; Zhengtian Gu

    2009-01-01

    A novel composite model is put forward for humidity-sensitive material based on Maxwell-Garnett and effective medium theory.The analytical expression of the relation between effective refractive index and relative humidity is shown with different absorption factors and porosities.The larger the absorption factor is,the higher the refractive index is.The refractive index of humidity-sensitive SiO2 film decreases with the increase of ceramic material porosity.The sensitivity of optical humidity sensor can reach the magnitude of 10-3.In comparison with the experimental humidity-sensing curve by the method of p-polarized reflectance and the analysis of mechanism,theoretical simulation is in agreement with experimental results.Therefore,this composite model is proved to be reasonable which lays new theoretical foundation in further research on optical humidity sensor.

  11. Temperature, humidity and time. Combined effects on radiochromic film dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Miller, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of both relative humidity and temperature during irradiation on the dose response of FWT-60-00 and Riso B3 radiochromic film dosimeters have been investigated in the relative humidity (RH) range 11-94% and temperature range 20-60 degrees C for irradiation by Co-60 photons and 10-Me......V electrons. The results show that humidity and temperature cannot be treated as independent variables, rather there appears to be interdependence between absorbed dose, temperature, and humidity. Dose rate does not seem to play a significant role. The dependence of temperature during irradiation is +0.......25 +/- 0.1% per degrees C for the FWT-60-00 dosimeters and +0.5 +/- 0.1% per degrees C For Riso B3 dosimeters at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C and at relative humidities between 20 and 53%. At extreme conditions both with respect to temperature and to humidity, the dosimeters show much stronger...

  12. Trehalose in hair care: heat styling benefits at high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Susan; Paul, Prem K C

    2012-01-01

    Human hair switches that have been treated with trehalose solution and straightened using hot irons show longevity of the straight style even in high-humidity conditions. This anti-humidity benefit is especially noticeable if the straight style has been created at low relative humidity. It is proposed that hot-iron straightening of trehalose-treated switches produces in situ glassy forms of the sugar that act as water sinks at high humidity to provide anti-humidity benefits. Adsorption isotherms and powder x-ray studies of different forms of trehalose and moisture uptake of hair treated with the sugar suggest that the ability of a glassy form of trehalose to regulate moisture in the fiber and consequently affect its viscoelastic properties is a major factor in providing long-lasting straight style in humid conditions.

  13. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the most complete South American marsupial association of Huayquerian Age (late Miocene. Specimens were recovered from several new localities of central and northern La Pampa province (central Argentina, at levels assignable to Cerro Azul Fm.: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco, and Laguna Chillhué. Loessoid sediments studied from this formation are indicative of lacustrine deposits overlaid by eolian levels bearing evidences of pedogenesis. A study of these levels at each one of the new localities led to their correlation in an integrated profile of Cerro Azul Fm. This formation corresponds to «Epecuén Fm.», at least in Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo, and probably also to the upper levels of Arroyo Chasicá Fm. The studied marsupials are representative of almost all major lineages (orders of South American Neogene marsupials. The marmosine didelphid Zygolestes tatei sp. nov. differs from the type species of the genus in its larger size, unreduced third lower premolar, and in the less reduction of the metaconid in the last lower molar. Another marmosine, Thylamys pinei sp. nov., differs from other Marmosini in the twinning of the para- and metaconid in the lower molars, and in the wider talonid of the m4. The Monodelphini marmosines Thylatheridium hudsoni y T. dolgopolae are abundant in several localities of this formation; their study confirms close affinities between this genus and Monodelphis. The didelphines Hyperdidelphys pattersoni and an indeterminate species of Lutreolina are also represented by a few specimens. A mandibular fragment including part of the last molar may represent the oldest record of a Sparassocynidae in central Argentina. The Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae (Sparassodonta are also recorded by a few, fragmentary specimens. Pliolestes venetus sp. nov. (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae differs from the type species of the genus in its smaller size and in the larger, less displaced metaconid in the

  14. A Standard CMOS Humidity Sensor without Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2 µW power dissipation, voltage-output, humidity sensor accurate to 5% relative humidity was developed using the LFoundry 0.15 µm CMOS technology without post-processing. The sensor consists of a woven lateral array of electrodes implemented in CMOS top metal, a Intervia Photodielectric 8023-10 humidity-sensitive layer, and a CMOS capacitance to voltage converter.

  15. Roles of humidity and temperature in shaping influenza seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Anice C; Steel, John

    2014-07-01

    Experimental studies in guinea pigs demonstrated that influenza virus transmission is strongly modulated by temperature and humidity. A number of epidemiological studies have followed up on these findings and revealed robust associations between influenza incidence in temperate regions and local conditions of humidity and temperature, offering a long-awaited explanation for the wintertime seasonality of influenza in these locales. Despite recent progress, important questions remain as to the mechanism(s) by which humidity and/or temperature affects transmission.

  16. A CMOS Smart Temperature and Humidity Sensor with Combined Readout.

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Eder; Virgilio Valente; Nick Donaldson; Andreas Demosthenous

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ra...

  17. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism a...

  18. Modeling of Relative Humidity Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Samer AlSadi; Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a relative humidity predictions using feedforward artificial neural network (FFNN). Relative humidity values obtained from weather records for Malaysia are used in training the FFNNs. The prediction of the relative humidity is in terms of Sun shine ration and cloud cover. However, three statistical parameters, namely, mean absolute percentage error, MAPE, mean bias error, MBE, and root mean square error, RMSE are used to evaluate the neural networks. Based on results, the ...

  19. Relative Humidity Sensor Based on Microfiber Loop Resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Yangzi Zheng; Xinyong Dong; Chunliu Zhao; Yi Li; Liyang Shao; Shangzhong Jin

    2013-01-01

    A novel relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a microfiber loop resonator (MLR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. As refractive index of the microfiber in the MLR is modified by environmental humidity, resonant wavelength of the MLR changes with RH level. By detecting this wavelength shift, RH measurement is realized with a linear response sensitivity of 1.8 pm/% RH. The obvious advantage of this technique over others is that no coating of humidity-sensitive material is required.

  20. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fangming Deng; Yigang He; Chaolong Zhang; Wei Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate ...

  1. Thermal conductivity at different humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    The thermal conductivity (the l-value) of several alternative insulation products and a traditional product is determined under different humidity conditions in a specially constructed hot plate apparatus.The hot plate apparatus is constructed with an air gap on each side of the test specimen where...... humidified air can pass. Thus, it is possible to build up different degrees of moisture on each side of the test specimen.The thermal conductivity is determined for the following types of alternative insulation: sheep's wool, flax, paper insulation, perlite and mineral wool. The insulation products were......, with and without affection of moisture, which were 0-20% higher than expected for the materials used. The measurements of the existing investigation should therefore not be considered giving real absolute values of the thermal conductivity. They can, however, indicate the relative significance of the moisture...

  2. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations and on conductivity measurements, a novel sensing mechanism based on protonic conduction within the surface layers adsorbed onto the hydrotungstite film is proposed.

  3. The Canopy Conductance of a Humid Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. T.; Hsieh, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Penman-Monteith equation is widely used for estimating latent heat flux. The key parameter for implementing this equation is the canopy conductance (gc). Recent research (Blaken and Black, 2004) showed that gc could be well parameterized by a linear function of An/ (D0* X0c), where An represents net assimilation, D0 is leaf level saturation deficit, and X0c is CO2 mole fraction. In this study, we tried to use the same idea for estimating gcfor a humid grassland. The study site was located in County Cork, southwest Ireland (51o59''N 8o46''W), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was the dominant grass species in this area. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the latent heat flux above this humid grassland. The measured gc was calculated by rearranging Penman-Monteith equation combined with the measured latent heat flux. Our data showed that the gc decreased as the vapor pressure deficit and temperature increased. And it increased as the net radiation increased. Therefore, we found out that the best parameterization of gc was a linear function of the product of the vapor deficit, temperature, and net radiation. Also, we used the gc which was estimated by this linear function to predict the latent heat flux by Penman-Monteith equation and compared the predictions with those where the gc was chosen to be a fixed value. Our analysis showed that this simple linear function for gc can improve the latent heat flux predictions (R square increased from 0.48 to 0.66).

  4. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  5. Homogenization of global radiosonde humidity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The global radiosonde network is an important source of upper-air measurements and is strongly connected to reanalysis efforts of the 20th century. However, measurements are strongly affected by changes in the observing system and require a homogenization before they can be considered useful in climate studies. In particular humidity measurements are known to show spurious trends and biases induced by many sources, e.g. reporting practices or freezing of the sensor. We propose to detect and correct these biases in an automated way, as has been done with temperature and winds. We detect breakpoints in dew point depression (DPD) time series by employing a standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) on DPD-departures from ERA-Interim. In a next step, we calculate quantile departures between the latter and the earlier part near the breakpoints of the time series, going back in time. These departures adjust the earlier distribution of DPD to the latter distribution, called quantile matching, thus removing for example a non climatic shift. We employ this approach to the existing radiosonde network. In a first step to verify our approach we compare our results with ERA-Interim data and brightness temperatures of humidity-sensitive channels of microwave measuring radiometers (SSMIS) onboard DMSP F16. The results show that some of the biases can be detected and corrected in an automated way, however large biases that impact the distribution of DPD values originating from known reporting practices (e.g. 30 DPD on US stations) remain. These biases can be removed but not corrected. The comparison of brightness temperatures from satellite and radiosondes proofs to be difficult as large differences result from for example representative errors.

  6. Eddy-driven sediment transport in the Argentine Basin: Is the height of the Zapiola Rise hydrodynamically controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, Wilbert; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Homoky, William B.; Polzin, Kurt L.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we address the question whether eddy-driven transports in the Argentine Basin can be held responsible for enhanced sediment accumulation over the Zapiola Rise, hence accounting for the existence and growth of this sediment drift. To address this question, we perform a 6 year simulation with a strongly eddying ocean model. We release two passive tracers, with settling velocities that are consistent with silt and clay size particles. Our experiments show contrasting behavior between the silt fraction and the lighter clay. Due to its larger settling velocity, the silt fraction reaches a quasisteady state within a few years, with abyssal sedimentation rates that match net input. In contrast, clay settles only slowly, and its distribution is heavily stratified, being transported mainly along isopycnals. Yet, both size classes display a significant and persistent concentration minimum over the Zapiola Rise. We show that the Zapiola Anticyclone, a strong eddy-driven vortex that circulates around the Zapiola Rise, is a barrier to sediment transport, and hence prevents significant accumulation of sediments on the Rise. We conclude that sediment transport by the turbulent circulation in the Argentine Basin alone cannot account for the preferred sediment accumulation over the Rise. We speculate that resuspension is a critical process in the formation and maintenance of the Zapiola Rise.

  7. Miniature Flexible Humidity Sensitive Patches for Space Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suit technologies demand improved, simplified, long-life regenerative sensing technologies, including humidity sensors, that exceed the performance...

  8. Humidity Sensing Properties of Pre-irradiation Grafted HDPE Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiao; Qun Fu; Xiang Geng; Zhen Li; Haijian Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE) films have been prepared by grafting sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AA) onto HDPE using preirradiation method. The structure and surface morphology of both grafted and ungrafted HDPE films were observed by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The humidity sensing properties of grafted HDPE films were investigated. The results show that the impedance of the film decreases with increasing of relative humidity (RH). The films display high sensitivity with nearly three orders of magnitude change in the resistance during the relative humidity variation from 5% to 98%. Grafted HDPE films exhibit excellent properties as humidity sensors.

  9. Software Compensates Electronic-Nose Readings for Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    A computer program corrects for the effects of humidity on the readouts of an array of chemical sensors (an "electronic nose"). To enable the use of this program, the array must incorporate an independent humidity sensor in addition to sensors designed to detect analytes other than water vapor. The basic principle of the program was described in "Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses" (NPO-30615), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 6 (June 2004), page 63. To recapitulate: The output of the humidity sensor is used to generate values that are subtracted from the outputs of the other sensors to correct for contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. The outputs of the non-humidity sensors are then deconvolved to obtain the concentrations of the analytes. In addition, the humidity reading is retained as an analyte reading in its own right. This subtraction of the humidity background increases the ability of the software to identify such events as spills in which contaminants may be present in small concentrations and accompanied by large changes in humidity.

  10. GUARDIANES DEL PARAÍSO. GÉNESIS Y GENEALOGÍA DE UNA IDENTIDAD COLECTIVA EN MAR DE LAS PAMPAS, PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES / Guardians of Paradise. Genesis and genealogy of a collective identity in Mar de las Pampas, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel David Noel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La localidad balnearia de Mar de las Pampas (Buenos Aires, Argentina ha experimentado en la última década un proceso inédito de expansión de su infraestructura edilicia y de servicios dirigidos al turismo. Al mismo tiempo, la inmensa mayoría de sus residentes permanentes perciben este crecimiento como una amenaza a su proyecto de construcción colectiva de una comunidad “virtuosa” argumentada en torno de valores como la “ecología”, lo “natural” y la “calidad de vida”. Nuestro texto busca mostrar algunas de las formas en que los residentes permanentes plantean y responden las preguntas acerca de qué es, qué debe ser y qué no Mar de las Pampas – así como los repertorios morales a los que los mismos recurren - en el marco de una narrativa moral que opone un proyecto “virtuoso” y “auténtico” de “comunidad” a los intereses “espurios” de una “especulación inmobiliaria” y un “progreso desenfrenado” que buscarían corromper el proyecto de estos “vecinos”, así como la manera en la cual estas disputas contribuyen a la consolidación de una identidad colectiva compartida para sus pobladores.   Palabras Clave: identidad colectiva; moralidades; construcción de comunidad; ecologismo; localidades turísticas.   Abstract Mar de las Pampas, a seaside resort on the Atlantic Seaboard of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina has undergone in the last decade a process of massive expansion of its touristic infrastructure (especially on lodging and commercial facilities. At the same time, most of its full-time residents consider this process as a threat looming over their own project of collective construction of a virtuous community, grounded in values such as “ecology”, “natural life” and “quality of life”. Our text will attempt to show some of the ways in which the permanent residents of Mar de las Pampas pose and answer their questions about what Mar de las Pampas is, what should it be and

  11. Hydroacoustical evidence of the expansion of pelagic swarms of Munida gregaria (Decapoda, Munididae) in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf, and its relationship with habitat features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Mariano J.; Cabreira, Ariel G.; Madirolas, Adrián; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2016-08-01

    Squat lobsters are highly diversified and widespread decapods, of which only three species form pelagic swarms. Here we infer the expansion of Munida gregaria populations in the Beagle Channel and the Argentine Patagonian Shelf by means of acoustic surveys of pelagic swarms. We also describe the habitat characteristics in which these swarms occur. Acoustic data was collected during three multidisciplinary scientific cruises on board of the R/V Puerto Deseado during 2009, 2012 and 2014. Despite differences in the environmental conditions between the two surveyed areas, between 2009 and 2014 pelagic swarms increased their occurrence and abundance both in the Beagle Channel and on the Argentine Patagonian Shelf. Towards the end of the studied period, pelagic swarms of M. gregaria occurred in new locations, supporting the notion of a population expansion. Within the Beagle Channel swarm expansions were more marked than on the Patagonian Shelf. We here postulate that M. gregaria expansions occur in association with productive areas of the Argentine continental shelf, such as frontal zones, favoured by the squat lobster phenotypic plasticity that permit to exploit resources in both the neritic and benthic environments. At a regional scale on the Patagonian Shelf, three main groups of pelagic swarms of M. gregaria were clearly associated to respective frontal zones. The information presented here is necessary to understand fluctuations in both distribution and abundance patterns of a key species on the Argentine continental shelf. These fluctuations could be direct or indirect indicators of changes in the ecosystem.

  12. Sedimentitas marinas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Visconti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen sedimentitas carbonáticas, silicoclásticas y evaporíticas del Mioceno de la cuenca del Colorado, aflorantes en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Sobre la base de la litología, las estructuras sedimentarias y los fósiles se identificaron siete facies y dos asociaciones de facies, correspondientes a ambientes marino somero (intermareal a supramareal y fluvial, para las secciones analizadas. Las sedimentitas marinas infrayacen a las areniscas fluviales de la Formación Río Negro y se consideran correlacionables con las sedimentitas de la Formación Barranca Final (Mioceno medio-superior, depositadas en la cuenca del Colorado durante la transgresión "Entrerriense". El hallazgo de estos niveles confirma la presencia de este mar en el sureste de la provincia de La Pampa.

  13. Experience of the Argentine Radioprotection Society in training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From its creation in 1967, the Argentine Radioprotection Society (SAR) has as basic purpose promoting all the aspects related with the radiological protection and the nuclear safety. Due to the great increment in the use of radioactive sources in diverse areas, soon it was evident for the SAR the importance and necessity to promote the knowledge of the radioprotection approaches between the users of radioactive sources and ionizing radiations in all its application fields, be these industrial, academic or doctors. From the year 2000, the SAR comes organizing in regular and periodical form basic and specialized courses about radiological safety of radioactive sources for industrial use and profile of oil wells, among others. In this work, the characteristics of the different dictated courses are described whose programs have been developed keeping in mind the requirements of the competent authorities of Argentina. Also, statistical information on the dictated courses and its participants is presented. The number of dictated courses was incremented from 6 (year 2000) up to 16 (year 2005), being also increased significantly the number of participants for course. The dictated courses are theoretical-practical, with a duration average of 20 hs. The educational body is constituted by specialists in the different topics with recognized experience. Its given to the participants notes and support material, as well as copies of the material presented to develop the course. When concluding the courses, its deliver to the participants certifies of attendance and/or approval, as it corresponds. In their headquarters the SAR has didactic facilities and specific equipment for the dictation of the courses. Also accounts with the easiness of dictating those courses outside of their headquarters. This is particularly advantageous for companies or organizations that are seated in points far from the main cities and they should qualify in radiological safety to the personnel but, by

  14. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Republic has extensive antecedents in education and training in radiological protection. From the beginning of the nuclear activity in the country was given preponderance to the aspects related with the radiological protection and the personnel's training involved in the employment of ionizing radiations. At the present time these educational activities already overcome the 50 years, there being accumulated a rich and important experience in the matter. In the country the organisms that have assigned by law the responsibility of the regulation and the control of practice them with ionizing radiations are the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Health and Atmosphere of the Nation. The first one has the mission of protecting people of the noxious effects of the ionizing radiations derived of nuclear activities, the second is in charge of the control of the equipment dedicated specifically to generate X-rays. This includes the responsibility of elaborating, to emit and to make complete the regulations, standards and other corresponding requirements, in particular - in the mark of the present work - regarding to establish demands and to promote education activities and training in radiological protection. The sure use of the benefits that offers the nuclear development in its diverse applications implies to overturn resources, experience and dedication for the personnel's training. In that sense the Argentina has committed recently to undertake the necessary actions to constitute a Regional Center of Education and Training for Latin America and the Caribbean, taking advantage of the important experience obtained in more of 25 years of imparting graduate degree courses in radiological protection and nuclear safety with inter regional and regional character. With that purpose a process of self evaluation has begun (self appraisal), following the limits settled down by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the document 'Education and

  15. The Pacific-Atlantic connection: Biogeochemical signals in the southern end of the Argentine shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, J. E. Cardona; Martínez, A. M.; Barrera, F.; Pfaff, F.; Koch, B. P.; Freije, R. H.; Gómez, E. A.; Lara, R. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Cape Horn Current transports low-salinity waters from the SE Pacific Ocean into the Atlantic, which are transported further north by the Malvinas current. Biogeochemical signals of this connection were studied by characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOMc), and DOM humification index (HIX). Further, inorganic nutrients, salinity, temperature, stable isotopic composition of particulate organic nitrogen (δ15N) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in March 2012. Three water types were characterized: waters of the Beagle Channel (BCW), coastal waters (CW) and oceanic waters (OW). Highest values of ammonium, DOC, FDOMc and HIX were found in BCW, the lowest in OW, suggesting that terrigenous input is a main source of ammonium and refractory carbon, which is supported by a highly significant inverse correlation of these parameters with salinity. In turn, lowest concentrations of nitrate, silicate and phosphate were found in BCW and CW, and highest in OW, with highly significant correlations of these nutrients with salinity, indicating the contribution of the saltier, nutrient-rich Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the Pacific-Atlantic connection system. In general there was an inverse distribution pattern between Chla and those nutrients contributed by the ACC, which is consistent with the transition from coastal waters to the low-silicate, high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll, iron-limited setting of the Subantarctic oceanic waters north of the Polar Front. In contrast, in the low-salinity, internal BCW, high values of ammonium, DOC, HIX and FDOM indicate continental inputs, likely including iron complexes, which could have led to the observed high Chla values. δ15N values were positive in the study region, and same as ammonium, reached a maximum in the inner part of the BCW, declining towards OW. This does not support a

  16. The Information Center of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is addressed particularly to the scientific community users and, as a whole, to any individual in society, whichever his profession or working environment, who is interested in getting acquainted of improving his/her knowledge in the areas of radiological protection and nuclear safety, as well as in other related areas of medicine, biology, engineering, mathematics and physics. The purpose of this paper is the diffusion of the broad spectrum of bibliography and the introduction of the technological-computerized media utilized as tools by the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation in providing responses to a huge number of both internal and external requests for information. There is a large number of professionals and/or researchers who visit the facilities of our Information Center or who get in touch - through the post service, e-mail or telephone - consulting on the available material, either in paper (books, periodical publications, etc.) or in the form of microfilms, video, tapes, CD-ROM, etc. This paper is both descriptive and explanatory; a description is provided of the bibliographical material managed by the Information Center and a brief explanation is given on the techniques and methods used in providing the information requested by the users. Fundamentally, the Center's bibliographical material includes: periodical publications, books, reports, microfilms, etc., all of them related to radiological protection and nuclear safety. Data bases are available in CD-ROM, the most important one being the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Center has also its own data bases, such as the GPRS (primary documents) and standards (both domestic and international), UNESCO's MicroIsis software is used for the Center's data bases: PERSIS (periodical publications), DOCSIS (books) and ARCAL (magazines from the Latin American territory). This paper will definitely serve as a safe

  17. Gobierno Electrónico y Bibliotecas Populares: Dos socios al servicio de las necesidades de información de la comunidad de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Palchevich, Diana-Rosa; Moreno, Dante-Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed B.I.B.I.R, a library networking as a viable solution to information needs of the community of the Province of La Pampa (Argentina). This network popular library will be a bridge between pampeanos and its institutions, integrating,optimizing and distributing resources, services and benefits, public and private, so mitigate the existing gap informational. The aim is also that this work synergistically to join the actions and undertaken in the local ecosystem, serving as the...

  18. Measuring Humidity in Sealed Glass Encasements

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James W.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Levine, Joel S.

    2005-01-01

    A technique has been devised for measuring the relative humidity levels in the protective helium/water vapor atmosphere in which the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights are encased behind glass panels on display at the National Archives in Washington, DC. The technique is noninvasive: it does not involve penetrating the encasements (thereby risking contamination or damage to the priceless documents) to acquire samples of the atmosphere. The technique could also be applied to similar glass encasements used to protect and display important documents and other precious objects in museums. The basic principle of the technique is straightforward: An encasement is maintained at its normal display or operating temperature (e.g., room temperature) while a portion of its glass front panel is chilled (see Figure 1) until condensed water droplets become visible on the inside of the panel. The relative humidity of the enclosed atmosphere can then be determined as a known function of the dew point, the temperature below which the droplets condense. Notwithstanding the straightforwardness of the basic principle, careful attention to detail is necessary to enable accurate determination of the dew point. In the initial application, the affected portion of the glass panel was cooled by contact with an aluminum plate that was cooled by a thermoelectric module, the exhaust heat of which was dissipated by a heat sink cooled by a fan. A thermocouple was used to measure the interior temperature of the aluminum plate, and six other thermocouples were used to measure the temperatures at six locations on the cooled outer surface of the glass panel (see Figure 2). Thermal grease was applied to the aluminum plate and the thermocouples to ensure close thermal contact. Power was supplied to the thermoelectric module in small increments, based on previous laboratory tests. A small flashlight and a magnifying glass were used to look for water

  19. Optimizing the Materials Response in Humidity Capacitive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Noroozi Afshar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of humidity outputs on the cap of a cylindrical capacitance sensor is optimized by designing three different probes with direct and indirect windows. The time interval is measured within which 30-70 % humidity can influence the dielectric constant and conductivity of the capacitance when exposed to a range of relative humidity. It is then compared with a simple set-up including a simplified equivalent circuit. The direct probes had four and double outputs on the window of the cylindrical capacitive sensor while the indirect probe had a thin plastic layer only. We observed that the dielectric constant and its conductivity depend closely to the humidity outgoing pathway and also to the increasing rate of humidity between the capacitance plates. The final variation in the materials properties alters the capacitance of the sensor which is measured simply by a LCR. This technique presents a simple method for tracking the recovery and reliability of the humidity sensors over time and assists in optimizing and controlling the materials response to the relative environment humidity. As a result, by controlling the environment humidity rate (0.02 %/s., we could measure the increment rate of capacitance with accuracy of 0.01 pf/%.

  20. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  1. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...

  2. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  3. On the Humidity Sensitivity of Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Busch, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of humidity changes on hot-wire measurements is discussed. Indications are that the humidity sensitivity parameters obtained by the authors in an earlier paper should be changed. This means, however, that the agreement between predicted and measured sensitivities ceases to exist...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE OF THE HIGH HUMIDITY AIR ELECTROSTATIC ELIMINATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴筱青; 何尉岚

    1990-01-01

    As for electrostatic elimination there are many means.But the high humidity air electrostatic eliminator has simple,efficient, lightproof and fireproof etc. advantages. Thus it is often used in some industrial enterprises. The aim of this paper is to introduce an experimental device of high humidity air electrostatic eliminator and its principle and experimental data.

  5. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  6. RESEARCH ON MICROWAVE HUMIDITY TESTING OF CERAMIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the principle of microwave humidity testing. According to the problems in the production procedure of ceramic products, a microwave humidity testing system is designed and analyzed for its advantages. Furthermore, the system has been applied to the production line that produces ceramic products and the testing results are also satisfying.

  7. Humidity assay for studying plant-pathogen interactions in miniature controlled discrete humidity environments with good throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Jiang, Huawei; Sahu, Binod Bihari; Kambakam, Sekhar; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qiugu; Bhattacharyya, Madan K; Dong, Liang

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a highly economical and accessible approach to generate different discrete relative humidity conditions in spatially separated wells of a modified multi-well plate for humidity assay of plant-pathogen interactions with good throughput. We demonstrated that a discrete humidity gradient could be formed within a few minutes and maintained over a period of a few days inside the device. The device consisted of a freeway channel in the top layer, multiple compartmented wells in the bottom layer, a water source, and a drying agent source. The combinational effects of evaporation, diffusion, and convection were synergized to establish the stable discrete humidity gradient. The device was employed to study visible and molecular disease phenotypes of soybean in responses to infection by Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen, under a set of humidity conditions, with two near-isogenic soybean lines, Williams and Williams 82, that differ for a Phytophthora resistance gene (Rps1-k). Our result showed that at 63% relative humidity, the transcript level of the defense gene GmPR1 was at minimum in the susceptible soybean line Williams and at maximal level in the resistant line Williams 82 following P. sojae CC5C infection. In addition, we investigated the effects of environmental temperature, dimensional and geometrical parameters, and other configurational factors on the ability of the device to generate miniature humidity environments. This work represents an exploratory effort to economically and efficiently manipulate humidity environments in a space-limited device and shows a great potential to facilitate humidity assay of plant seed germination and development, pathogen growth, and plant-pathogen interactions. Since the proposed device can be easily made, modified, and operated, it is believed that this present humidity manipulation technology will benefit many laboratories in the area of seed science, plant pathology, and plant-microbe biology, where

  8. Polyimide Humidity Integrated Sensor Fabricated Using the MEMS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhong Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and sensing characteristics of Polyimide-based humidity sensor, based on that, a new integrated circuit of humidity measurement has been designed. It is a novel capacitive-type systems on a chip structure using the MEMS process. The results show that the new sensor presents sensing characteristics over a humidity range from 10%~70% RH at 20℃, and the sensor is able to fabricated together with Ics technology. The result shows that integration of humidity sensor with integrated circuit of humidity measurement is considerably easier when they are built in sensing groove. The appeal of a new structure like this brings the possibility of applications that would require the flexibility of simple screen printing.

  9. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40° to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  10. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  11. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  12. Variability of subtropical upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Ryoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS measurements for five northern winters shows significant longitudinal variations in subtropical upper tropospheric relative humidity (RH, not only in the climatological mean values but also in the local distributions and temporal variability. The largest climatological mean values in the northern subtropics occur over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, where there is also large day-to-day variability. In contrast, there are smaller mean values, and smaller variability that occurs at lower frequency, over the Indian and western Pacific oceans. These differences in the distribution and variability of subtropical RH are related to differences in the key transport processes in the different sectors. The large variability and intermittent high and low RH over the Eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to a smaller extent over the Indian ocean, are due to intrusions of high potential vorticity air into the subtropics. Intrusions seldom occur over the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, and here the subtropical RH is more closely linked to the location and strength of subtropical anticyclones. In this region there are eastward propagating features in the subtropical RH that are out of phase with the tropical RH, and are caused by modulation of the subtropical anticyclones by the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  13. Temperature and humidity within the clothing microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P J; Mekjavić, I B

    1992-03-01

    The present study investigates clothing microenvironment conditions that may develop during prolonged exposure of workers to a hot environment. Five subjects were exposed to a linear increase in ambient temperature from 20-40 degrees C over a 90-min period, and then remained at 40 degrees C for an additional 90 min. During the exposures, subjects were clad in four types of helicopter personnel suits (Gore-Tex, Cotton Ventile, Nomex/Insulite, and Nomex/Neoprene), incorporating both dry-suit and wet-suit designs. Continuous assessment was made of skin temperature, rectal temperature, and of microenvironment temperature, relative humidity, and vapor pressure (T mu, RH mu, and VP mu) 8 mm from the surface of the skin. Results indicate that although microenvironment temperatures were similar among suits and slightly lower than that of the environment, the RH mu and VP mu were much greater than those of the ambient air. The Nomex/Insulite and Nomex/Neoprene suits showed the highest VP mu, of which only the Nomex/Insulite resulted in significantly greater increases in rectal temperature, likely due to complete covering of the body with the impermeable insulite component. The present study demonstrates the need to discern between the ambient conditions and the conditions encountered next to the skin when protective clothing is worn. PMID:1567319

  14. Relative humidities in mid-latitude contrails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, M.; Kübbeler, M.; Meyer, J.; Schiller, C.; Gayet, J.-F.; Fiebig, M.; Hamburger, Th.; Petzold, A. Minikin (4), A.; Schlager, H.; Voigt, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    Aircraft contrails frequently occur in the upper troposphere. They consist of ice particles having the potential to directly affect the Earth's climate. The frequency, life time, ice crystal size spectra and thus radiative properties of contrails depend strongly on the ambient distribution of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi). In air with RHi below 100% contrails are believed to be short-lived, while persistent contrails require an ambient RHi of at least 100% (Gao et al., 2006, Atmospheric Environment). During the mid-latitude aircraft experiments CONCERT 2008 (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT, 6 flights), CIRRUS 2006 (1 flight) and PAZI 2003 ('PArtikel und ZIrren', 2 flights), RHi inside of contrails were measured using the high precision Fast In-situ Stratospheric lyman-alpha Hygrometer FISH. We present results from about 1 hour of observation time in 52 contrails during the 9 flights. The peak of the RHi frequency distribution is around 90%, i.e. most of the contrails are observed in subsaturated air. There is indication that the age of the contrails is much larger than expected, implying that, to date, the lifetime of contrails below 100% RHi is underestimated. Further analysis of the observations is needed to confirm/explain these results.

  15. Humidity fluctuations in the marine boundary layer measured at a coastal site with an infrared humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1996-01-01

    follow the established similarity functions. However the 10-min time averaged measurements underestimate the value of the absolute humidity. The importance of the humidity flux contribution in a marine environment in calculating the Obukhov stability length has been studied. Deviations from Monin...

  16. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  17. Tectonique Cénozoïque du Haut Plateau de la Puna, Nord Ouest Argentin, Andes Centrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Coutand, Isabelle

    1999-01-01

    Mémoires de Géosciences Rennes, n° 92, 381 p., ISBN: 2-905532-91-2 Les Andes Centrales sont l'exemple type d'une chaîne se développant le long d'une marge active en contexte non collisionel et résultent de la subduction légèrement oblique (-N75°E) de la plaque océanique Nazca sous le continent sud-américain. Elles sont caractérisées par la présence du haut plateau de l'Altiplano-Puna s'étendant depuis le Pérou au Nord jusqu'en Argentine au Sud et présentant une altitude moyenne avoisinant ...

  18. Images and symbols of nuclear energy and environment in Argentine public opinion: the need of a new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to create in the Argentine public opinion new positives symbols and images on nuclear energy and on the benefits of its peaceful applications, is al present so important as the development of new technical tools to improve the nuclear industry. These positives symbols and imagines on nuclear energy must be created in the framework of a joint strategy of all the country's nuclear institutions as well as other public organizations, in view of the new nuclear plan recently announced. This joint strategy will permit to create not only the new positives symbols and images in the public opinion, but also to obtain the support of the mass media and new spaces for negotiation in the national, provincial and municipal levels. (author)

  19. Secrets, Trauma, and the Memory Market (or the return of the repressed in recent Argentine post-dictatorship cultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R Tandeciarz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last Argentine Dictatorship (1976-1983, a number of feature-length films have engaged in the public debate over the legacies of state terrorism. El secreto de sus ojos (2009, Argentina's most recent Oscar winner, is the latest to do so, exploring the effects of more than a decade of impunity on those who lost their loved ones. Suggesting that restoration of a justice system that works can lead to the restoration of full civic engagement in a healthy body politic, the film raises important questions about citizenship and belonging in a post-national era. This essay explores the film's phenomenal success in the global memory market to illuminate what remains at stake in contemporary narratives of reconciliation.

  20. Paleo-Environmental Conditions Revealed by Fossil and Geochemical Features at Pampa-Lirima, a High-Altitude Geothermal System in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C.; Blank, J. G.; Clavero, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sinter deposits that form in up-flow areas of high-temperature geothermal systems provide useful information about local and regional paleo-environmental conditions. We analyzed sinter from the Pampa Lirima geothermal field, a high-altitude (4,000 m) Andean site ~190 km east of Iquique in Northern Chile, 20 km from the Bolivian border. There, siliceous sinter is forming in several active thermal pools distributed in a broad, flat plain of sinter and sand debris. Water temperatures ranged from 38-80°C and pH was near neutral (6.0-7.4), when we sampled in November 2014. We focused on the largest pool, one with an artificial trench extending from its SE corner, through which effluent flowed; this trench cut through 1.25m of sinter horizon, allowing us to sample older sinter material along with deposits actively forming in the pool. We used EMP and SEM data to characterize 16 sinter samples. The sinter deposit is comprised of massive sinter layers interbedded with layers rich in fragmented sinter debris cemented by opal-A. The material is dominantly opal-A with a few percent accessory minerals. Accessory phases consist of sulfates - gypsum, sodium- and sodium-calcium sulfates, in decreasing order of occurrence. Fossil frustules and plant remnants replaced by opal-A spheres are abundant; they are comprised of diatom casts (15-80% of the rock), and 10-300 µm diameter filamentous features. In the trench, the fragmental layers are concentrated at the base of the exposed stratigraphy; these layers also show a higher abundance of sodium-sulfates, whereas the uppermost portion of the column presents calcium-sulfates - gypsum - and a lower frequency of fragmental layers. The mineralogy of the deposit is a record of changes in the geochemistry of the thermal pool and/or local environmental conditions over time, with periods of higher sodium and calcium content or higher evaporation rates. The fragmental nature of some sinter layers and the preserved plant remains suggest that

  1. En torno a la desilusión argentina On Argentine disillusionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Kozel

    2007-12-01

    its emergence with general social and economic processes?; How can we extract the incidents of this idea?; How can we characterize and classify its main expressions?; How can we think about the global meaning of this ideological and political process? The general exposition of the research is focused on showing that the topic of the failure acquired its decisive attributes during the first half of the 20th century, through a complex dynamic, comprised of diverse channels which should be captured in their specificity, although without losing sight of the more general movement of which they form a part: seen globally, this movement contributed to the erosion of an entire ideological-cultural configuration, which I call "argentine illusion". The backdrop of the process was none other than the growing social complexity, the greater and more dissonant discursive diversification (Tulio Halperín and the profound hegemony crisis which the country experienced throughout the period.

  2. Italian and Argentine olive oils: a NMR and gas chromatographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segre, Annalaura

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available High-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography (GC were used to analyze 16 monovarietal olive oils obtained from few matched Mediterranean cultivars grown in experimental fields located in Italy and in the Catamarca region of Argentina. The Catamarca region is characterized by extreme pedoclimatic conditions and by a wild spontaneous vegetation. The proposed sampling allows to study the effect of different pedoclimatic conditions on olive oil composition. GC gives the fatty acid profile of olive oil samples. 1H and 13C NMR techniques provide different information: the 1H NMR spectrum allows the measurement of minor components of olive oils such as b-sytosterol, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, formaldehyde, squalene, cycloartenol and linolenic acid; the 1C NMR spectrum allows to obtain information about glycerol tri-esters of olive oils, i.e., about their acyl composition and positional distribution on glycerol moiety. All the NMR and GC results have been submitted to Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Tree Cluster Analysis (TCA. A careful analysis of the statistical results allows to select the Mediterranean cultivars less affected by the climatic conditions present in the Catamarca region. The selected cultivars produce olive oils which keep their Mediterranean characteristics and which can be proposed as colonizing plants in this wild Argentine region.La espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear de alta resolución (RMN y Cromatografía Gaseosa (CG fueron utilizadas para analizar 16 monovariedades de aceites de oliva, obtenidas de algunos olivares Mediterráneos cultivados contemporáneamente en campos experimentales localizados en Italia y en la región de Catamarca en Argentina. Estas muestras permiten estudiar diferentes condiciones pedoclimáticas en la composición de los aceite de oliva. La CG proporciona el perfil en ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva y las técnicas RMN 1H y RMN 13C suministran

  3. Corrective measures technology for humid sites, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrective measures technology task for humid sites consists of two subtasks. The first has the objective of demonstrating that caustic soda/soda ash injection into a closed trench's backfill can achieve a fixation of radiostrontium from further contamination of surrounding ground waters. Monitoring of ground water in and around a demonstration trench, first treated in 1980, has indicated a continued fixation of radiostrontium as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate; soil samples taken in 1984 showed comparable amounts of 90Sr-CaCO3 coprecipitate to those found in samples from 1981. A chemical equilibria model of the leachability of 90Sr from soil in response to inputs of caustic was formulated; the model includes the pertinent processes of cation exchange, acid-base buffering, and dissolution and precipitation of calcite and calcium and magnesium hydroxides. Model predictions of 90Sr leachability were compared to tests with soil samples collected from the trench. The second subtask has the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of detecting 90Sr in ground water via in situ Cerenkov radiation measurement. A prototype Cerenkov detector was fabricated of a photomultiplier tube optically coupled to a free-draining, light-sealed sample chamber for lowering into a well. The device was tested on ground waters from a group of monitoring wells within an ORNL solid waste storage area. The estimates of 90Sr concentrations were compared to those found by the standard radiochemical method. A second prototype detector is being constructed to employ dual photomultiplier tubes in a coincident counting mode to lower background counting rates

  4. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods. PMID:27657070

  5. Single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Lin; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Li, Lin-Li; Lin, Bing; Jiang, Lu

    2009-03-01

    A single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity is introduced. In the new method, kinetic parameters related to both moisture and temperature were obtained by a single pair of experiments: these related to moisture by one with a group of testing humidities and a fixed temperature, those related to temperature by the other with a group of testing temperatures and a constant humidity. By a simulation, the estimates for the kinetic parameters (E(a), m, A) obtained by the proposed method and the reported programmed humidifying and heating method were statistically evaluated and were compared with those obtained by the isothermal measurements at constant humidity. Results indicated that under the same experimental conditions, the estimates obtained by the proposed method were significantly more precise than those obtained by the reported programmed humidifying and heating method. The estimates obtained by the isothermal method at constant humidity were somewhat more precise than those obtained by the proposed method. However, the experimental period needed by the isothermal method at constant humidity was greatly longer than that needed by the proposed method. The stability of dicloxacillin sodium, as a solid state model, was investigated by the single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity. The results indicated that the kinetic parameters obtained by the proposed method were comparable to those from the reported. PMID:19252391

  6. Technical-economic analysis of the 'Tandem' fuel cycle. A study of the Brazil-Argentine case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced fuel cycles, nuclear power reactors, are studied all over the world nowadays, mainly as a way of enhancing the use of nuclear fuel. Such goal is usually decomposed under tree main aspects: environmental, economical and strategic. The Tandem Cycle has demonstrated, under these aspects, to be one of the most promising options among the advanced cycles. This cycle deals, basically, with the reutilization of irradiated ('burned') fuel in PWR type reactors, in CANDU type reactors, as this fuel also contains about 1.5% of fissile material. Brazilian and Argentine nucleoelectric generation options are, coincidentally, in accordance with this option of advanced cycle. This work thus deals with the viability analysis, both technical and economic, of the implementation of a Tandem cycle between the brazilian reactor of Angra-I (PWR) and the argentine reactor of Embalse (CANDU). Tree options of Tandem Cycle have been analysed specifically for the reactors in question. For this analysis, a methodology was developed and a computer program was designed to analyse the technical and economical parts of these options. Besides, countless details have been considered, such as: the influence of actinide elements, test and adjustment of the nuclear data library utilized in the calculations, observation of the safety and control of the CANDU reactor operating on the Tandem Cycle, etc. Given the analyses done, the adoption of the Tandem Cycle-2, in which the fuel irradiated from the PWR is diluted in depleted uranium, was suggested for an occasional implementation of this option of advanced fuel cycle between the reactors of Angra-I and Embalse as a general conclusion of this work. (author)

  7. Propagacão das ondas de rossby nos invernos de máxima freqüência de ocorrência de geadas na pampa úmida Rossby wave propagation during winters of maximum frequency of frost occurrence over the wet pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela V. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se a influência dos padrões de onda extratropicais, que favorecem o desenvolvimento de eventos extremos frios no sudeste Sul-Americano, e em particular na região conhecida como Pampa Úmida. O aquecimento anômalo observado na região do oceano Pacífico tropical ocidental a nordeste da Austrália, durante os invernos de máxima freqüência de ocorrência de Geadas Generalizadas (GG no centro-leste da Argentina, (região conhecida como Pampa Úmida - PU, atua como disparador de ondas de Rossby, as quais se propagam até o continente, favorecendo assim a ocorrência daqueles eventos. O padrão de propagação obtido nas simulações numéricas com um modelo baroclínico global, mostra o predomínio de um número de onda 3. Adicionalmente, foram analisadas as correlações do vento meridional em altos e baixos níveis observados para os eventos de GG, selecionados dentro dos invernos de máxima freqüência de ocorrência desses eventos. O vento meridional global em 250hPa apresenta regiões com correlação estatisticamente significativa com o vento meridional médio na PU. A configuração obtida no caso do vento meridional global em 250hPa, correlacionado com o vento meridional na PU, pode estar associada ao padrão de propagação das ondas simuladas numericamente a partir da forçante tropical. Igualmente importantes e significativos são os valores de correlação do vento sul nos baixos níveis, em particular para toda região da PU. O padrão de ondas simulado está bem representado pelas significativas correlações entre o vento meridional hemisférico em altos níveis e a temperatura no dia de evento de GG.The influence of extratropical waves on the development of extreme cold events over southeast South America, particularly on the Argentinean Wet Pampa region is studied in this work. An anomalous heating observed over the occidental tropical Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia, during Austral winters of

  8. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  9. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  10. Behavior of HEPA filters under high humidity airflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help determine and improve the safety margins of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter units in nuclear facilities under possible accident conditions, the structural limits and failure mechanisms of filter in high-humidity airflows were established and the fundamental physical phenomena underlying filter failure or malfunction in humid air were identified. Empirical models for increases in filter pressure drop with time in terms of the relevant airstream parameters were also developed. The weaknesses of currently employed humidity countermeasures used in filter protection are discussed and fundamental explanations for reported filter failures in normal service are given. (orig./DG)

  11. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles

  12. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-05-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

  13. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; Ujwala Ail; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2005-06-01

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong -axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient, indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. A homemade apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response to exposure to controlled pulses of a sensing gas has been employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrotungstite films towards humidity.

  14. Refractive Index of Humid Air in the Infrared: Model Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2006-01-01

    The theory of summation of electromagnetic line transitions is used to tabulate the Taylor expansion of the refractive index of humid air over the basic independent parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, wavelength) in five separate infrared regions from the H to the Q band at a fixed percentage of Carbon Dioxide. These are least-squares fits to raw, highly resolved spectra for a set of temperatures from 10 to 25 C, a set of pressures from 500 to 1023 hPa, and a set of relative humidities from 5 to 60%. These choices reflect the prospective application to characterize ambient air at mountain altitudes of astronomical telescopes.

  15. Optimizing the Materials Response in Humidity Capacitive Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Noroozi Afshar; Hossein Golnabi; Nima E. Gorji

    2015-01-01

    The number of humidity outputs on the cap of a cylindrical capacitance sensor is optimized by designing three different probes with direct and indirect windows. The time interval is measured within which 30-70 % humidity can influence the dielectric constant and conductivity of the capacitance when exposed to a range of relative humidity. It is then compared with a simple set-up including a simplified equivalent circuit. The direct probes had four and double outputs on the window of the cylin...

  16. Where do these bugs come from? Phenotypic structure of Triatoma infestans populations after control interventions in the Argentine Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Gaspe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region.

  17. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy Stratigraphy, Depositional Environments and Ichnology of the Lower Paleozoic in the Azul Pampa Area - Jujuy Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Azul Pampa, Cordillera Oriental de Jujuy los depósitos cambro-ordovícicos se encuentran ampliamente representados. La columna estratigráfica se inicia con el Grupo Mesón (Cambrico Inferior - Medio, el cual registra sedimentación en un ambiente marino somero dominado por mareas. Este incluye las Formaciones Lizoite, Campanario y Chalhualmayoc. Las Formaciones Lizoite y Chalhualmayoc contienen depósitos de barras submareales similares a aquellas descriptas anteriormente hacia el sur en la región de la quebrada de Humahuaca y en las áreas circundantes. La Formación Campanario incluye depósitos de canales y planicies intermareales, representando un máximo regresivo para el Grupo Mesón. Sobreyacente al Grupo Mesón se sucede un intervalo cámbrico superior-arenigiano referido previamente como Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. Los estudios integrados, tanto sedimentológicos, paleontológicos como estratigráficos secuenciales, indican que ambas unidades son litológicamente similares y temporalmente equivalentes a la Formación Santa Rosita (Cámbrico Superior - Tremadociano y a la Formación Acoite (Arenigiano, respectivamente, las cuales son ampliamente aceptadas en las áreas adyacentes, por lo que se recomienda el abandono de la nomenclatura Areniscas Casayok y Formación Azul Pampa. El intervalo inferior de la Formación Santa Rosita está representado por depósitos de estuarios dominado por mareas del Miembro Pico de Halcón. El intervalo superior se incluye dentro del Miembro Alfarcito y consiste en depósitos marino someros dominados por el oleaje, variando desde shoreface superior hasta offshore inferior, representando una serie de ciclos transgresivos-regresivos. La Formación Acoite registra un episodio de máximo transgresivo a escala de cuenca y se encuentra dominada por depósitos de plataforma con depósitos subordinados de offshore. Los análisis icnológicos revelan la ausencia o la escasez de

  18. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  19. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  20. Interpretación de una sección gravimagnetométrica sobre Pampa de las Invernadas, Sierra Grande de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Kostadinoff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un perfil gravimétrico y magnetométrico realizado en el sector noroeste de la Sierra Grande de San Luis mostró máximos relativos de gravedad en una zona donde se hallan afloramientos de rocas máficas-ultramáficas incluidas en cuerpos graníticos ordovícicos. Asimismo se pudo comparar las anomalías gravimétricas de Bouguer con las del campo magnético terrestre. Los modelos geofísicos fueron elaborados en base a las densidades determinadas para las rocas aflorantes en esta región (granitoides, gneises, máficas y ultramáficas y el valor teórico para la corteza superior. Como resultado se sugiere que las inclusiones de rocas máficas-ultramáficas en los cuerpos graníticos representan el 40 % del volumen de estas últimas. Por ello se considera que el área de pampa de las Invernadas es potencialmente interesante desde el punto de vista económico debido a que las anomalías gravimagnetométricas indican la posibilidad de hallar en profundidad rocas máficas-ultramáficas mineralizadas dado que los parámetros geofísicos medidos son similares a los obtenidos en el área de Río de Las Águilas, en el sector sur de estas sierras.

  1. Análisis litoestratigráfico de la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior en la provincia de La Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Visconti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Cerro Azul fue definida en 1980 para incluir a las sedimentitas continentales pliocenas (limolitas arenosas y areniscas limosas que afloran de manera discontinua en casi todo el ámbito de la provincia de La Pampa. No obstante, varias investigaciones paleontológicas realizadas a partir de la segunda mitad de la década del 80' han permitido ubicar geocronológicamente a la unidad en el intervalo 10 Ma a 5,8-5,7 Ma. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar un análisis de las características litoestratigráficas de la Formación Cerro Azul de acuerdo al Código Argentino de Estratigrafía. Se propone un lectoestratotipo para la unidad, consistente en el perfil de Algarrobo del Águila y un perfil auxiliar en cerro El Morro. También se establecieron las relaciones estratigráficas con otras formaciones. Se interpreta un paleoambiente depositacional de llanura, donde alternan depósitos de loess con numerosos paleosuelos, detectándose escasos depósitos lacustres en la base y pocos cursos fluviales.

  2. Species diversity and morphometrics of tardigrades from a medium-size city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluffo, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrade diversity was studied in a medium-sized city in the Neotropical Region: Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina. Samples were collected between February 1999 and January 2000 from lichens and mosses growing on sidewalk trees of the urban and periurban area. Five species of tardigrades were found, i.e., Echiniscus rufoviridis du Bois-Reymond Marcus, 1944, Macrobiotus areolatus Murray, 1907, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840, Milnesium cf. tardigradum and a non-described species of Macrobiotus. Only one species, M. cf. tardigradum, was found in areas with high levels of vehicle traffic. Results are compared with those from cities in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. Measurements and pt index values (percentage ratios between the length of the structure considered and the buccal tube length are provided for M. areolatus, R. oberhaeuseri and M. cf. tardigradum. Amongst the characters considered, the pt index for the stylet support insertion shows the least intraspecific variation. This character is also independent from body length and buccal-tube length.

  3. A avaliação de curso superior: o caso do curso superior de Tecnologia em Agronegócio da Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ailton da Rosa Cerqueira-Adão

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar a percepção dos discentes e docentes do Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Agronegócio da Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA no que tange às atividades de ensino, pesquisa, extensão, gestão e infraestrutura. O estudo foi desenvolvido sob a forma de pesquisa de opinião, com a utilização da abordagem quantitativa e utilização de instrumento de coleta de dados eletrônico contendo questões fechadas. De um modo geral os resultados apontaram que docentes e discentes avaliam a maioria dos indicadores elencados na pesquisa como sendo de bom a muito bom. Por fim conclui-se que esta primeira auto-avaliação do Curso de Agronegócio poderá orientar o coordenador de curso, bem como a alta gestão, em ações que assegurem a manutenção dos pontos positivos, assim como orientar ações acerca de aspectos que deverão ser melhorados ao longo dos próximos semestres.

  4. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  5. [Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H A; González, S R; Prat, M I; Baldi, P C

    2006-01-01

    Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the tube agglutination test (SAT), the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19 (CYT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-free cytosolic proteins (CP). Out of a total of 325 samples analyzed, 17.8% reacted positively to BPA, 13.8% to SAT, 8.0% to 2-ME, 21.0% to ELISA-CYT and 10.0% to ELISA-CP. These results agree with the few data available in our country and suggest that brucellosis screening should be extended to other regions. PMID:17037254

  6. Observations on the macroscopic anatomy of the intestinal tract and its mesenteric folds in the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Clauss, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-08-01

    We described the macroscopic anatomy of the intestines and their peritoneal folds of five adult pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a cervid species considered to ingest a high proportion of grass in its natural diet. The mean (+/-SD) body weight was 17 (+/-2) kg. The small intestine and the caecocolon measured 495 (+/-37) cm and 237 (+/-24) cm in length, respectively, with an average ratio (small intestine:caecocolon) of 1.9 (+/-0.1). The ascending colon had two and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and two centrifugal gyri. The spiral ansa, which was similar to an ellipse, was fixed to the whole left face of the mesenterium. Apart from the peritoneal folds described in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, three additional, hitherto not described folds were found: a fold that fixed the caecum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon, one that joined the terminal part of the proximal ansa to the last centrifugal gyrus of the spiral ansa of the ascending colon, and one that linked the ascending duodenum to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon. When compared with published data from other cervids of different feeding niches, it appears that, among cervids, the ratio of small intestine to the caecocolon length does not reflect the natural diet.

  7. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  8. Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement.

  9. Control of asbestos-cement tube humidity with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to control asbestos-cement tube humidity by measuring fast neutron fluence passing through an article is described. The experimental data on determining the relation between increasing fast neutron number and humidity are presented. 1.5x107 neutr./s fast neutron source of 252Cf fission spectrum was used. It is shown that the method sensitivity is higher for a softened spectrum as compared to the sensitivity for nonsoftened spectrum of the fast neutron source. The calculations have shown the constant sensitivity to the humidity to the changing for 1-5 cm radius detectors. Enlarging the detector area makes it possible to increase the accuracy of measuring humidity

  10. The near-surface methane humidity on Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Lora, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We retrieve vertical and meridional variations of methane mole fraction in Titan's lower troposphere by re-analyzing near-infrared ground-based observations from 17 July 2014 UT (Adamkovics et al., 2016). We generate synthetic spectra using atmospheric methane profiles that do not contain supersaturation or discontinuities to fit the observations, and thereby retrieve minimum saturation altitudes and corresponding specific humidities in the boundary layer. We relate these in turn to surface-level relative humidities using independent surface temperature measurements. We also compare our results with general circulation model simulations to interpret and constrain the relationship between humidities and surface liquids. The results show that Titan's lower troposphere is undersaturated at latitudes south of 60N, consistent with a dry surface there, but increases in humidity toward the north pole indicate appreciable surface liquid coverage. While our observations are consistent with considerably more liquid met...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. Influence of environmental humidity on plasma etching polyamide 6 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental humidity (EH) may have potential influence on atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. In order to investigate how the environmental humidity affects atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, polyamide 6 (PA 6) films were treated by helium/oxygen (He/O2) plasmas using atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) at different environmental humidity. The plasma treated samples had lower contact angles than the control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed increased surface roughness, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed increased oxygen contents after the plasma treatments. The plasma treated films had higher T-peel strength than that of the control as revealed by T-peel strength tests. It was shown that the addition of environmental humidity increased effectiveness of the plasma in polymer surface modification after the treatment.

  13. Influence of environmental humidity on plasma etching polyamide 6 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Zhiqiang, E-mail: sdgaozq@126.com [College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Dezhou University, Shandong, 253023 (China)

    2012-05-15

    The environmental humidity (EH) may have potential influence on atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. In order to investigate how the environmental humidity affects atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, polyamide 6 (PA 6) films were treated by helium/oxygen (He/O{sub 2}) plasmas using atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) at different environmental humidity. The plasma treated samples had lower contact angles than the control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed increased surface roughness, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed increased oxygen contents after the plasma treatments. The plasma treated films had higher T-peel strength than that of the control as revealed by T-peel strength tests. It was shown that the addition of environmental humidity increased effectiveness of the plasma in polymer surface modification after the treatment.

  14. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Relative Humidity, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Relative Humidity data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  15. Integrated vertical parallel-plate capacitive humidity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high sensitivity capacitive chemical vapor sensing topology, a vertical parallel-plate sensor, was successfully integrated with CMOS testing electronics. The sensor was fabricated by etching a sacrificial aluminum layer in the CMOS stack and filling the resulting cavity with polyimide. The measured humidity response is a 0.31% change in capacitance per percent relative humidity. The temperature sensitivity of the sensor, an important specification for a sensor exposed to a variety of environmental conditions, is 0.19% °C−1. The rising and falling response time constants for a change in relative humidity are 70 and 85 s, respectively. The minimum detectable signal is 0.06 fF, corresponding to a limit of detection of 0.0023% relative humidity

  16. Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomel, H.; Selkirk, H.; Miloshevich, L.; Valverde-Canossa, J.; Valdes, J.; Kyro, E.; Kivi, R.; Stolz, W.; Peng, G.; Diaz, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Cosla Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 humidity sensor and a minor temperature-dependent calibration error. For soundings launched at solar zenith angles between 10" and 30 , the average dry bias is on the order of 9% at the surface and increases to 50% at 15 km. A simple pressure- and temperature-dependent correction based on the comparison with the CFH can reduce this error to less than 7% at all altitudes up to 15.2 km, which is 700 m below the tropical tropopause. The correction does not depend on relative humidity, but is able to reproduce the relative humidity distribution observed by the CFH.

  17. Bacterial pleomorphism and competition in a relative humidity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Yang, Xiaomei; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The response of different bacterial species to reduced water availability was studied using a simple relative humidity gradient technique. Interestingly, distinct differences in morphology and growth patterns were observed between populations of the same species growing at different relative humidit

  18. A method for high accuracy determination of equilibrium relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats a new method for measuring equilibrium relative humidity and equilibrium dew-point temperature of a material sample. The developed measuring device is described – a Dew-point Meter – which by means of so-called Dynamic Dew-point Analysis permits quick and very accurate determina......This paper treats a new method for measuring equilibrium relative humidity and equilibrium dew-point temperature of a material sample. The developed measuring device is described – a Dew-point Meter – which by means of so-called Dynamic Dew-point Analysis permits quick and very accurate...... determination of the equilibrium relative humidity. Potentially, the method can also be used for measuring air relative humidity....

  19. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors and System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of creating surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors that respond rapidly (under 0.5 second) and reversibly...

  20. Numerical Analysis of Shock Induced Separation Delay by Air Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr DOERFFER; Slawomir DYKAS

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this paper numerical calculations of the dry and humid air flows in the nozzle are presented. The dry air flow (adiabatic flow) and the humid air flow (flow with homogeneous condensation, diabatic flow) are modeled with the use of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The comparison of these two types of flow is carried out. The influence of the air humidity on the shock wave location and its interaction with the boundary layer is examined. Obtained numerical results present a first numerical approach of the condensation and evaporation process in transonic flow of humid air. The phenomena considered here are very complex and complicated and need further in-depth numerical analysis.

  1. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-07-28

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  2. Humidity Effects and Aging Behavior in Granular Media

    OpenAIRE

    Restagno, F.; Gayvallet, H.; Bocquet, L.; Charlaix, E.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of humidity effects on the maximum stability angle in granular media. We show that a granular medium of small glass beads exhibits aging properties : the first avalanche angle increases logarithmically with the resting time of the pile. This aging behavior is found to depend on the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. A short interpretation of this effect, based on a model of activated capillary condensation, is proposed.

  3. Humidity control in the inspection of masonry structures

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Ulybin; S.A. Startsev; S.V. Zubkov

    2013-01-01

    The problems of wetting of masonry structures were considered: its causes, consequences and methods of humidity control. The classification of destructions that occur in the masonry as a result of its moistening was given. Destruction processes under wetting of different origin were briefly described. The experimentally ascertained impact of humidity on the strength of different kinds of brick was presented. The influence of this factor is often missed in the material testing and analysis of...

  4. Enhancement of humidity sensitivity of graphene through functionalization with polyethylenimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Aziza, Zeineb [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block S1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); XLIM UMR 7252 Université de Limoges/CNRS, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Zhang, Kang [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block S1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Baillargeat, Dominique [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); XLIM UMR 7252 Université de Limoges/CNRS, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Zhang, Qing [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, Level 6, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block S1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    In this work, we show that the sensing performance of graphene based humidity sensors can be largely improved through polymer functionalization. Chemical vapor deposited graphene is functionalized with amine rich polymer, leading to electron transfer from amine groups in the polymer to graphene. The functionalized graphene humidity sensor has demonstrated good sensitivity, recovery, and repeatability. Charge transfer between the functionalized graphene and water molecules and the sensing mechanism are studied systemically using field effect transistor geometry and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy.

  5. Novel Polymer Resistive-type Humidity Sensitive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Humidity sensors have been widely investigated in recent years[1,2].In this work,two kinds of polymer resistive-type humidity sensitive materials were prepared as follows: 1) polymer electrolyte with an IPN structure formed by the simultaneous quaternization and crosslinking of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) with 1,4-dibromobutane (DBB) and diethyltriamine (DETA) respectively; 2) silicon-containing polyelectrolyte with crosslinking structure formed by a sim...

  6. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Mraović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%. Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag’s IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  7. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  8. Effect of humidity on aerosolization of micronized drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paul M; Price, Robert; Tobyn, Michael J; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2003-10-01

    The variation of aerosolization with humidity for three micronized drugs used in the treatment of asthma was evaluated by using in vitro methods. Micronized samples of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), salbutamol sulphate, and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were stored for 12hr at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% relative humidity (RH). A suitable "reservoir" dry powder inhaler was loaded and tested by using a twin-stage impinger at each specific humidity. The aerosolization efficiency of all three micronized drugs was affected by variations in humidity. The percentage of the delivered dose and the fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD) for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate decreased with increasing humidity; with the largest decrease in FPFLD occurring between 45% and 60% RH for DSCG and 60% to 75% RH for salbutamol sulphate. These observations suggest that the adhesion properties for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate, which govern the aerosolization efficiency, are predominately influenced by capillary interactions. In contrast, the FPFLD for TAA significantly increased as the humidity increased over the range 15% to 75% RH, suggesting that triboelectric forces predominate particle-particle interactions. These variations in drug particulate behavior highlight the importance of an individual formulation approach when developing dry powder inhalation systems. PMID:14606660

  9. Effects of humidity on shear behavior of bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Askarinejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a naturally occurring biological composite, however its microstructure and hence its properties are very complex compared to the manmade composites. Due to optimization, it can be assumed that the variation in properties along the thickness of the culm be a smooth transition for better bonding strength between layers and to prevent non uniformity in stress concentration. As a consequence, biological structures are complicated and functionally graded. Hence, a realistic model that can capture the mechanical performance of bamboo is valuable in future design of robust multifunctional composites. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies on the torsional (shear properties of bamboo. The hierarchical and multi-scale structure of bamboo and the distribution of micro-scale fibers are revealed via laser scanning and atomic force microscopy. This information was incorporated into a finite element model to analyze the mechanical behavior of bamboo under torsion and to estimate the shear modulus of bamboo along the fibers. Moreover, the effects of humidity and therefore water content on the mechanical properties of bamboo were evaluated by performing torsion tests on samples maintained in environments with different humidities. Increasing the humidity does not cause a drop in the shear modulus, however, a jump in the shear modulus did occur at around 60% humidity. Results of this study indicate that the highest strength values in samples occurred in environments with humidity levels between 60% and 80% and undergo a significant drop after that. In higher humidities, the samples behave more ductile.

  10. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  11. Insertion of Argentine firms in global value chains not oriented to the mass market: The cases of high-end footwear and the Basso group

    OpenAIRE

    González, Andrea; Hallak, Juan Carlos; Schott, Peter; Genta, Tatiana Soria

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes experiences of international insertion of Argentine producers of manufactured goods not oriented to the mass market. Based on these experiences, we develop a typology of potential alternatives of international insertion for this type of goods centered on the role of local agents in design activities. Our analysis follows the global value chain (GVC) approach and emphasizes the links between local producers and buyers in developed countries. First, we analyze experiences o...

  12. The effects of nitric oxide cooling and the photodissociation of molecular oxygen on the thermosphere/ionosphere system over the Argentine Islands

    OpenAIRE

    G. D. Wells; Rodger, A. S.; Moffett, R. J.; G. J. Bailey; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    In the past the global, fully coupled, time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's thermosphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere (CTIP) has been unable to reproduce accurately observed values of the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, at extreme geophysical locations such as the Argentine Islands during the summer solstice where the ionosphere remains in sunlight throughout the day. This is probably because the seasonal dependence of thermospheric cooling by 5.3 µm nitric oxid...

  13. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability On Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are different results from different studies, most assessments indicate that climate variability would have negative effects on agriculture and forestry in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Cereal crop yields would decrease generally with even minimal increases in temperature. For commercial crops, extreme events such as cyclones, droughts and floods lead to larger damages than only changes of mean climate. Impacts of climate variability on livestock mainly include two aspects; impacts on animals such as increase of heat and disease stress-related death, and impacts on pasture. As to forestry, climate variability would have negative as well as some positive impacts on forests of humid and sub-humid tropics. However, in most tropical regions, the impacts of human activities such as deforestation will be more important than climate variability and climate change in determining natural forest cover

  14. Argentine activities related to the development of low enriched fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the RERTR Program and supported by the technical cooperation work agreed upon between the U.S.A. and Argentina in May 1979, the CNEA Nuclear Fuel Department - Low Enriched Fuel Elements Project (ECBE Project), has carried on its own program for developing fuels with low enrichment for research and test reactors. Up to the present, its main objective has been to replace the highly enriched fuel used in its only reactor (RA-3) for research, development and radioisotopes production. The basic stages of the Argentine Program are shown in Table 1. At a meeting held in Vienna in March, 1980, the CNEA stated that its development of fuels with low enrichment would be in two fuel lines: UAlx-Al and U3O8-Al, and that its aim would be to reach uranium densities of 18-2.2 g/cm3 for the UAIx-Al line and 2.4-3.0 g/cm3 for the U3O8 line. At the international meeting held at ANL in November, 1980, and after having received depleted uranium and uranium with 20% and 45% enrichment (purchased from the U.S.A. for manufacturing miniplates and possible standard fuels) to carry on the proposed development, CNEA anticipated -- after its first tests -- that the conditions were satisfactory for reaching uranium densities of 2.4-3.0 g/cm3 in U3O8-Al fuel and of 2.4 g/cm3 in UAIx-Al fuel. In February 1981, after Argentina accepted the obligation of paying for the irradiation service, authorization was obtained for irradiating miniplates in the Oak Ridge Reactor within the RERTR Program. In June 1981, the first set of miniplates was sent to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The maximum actual densities reached at that time were 3.12 g/cm3 with U3O8-Al and 2.52 g/cm3 with UAlx-Al. During a visit of the CNEA Project Technical Manager to the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in July 1981, and after exchanging ideas with ANL professional staff, the CNEA decided to incorporate a new line of development, that of U3Si-Al. Three months later, in October 1981 a second set of

  15. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  16. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-25

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are not annealed or annealed at low humidity level will have a low and highly temperature dependent sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more than 230 nm without loss in the grating strength. PMID:26832503

  17. Ecología espacial y estructura social del venado de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) en los pastizales semiáridos de la provincia de San Luis, Argentina: relaciones con el uso de la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Semeñiuk, María Belén

    2013-01-01

    El venado de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) es un ciervo endémico de Sudamérica típico de ambientes abiertos, especialmente pastizales y sabanas al sur de la cuenca Amazónica. Hasta mediados del siglo XIX se encontraba ampliamente distribuido, pero sus poblaciones comenzaron a sufrir una gran retracción geográfica y numérica a principios del siglo XX, causada por las modificaciones en el hábitat. En Argentina, el venado de las pampas ocupaba una amplia área de distribución en las regi...

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  19. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner; Felipe Geraldes Pappen; Jerônimo Lopes Ruas; Gilberto D'Ávila Vargas; Geferson Fischer; Telmo Vidor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous) from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13) of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5) of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8) of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males...

  20. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  1. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice C Lowen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. Twenty experiments performed at relative humidities from 20% to 80% and 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, or 30 degrees C indicated that both cold and dry conditions favor transmission. The relationship between transmission via aerosols and relative humidity at 20 degrees C is similar to that previously reported for the stability of influenza viruses (except at high relative humidity, 80%, implying that the effects of humidity act largely at the level of the virus particle. For infected guinea pigs housed at 5 degrees C, the duration of peak shedding was approximately 40 h longer than that of animals housed at 20 degrees C; this increased shedding likely accounts for the enhanced transmission seen at 5 degrees C. To investigate the mechanism permitting prolonged viral growth, expression levels in the upper respiratory tract of several innate immune mediators were determined. Innate responses proved to be comparable between animals housed at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C, suggesting that cold temperature (5 degrees C does not impair the innate immune response in this system. Although the seasonal epidemiology of influenza is well characterized, the underlying reasons for predominant wintertime spread are not clear. We provide direct, experimental evidence to support the role of weather conditions in the dynamics of influenza and thereby address a long-standing question fundamental to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and evolution.

  2. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO{sub 2}). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 {mu} M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 {mu}m AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a {open_quotes}turn-table{close_quotes} generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS`publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced.

  3. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  4. Application for temperature and humidity monitoring of data center environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ş.; Truşcǎ, M. R. C.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The technology and computer science registered a large development in the last years. Most systems that use high technologies require special working conditions. The monitoring and the controlling are very important. The temperature and the humidity are important parameters in the operation of computer systems, industrial and research, maintaining it between certain values to ensure their proper functioning being important. Usually, the temperature is maintained in the established range using an air conditioning system, but the humidity is affected. In the present work we developed an application based on a board with own firmware called "AVR_NET_IO" using a microcontroller ATmega32 type for temperature and humidity monitoring in Data Center of INCDTIM. On this board, temperature sensors were connected to measure the temperature in different points of the Data Center and outside of this. Humidity monitoring is performed using data from integrated sensors of the air conditioning system, thus achieving a correlation between humidity and temperature variation. It was developed a software application (CM-1) together with the hardware, which allows temperature monitoring and register inside Data Center and trigger an alarm when variations are greater with 3°C than established limits of the temperature.

  5. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru (Pampas de la Joya): Implications for the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    TEGA is one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander that will perform differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high-temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that will be use to analyze samples delivered to instrument via a robotic arm. The samples will be heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000° C and the power required for heating will be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process will be analyzed with the evolved-gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolizer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya southern Peru, a possible analog to Mars, which has been previously enriched with microorganisms (Salmonella thypimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) to investigate the effect of soil matrix over TEGA response. Between 20 to 40 mg of soil pre-treated to 500° C for 24 hours to remove traces of organics, was mixed with or without 5mg biomass lyophilized (dry weight). Additionally 20 mg of each one microorganism were analyzed. The samples were placed in the pyrolizer that reached 1200° C at 1 hour. The volatiles released were transferred to the MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 40-350m/z. As expected, there were significant differences in the evolved gas behaviors for microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix under similar heating conditions. In addition, samples belonging to the most arid environments had significant differences compared with

  6. La prolongación austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en la provincia de La Pampa: Evidencias geológicas y geofísicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delpino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En las márgenes de la salina Valle Daza se reconocieron granoblastitas derivadas de gabros y granitos leucocráticos con diferenciados aplíticos y pegmatíticos, que evidencian dos eventos metamórficos caracterizados por: a deformación dúctil en facies de anfibolitas alta o superior que generó la foliación dominante NNE y transformó a las granoblastitas en anfibolitas y a las rocas granítico-pegmatíticas en protomilonitas y milonitas y, b deformación frágil-dúctil de baja temperatura, con retrogradación parcial de las fases de grado alto a paragénesis de facies de esquistos verdes media a alta. En el mismo sector, notorias anomalías gravimétricas (30 km de diámetro y amplitud de +15 mGal y magnetométricas (10 km de ancho y máximos de 250 nT reflejan la presencia de volúmenes importantes de rocas máficas de alta densidad. Se determinaron significativas similitudes petrológicas y estructurales entre las rocas máficas y graníticas de Valle Daza y las aflorantes en el sector occidental de la sierra de Lonco Vaca, situada en la extensión norte de una línea de anomalías gravimagnetométricas de rumbo concordante con la foliación NNE con máximos en las localidades Estancia El Coya, Valle Daza, El Durazno y Victorica. De norte a sur, los afloramientos de granoblastitas clinopiroxénicas y anfibolitas de Lonco Vaca, salina de Valle Daza y Estancia Santa María, se corresponden con las respectivas anomalías gravimagnetométricas. Los estudios realizados indican que los eventos tectono-metamórficos observados en el centro de la provincia de La Pampa pueden ser correlacionados con los eventos F3 (S3-M3 y F4 (M4 reconocidos en el bloque central de la sierra de San Luis. Son también características en un todo comparables en ambas regiones, el diseño discontínuo y la alineación NNE de las anomalías gravimagnetométricas, en concordancia con fajas de deformación dúctil de extensión regional buzantes al ESE y con

  7. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio;

    2016-01-01

    sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more...

  8. Prediction of blood-brain barrier permeation of α-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor ligands using PAMPA technique and quantitative-structure permeability relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucicevic, Jelica; Nikolic, Katarina; Dobričić, Vladimir; Agbaba, Danica

    2015-02-20

    Imidazoline receptor ligands are a numerous family of biologically active compounds known to produce central hypotensive effect by interaction with both α2-adrenoreceptors (α2-AR) and imidazoline receptors (IRs). Recent hypotheses connect those ligands with several neurological disorders. Therefore some IRs ligands are examined as novel centrally acting antihypertensives and drug candidates for treatment of various neurological diseases. Effective Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability (P(e)) of 18 IRs/α-ARs ligands and 22 Central Nervous System (CNS) drugs was experimentally determined using Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) and studied by the Quantitative-Structure-Permeability Relationship (QSPR) methodology. The dominant molecules/cations species of compounds have been calculated at pH = 7.4. The analyzed ligands were optimized using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)) included in ChemBio3D Ultra 13.0 program and molecule descriptors for optimized compounds were calculated using ChemBio3D Ultra 13.0, Dragon 6.0 and ADMET predictor 6.5 software. Effective permeability of compounds was used as dependent variable (Y), while calculated molecular parametres were used as independent variables (X) in the QSPR study. SIMCA P+ 12.0 was used for Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis, while the stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) modeling were performed using STASTICA Neural Networks 4.0. Predictive potential of the formed models was confirmed by Leave-One-Out Cross- and external-validation and the most reliable models were selected. The descriptors that are important for model building are identified as well as their influence on BBB permeability. Results of the QSPR studies could be used as time and cost efficient screening tools for evaluation of BBB permeation of novel α-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor ligands, as promising drug candidates for treatment of hypertension or neurological diseases.

  9. Nuevos datos geocronológicos en subsuelo y afloramientos del Grupo Choiyoi en el oeste de La Pampa: implicancias estratigráficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barrionuevo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta nueva información geocronológica de rocas del subsuelo del yacimiento petrolífero 25 de Mayo - Medanito S.E. y de afloramientos del cerro Colón, ubicados al sudoeste y centro-oeste de la provincia de La Pampa, distantes entre sí 135 km. Las muestras provienen de testigos corona perforados en la parte superior de la unidad volcánica en el subsuelo del yacimiento y de afloramientos, y corresponden a ignimbritas riolíticas de medio a alto grado de soldamiento. Del análisis de sísmica 3D surge que 3 de las 4 muestras de subsuelo corresponden al tope del relleno de un hemigraben de rumbo 100°, la otra muestra corresponde a unidades que traslapan el hemigraben, y las muestras de afloramiento son unidades situadas fuera del ámbito de la cuenca Neuquina. 5 edades U-Pb en zircón simple promedian 246 Ma para el tope del relleno del hemigraben en el ámbito de subsuelo, y la roca que traslapa el hemigraben arroja una edad de 211 Ma. En el cerro Colón 4 edades U-Pb en zircón simple de muestras de afloramiento promedian 261 Ma. Se interpreta en este trabajo a cerro Colón y las rocas del tope del relleno del hemigraben del yacimiento como pertenecientes a la Sección Superior del Grupo Choiyoi, y a la muestra que traslapa el hemigraben como parte final del vulcanismo Choiyoi (volcanismo "póstumo" ya dentro del Ciclo Precuyo.

  10. Combining numerical modeling and stable isotope values to quantify groundwater recharge from the Chilean Andes to the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. P.; Pollyea, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is one of the driest regions on Earth and receives less than 5mm of precipitation annually. The Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT) Basin contains the largest aquifer system in the region, yet the mechanisms and timing of aquifer recharge and continental-scale groundwater flux are poorly understood. Although there is little debate that the source of groundwater recharge is the higher elevation regions of the Andean Altiplano to the east of the PdT Basin, there remains much uncertainty surrounding the mechanisms and timing of aquifer recharge and continental-scale groundwater flux. Most recharge models of the PdT focus on surface water runoff and alluvial fan recharge on shorter time scales, but many of these models explicitly neglect deep flow pathways. Previous investigators have combined the thermal aquifer profile and 14C groundwater ages to propose an alternative conceptual model in which cold meteoric water infiltrates deep into the Cordillera before circulating upward into the PdT by thermal convection through fault-controlled migration pathways. Although this conceptual model provides a convincing theoretical argument for deep fluid circulation, it cannot constrain the magnitude of this deep recharge flux. In this work, we revisit deep-flow conceptual model by combining the spatial distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotope values as groundwater tracers with a non-isothermal model of continental scale groundwater flow through a two-dimensional transect from the Chilean Andes to the PdT Basin. This work provides first-order estimates on the contribution of deep groundwater circulation within the PdT Aquifer, while providing a framework for (1) quantifying boundary conditions for high resolution models of groundwater resources within the PdT Aquifer, (2) assessing the influence of variable future climate scenarios for groundwater availability in the region, and (3) further integrating conservative tracers and numerical models for

  11. Comparison of the Lumbosacral Plexus Nerves Formation in Pampas Fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and Crab-Eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) in Relationship to Plexus Model in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzão, Caio José; Zimpel, Aline Veiga; Novakoski, Eduardo; da Silva, Aline Alves; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) were dissected in two species of South American wild canids (pampas fox-Pseudalopex gymnocercus, and crab-eating fox-Cerdocyon thous). The nerves origin and distribution in the pelvic limb were examined and compared with the LSP model of the dog described in the literature. The LSP was formed by whole ventral branches of L5 at L7 and S1, and a contribution of a one branch from S2, divided in three trunks. The trunk formed by union from L5-6 and S1 was divided into the cranial (cutaneus femoris lateralis nerve) medial (femoralis nerve) and lateral branches (obturatorius nerve). At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadicus plexus, was formed by contributions from L6-7 and S1-2. This root gives rise to the nerve branches which was disseminated to the pelvic limb (nerves gluteus cranial and gluteus caudal, cutaneus femoris caudalis and ischiadicus). The ischiadicus nerve was divided into fibularis communis and tibialis nerves. The tibialis nerve emits the cutaneus surae caudalis. The fibularis communis emits the cutaneus surae lateralis, fibularis superficialis and fibularis profundus. The pudendus nerve arises from S2 with contributions of one branch L7-S1 and one ramus of the cutaneus femoris lateralis. Still, one branch of S2 joins with S3 to form the rectales caudales nerve. These data provides an important anatomical knowledge of a two canid species of South American fauna, besides providing the effective surgical and clinical care of these animals. PMID:26692361

  12. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  13. Effects of air humidity on ionization chamber response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effect of air humidity on four different ionization chamber cap materials verified earlier studies (Kristensen and Sundbom, 1981; Mijnheer et al., 1983) and extended our understanding of the problem. We found nylon and A-150 plastic caps swell as they absorb water from the air. This accounts for as much as 2.5% increase in ionization response. Graphite chambers readily absorb and desorb water from the air. This creates a problem in maintaining dry air in a wet graphite chamber. Humid air has a different density and W value than dry air (Niatel, 1969, 1975). This decreases the charge collected in a wet graphite chamber. We observe a decrease in response of approximately 2%, a value greater than can be accounted for by these effects alone. Polyethylene chambers are unaffected by humid air. 4 refs., 9 figs

  14. Effect of environmental humidity on static foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueliang; Karakashev, Stoyan I; Evans, Geoffrey M; Stevenson, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The quality of foaming products (such as beer and shampoo) and the performance of industrial processes that harness foam (such as the froth flotation of minerals or the foam fractionation of proteins) depend upon foam stability. In this study, experiments are performed to study the effect of environmental humidity on the collapse of static foams. The dependency of the rate at which a foam collapses upon humidity is demonstrated, and we propose a hypothesis for bubble bursting due to Marangoni instability induced by nonuniform evaporation to help explain the dependency. This hypothesis is supported by direct experimental observations of the bursting process of isolated bubbles by high speed video recording and the thinning of isolated foam films under different values of humidity and temperature by microinterferometric methods. PMID:22303917

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Humidity sensitive organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, I.; Karimov, Kh S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Qazi, I.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Khan, T. A.; Amin, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental results for the humidity dependent properties of an organic field effect transistor. The organic field effect transistor was fabricated on thoroughly cleaned glass substrate, in which the junction between the metal gate and the organic channel plays the role of gate dielectric. Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and semitransparent Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum thermal evaporation on the glass substrate with preliminarily deposited Ag source and drain electrodes. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated device were performed. The effect of humidity on the drain current, drain current-drain voltage relationship, and threshold voltage was investigated. It was observed that humidity has a strong effect on the characteristics of the organic field effect transistor.

  16. Humidity control in the inspection of masonry structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ulybin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of wetting of masonry structures were considered: its causes, consequences and methods of humidity control. The classification of destructions that occur in the masonry as a result of its moistening was given. Destruction processes under wetting of different origin were briefly described. The experimentally ascertained impact of humidity on the strength of different kinds of brick was presented. The influence of this factor is often missed in the material testing and analysis of structures. The comparison between different methods of moisture control was given. A technique for measuring the moisture using the calcium carbide method was pictured; this method is little known in Russia. The advantages and disadvantages of non-destructive methods were discussed. Special attention was paid to the definition of errors in electrical control methods, occurring due to existence of salts in the masonry. The recommendations for combined use of different methods of humidity control were given.

  17. Movimiento superficial de contaminantes biológicos de origen ganadero en la red de drenaje de una cuenca de Pampa Ondulada Surface movement of cattle-borne biological contaminants in the drainage network of a basin of the Rolling Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I Chagas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la concentración de indicadores de contaminación biológica en pequeñas depresiones ubicadas en vías de escurrimiento que atraviesan tierras dedicadas a la ganadería donde se acumulan aguas y sedimentos generados por la actividad agropecuaria de la Pampa Ondulada argentina. La carga animal de los lotes ubicados en la cuenca del Tala donde se encontraban las depresiones, se relacionó estrechamente con su carga de microorganismos. La intensidad de las lluvias previas al muestreo (en el caso de los coliformes totales y el lapso de tiempo entre el último escurrimiento significativo y el muestreo (para enterococos y estreptococos fecales resultaron variables sensibles para predecir la dinámica de la concentración de dichos grupos de microorganismos en los sitios de acumulación. Los resultados obtenidos corroboran la estrecha asociación que existe entre los procesos de escurrimiento y erosión hídrica y la contaminación biológica de las aguas acumuladas en las depresiones estudiadas. Estos elementos, sumados a los resultados de trabajos previos realizados en la región, permitieron elaborar un modelo conceptual sencillo de entradas y salidas de potenciales contaminantes físicos y biológicos en las depresiones estudiadas que podrá servir de base para el diseño de alertas tempranas de contaminación de los cursos de agua a nivel regional.Runoff water and sediments from crop and cattle production fields of the Rolling Pampas accumulate in small depressions along the drainage network. We studied the concentration of biological contamination indicators in these small sinks located in bottomlands devoted to cattle production of the Tala River basin. The stocking rate was closely related to the concentration of microorganisms in the depressions. The intensity of rainfall events previous to each sampling date and the time between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date proved to be sensible variables for

  18. El uso del caso como estrategia de incidencia pública: Mapa político de un grupo activista de género en la provincia de La Pampa The use of the case as a public advocacy strategy: Political map of an activist gender group in La Pampa province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedra Aimetta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo sintetiza una investigación que traza la biografía política de Mujeres por la Solidaridad, una agrupación activista de género de la provincia de La Pampa. El ensayo describe y analiza los repertorios de acción de este grupo donde la dimensión comunicacional es una de sus marcas identitarias. Se destaca en su historia política el uso de casos de interés público para intervenir en su enunciación mediática, politizarla e incidir en el lenguaje y formas de presentación y, a su vez, influir en la agenda de medios para que las temáticas de género sean incorporadas y atendidas. Dado que desde su rol de agenda setting la prensa es un productor y reproductor fundamental de significaciones sociales, a través de estrategias de advocacy y lobby, el grupo da impulso a reivindicaciones de género apoyándose en el capital que le otorga la visibilidad pública en el orden local. Mujeres por la Solidaridad, actuando en el marco del movimiento amplio de mujeres de Argentina incorpora en su agenda de trabajo los ejes de derechos reproductivos, violencia sexista y trata de mujeres, al tiempo que despliega sus propias estrategias.This paper sinthesize a research that traces the political biography of Mujeres por la Solidaridad, an activist gender group in La Pampa province. The essay describes and analyses the action repertoire of this group with a communicational dimension as one of its identifying features. It is emphasized in its political history the use of cases of public interest to intervene in the media statement, politicize it and influence not only in the language and presentation forms but also in the media agenda so that gender issues were included and considered. Considering the agenda setting role of the press, it produces and reproduces fundamental social significations, and by advocacy and lobby strategies the group impels gender claims supported by the capital given by the local public visibility. In its agenda, Mujeres

  19. La educación de las mujeres rurales en el Territorio Nacional de La Pampa durante los primeros gobiernos peronistas (1946-1955 The education of the rural women in the National Territory of The Pampas during the first Peronista governments (1946-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy M. Peirano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la relación que el Estado peronista (1946-1955 estableció con las mujeres rurales del Territorio Nacional de La Pampa. La comprensión del rol de las mujeres rurales en un ámbito que estaba en pleno proceso de definición de su identidad política remite, por un lado a las políticas agrarias del peronismo y por otro, y de manera necesaria, al desarrollo del proceso histórico regional. En este contexto la educación de la mujer rural consistió en uno de los objetivos de relevancia para el Estado. Si bien es cierto que la enseñanza agrícola de la mujer campesina no fue sólo una preocupación del peronismo, en estos años esta actividad cobró interés en el ámbito regional; se instalaron las Misiones del Hogar Agrícola cuya finalidad era, precisamente, la formación de la mujer campesina.This work has as objective to analyze the relationship that the Peronista State (1946-1955 settled down with the rural women of the National Territory from La Pampa. In this sense, the understanding of the list of the rural women in an environment that in the middle of process of definition of its political identity was remits, on one hand to the agrarian politicians of the peronismo and for other, and in a necessary way, to the development of the regional historical process. In this context the rural woman's education consisted on one of the objectives of relevance for the State. Although it is certain that the rural woman's agricultural teaching was not only a concern of the peronismo, in these years this activity charged interest in the regional environment. They settled the Missions of the Agricultural Home whose purpose was, in fact, the rural woman's formation.

  20. Reconciling tectonic shortening, sedimentation and spatial patterns of erosion from 10Be paleo-erosion rates in the Argentine Precordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Pedro; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fosdick, Julie C.; Wittmann, Hella

    2016-09-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understand the development of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge dynamics predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based models predict that catchment-wide erosion maxima significantly lag behind a pulse of rock uplift. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S. Using a combination of 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates, constraints on re-exposure using 26Al/10Be ratios, geomorphic observations and detrital zircon provenance, we demonstrate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags the maximum rate of deformation over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic wedges.

  1. Les corps disparus. La fictionnalisation de la guerre sale dans l’Argentine de la dictature militaire (1976-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Bonells

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available À travers l’analyse de certains romans en langue espagnole sur la dictature militaire en Argentine (1976-1983, l’auteur aborde la question de la disparition comme réalité historique et comme thème littéraire à travers une double approche : analyser l’intentionnalité qui porte ces récits sur le « Proceso » ; rendre compte des mécanismes qui régissent ce que l’on peut appeler la « mise en dictature du roman ».A través del análisis de algunas novelas en lengua española sobre la dictadura militar en Argentina (1976-1983, el autor aborda la cuestión de la desaparición como realidad histórica y como tema literario a partir de un doble enfoque: analizar la intencionalidad subyacente de dichos relatos sobre el Proceso; dar cuenta de los mecanismos que regulan lo que podemos denominar «la novela en dictadura».

  2. Relationship Between Beak Morphological Variables and Body Size and Mantle Length of Male and Female Argentine Shortfin Squid (Illex argentinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; LU Huajie; LIU Bilin; FANG Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Beak of cephalopod is an important hard tissue.Understanding the morphology of beak can yield critical information on the role of cephalopods in the ecosystem.The south patagonic stock of the Argentine shortfin squid,Illex argentinus,is not only one of the most important fishing targets,but also one of the most important species in the marine eco-system of the southwest Atlantic.A total of 430 samples of I.argentinus,including 229 females 103-346mm in mantle length (ML) and 201males 140-298mm in ML,were collected from the area off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Argentinean waters by Chinese squid jigging vessels during February to May 2007.The morphology of their beaks was evaluated.The relationships between beak morphological variables and ML differed significantly among males and females.They could be best described by logarithmic functions for females and linear functions for males except for upper wing length (UWL) and lower rostrum length (LRL),which followed exponential functions in their relationships with ML.The results showed the sexual dimorphism in the relationship between ML and beak morphology for the south patagonic stock of I.argentinus.However,no significant difference was found between males and females in the relationships of beak morphological variables (except for UWL) versus body weight (BW),suggesting that the relationship between beak morphological variables and BW can be used for estimating the biomass consumed by their predators.

  3. The Usefulness of Edible and Medicinal Fabaceae in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia: Environmental Availability and Other Sources of Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. It is based on a bibliographical analysis of 27 ethnobotanical sources and catalogues of regional flora. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60% in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. It was found that 12.8% (30 species, mainly woody, conspicuous plants, are collected for food or medicines. Most of the species used grow in arid environments. Cultivation and purchase/barter enrich the Fabaceae offer, bringing it up to a total of 63 species. The richness of native and exotic species, and the existence of multiple strategies for obtaining these plants, indicates hybridization of knowledge and practices. Only 22% of the total species used are mentioned in bothcontexts of food and medicine, reflecting low-use complementation. This study suggests a significant ecological appearance and a high level of availability in shops and exchange networks in Patagonia, highlighting the need to consider the full set of environmental and socioeconomic factors in research related to the use and cultural importance of plants in regional contexts.

  4. Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremías David Tosi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962, 2008 (n=977, 2012 (n=2,542, and 2014 (n=2,466. The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  5. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  6. Online Soft Sensor of Humidity in PEM Fuel Cell Based on Dynamic Partial Least Squares

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Long; Qihong Chen; Liyan Zhang; Longhua Ma; Shuhai Quan

    2013-01-01

    Online monitoring humidity in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is an important issue in maintaining proper membrane humidity. The cost and size of existing sensors for monitoring humidity are prohibitive for online measurements. Online prediction of humidity using readily available measured data would be beneficial to water management. In this paper, a novel soft sensor method based on dynamic partial least squares (DPLS) regression is proposed and applied to humidity prediction i...

  7. The Humidity Sensor Using the Polyacrylic Emulsion Containing Magnesium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Han Yu; Jung-Chuan Chou; Tai-Ping Sun; Shen-Kan Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    An impedance type humidity sensor based on the polyacrylic emulsion containing magnesium chloride (MgCl2)without chemical modification was investigated. The impedances of the sensor were measured from various relative humidity in the frequency range between 0.1kHz and 100 kHz. The sensor has a good sensitivity from 60%RH to 90%RH. According to the experimental results, the response time is about 240 seconds in the adsorption process and 310 seconds in the desorption process.

  8. Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Khan, Lutul; Webb, David J.;

    2011-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as well as the first FBG recorded in a TOPAS polymer optical fiber in the important low loss 850nm spectral region. For the demonstration we have fabricated FBGs with resonance...... wavelength around 850 nm and 1550 nm in single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers made of TOPAS and the conventional poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Characterization of the FBGs shows that the TOPAS FBG is more than 50 times less sensitive to humidity than the conventional PMMA FBG in both...

  9. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Bakelite Resistivity

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Barret, V; Bastid, N; Blanchard, G; Chiavassa, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, Philippe; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Dupieux, P; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Gallio, M; Lamoine, L; Luquin, Lionel; Manso, F; Mereu, P; Métivier, V; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Rahmani, A; Royer, L; Roig, O; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, Ermanno

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at RPC99 and submitted to Elsevier PreprintThe use of phenolic or melaminic bakelite as RPC electrodes is widespread. The electrode resistivity is an important parameter for the RPC performance. As recent studies have pointed out, the bakelite resistivity changes with temperature and is influenced by humidity. In order to gain a quantitative understanding on the influence of temperature and humidity on RPC electrodes, we assembled an apparatus to measure resistivity in well-controlled conditions. A detailed description of the experimental set-up as well as the first resistivity measurements for various laminates in different environmental conditions are presented.

  10. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation. PMID:25980871

  11. Challenges to Cabin Humidity Removal Presented by Intermittent Condensing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonJouanne, Roger G.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    On-orbit temperature and humidity control (THC) is more easily accomplished when the THC hardware is either consistently dry (i.e., no humidity control is occurring), or consistently wet. The system is especially challenged when intermittent wet/dry conditions occur. The first six years of on-orbit ISS operations have revealed specific concerns within the THC system, specifically in the condensing heat exchanger and the downstream air/water separator. Failed or degraded hardware has been returned to ground and investigated. This paper presents the investigation findings, and the recommended hardware and procedural revisions to prevent and recover from the effects of intermittent condensing conditions.

  12. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...... evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling and...

  13. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  14. Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Deng, Fangming; Hao, Yong; Fu, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless humidity sensor tag for low-cost and low-power applications. The proposed humidity sensor tag, based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The top metal layer was deposited to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture, resulting in a flat power conversion efficiency curve. The capacitive sensor interface, based on phase-locked loop (PLL) theory, employs a simple architecture and can work with 0.5 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that humidity sensor tag achieves excellent linearity, hysteresis and stability performance. The total power-dissipation of the sensor tag is 2.5 μW, resulting in a maximum operating distance of 23 m under 4 W of radiation power of the RFID reader. PMID:26457707

  15. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Mahapatra, Manoj K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wachsman, E. D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Meilin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gerdes, Kirk R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  16. Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless humidity sensor tag for low-cost and low-power applications. The proposed humidity sensor tag, based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology, was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The top metal layer was deposited to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture, resulting in a flat power conversion efficiency curve. The capacitive sensor interface, based on phase-locked loop (PLL theory, employs a simple architecture and can work with 0.5 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that humidity sensor tag achieves excellent linearity, hysteresis and stability performance. The total power-dissipation of the sensor tag is 2.5 μW, resulting in a maximum operating distance of 23 m under 4 W of radiation power of the RFID reader.

  17. Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Deng, Fangming; Hao, Yong; Fu, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless humidity sensor tag for low-cost and low-power applications. The proposed humidity sensor tag, based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The top metal layer was deposited to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture, resulting in a flat power conversion efficiency curve. The capacitive sensor interface, based on phase-locked loop (PLL) theory, employs a simple architecture and can work with 0.5 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that humidity sensor tag achieves excellent linearity, hysteresis and stability performance. The total power-dissipation of the sensor tag is 2.5 μW, resulting in a maximum operating distance of 23 m under 4 W of radiation power of the RFID reader. PMID:26457707

  18. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...

  19. Factors affecting relative humidity during wood vacuum drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; CAI Ying-chun

    2009-01-01

    Effects of pressure and temperature in the chamber during vacuum drying on the relative humidity and evaporation of wood surface were investigated by using the vacuum chamber. The setting temperature during vacuum drying included dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the cooling water in the condenser. Results indicated that relative humidity during vacuum drying was affected by the dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the water in the condenser. Relative humidity of wood decreased with the increase in temperature at the given temperature of the water in the condenser. The relative humidity was affected slightly by pressure in the vacuum chamber pA, and it decreased from 70% to 65% with pA increased from 50 kPa to 101 kPa. Moreover, there was nearly no evaporation under the vacuum without external heating.

  20. Dropwise Condensation Experiments with Humid Air at a Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, P.; Philipp, Ch; Gross, U.

    2012-11-01

    A new test facility has been developed to investigate dropwise condensation heat transfer in a humid air environment. It is designed as a closed loop system in which air is circulated by a fan, enabling investigations in the following parameter ranges: velocity up to 20 m/s; Reynolds number up to 20,000; temperature 20 to 100 °C relative humidity up to 100 %. Heat transfer measurements are done with a specifically designed micro sensor which is flush mounted at one of the vertical surfaces of a horizontal flow channel 12 mm × 32 mm (inner width and height, respectively) and covered at its air-side surface by a newly developed polymer layer containing 20 % of carbon nanotubes for improvement of the thermal conductivity. A total of 8 thermocouples is embedded inside the sensor. Their readings serve as input data to a numerical model which enables consideration of heat losses and evaluation of surface temperature and heat flux. The measuring system allows to analyse the effects of heat flux, air-to-wall temperature difference, absolute and relative humidity, and Reynolds number on the heat transfer coefficient. Single phase heat transfer results show excellent agreement with well established correlations for turbulent air flow. The onset of dropwise condensation was detected with very good repeatability. This paper covers details of the experimental device, measuring system and data evaluation including accuracy considerations. Single phase and preliminary dropwise condensation results with humid air are reported.

  1. AFM investigation of kraft pulp ber swelling in controlled humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Kraft pulp fibers are wood fibers from softwood, typically spruce and pine, which are the main constituent for so called kraft paper. Kraft paper is used mainly for packaging applications, where a high strength is required. In this work, the swelling behavior of spruce kraft pulp fibers is investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To perform this task, the AFM was equipped with a fluid cell and a setup where the relative humidity inside the fluid cell can be controlled. The setup enables to select any humidity value between approximately 5% and 80% relative humidity. With this setup, a change in surface morphology of the scanned area could be observed. Furthermore, the evolution of the characteristic surface wrinkles of dried pulp fibers with increasing humidity was quantified in two different ways. One way is to measure the distance between the surface wrinkles, the other to determine their height. It could be shown that the distance between the wrinkles is increasing, whereas the height is decreasing. This means that the surface is becoming smoother when the ber is swelling, which is best observed on a completely wet fiber. (author)

  2. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S.; Hu, G.; Howe, R. C. T.; de Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Ray, S. K.; Guha, P. K.; Hasan, T.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  3. Humidity affects the performance of von Frey monofilaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Ellehuus-Hilmersson, C

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of tactile and nociceptive thresholds of the skin with calibrated polyamide monofilaments is an established testing method both in animal and in human research. It is known that changes in relative humidity may affect the physical properties of the monofilaments. As this effect has onl...

  4. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humidity calculations. (a) The following abbreviations (and units) are used in this section: BARO....562 715.655 720.781 725.939 731.130 736.354 741.611 746.901 752.224 3 757.581 762.971 768.396...

  5. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  6. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  7. ARGOS PHWR 380. Argentine offer of a safer pressurized heavy-water reactor of 380 MW. '...a many-eyed guardian...' concerned about nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor vendors in most countries have had lean pickings for the past decade, and ordering seems unlikely to show much growth until the shock wave from the Chernobyl accident has died away. Paradoxically, however, at least one firm sees a niche in the market. ENACE - the Empresa Nuclear Argentina de Centrales Electricas, or Argentine Nuclear Power Plant Corporation - is stepping out into the market place with a newly-designed 380 MWe nuclear power plant. The plant is equipped with a pressurized heavy-water reactor of the pressure vessel type (PHWR). ENACE has adopted new boundary design conditions and has embodied a number of special features to assure safety and economy in operation. The major shareholder in ENACE is the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). ENACE is the architect-engineer for the NPP projects of the Argentine nuclear programme. It has a licensing agreement with Siemens AG's Kraftwerk Union AG, which is its minor shareholder. Under this agreement, ENACE has the right to use the Siemens-KWU PHWR technology, which was originally developed for the MZFR reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as their know-how in pressurized (light-) water reactors (PWRs) design and construction. The CNEA also has agreements with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. for the transfer of technology related to CANDU-type PTHWRs. The CNEA and ENACE have acquired considerable practical experience from the construction and operation of the 367 MWe Atucha I PHWR and the 648 MWe Embalse PTHWR; ENACE is currently building Argentina's third nuclear power plant, Atucha II, a 745 MWe PHWR. (author)

  8. Cincuentenario de la Asociación Argentina de Dermatología: (1907-1957 Fiftieth anniversary of the Argentine Association of Dermatology: (1907-1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Iribas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcurrimos en el año del Centenario de la Asociación Argentina de Dermatología, con la intención de comprender cabalmente ese momento. Hallamos en su historia hechos trascendentes, que nos muestran el camino recorrido y nos orientan hacia la concreción de objetivos, en pro del engrandecimiento de la entidad como tal. La revisión del Cincuentenario Institucional, a través de la lectura del acto oficial y evento científico, que se acompañó con la presencia de un número importante de médicos, representativo de la Medicina y Dermatología Argentina, nos nutre de información, estimula a la revisión histórica e invita a trabajar por la vigencia y consolidación del patrimonio cultural-educativo de nuestro país con proyección internacional, que concentra la Asociación Argentina de Dermatología.We go through the year of the Anniversary of the Argentine Association of Dermatology with the intention of fully understanding this moment. Therefore, we have looked for important facts in its history, which show us the distance covered and guide us through the realization of goals, which exalt the institution as such. Through the reading of the first official ceremony and the scientific event which accompanied it -which was full of several important physicians representing Argentine foreign Medicine and Dermatology-, the review of the Fiftieth Institutional Anniversary nurtures us with information and stimulates us to work for the validity and consolidation of the educational and cultural heritage of our country that constitutes the Argentine Association of Dermatology.

  9. Preservation of primary information related to radiological protection and nuclear safety in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of primary information related to Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority began as a need of and as significant contribution to the future activities of the institution. Since 2005 a high number of experts have retired from the organization and will continue to do so until 2010. Besides, the primary information that experts possess is technical information produced at the beginning of Argentina's regulatory activity in the 50 's. If this information on account of its relevance - could not be preserved properly or be made available to the future generation of scientists and technicians, such an issue could have a negative impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the institution in the future. The methodology selected for the project comprises several stages. Overall, the first stage consists in identifying primary information and expert's explicit knowledge through interviews and personal consultations. The second stage consists in converting to digital format the documentation that experts have traditionally kept in paper format. The third stage deals with transferring to a new database the already digitalized information from the computers of experts who are about to retire. The final stage is based on managing this information by creating knowledge maps and socio-grams, experts personal Web sites and a database with a mega browser to make information readily accessible. During the early months of the project, 190 pages have on average been converted to digital format on a daily basis, the equivalent of around 8 MB of information. The men/hours employed for this task has been around 40 minutes per day. As time went by, the method turned more efficient and as a result, some 400 pages were converted to digital format on a daily basis, accounting for 16 MB of information. The men/hours employed for this task has been around 60 minutes per day. Up until mid 2008, more than 1,000 documents have been

  10. Decision theories used in planning of areas around La Colacha basin in Córdoba (Argentine) considering natural and human hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Corrales, José Manuel; Grau Olive, Juan Bautista; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Cisneros, J M; Andina de la Fuente, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The authors of U.P.M. have had relations with Argentine Universities and Administrations, in part with J.M.Cisneros that is Professor at Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto in Prov. de Córdoba Arg., and have applied Decision Theories with Mathematic tools for the planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas and especially of La Colacha bassin enlarged with larger areas around it as “Cuenca de los Arroyos Menores” at West and South of Rio Cuarto. These large flat lands have loess soils ...

  11. Research on Monitoring of Soil Humidity Based on AMSR-E Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish AMSR-E soil humidity monitoring model to realize the real-time monitoring of soil humidity.[Method] By dint of evaporation(small type) in Guangxi,daily precipitation,daily average maximum temperature,daily minimum relative humidity,≤ 5 mm precipitation day,as well as AMSR-E soil humidity data,with Stepwise regression method,soil humidity real-time monitoring was studied based on GIS technology,and monitoring result.[Result] The low soil humidity in Guangxi on September 2...

  12. Sedimentación pedemontana en las nacientes delRío Jáchal y Pampa de Gualilán, Precordillera de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Suriano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características sedimentológicas delos depósitos de piedemontes desarrollados en cuencas intramontanas de laPrecordillera. Estudios detallados fueron desarrollados en el curso superiordel río Jáchal y en el área de la pampa de Gualilán, los que permitieronidentificar y caracterizar desde el punto de vista sedimentológico seis tiposprincipales de acumulaciones pedemontanas: 1 taludes, 2 abanicos coluvialesdominados por flujos de gravedad, 3 abanicos coluviales dominados por flujosfluidos, 4 sistema río colector-conoide, 5 piedemontes dominados por flujoscanalizados y 6 abanicos aluviales. Los depósitos de talud se caracterizan porel predominio de brechas clasto-soportadas (con exiguos porcentajes de matriz,frecuentemente macizas, fábrica planar o mostrando imbricación de alto ángulode clastos. En los abanicos coluviales dominados por flujos de gravedad dominanlas brechas matriz-soportadas y macizas y en menor proporción las brechasclasto-soportadas. Por su parte, los depósitos de abanicos coluviales dominadospor flujos fluidos, muestran menor tamaño de grano y están dominados porcanales amalgamados rellenos tanto de brechas clasto como matriz-soportadas, yescasas brechas gradadas. Las acumulaciones desarrolladas por el sistema ríocolector-conoide son las que muestran mayor variabilidad litológica, puesincluyen desde brechas matriz-soportadas macizas hasta conglomerados conestratificación entrecruzada e incluso fangolitas. En lo que respecta a lospiedemontes dominados por flujos canalizados, están formados por brechasclastosoportadas macizas y en menor proporción con clastos imbricados omostrando estructuras entrecruzadas. Los depósitos correspondientes a abanicosaluviales están mayormente compuestos por conglomerados clasto-soportados conestructuras entrecruzadas. En menor proporción y en los sectores proximales seencuentran conglomerados y brechas matriz-soportadas. Si bien la procedencia declastos es

  13. Niveles de plomo en sangre de niños expuestos a los residuos metalúrgicos en Abra Pampa, Jujuy (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Tschambler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abra Pampa es una pequeña comunidad situada en el norte de Argentina, donde los desechos de plomo de una planta metalúrgica (Metal H uasi se abandonaron por más de 40 años, dejándolos en el centro del pueblo. Con el fin de medir la expo sición a estos residuos peligrosos, se determinaron los niveles de plo mo en sangre en niños de edades comprendidas entre 5 y 14 años (n=234 . Los niños incluidos en la muestra habían estado expuestos, por el aire y el suelo, al plomo durante cinco años por lo menos porqu e vivían alrededor de la montaña de residuos. Fueron evaluados clínicamente. Para determinar el estado nutricional se midió el peso y talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal total. Se reali zó el análisis de plombemia mediante la técnica de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica-atomización electrotérmica. La prevalencia d e intoxicación (Pb> 10 μg / dL fue de 28%. El 81% de los niños estudiados tenían niveles de plomo en sangre superiores a 5 μg / dL, lo que se considera un riesgo en el desarrollo neuromadurativo. También se encontraron diferenc ias significativa s según la edad y la distancia entre las casas de los niños y el sitio de disposició n de los residuos. Estos resultados mos traron que los residuos son una fuente de exposición al plomo para los niños que viven cerca del depós ito de escorias y generaron estrategias de remediación para minimiz ar la exposición infantil.

  14. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream

  15. Tamaño corporal y temperatura ambiental en poblaciones cazadoras recolectoras del Holoceno tardío de Pampa y Patagonia

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    Béguelin, Marien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir los patrones de variación del tamaño corporal de las poblaciones del Holoceno tardío de Pampa y Patagonia Continental con el fin de discutir los procesos evolutivos que los habrían modelado. La hipótesis nula indica la acción de procesos evolutivos aleatorios y la alternativa plantea la acción de procesos no aleatorios, como la selección direccional o fenómenos de plasticidad fenotípica relacionados con la temperatura. Se combinaron métodos comparativos espaciales (correlación simple y partición de la variación con aquellos derivados de la genética cuantitativa (análisis de tasa de divergencia. Asimismo, se evaluó la correspondencia con expectativas biológicas derivadas de estudios experimentales. Las dimensiones del fémur fueron utilizadas como proxies del tamaño a través de variables morfométricas tradicionales. Los resultados indican un ajuste a un gradiente nortesur que se acopla al gradiente climático en el mismo sentido: a medida que aumenta la latitud, disminuye la temperatura y aumenta el tamaño, rechazando la hipótesis nula. Se explican las diferencias en tamaño principalmente por la interacción entre ambiente y espacio, interpretando un efecto común de ambas variables. El patrón descrito se ajusta a un modelo de aumento del tamaño, que implica una reducción de la pérdida de calor a partir de la disminución de la proporción superficie/ volumen. Por lo tanto, la divergencia en el tamaño corporal con el clima podría explicarse como resultado de la selección direccional vinculada a las bajas temperaturas, incrementándose el tamaño medio de los individuos con la disminución de la temperatura.

  16. Favipiravir (T-705 inhibits Junin virus infection and reduces mortality in a guinea pig model of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

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    Brian B Gowen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junín virus (JUNV, the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF, is classified by the NIAID and CDC as a Category A priority pathogen. Presently, antiviral therapy for AHF is limited to immune plasma, which is readily available only in the endemic regions of Argentina. T-705 (favipiravir is a broadly active small molecule RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. We have previously reported on the in vitro activity of favipiravir against several strains of JUNV and other pathogenic New World arenaviruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in vivo, guinea pigs were challenged with the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV, and then treated twice daily for two weeks with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p. favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day starting 1-2 days post-infection. Although only 20% of animals treated orally with favipiravir survived the lethal challenge dose, those that succumbed survived considerably longer than guinea pigs treated with placebo. Consistent with pharmacokinetic analysis that showed greater plasma levels of favipiravir in animals dosed by i.p. injection, i.p. treatment resulted in a substantially higher level of protection (78% survival. Survival in guinea pigs treated with ribavirin was in the range of 33-40%. Favipiravir treatment resulted in undetectable levels of serum and tissue viral titers and prevented the prominent thrombocytopenia and leucopenia observed in placebo-treated animals during the acute phase of infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The remarkable protection afforded by i.p. favipiravir intervention beginning 2 days after challenge is the highest ever reported for a small molecule antiviral in the difficult to treat guinea pig JUNV challenge model. These findings support the continued development of favipiravir as a promising antiviral against JUNV and other related arenaviruses.

  17. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture.

  18. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  19. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  20. Selection and characterization of Argentine isolates of Trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of Septoria leaf blotch of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Marina C; Mónaco, Cecilia I; Abramoff, Cecilia; Lampugnani, Gladys; Salerno, Graciela; Kripelz, Natalia; Cordo, Cristina A; Consolo, Verónica F

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat. Thirty-seven strains were selected for the reduction equal to or greater than 50% of the severity, compared with the control. The percentage values of reduction of the pycnidial coverage ranged between 45 and 80%. The same last strains were confirmed as T. harzianum by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacers, followed by sequencing. Inter-simple sequence repeat was used to examine the genetic variability among isolates. This resulted in a total of 132 bands. Further numerical analysis revealed 19 haplotypes, grouped in three clusters (I, II, III). Shared strains, with different geographical origins and isolated in different years, were observed within each cluster. The origin of the isolates and the genetic group were partially related. All isolates from Paraná were in cluster I, all isolates from Lobería were in cluster II, and all isolates from Pergamino and Santa Fe were in cluster III. Our results suggest that the 37 native strains of T. harzianum are important in biocontrol programs and could be advantageous for the preparation of biopesticides adapted to the agroecological conditions of wheat culture. PMID:26873560