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Sample records for argentina-brasil agencia contabil controle mater nuclear

  1. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  2. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; Relatorio anual 2007 - ABACC - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area.

  3. Annual Report ABACC 2009 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; Relatorio anual 2009 - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document reports the actives during the year 2009 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; institutional, administrative and financial activities; perspectives for 2010; list of inspectors; list of Brazilian and Argentine facilities subject to the Quadripartite Agreement

  4. ABACC: annual report 2012 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; ABACC: informe annual 2012 - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This document reports the actives during the year 2012 related to: technical activities as safeguards application and advances in application of safeguards; main activities conducted in Brazil and main activities developed at ABACC headquarters; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and of the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; institutional, administrative and financial activities; perspectives for 2013; list of inspectors; list of Brazilian and Argentine facilities subject to the Quadripartite Agreement.

  5. Biocombustibles en Argentina, Brasil y Colombia: Avances y limitaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Cecilia Carrizo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biocombustibles introducen espacios agrícolas en la producción energética. Luego modifican la gobernanza de las redes energéticas y de los territorios productivos. Las principales críticas a los biocombustibles se dirigen a su producción a partir de cultivos tradicionales, pero interesa preguntarse también sobre la sostenibilidad de su producción a partir de cultivos alternativos, que no competirían con los cultivos alimentarios, puesto que se ubicarían en regiones agrícolas marginales. El texto trata sobre las producciones de biocombustibles de los países de América del Sur, en sus contextos internacionales, nacionales y locales. Se profundiza la mirada sobre Argentina, Brasil y Colombia, líderes continentales en el sector. Se analizan la evolución del mercado energético, los actores involucrados y las políticas implementadas. A otra escala, se plantea la puesta en marcha de las cadenas de biocombustibles alternativos.

  6. The accountability of the brazilian regulatory agencies: the experience of the National Petroleum Agency; O controle externo das agencias reguladoras: o caso da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Borges, Heloisa Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia. Grupo de Economia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    During the reform process for which passed the Brazilian Oil and Gas Industry, the academic debate was centered mostly in the sectorial restructuring process, in the contract designs and regulatory environment for the industries in change, particularly the desired attributes of its institutions. The debate tends, in the present, to converge towards the existence of different possible combinations between market structures and institutional structures (the regulators among them) that would lead to a desirable result. Thus, the various characteristics and configurations, originally appointed as necessary conditions for the success of any reform, are not dealt with such great deference anymore. The hypothesis that the existence of a independent regulator is a determinant choice for the success of structural and institutional reforms was relaxed as general rule, but there are still strong economic reasons to justify the option, adopted in Brazil. The creation of the Oil National Agency (ANP), the Brazilian regulator for the Oil and Gas Industry is a recent phenomenon. And few studies specifically approach the issue of its accountability, institutional role that in Brazil is delegated mostly, but not exclusively, to the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao). Therefore, the objective of this work will be to discuss the different possibilities of accountability over the ANP, evaluating the paper and the functions of the TCU and the forms of external control on the Agency, pointing out the possibilities, the impediments and the challenges, as well as the economic consequences to the Natural Gas Industry of the current configuration. (author)

  7. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  8. El reactor nuclear colombiano y la agencia de actores no humanos en los estudios sociales de la ciencia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Andrés León Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Basándose en su trabajo de grado de historiador sobre los primeros años del programa nuclear colombiano, el autor explora la relevancia del concepto de actor no humano originario de las teorías de actores-red. Se muestra cómo el análisis de la consolidación del Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares debe incluir un objeto inanimado, el reactor nuclear, como actor social fundamental. PALABRAS CLAVES. actores no humanos, comunidad científica, energía nuclear

  9. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  10. As guerras frias do Cone Sul: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai (1945-1952

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    Ernesto Bohoslavsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra como alguns jornais e partidos políticos liberal- -progressistas (no governo ou na oposição processaram os eventos vinculados ao final da segunda guerra mundial e o começo da guerra fria na Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Uruguai. Tenta-se sinalar que esses atores aproveitaram alguns elementos ideológicos transnacionais (como o antifascismo ou o anticomunismo para interpretar a realidade política local, para consolidar certa autoimagem nacional e para descrever aos seus adversários políticos. A diversidade de representações do inimigo que tiveram os grupos liberais dos quatro países entre 1945 e 1952 foi gerada por, ao menos, três variáveis: a a posição do governo e os principais atores políticos frente à guerra (neutralidade x participação; proliados x pro-Eixo, b a natureza do regime político vigente (democracia x ditadura;c as tradições ideológicas presentes durante os anos do conflito bélico e seu poder político e eleitoral.

  11. Nanoscale Electrodes: Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanospaced electrodes on a flexible substrate is a great challenge. W. Wang, J. Shao, and co-workers propose a novel approach to fabricate nanogap electrodes for flexible electronics using a swelling-controlled cracking method, which is described on page 6337. This method has the advantages of high applicability, parallel manufacturing capacity, and compatibility with flexible substrates. It provides a new way to create high-performance flexible electronics in a cost-efficient fashion.

  12. Nanoscale Electrodes: Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanospaced electrodes on a flexible substrate is a great challenge. W. Wang, J. Shao, and co-workers propose a novel approach to fabricate nanogap electrodes for flexible electronics using a swelling-controlled cracking method, which is described on page 6337. This method has the advantages of high applicability, parallel manufacturing capacity, and compatibility with flexible substrates. It provides a new way to create high-performance flexible electronics in a cost-efficient fashion. PMID:27493073

  13. Performance e experiência nas narrativas orais da fronteira entre Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai

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    Luciana Hartmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na fronteira entre Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai as narrativas orais transgridem limites políticos e, ao circularem entre as vizinhas regiões, vão revelando identidades, tradições, sentimentos. Esta transmissão de valores e práticas que se dá através da narração de histórias é parte fundamental da "cultura da fronteira", existente entre os três países enfocados. Neste artigo abordo um aspecto específico desta cultura, aquele que diz respeito às performances dos contadores de causos/cuentos e sua importância na organização e transmissão da experiência de viver na fronteira. Inicialmente faço um levantamento teórico da relação entre experiência, performance e narrativa. Na seqüência, demonstro, através de duas narrativas - um "causo" cômico e uma história pessoal - como os conceitos de "performance como espetáculo" e "performance como desempenho", depreendidos da análise dos dados empíricos, auxiliaram na compreensão das diferentes formas de engajamento de contadores e ouvintes nos eventos narrativos da região.In the frontier among Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay oral narratives transpose political limits. On circulating in this region, narratives reveal identities, traditions and even feelings. In these countries the practice of storytelling is a central aspect of a "culture of frontier", it is fundamental for transmitting values and knowledge. In this paper I present an specific aspect of this culture: the story-tellers performances and its importance on the organization and transmission of the experience of living in the frontier. Firstly, it is done a theoretical approach about the relationship among experience, performance and narrative definitions. Then, presenting two narratives - one a comic story, and the other a personal life narrative - I explain how concepts of "performance as an exhibition" and "performance as skill" can be useful to understand the different forms storytellers act in narrative events.

  14. Multiplicadores y coordinación fiscal y monetaria en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México para el desarrollo

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    Carlos Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es examinar la relación entre la coordinación de las políticas fiscal y monetaria con los multiplicadores fiscales en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México. Para realizarlo examinamos primero el marco teórico del Nuevo Consenso Macroeconómico (ncm, después analizamos las tendencias en los cuatro países de variables como el consumo, la inversión, el gasto de gobierno y la tasa de interés. Por último, presentamos una estimación del multiplicador del gasto de gobierno con variables proxy. Nuestras aportaciones son por un lado, los elementos que muestran la inexistencia de efectos expulsión (crowding out y, por otro lado, la cuantificación de los multiplicadores en dichos países.

  15. As relações entre Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Estados Unidos: política exterior e Mercosul

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    1998-01-01

    O artigo apresenta uma reflexão de teoria e política, que busca inserir a análise da política exterior de Argentina, Brasil e Chile no quadro das relações hemisféricas (Estados Unidos) e do Mercosul. No caso dos três países latino-americanos, apresenta-se uma identificação das tendências predominantes na interpretação da inserção possível, da visão de si mesmos no atual sistema internacional e uma aproximação geral das agendas bilaterais, sub-regionais e da agenda hemisférica norte-americana....

  16. Argentina, Brasil y Chile: un análisis estratégico de sus vínculos comerciales

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    Ariel Barraud

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar la evolución del sector externo de Argentina, Brasil y Chile durante el período 1991-2004. El análisis se focaliza en la dinámica de las exportaciones, tratando de cuantificar el aporte de la demanda de importaciones de los principales socios comerciales de estos tres países al crecimiento de sus exportaciones. La importancia de los vínculos comerciales entre los miembros intra-zona y con el resto del mundo se estima través del cálculo del Indicador Dinámico de Complementariedad Comercial (IDCC. Surgen al menos tres preguntas relevantes en cuanto a la evolución del comercio de dichos países y que este articulo intenta contestar. En primer lugar ¿se han intensificado o no los vínculos comerciales entre Argentina, Brasil y Chile durante el período de análisis 1991-2004?; a partir de la evolución del comercio, ¿qué implicancias puede tener la dinámica de la complementariedad comercial entre estos tres socios sobre cuestiones que podríamos llamar de política en las negociaciones dentro de MERCOSUR? O en otras palabras, ¿el grado de comercio que se produjo en este período genera un incentivo para los socios en seguir avanzando con la integración que plantea el MERCOSUR? Finalmente, a la luz de los vínculos comerciales, ¿se pueden percibir distintos intereses de los miembros con respecto a MERCOSUR?

  17. El contrato de agencia comercial

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    María Elisa Camacho López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los compromisos asumidos por el Gobierno de la República de Colombia en el Tratado de Libre Comercio celebrado con el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, cuyo texto aún no ha entrado en vigor, consiste en la eliminación o modificación de algunos de los elementos que regulan el contrato de Agencia Comercial, los cuales, a su vez, valga la pena resaltar, nunca han gozado de una pacífica comprensión. Razón por la cual, aprovechando ambas circunstancias, hemos querido analizar el proceso de tipificación de este contrato a nivel global, desde sus inicios hasta sus más recientes desarrollos, con el objeto de determinar la conveniencia de los cambios solicitados.

  18. Agencia moral corporativa. Un concepto integrador

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Coronel, Martha M.

    2012-01-01

    Dissetenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 2012) El objetivo del presente artículo es crear un concepto integrador de agencia moral corporativa, a partir de la analogía con la agencia moral individual, vinculado con tres propuestas colectivistas que serán examinadas y constituirán la base de nuestro concepto. La elaboración de este concepto integrador de agencia moral responde a una doble finalidad ulterior: por un lado, fundamentar el deber de las empr...

  19. Problema de la agencia y la cultura corporativa estalinista

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    Yurí Gorbaneff

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la agencia es de los obstáculos para la eficiencia de las organizaciones. A partir de Alchian y Demsetz (1972.la teoría sugiere dos soluciones: la propiedad privada y la cultura corporativa. Sin embargo, aislar el efecto de la cultura sobre las organizaciones no es fácil. La "ingeniería social" estalinista ofrece un material interesante para evaluar los efectos de la cultura corporativa sobre el sistema económico. Acá se sostiene la hipótesis de que los dirigentes soviéticos, al enfrentar los crecientes costos de la agencia tuvieron que inventar otra método, que no fuera la propiedad privada ni el control democrático directo sobre el aparato productivo, para controlar la pérdida de la agencia. Ellos recurrieron a la implantación de la cultura corporativa heroica a nivel nacional. Este trabajo muestra que la propaganda política, el arte, la literatura, los movimientos populares y el culto a la personalidad de Stalin fueran las herramientas gerenciales clave para implantar la cultura corporativa heroica, indispensable en la economía planificada. Su aplicación fue exitosa y generó las condiciones necesarias para la industrialización entre 1920 y 1930 y para el alto desempeño de la economía soviética durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La segunda hipótesis consiste en que el fantasma de la agencia, ahuyentado entre 1920 y 1950 por la cultura heroica estalinista, terminó devorando la economía planificada.

  20. LA PRODUCTIVIDAD MANUFACTURERA EN ARGENTINA, BRASIL Y MÉXICO: UNA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA LEY DE KALDOR-VERDOORN, 1950-2010

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    Luciano Borgoglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos las particularidades de la evolución industrial de largo plazo de los tres grandes países latinoamericanos: Argentina, Brasil y México. Para ello, retomamos aportes de Nicholas Kaldor sobre la causación acumulativa, que involucra específicamente al sector industrial. Realizamos una contrastación econométrica de la Ley de Kaldor-Verdoorn, que vincula la tasa de crecimiento del producto industrial con el incremento de su productividad. El objetivo es distinguir hasta qué punto resultaron virtuosos los patrones de comportamiento industrial de la ISI y el impacto que tuvo el posterior proceso de apertura económica. Intentaremos discriminar puntos de continuidad y de ruptura del esquema industrial latinoamericano a través del estudio de la evolución de sus tres principales economías.

  1. Políticas públicas cinematográficas : Neofomentismo en Argentina, Brasil y México (2000-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roque

    2015-01-01

    Análisis comparativo de las políticas públicas de cine en Argentina, Brasil y México en la primera década del siglo XXI, período enmarcado en lo que esta tesis denomina "neofomentismo" (políticas públicas cinematográficas que comenzaron a operar desde mediados de la década de 1990, luego del desmonte de las políticas de fomento a la cinematografía por parte de las políticas "neoliberales" operadas en el primer lustro del último decenio del siglo XX). A su vez, la presente tesis compara lo...

  2. La reducción de la mortalidad infantil en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Entre intenciones, logros y desafíos

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    Eleonora Soledad Rojas-Cabrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la reducción de la mortalidad infantil es reconocida internacionalmente en distintos tratados de Derechos Humanos, entre ellos la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (CDN y se refuerza con metas cuantificables en los planes de acción de las conferencias basadas en los mismos, a los que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay adhieren. A veinte años de ratificada la CDN, nos preguntamos en qué medida la reducción de la mortalidad infantil en estos países ha sido suficiente para alcanzar las metas establecidas. Nos interesa conocer cuáles son los logros alcanzados y los temas pendientes para dar cumplimiento a los compromisos asumidos ante la comunidad internacional. En base a información publicada por los institutos nacionales de estadísticas y por el Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CEPAL/CELADE, se concluye que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay han realizado importantes logros en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, de manera que habrían logrado la meta de reducción en un tercio el nivel de la mortalidad infantil entre los años 1990 y 2000. Sin embargo, a pesar de haber continuado el descenso en años posteriores, el ritmo no sería suficiente para alcanzar las metas planteadas para el año 2010 ni para el año 2015. En cuanto a las metas relacionadas a la disminución de las brechas entre sectores sociales, la situación es más preocupante ya que las diferencias se mantienen en valores inaceptables. Por estos motivos, los países deberían redoblar los esfuerzos para dar cumplimiento a dichos compromisos.

  3. Treatment for infection of artificial dura mater using free fascia lata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yamawaki, Satoko; Naitoh, Motoko; Kawai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic artificial dura mater materials, such as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sheets, are widely used in dura mater reconstruction in cases involving brain tumors or trauma surgery. In patients with postoperative infection related to the use of artificial dura mater, surgical debridement of the infected wound and removal of the artificial dura mater materials are necessary to control infection. In cases involving cerebrospinal fluid leakage, dura mater reconstruction must be performed immediately. Many useful techniques for performing dura mater reconstruction to treat postoperative infection have been reported; however, some have drawbacks with respect to the need for microvascular anastomosis or difficulties in obtaining watertight closure. We successfully treated 6 patients with postoperative artificial dura mater infection using free thigh fascia lata. Some surgeons believe that the use of free fascia in infected wounds is dangerous because free fascia is a non-vascularized tissue. However, performing complete debridement and covering such free fascia with well-vascularized tissue allow the fascia to become vascularized and tolerant of infection. Therefore, if the blood flow in the scalp is acceptable after a sufficient debridement, free fascia lata can be used for reconstruction in patients with postoperative infection of artificial dura mater. Furthermore, skull reconstruction can be performed safely and easily with solid-type artificial bone, sometimes combined with tissue expansion, thus resulting in good aesthetic outcomes.

  4. Plan de empresa. Agencia de marketing y publicidad.

    OpenAIRE

    NAVARRO TARAZONA, ALEJANDRO

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Se analiza la puesta en marcha de un modelo de negocio consistente en una agencia que ofrece servicios de marketing integrales y/o puntuales, con el principal objetivo de darse a conocer y ofrecer sus servicios a todas aquellas empresas que necesitan dicho servicio para satisfacer sus necesidades y convertirse en una empresa de referencia en el sector, mediante un trabajo eficaz y rentable. Navarro Tarazona, A. (2015). Plan de empresa. Agencia de marketing y publicidad....

  5. La reducción de la mortalidad infantil en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Entre intenciones, logros y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marta Santillán Pizarro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la reducción de la mortalidad infantil es reconocida internacionalmente en distintos tratados de Derechos Humanos, entre ellos la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (CDN y se refuerza con metas cuantificables en los planes de acción de las conferencias basadas en los mismos, a los que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay adhieren. A veinte años de ratificada la CDN, nos preguntamos en qué medida la reducción de la mortalidad infantil en estos países ha sido suficiente para alcanzar las metas establecidas. Nos interesa conocer cuáles son los logros alcanzados y los temas pendientes para dar cumplimiento a los compromisos asumidos ante la comunidad internacional. En base a información publicada por los institutos nacionales de estadística y por el Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CELADE - División de Población de la CEPAL, se concluye que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay han realizado importantes logros en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, de manera que habrían conseguido la meta de reducción en un tercio el nivel de la mortalidad infantil entre los años 1990 y 2000. Sin embargo, a pesar de haber continuado el descenso en años posteriores, el ritmo no sería suficiente para alcanzar las metas planteadas para el año 2010 ni para el año 2015. En cuanto a las metas relacionadas a la disminución de las brechas entre sectores sociales, la situación es más preocupante ya que las diferencias se mantienen en valores inaceptables. Por estos motivos, los países deberían redoblar los esfuerzos para dar cumplimiento a dichos compromisos.

  6. Celulares: a emergência de um novo tipo de controle materno Cell phones: the emergence of a new king of materal control

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    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma pesquisa exploratória sobre o uso de celulares por jovens das camadas médias cariocas, entre 18 e 25 de idade, foi constatado que eles reclamavam muito que suas mães os controlavam ininterruptamente por meio de seus celulares. Para averiguar mais detalhadamente o que acontece entre mães e filhos dessa faixa etária, foi realizada uma segunda pesquisa. Nesta, foram entrevistadas 20 mães, também pertencentes às camadas médias cariocas, cujos filhos tinham perfil análogo ao dos jovens da primeira pesquisa. Para todas, a principal função dos celulares é abertamente a de controlar os filhos. Elas mostraram, no entanto, saber que há uma diferença entre o controle que vigorava quando eram jovens e aquele ao qual hoje submetem os filhos. Teorias contemporâneas sobre controle e vigilância de fato argumentam que houve uma substituição do controle normativo e coercitivo da modernidade pelo "ter conhecimento" do que se passa, característico da Era da Informação.An exploratory research on the use of cell phones by middle-class youngsters, ages 18 to 25, residing in Rio de Janeiro, revealed that they complained a great deal that their mothers controlled them unrelentingly by means of cell phones. To take a deeper look into what happens between mothers and children in this age group, a second investigation was carried out. Twenty middle-class mothers were interviewed, whose children's profile were analogous to that of the youngsters in the previous research. For all of the mothers, the main benefit of cell phones is to control their children. Nevertheless, they demonstrated to know that there's a difference between the control that they submit their children to from that that prevailed when they themselves were young. Contemporary control and surveillance theories, in fact, argue that the normative and coercive control of modernity has been replaced by "having knowledge" of what goes on, which is characteristic of the Information

  7. Desigualdades en educación superior y políticas públicas. Los casos de Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CHIROLEU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos proponemos explorar los diversos órdenes de desigualdad con relación a la educación superior que se presentan en la región y las formas en que procuran ser atendidas a través de la política pública. Por medio de este análisis desarrollado a partir de una revisión exhaustiva de bibliografía y fuentes documentales y estadísticas e ilustrado a través del abordaje de los casos de Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela, podremos apreciar tres formas alternativas de atender esta problemática orientadas a contener las distintas formas de desigualdad que se despliegan en este nivel educativo. Cabe no obstante destacar que se trata de políticas de reciente implementación por lo cual, en muchos casos, su estudio aún no permite extraer conclusiones taxativas aunque sí vislumbrar algunos efectos positivos y reconocer ámbitos aún desatendidos en el camino de una mayor democratización del nivel.

  8. Intercomparison of activity measures of 1 {sup 31}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl in nuclear medicine services in Recife/PE; Intercomparacao de medidas de atividade de {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga e {sup 201}Tl em servicos de medicina nuclear do Recife/PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Iris Tairini V. do, E-mail: iristairini@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de F.; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we intend to evaluate the performance of radionuclide calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the Recife (Brazil), the measurement procedures used by the professionals of these services and the frequency of the application of quality control testing required by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) and the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), performing an intercomparison of radionuclides measurements.

  9. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  10. Technical supports for nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jong Sung; Kwak, Eun Hoh; Noh, Sung Kee; Soh, Dong Sub; Yoon, Wan Kee; Shin, Jang Soo; Paek, Dae Hyun; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Chan Sik; Cha, Hong Yul; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Jin Hoh; Lee, Eui Jin; An, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The project was carried out to support the establishment of the system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials in Korea. The training of inspectors and seminar were held to improve inspection capability of the nuclear inspectors. The information about the north Korean nuclear activities were successfully analyzed. In the drafts of nuclear energy law the national inspection and the regulation of physical protection were newly introduced for the purpose to clarify the openness of nuclear activities in Korea. 1 fig, 20 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  11. Optimal control of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern control theory is applied to the design of control systems for experimental nuclear reactors that do not belong to power reactors, the component forms of optimal control systems for nuclear reactors are demonstrated. The adoption of output quadratic integral criterion and incomplete state feedback technique can make these systems both efficient and economical. Moreover, approximate handling methods are given so as to simplify the calculations in design. In addition, the adoptable reference values of parameters are given in the illustration

  12. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  13. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  14. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  15. Personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y su capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Lían, Arleth; Andrade, Yesid; Hernández, Orlando; Manrique, Julián; Faria, Karen; Machado, Mayerly

    2012-01-01

    Contexto: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se constituye en un problema de salud pública por las repercusiones bio-psicosociales, la presencia de complicaciones neurovasculares y metabólicas en la persona que la padece. Enfermería cumple un papel importante a través de la educación y la capacitación.Objetivo: Identificar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de las personas con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, inscritos en los programas de control de diabetes en 19 UPAS de Cartagena.Metod...

  16. Los cambios en el control de mando en las firmas según la teoría de agencia: una hipótesis para explicar el surgimiento del Sindicato Antioqueño Los cambios en el control de mando en las firmas según la teoría de agencia: una hipótesis para explicar el surgimiento del Sindicato Antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Londoño Correa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se sintetizan los planteamientos de la teoría de agencia y se hace énfasis enla vertiente positivista de esta teoría, la cual muestra fortalezas para explicar el surgimientodel Sindicato Antioqueño, hoy llamado Grupo Empresarial Antioqueño (GEA, uno de losgrandes grupos económicos colombianos. En este trabajo se muestra cómo los intereses delos administradores de las empresas y de un grupo de los accionistas guiaron las actividadesque dieron como resultado el entrecruce de acciones entre empresas a partir del cual se hancoordinado las operaciones de un conjunto de sociedades con sede en Medellín. Este documentoes un subproducto de la investigación “Caracterización del centro corporativo del SindicatoAntioqueño” realizada en el marco de la Maestría en Ciencias de la Administración de laUniversidad EAFIT.This paper reviews the main aspects of the agency theory, and emphasizes on the positivist line, which shows strengths in explaining the birth of the Sindicato Antioqueño or the Grupo Empresarial Antioqueño (GEA, recognized as one of the largest Colombian economic groups. The main conclusion is that the managers’ interests as well as those of a group of shareholders where the ones pursued, and that in the process, cross ownership between the companies were established. This article is a result of the research “Characterization of the Sindicato Antioqueños´s Head Quarters”.

  17. APROXIMACIÓN A UNA HISTORIA COMPARADA DE HISTORIA DE LA EDUCACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA; CASO: ARGENTINA, BRASIL, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pascual Mora García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estado del arte destacándose los aportes y los investigadores más representativos de las Comunidades Discursivas de Historia de la Educación, entre ellos: Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y Venezuela. El barrido conceptual lo hemos realizado asistiendo a los Congresos de Historia de la Educación Latinoamericana en los países referenciados, haciendo un acopio de fuentes directas e indirectas, primarias y secundarias, tomando pasantías académicas en algunos de los países citados, realizando ponencias en congresos nacionales e internacionales, creando y confrontando criterios acerca de la formación de grupos académicos a nivel regional, nacional e internacional, investigando en las revistas de alto impacto, estableciendo cooperaciones con academias, archivos y bases de datos que permitan al desarrollo ulterior de programas de cuarto y quinto nivel en el Estado Táchira. Igualmente, se abunda en el surgimiento y desarrollo de la bibliografía relativa a los temas específicos de este trabajo, esto es, la formación de grupos académicos, tomando en cuenta algunos de los indicadores bibliométricos, para poder constatar, la productividad medida a través de las publicaciones científicas. Como sabemos la bibliometría es una metodología que nos permite conocer el sentido teleológico de los productos: dónde van los artículos, cuáles son, cuál es su impacto, quién, cuándo, y dónde publica. Pero más que un estudio bibliométrico es un esfuerzo por realizar una metaevalución de las comunidades académicas que no son del dominio público; por eso es importante destacar estos resultados, porque beneficia no sólo a los investigadores noveles sino al conocimiento del avance científico, pertinencia de las investigaciones, y a la evaluación intersubjetiva.

  18. Homogeneidade e heterogeneidade nos sistemas educacionais: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México Homogeneity and heterogeneity on education systems in Argentine, Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo focaliza a reconfiguração da gestão educacional a partir da nova lógica de regulação social e do novo papel do Estado, à luz da historicidade dos países estudados (Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México, examinando os fatores culturais que interferiram na dinâmica da reforma educacional da década de 90. Aspectos que evidenciam a homogeneidade e a heterogeneidade dessa reforma na região, bem como as especificidades nacionais que intervieram em sua concretização, são destacados. Afirma que a historicidade que caracteriza a realidade educacional tem sofrido, no México, o que poderíamos denominar "ruptura conservadora"; no Chile, "continuidade conservadora"; no Brasil, "renovação conservadora"; e, na Argentina, "ruptura interrompida". Recupera algumas conclusões alcançadas por meio da análise de 186 textos de caráter acadêmico sobre os impactos, nos países estudados, da reforma educacional da década.This study focus on the reconfiguration of educational management in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which was promoted by the new logic of social regulation and the new role attributed to the State, considering each country's own historicity. So, the cultural factors that interfere on the dynamics of the 90' school reform are analyzed. Aspects that show the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these reforms in the region, as well as local specificities that block out the concretization of the reform are underlined. It is shown that the historicity that characterizes the educational reform has taken, in each country, a form that can be called, in Mexico, "conservative rupture"; in Chile, "conservative continuity"; in Brazil, "conservative renovation"; and, in Argentina, "interrupted rupture". Some conclusions about the impact of educational reform in the selected countries are recuperated through the analysis of 186 academic texts on the subject.

  19. Temáticas, Metodologías y autorías en revistas de acceso abierto de Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pacheco Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las revistas científicas en Comunicación en Latinoamérica han experimentado una evolución en términos cuantitativos y cualitativos, derivando desde la ensayística hacia la investigación científica. Si bien el estado del arte sobre el tema deja de evidencia que la discusión se ha centrado en los índices de impacto, un número menor ha volcado su enfoque en las tendencias temáticas y metodológicas sin llegar, en profundidad, a estudiar la realidad latinoamericana. En este contexto, el presente estudio de carácter cuantitativo se propone determinar, a través del análisis de contenido, las tendencias de autoría, temáticas y metodológicas en 983 artículos en revistas científicas universitarias de comunicación en Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Colombia y México, indexadas en Latindex, entre los años 2007 y 2011.  Los resultados, en relación a las autorías, arrojan bajos índices en el trabajo colaborativo inter-universitario y en publicaciones derivadas de proyectos de investigación. Respecto a las temáticas, el tópico “Comunicación y medios” concentra el mayor número de manuscritos. En tanto, en el aspecto metodológico predominan los estudios cualitativos, descriptivos de carácter empírico con técnicas de investigación, predominando la discusión bibliográfica y documental, seguido de los análisis de contenido, entrevistas y análisis de discurso. Este escenario plantea nuevos derroteros temáticos y metodológicos, teniendo presente aquellos agujeros negros de la investigación en comunicación en Latinoamérica, cuyos desafíos deben ser asumidos por los investigadores desde el trabajo colaborativo y transdiciplinario.

  20. Relação entre teoria e prática contabilística: um estudo exploratório

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Ana Cláudia Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    No atual contexto de harmonização contabilística internacional, assistimos a uma adaptação (ou mesmo adoção) generalizada das normas internacionais de contabilidade emitidas pelo International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), substancialmente assentes em princípios e que fazem um maior apelo ao julgamento profissional e ao uso de estimativas. Neste novo paradigma normativo, presumivelmente, os profissionais sentirão uma maior necessidade de recorrerem à teoria da con...

  1. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author)

  2. Instrumentation for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture is concerned with engineers and technicians not specialized in nuclear reactor control. The different methods of measurement used are briefly reviewed: current or pulse measurement, and Campbell system; the electronic networks are described and a part is devoted to the cables connecting detectors and electronic assemblies

  3. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  4. Quantum control in nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frontier field beyond atom and molecular control will be concentrated on the controlling of nuclei. Both theoretical design and laboratory experiments extremely need to be developed with the great progress of quantum physics and laser technology. This work is to focus on the computational approach to achieve the quantum control in nuclear reaction with a stable semi-discrete numerical paradigm in high dimensions. A reasonable physical model is established by multi-Klein–Gordon Schroedinger dynamics. Demonstrative experiments would provide the confident guidance to control quantum system at nuclei scale in real laboratory. (author)

  5. Retención de clientes en agencias de eventos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Como componente de la mezcla de comunicación efectiva para las marcas se encuentran los "Eventos", que hoy en día exigen una gestión estratégica. Resulta clave, para las organizaciones especializadas en la prestación de este servicio, aplicar herramientas que les permitan ser competitivas a largo plazo gracias a la diferenciación. Para ello, el CESA ha estudiado la relación cliente-agencia de comunicación de marketing, fundamentalmente respecto a la importancia de la retención de clientes en relaciones B2B, como las que se llevan a cabo entre agencias de eventos y sus clientes. En el presente artículo se exponen los principales hallazgos de una investigación de tipo exploratorio acerca del tema de retención de clientes, que incluye perfiles, elementos claves para la satisfacción y factores relevantes de la relación clienteagencia de eventos como elementos fundamentales de la gestión empresarial. Al tener un mayor conocimiento del perfil de los clientes, las agencias podrán ser más productivas y competitivas, pues estarán en capacidad de ofrecer iniciativas de servicios con características particulares.

  6. ¿Las agencias son unidades administrativas especiales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Sarria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Al plantearse como tema del artículo el de si las agencias son unidades administrativas especiales, el trabajo debe abordar dos conceptos aparentemente diferentes en cuanto al contenido y la génesis, pues de un lado se tiene conocimiento de las unidades administrativas especiales creadas con la finalidad de realizar actividades propias de un ministerio o departamento administrativo, y que, en consecuencia, siguiendo lineamientos jurisprudenciales, debían formar parte de la estructura de aquellos o estos. No obstante el reproche doctrinal referido a que a ciertas unidades administrativas se les otorgaba personería jurídica, llama la atención el cambio de criterio jurisprudencial que las avaló, y la manera en que a partir de la Constitución de 1991 se regularon unidades con o sin personería jurídica. Al abordar el tema de las agencias del Estado resulta relevante el origen anglosajón del término y la ausencia de características que las identifiquen, y la ausencia de un régimen común. Se hace especial mención a la reforma de 2011 y a cómo se crearon varias Agencias del Estado, algunas definidas como Unidades Administrativas Especiales, ante lo que cabe interrogarse sobre la correspondencia entre ambas nociones.

  7. Climate Control Using Nuclear Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Modgil, Moninder Singh

    2008-01-01

    We examine implications of anthropogenic low pressure regions, - created by injecting heat from nuclear reactors, into atmosphere. We suggest the possibility that such artificially generated low pressure regions, near hurricanes could disrupt their growth, path, and intensity. This method can also create controlled tropical stroms, which lead to substantial rainfall in arid areas, such as - (1)Sahara desert, (2) Australian interior desert, and (3) Indian Thar desert. A simple vortex suction model is developed to study, effect on atmospheric dynamics, by such a nuclear heat injection system.

  8. El control en las empresas de trabajo asociado. Revisión crítica, desde una perspectiva de agencia, de los principales mecanismos de control, y análisis de sus repercusiones organizativas

    OpenAIRE

    Waldo E.Orellana Zambrano

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the repercussions of the institutional aspects of co-operatives in the decision making process, in arranging the incentive system for members, and discretionary behaviour among management. From a comparative analysis of capitalistic companies, the paper studies the nature of the hierarchical relationships present in co-operatives and reviews the control mechanisms available to them, with special emphasis on the board of directors. At the same time, lines of action are prop...

  9. Computer systems for nuclear installation data control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer programs developed by Divisao de Instalacoes Nucleares (DIN) from Brazilian CNEN for data control on nuclear installations in Brazil are presented. The following computer programs are described: control of registered companies, control of industrial sources, irradiators and monitors; control of liable person; control of industry irregularities; for elaborating credence tests; for shielding analysis; control of waste refuge

  10. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Peter [Leicester School of Law (United Kingdom). Environmental Law Unit

    1995-12-31

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs.

  11. Escala Para Medir Agencia Personal y Empoderamiento (ESAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Pick; Jenna Sirkin; Isaac Ortega; Pavel Osorio; Rocío Martínez; Ulises Xocolotzin; Martha Givaudan

    2007-01-01

    Existe en la literatura una discusión muy extensa, aunque no siempre clara, acerca de la importancia del desarrollo humano. Por ello es necesario contar con las capacidades que permitan fomentar su crecimiento y sustentabilidad. Los conceptos de agencia personal y empoderamiento son centrales en esta discusión. La distinción entre ambos no siempre ha sido clara. De hecho, muchas veces se usan indistintamente. Con base en la experiencia empírica de diseñar, implementar y evaluar programas de d...

  12. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEB/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Soares, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Corbo, Rossana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FM/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  13. Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Modgil, M

    2002-01-01

    It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.

  14. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  15. As insuficiências do valor patrimonial contabilístico: do justo valor ao alargamento da base informativa do relato financeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Amélia M.M.; Rodrigues, Fernando J. P. A.

    2007-01-01

    A falta de relevância da informação financeira é um problema com origem recuada e que tem no presente repercussões significativas ao nível do processo da tomada de decisão. A capacidade explicativa da contabilidade acerca dos fenómenos patrimoniais que influenciam o valor da empresa está limitada pelas insuficiências e pelo carácter redutor da valorimetria a custo histórico. O nosso trabalho focaliza-se na necessidade de ajustar o modelo contabilístico a uma base explicativa suficientemente c...

  16. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  17. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  18. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  19. De los estudios locales a una perspectiva regional: análisis integrado de datos secundarios en un proyecto colaborativo sobre vulnerabilidades asociadas al uso de drogas en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay (1998-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ralón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desarrolla los fundamentos metodológicos del diseño de análisis integrado a partir de su empleo para el estudio de situaciones de vulnerabilidad entre usuarios de drogas a nivel regional. Se integraron datos de trece estudios transversales realizados en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay entre 1998 y 2004. Una revisión crítica del concepto de matriz de datos, que distingue cuatro componentes estructurales, permitió: definir las unidades de análisis abarcando las distintas poblaciones originales; identificar un núcleo común de variables (características sociodemográficas, uso de drogas, prácticas sexuales, serologías de infecciones de transmisión sexual y sanguínea con sus respectivos valores; examinar los indicadores, las dimensiones y procedimientos empleados para la medición de las variables; y establecer su compatibilidad mediante un análisis comparativo y temático de los instrumentos. Se obtuvo una nueva matriz de 3.534 casos. La colaboración multidisciplinaria entre equipos e instituciones de los tres países hizo posible maximizar las fuentes disponibles para el análisis de características locales y de la región en su conjunto.

  20. Ránking de anuncios y agencias de publicidad en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Núñez Barriopedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis de la posición actual de las agencias de publicidad venezolanas y de sus anuncios en el UNIR (Uni- versidad Internacional de la Rioja Ranking Iberoamericano de Publicidad. Asimismo, se estudia la tendencia de sus posiciones y se realiza una clasifica- ción de agencias y anuncios en cuartiles según su posición y puntuación en el ranking. Para el caso de Venezuela, se analiza el ranking de anuncios en 2012-2013 y el ranking de agencias en 2014-2015 para una muestra total de 2.130 y 2.175 anuncios, 775 y 538 agencias respectivamente en Iberoamérica.

  1. Annual report 2013 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentina agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials; Relatorio anual 2013 - ABACC - Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The document reports the activities of the commission and all technical activities. Shows the presence of ABACC at events; the strengthening technical capability; technical cooperation, institutional and administrative and financial activities; an outlook for 2014. Gives a list of the ABACC inspectors and presents the facilities under the Quadripartite Agreement.

  2. CAPACIDAD DE AGENCIA DE AUTOCUIDADO EN LAS PERSONAS ADULTAS QUE PADECEN ARTRITIS REUMATOIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación consistió en analizar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado que poseen laspersonas con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide, quienes habitan en los cantones de Palmares y San Ramón. Se desarrolló una metodología de investigación cuantitativa de tipo descriptiva transversal. En cuanto a la población participante del estudio, estuvo conformada por 13 personas diagnosticadas con artritis reumatoide; respecto de los instrumentos utilizados para recolectar información, a los colaboradores se les aplicó el instrumento “Escala de apreciación de la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado”, propuesta por Dorothea Orem. Se determinó que los participantes poseen alta capacidad de agencia de autocuidado en las diferentes categorías, ya que únicamente se detectó baja capacidad de agencia de autocuidado en cuanto a interacción social (2 personas, y respecto del consumo insuficiente de alimentos (5 personas. La escala ASA permite a la Enfermera (o determinar la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado, de forma oportuna y eficaz. Además, permitió a las investigadoras observar un panorama general de las necesidades de autocuidado de la población participante y constatar que esta presenta alta capacidad de agencia de autocuidado.

  3. Accountancy, control and protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear distribution of responsibilities between the Agency, the States and the operators is fundamental. The Agency has the responsibility to establish and administer safeguards and to assist Member States, upon their request, to develop the means to solve problems arising from the use of atomic energy, one of them being the control of nuclear material. States have the responsibility, in respect to nuclear activities carried out within their territory, under their jurisdiction or under their control anywhere, to define appropriate measures to control nuclear material, to set up an organizational structure to enable the implementation of the measures and to control compliance with the law. This means that States establish systems for ensuring accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. The paper gives an indication of the advice the Agency may give to States, which may request it, in setting up their systems of accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. It also gives some ideas on the co-ordination of the States' systems, the relationship between the States and the Agency in the accountancy and control of nuclear material and the role of the Agency in the physical protection of nuclear material. The present irreplaceable role of the State as a regulatory power is stressed. (author)

  4. Relación de agencia y monopolio. El caso del tabaco en España (1887-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Chamorro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los análisis históricos contables permiten evidenciar, bajo el marco de la teoría de la agencia, los conflictos de intereses que se producen en una organización. Nuestro objetivo, con un estudio longitudinal, basado en fuentes primarias, es comprobar cómo se regula una relación de agencia a través de contratos formales, y el papel que asume la contabilidad. El caso en el que nos basamos, y que puede ser una importante contribución en ese sentido, es el del arrendamiento del monopolio estatal del tabaco a una empresa privada, desde el inicio de la gestión (1887 hasta que empieza a desaparecer esta actividad monopolística (1986. Nuestros hallazgos ponen de manifiesto que los contratos establecidos permiten un gran control del principal sobre el agente y que no se cumplen todas las condiciones que deben darse para considerarlos «un buen acuerdo contractual». Por otro lado, la contabilidad aparece como un instrumento clave para el control del Estado sobre las empresas arrendatarias. Nuestra principal conclusión es que el agente es quien asume mayor riesgo en el arrendamiento, y el principal mantiene un comportamiento oportunista durante todo el periodo, lo que contradice los planteamientos más generalizados de la teoría y permite relajar sus asunciones iniciales.

  5. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16,...

  6. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  7. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA) is an independent agency for safeguards and material control for nuclear activities in the Republic of Korea. Formerly subordinate to the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it is temporarily associated with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In mid-2006 it will become fully independent. The NNCA is responsible for safeguards within the ROK, cooperates with the IAEA, and supports technical needs of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). In addition, it has responsibilities in export controls and physical protection. In the future the NNCA expects to become a national 'think tank' for nuclear control and nonproliferation issues. This presentation enumerated the many responsibilities of the NNCA and explained the structure and staffing of the organization. (author)

  8. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  9. On Nuclear War: Deterrence, Escalation, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Cimbala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, and especially in the 1980s, there were some serious efforts in the academic and policy communities to study how a nuclear war could end. The subject of nuclear war termination should be reopened now because the threat of nuclear danger has changed from one of quantity to one of quality - who has nuclear weapons, and for what purpose are they intended? The political and technological environments relevant to starting and stopping a nuclear war since Nagasaki, neither the United States nor other great powers had though through how to abort a nuclear conflict in its early stages. This study will attempt neither to construct particular scenarios of war termination nor to examine important topics such as bargaining strategies or monitoring and verification of nuclear cease fires. The focus here is broader, namely, the political-military contexts for the management of nuclear crises and post-crisis force operations, including escalation control and war termination. Specifically, correcting the potential inability of states to terminate a nuclear war requires that military planners and policymakers first accept the concept of nuclear war termination as feasible and desirable. There are considerable obstacles standing in the way of that acceptance, not the least being the intellectual resistance by many, based on the assumption that deterrence is undermined by a willingness to plan seriously for its possible failure.

  10. Automatic control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental concepts in automatic control are surveyed, and the purpose of the automatic control of pressurized water reactors is given. The response characteristics for the main components are then studied and block diagrams are given for the main control loops (turbine, steam generator, and nuclear reactors)

  11. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of ''Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments'', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems. Figs and tabs

  12. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of 'Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems

  13. Multivariable Feedback Control of Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Moen

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariable feedback control has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactor cores. Two design techniques, based on the theory of automatic control, were developed: the State Variable Feedback (SVF is an application of the linear optimal control theory, and the Multivariable Frequency Response (MFR is based on a generalization of the traditional frequency response approach to control system design.

  14. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  15. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  16. Ideas, pensamiento y política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, entre los cincuenta y los sesenta Ideas, beliefs and politics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, between the fifties and sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Nercesian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación ideas-pensamiento-política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay en el período que abarca las décadas de 1950 y 1960. En primer lugar, se reconstruyen los principales debates de la CEPAL de los tempranos años cincuenta y su repercusión en los distintos proyectos y alternativas políticas de la época. En segundo lugar, se analiza cómo el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana obligó a revisar esos mismos problemas latinoamericanos, abriendo un nuevo escenario de alternativas políticas para las izquierdas y para las derechas. El estudio propone reubicar "revolución" y "violencia", tópicos muy propios de la década de 1960, en un mapa integral de circulación de ideas que comenzó a conformarse en la coyuntura crítica de los 1950.This paper intends to analyze the relationship between politics, ideas and beliefs in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay during the period 1950-1960. First, we reconstruct the main debates at CEPAL in the early 1950s and their repercussion on the distinct projects and political alternatives at that time. Second, we analyze how the success of the Cuban Revolution made it necessary to revise these same problems in Latin America, opening the door to a new scenario of political alternatives for the left- and right-wing. The study proposes reconsidering the position of "revolution" and "violence", topics that were highly characteristic of the 1960s, on an integral map of ideas that began to take shape in the critical instance of the 1950s.

  17. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and... nuclear material control and accounting system requirements for nuclear power plants. This guide...

  18. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  19. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  20. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  1. Ética policial: una aproximación desde la agencia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidian Johana Sanabria Cárdena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto se propone mostrar la posibilidad de la agencia desde un curso de ética en el marco de la formación ejecutiva del cuerpo policial. Se partede los avances logrados en las discusiones sobre el concepto de agencia, en particular en la sociología norteamericana. Seguido, se procede a presentar las prácticas desarrolladas con los estudiantes, con el propósito de sugerir posibilidades para dicha agencia desde sí mismos. Y finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las posibilidades de que esta propuesta pueda resultar útil en el desarrollo institucional de la Policía Nacional de Colombia.

  2. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  3. Teoría de la agencia y sus aplicaciones en el mercadeo

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Gorbaneff

    2001-01-01

    La teoría de la Agencia Principal, TAP, permite mejorar nuestra comprensión de la empresa, especialmente en el área de mercadeo. Se utiliza como una plataforma conceptual para modelar situaciones en las aéreas de administración del personal de mercadeo, en el manejo de los canales y en las relaciones entre proveedores y clientes. Por su parte, el dominio de la teoría de juegos no es un requisito sine qua non para poder utilizar la teoría de la agencia y modelar las situaciones concretas.

  4. Teoría de la agencia y sus aplicaciones en el mercadeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gorbaneff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la Agencia Principal, TAP, permite mejorar nuestra comprensión de la empresa, especialmente en el área de mercadeo. Se utiliza como una plataforma conceptual para modelar situaciones en las aéreas de administración del personal de mercadeo, en el manejo de los canales y en las relaciones entre proveedores y clientes. Por su parte, el dominio de la teoría de juegos no es un requisito sine qua non para poder utilizar la teoría de la agencia y modelar las situaciones concretas.

  5. ¿A qué juega barbie? obligatoria y heterosexualidad agencia cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Garzón M.

    2011-01-01

    A través del examen de una experiencia de agencia cultural, este artículo de reflexión aborda el concepto de heterosexualidad obligatoria, o heteronormatividad, y lo concibe como un sistema político que tiene impacto en la vida de las mujeres, al constreñirlas en una forma dicotómica de existir, relacionarse y definirse. Se estima que gracias a la agencia cultural es posible cuestionar ese sistema político —logrando un impacto en el mundo de lo simbólico y lo imaginario que lo convierte en he...

  6. ¿A QUÉ JUEGA BARBIE? HETEROSEXUALIDAD OBLIGATORIA Y AGENCIA CULTURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Garzón M.

    2011-01-01

    A través del examen de una experiencia de agencia cultural, este artículo de reflexión aborda el concepto de heterosexualidad obligatoria, o heteronormatividad, y lo concibe como un sistema político que tiene impacto en la vida de las mujeres, al constreñirlas en una forma dicotómica de existir, relacionarse y definirse. Se estima que gracias a la agencia cultural es posible cuestionar ese sistema político -logrando un impacto en el mundo de lo simbólico y lo imaginario que lo convierte en he...

  7. Dura mater is a potential source of Aβ seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Lutz, Mirjam I; Ricken, Gerda; Ströbel, Thomas; Höftberger, Romana; Preusser, Matthias; Regelsberger, Günther; Hönigschnabl, Selma; Reiner, Angelika; Fischer, Peter; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2016-06-01

    Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain parenchyma and vessels is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent observations of Aβ deposition in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) after dural grafting or treatment with pituitary extracts raised concerns whether Aβ is capable of transmitting disease as seen in prion diseases by the disease-associated prion protein. To address this issue, we re-sampled and re-evaluated archival material, including the grafted dura mater of two cases with iCJD (28 and 33-years-old) without mutations in the AβPP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes, and carrying ε3/ε3 alleles of the APOE gene. In addition, we evaluated 84 dura mater samples obtained at autopsy (mean age 84.9 ± 0.3) in the community-based VITA study for the presence of Aβ deposition. We show that the dura mater may harbor Aβ deposits (13 %) in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy or amorphous aggregates. In both iCJD cases, the grafted dura mater had accumulated Aβ. The morphology and distribution pattern of cerebral Aβ deposition together with the lack of tau pathology distinguishes the Aβ proteinopathy in iCJD from AD, from that seen in young individuals without cognitive decline carrying one or two APOE4 alleles, and from that related to traumatic brain injury. Our novel findings of Aβ deposits in the dura mater, including the grafted dura, and the distinct cerebral Aβ distribution in iCJD support the seeding properties of Aβ. However, in contrast to prion diseases, our study suggests that such Aβ seeding is unable to reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of AD. PMID:27016065

  8. Quality control of nuclear medicine equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine functional status and integrity of installations and equipment used in nuclear medicine in everyday medical practice or in research studies, it is important to maintain and implement quality control program. For this type of installation are required high standards, particularly with regard to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the image, and volume measurements in diagnosis and dosimetry. Given the precarious situation of the economy in transition, nuclear medicine departments in the republic, now, can not be always of service contracts with providers of facilities and equipment for routine maintenance and periodic calibration. Therefore, in this article are at some of the quality control procedures should be performed usually by engineers and physicists from the department of nuclear medicine. (authors)

  9. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  11. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  12. The control of nuclear sector; Le controle du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn is loaded with the control of the nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France: it provides this control, in the name of the state, to protect the workers, the patients, the public and the environment of the risks in relation with nuclear activities. The control is the core business of Asn. Asn so checks the nuclear basic installations (I.N.B.), since their conception until their dismantling, the pressure equipment specially conceived for these installations, the management of the radioactive waste as well as the transport of radioactive substances. Asn also checks all the industrial and research installations as well as the hospitals where are used ionizing radiations. It is a more recent profession there, because dating the reform of the control of the nuclear power of 2002, which constitutes that of the radiation protection. The first responsibility of the activities at risks falls to the one who begins them. This principle applies to all the sectors checked by Asn: an industrialist is responsible for the safety of the nuclear installations which he exploits, a doctor is responsible for the use of the ionizing radiations which he uses. (N.C.)

  13. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  14. Comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDITH ARREDONDO HOLGUÍN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir comportamientos y capacidad de agencia de autocuidado de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca de una clínica cardiovascular de Medellín entre noviembre de 2007 y mayo de 2008. Es un estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo. La muestra fue de 206 adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca diagnosticados por sintomatología clínica, fracción de eyección menor o igual a 40%. Se usaron para la recolección de datos la Escala Capacidad de Agencia de Autocuidado desarrollada por Isemberg y Evers et ál. (1993, traducida por Gallego, que mide el nivel de agencia de autocuidado, y la Escala Comportamientos de Autocuidado validada en Colombia en 2007 por Arredondo, que mide la frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado de adultos con insuficiencia cardiaca en la solicitud de ayuda, adaptación a vivir con la enfermedad y el régimen terapéutico, modificación del autoconcepto y aceptación de sí mismo, vivir con efectos de la insuficiencia cardiaca y el tratamiento. Concluye que el mayor número de pacientes eran hombres; que factores básicos condicionantes como el apoyo de la familia, desempeño de un trabajo, afiliación al sistema de salud, nivel socioeconómico y acceso a un nivel educativo fueron importantes para los pacientes. La frecuencia de comportamientos de autocuidado fue media en los adultos en la mayoría de las dimensiones y el nivel de agencia fue alto y muy alto. Igualmente se concluyó que no hay una correlación entre agencia y comportamientos de autocuidado. Lo que plantea que los adultos tienen el conocimiento pero no han tomado la decisión de realizar acciones de autocuidado.

  15. 小儿外科手术中行丙泊酚靶控加单次硬膜的效果探究%Effect exploration of implementation of propofol target control plus one-time dura mater in pediatric surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时文俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the implementation effect of propofol target control plus one-time dura mater in pediatric surgery. Methods Eighty children who received surgical treatment in our hospital from September 2012 to January 2014 were selected as the study subjects and randomly and evenly divided into the study group and the control group, which received one-time epidural plus propofol target control and ketamine anesthesia respectively. The patients' blood pressure, heart rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, physical tamper, muscle relaxation and other indicators of the two groups in different time periods were compared. Results In the control group, the blood pressure and heart rates at the beginning of surgery and at the end of surgery increased significantly compared to the blood pressure and heart rate before surgery(P < 0.05), and in the study group, the blood pressure did not change significantly, but it was lower than that of the control group in the corresponding period, with statistically significant difference(P<0.05). In the study group, the heart rates at the beginning of surgery and at the end of surgery reduced significantly compared to the heart rate before surgery(P<0.05) and reduced a lot compared to the heart rate of the control group in the corresponding period(P<0.05). The study group had less physical tamper and shorter awakening time, with statistically significant differences(P < 0.05). Conclusion In pediatric surgery, the implementation of propofol target control plus one-time dura mater does not have large influence on the children's respiratory circulation and has the features of good effect, fast awakening and safety.%目的:探究在小儿外科手术中行丙泊酚靶控加单次硬膜的效果。方法选取2012年9月~2014年1月来本院接受手术治疗的80例患儿作为研究对象,随机等分为研究组和对照组,分别为单次硬膜外加丙泊酚靶控和氯胺酮麻醉,比较不同时间段的两组患者血

  16. El proyecto subregional cono sur de control y vigilancia de la hidatidosis The southern cone sub-regional project on cystic echinococosis control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Irabedra; Roberto Salvatella

    2010-01-01

    El Proyecto Subregional Cono Sur de Control y Vigilancia de la Hidatidosis: Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, es una herramienta conjunta y colaborativa de los países para promover la implantación o el fortalecimiento de los programas de control. Se hace una descripción de los antecedentes, de los aspectos institucionales que regulan su organicidad y funcionamiento y de las líneas de acción definidas en el proyecto técnico operativo. Se destaca los logros obtenidos a través de los Proyectos...

  17. The 1976 Illini: Sweet Memories of Alma Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Diya Dutt

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of graduates of the class of 1976 from the University of Illinois toward their alma mater over a period of fifteen years. The central question addressed in this article is: How do former students feel about their educational institution as time passes? Early research suggests that students' attachment to their educational institution becomes weaker with the passage of time. This panel data on alumni attitudes towards the academic environ...

  18. Impacto da adoção do sistema de normalização contabilística - entidades do setor não lucrativo (SNC-ESNL) nas Santas Casas da Misericórdia: estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Alegria, Maykol A.; Ribeiro, Nuno A; Nogueira, Sónia P.

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo entender el impacto que la implementación del “Sistema de Normalização Contabilística - Entidades do Setor Não Lucrativo” en los estados financieros de la “Santa Casa daMisericórdia do Porto”, en 2011. En concreto, se pretende evaluar los impactos de la im plementación del“Sistema de Normalização Contabilística - Entidades do Setor Não Lucrativo”, en las diferentes rubricas de los estados financieros (balance y cuenta de resultados) y ciertos...

  19. Digital control systems for nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities, like much of the nuclear industry, are increasingly relying on digital instrumentation and control (DI and C) systems such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to maintain system variables for both production and safety purposes. Fuel cycle manufacturing processes are increasingly automated and relying on active engineered controls. Compliance with the double contingency principle requires that DI and C trains credited for criticality safety are independent. The additional requirements imposed as part of performing an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) in accordance with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 70, Subpart H, mean that such DI and C systems must meet more stringent requirements than would otherwise be required to meet industry standards. This paper discusses the current status of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Digital I and C Working Group, and the requirements that would be imposed on such systems are a result of having to comply with the double contingency principle and the performance requirements of 10 CFR 70.61. Existing applicable NRC Interim Staff Guidance is summarized, and several case studies from ISA technical reviews are presented. (authors)

  20. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  1. Collagen-inspired self-assembling materals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.

    2011-01-01

      The rapid increase of the quality of life together with the progress of medical science asks for the development of new, tuneable and controllable materials. For the same reason, materials used for biomedical applications have to be increasingly biocompatible, biodegradable and biofunctional

  2. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  3. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  4. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Labs., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  5. Collagen-inspired self-assembling materals

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.

    2011-01-01

      The rapid increase of the quality of life together with the progress of medical science asks for the development of new, tuneable and controllable materials. For the same reason, materials used for biomedical applications have to be increasingly biocompatible, biodegradable and biofunctional. Most of the available systems, however, lack one property or the other. For example, conventional animal-derived gelatin that is often used in biomedicine, is susceptible to a risk of contaminatio...

  6. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod

  7. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  8. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Análise de práticas contabilísticas na antiga civilização mesopotâmica = Analysis of accounting practices in the former mesopotamian Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitui um facto perfeitamente verificável que nas últimas décadas se tem vindo a dedicar umaatenção crescente a trabalhos em História da Contabilidade. Antes dos estudos consideradoshoje como fazendo parte da Nova História da Contabilidade, os historiadores da nossa disciplinaconsagraram as suas investigações a aspectos relacionados com a origem e os processosevolutivos da Contabilidade, particularmente no que toca ao exame de práticas contabilísticas emcivilizações antigas. Com base na revisão da literatura de autores não-contabilísticos econtabilísticos (principalmente aqueles que se podem classificar como historiadoresconvencionais da Contabilidade, a questão magna que versamos neste trabalho respeita ànarração resumida de algumas técnicas contabilísticas praticadas no seio da mais antigacivilização da humanidade - a Mesopotâmia.It is a perfectly verifiable fact that in recent decades increasing attention has been devoting to works inAccounting History. Before studies considered today as part of the New Accounting History, historiansof our discipline dedicated their research to aspects on the origin and evolutionary processes ofAccounting, particularly with regard to the examination of accounting practices in ancient civilizations.Based on the review of the literature of non-accounting and Accounting authors, mainly those that canbe classified as conventional Accounting historians, the broader issue discussed in this work thusrelates to the narrative summary of some accounting techniques practiced within the most ancientcivilization of mankind - Mesopotamia.

  11. La composición del consejo de administración y la estructura accionaria como factores explicativos de la transparencia en el gobierno corporativo en Latinoamérica: evidencia en empresas cotizadas de Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe del Carmen Briano Turrent; María Luisa Saavedra García

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo consistió en obtener evidencia empírica de la relación entre la estructura del consejo de administración y la composición de la propiedad, y el nivel de transparencia de gobierno corporativo en empresas de mayor cotización bursátil en Latinoamérica. Para esto se realizó una investigación de tipo correlacional con un análisis longitudinal utilizando datos de las empresas de mayor cotización bursátil en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México, durante el periodo 2004-2010. A p...

  12. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. ¿A qué juega barbie? obligatoria y heterosexualidad agencia cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Garzón M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A través del examen de una experiencia de agencia cultural, este artículo de reflexión aborda el concepto de heterosexualidad obligatoria, o heteronormatividad, y lo concibe como un sistema político que tiene impacto en la vida de las mujeres, al constreñirlas en una forma dicotómica de existir, relacionarse y definirse. Se estima que gracias a la agencia cultural es posible cuestionar ese sistema político —logrando un impacto en el mundo de lo simbólico y lo imaginario que lo convierte en hegemónico— y contribuir a su desmonte.

  14. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  15. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; technical cooperation scheme in nuclear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three pillars of nuclear control regime are nuclear material accountancy control, nuclear export control and physical protection in order to assure nuclear transparency of a nation. It would be prudent to have a proper understanding of the DPRK's nuclear infrastructure before a meaningful collaboration may take place. Chapter 1 introduces the history of nuclear program development in the DPRK, Chapter 2 contains the technical framework of the state system of nuclear materials accountancy control, and Chapters 3 and 4 describe the nuclear export control and physical protection infrastructure needed in preparation for the LWR plant operation. The final Chapter 5 summarizes the salient points raised at the Muju Workshop. Completion of the Monograph series I, II, III is expected to contribute towards the successful completion of the KEDO LWR construction following the satisfactory conclusion of the IAEA verification process

  16. La agencia de medios en el nuevo escenario comunicativo / Media agency in the new communicative scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Castelló Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria comunicativa vive un periodo de cambios profundos a los que la agencia de medios, uno de los actores principales en el mercado publicitario, no ha permanecido ajena. La transmedialidad de los contenidos, los nuevos formatos publicitarios en los diferentes medios, el engagement que demanda el anunciante o el fomento de la experiencia del usuario, entre otros aspectos, han revolucionado la definición de las estrategias de medios. Los objetivos del presente artículo pasan por analizar el papel actual de la agencia de medios en el mercado publicitario y estudiar las características de las estrategias de medios en el presente contexto comunicativo así como su integración en las estrategias de comunicación. La metodología se basa en una revisión bibliográfica de publicaciones dedicadas a la planificación publicitaria y la agencia de medios en base a una serie de palabras clave y en un análisis de los servicios que ofrecen las agencias de medios en sus páginas web. Los resultados destacan el papel estratégico que ha adquirido la agencia de medios en el actual escenario comunicativo, por una parte, y la integración y la transmedialidad que caracterizan hoy en día a las estrategias de medios, por otra. Abstract Communication industry lives a period of profound changes that the media agency, one of the key players in the advertising market, has not remained apart from. Transmediality of contents, new advertising formats in the various media, the engagement that advertisers demand or the encouragement of the users experience, among others, have revolutionized the definition of media strategies.The goals of the present article focus on analyzing the current role of the media agency in the advertising market and studying the characteristics of media strategies in the present communicative context as well as their integration in communication strategies. The methodology is based on a literature review of publications devoted to

  17. Online control loop tuning in Pickering Nuclear Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analog controllers in the Pickering B Nuclear Generating Stations adopted PID control scheme. In replacing the analog controllers with digital controllers, the PID control strategies, including the original tuning parameters were retained. The replacement strategy resulted in minimum effort on control loop tuning. In a few cases, however, it was found during commissioning that control loop tuning was required as a result of poor control loop performance, typically due to slow response and controlled process oscillation. Several factors are accounted for the necessities of control loop re-tuning. Our experience in commissioning the digital controllers showed that online control tuning posted some challenges in nuclear power plant. (author)

  18. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    importance of keeping the intellectual capital in the organizations that is to work with the knowledge from the collaborators. In Brazil still have many authors that discusses this concept and we adopt for this paper the definition form Cavalcanti where is the concept 'intellectual capital' refers either to the capacity, ability or experience, as well as to the formal education that the collaborators members have and add to the Organization. The 'intellectual capital' is an intangible asset, which belongs to the individual himself, thus it might be utilized by the organizations in order to generate value. The development and preservation of this intellectual capital is made through the implementation of forums of discussion, workshops or knowledge portals where the organization's collaborators share their experiences. Nevertheless, to assimilate and to develop the 'intellectual capital' does not add value to the organization: It is necessary to keep it. And one way to do so is to create desirable and encouraging work environments, to promote a sharing management and to offer programs of profits sharing. The objective of this paper is to describe how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN has been developing a nuclear knowledge portal, focused in the Radiation and Safety Nuclear area. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is a federal autarchy created in October 10 of 1956, as a superior agency of planning, guiding, supervision and inspection in nuclear area being also the body entitled to establish standards and regulations on radiological protection, to issue licenses (permissions) and to survey and control the nuclear activities in Brazil. CNEN also develops researches related to the use of nuclear techniques in benefit of the society. The Radiation and Safety Nuclear directorate of CNEN acts, mainly, in the licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations. The people who work at this area recognize the importance of management and sharing the accumulated

  19. Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

  20. Controlling a nuclear reactor with dropped control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system is described for a nuclear power plant including a reactor with a core having an upper portion and a lower portion and control rods which are inserted into and withdrawn from the core of the reactor vertically to control reactivity in the core. The system comprises: means to measure neutron flux separately in the upper portion and the lower portion of the reactor and to generate from such measurements a signal representative of axial distribution of power between the upper and lower portions of the reactor core; means to detect a dropped control rod in the reactor and to generate a dropped rod signal in response thereto; means to generate an axial power distribution limit signal representative of a critical axial power distribution for a dropped rod condition; means to compare the axial power distribution signal to the axial power distribution limit signal and to generate an axial power distribution out of limits signal when the axial power distribution signal exceeds the axial power distribution limit signal; and means responsive only to the presence of both the dropped rod signal and the axial power distribution out of limits signal to generate a signal for shutting the reactor down

  1. Redes sociales y modelos de agencias ciudadanas de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, César

    2011-01-01

    El uso voluntario y espontáneo de las redes sociales también resulta en procesos históricos, etnográficos, antropológicos y sociológicos. Esta investigación se basa en un estudio de mercado que demuestra los usos, hábitos y tendencias de las redes sociales en España, Brasil y México. Los datos analizados indican el potencial para que se establezca una agencia ciudadana de comunicación entre los usuarios de sistemas informáticos que posibilitan la convivencia en redes en nivel mundial, desde q...

  2. Capacidad de agencia de autocuidado y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Aguilar, Rosa del Socorro

    2013-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la relación entre la capacidad de agencia de autocuidado y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes de una Institución de Educación Superior en el Distrito de Barranquilla. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, de corte transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo, basado en la teoría del déficit de autocuidado de Orem. La muestra fue de 133 adolescentes, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Se aplicó la escala ASA, el c...

  3. El contrato de agencia comercial. Análisis dentro del contexto del derecho romano

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Camacho López

    2009-01-01

    Sumario: Premisa. Principios derivados del sistema jurídico romano-germánico aplicables al contrato de agencia comercial. i. Algunas figuras de la actividad mercantil en el derecho romano. ii. Cláusulas de no competencia. A. Posibles fuentes de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. 1. Obsequium. 2. Operae iuratae. 3. Operae stipulatae. 4. Stipulatio. 5. Contratos innominados. 6. Lex mancipii. B. Licitud o ilicitud de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. C. Con...

  4. Opciones estratégicas de las agencias de noticias europeas: Reuters, France Presse y EFE

    OpenAIRE

    Artero, J.P. (Juan Pablo); Moraes, R

    2008-01-01

    Las agencias de noticias se enfrentan a una nueva realidad internacional y de mercado en el siglo XXI. Los cambios políticos, económicos, tecnológicos y sociales que ya ha provocado y sigue produciendo la globalización obligan a estas empresas de comunicación a adaptarse a un entorno muy diferente del que han vivido en el último siglo. Cuestiones clave que deben resolver de un modo estratégico son su relación con los gobiernos; su independencia editorial, comercial y financiera; y la apertura...

  5. GEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used in the Earth Sciences as a means of obtaining information about the molecular-scale environment of fluids in porous geological materials. Laboratory experiments were conducted to advance our fundamental understanding of the link between the NMR response and the geochemical properties of geological materials. In the first part of this research project, we studied the impact of both the surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V) of the pore space and the surface relaxivity on the NMR response of fluids in sand-clay mixtures. This study highlighted the way in which these two parameters control our ability to use NMR measurements to detect and quantify fluid saturation in multiphase saturated systems. The second part of the project was designed to explore the way in which the mineralogic form of iron, as opposed to simply the concentration of iron, affects the surface relaxation rate and, more generally, the NMR response of porous materials. We found that the magnitude of the surface relaxation rate was different for the various iron-oxide minerals because of changes in both the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the pore space, and the surface relaxivity. Of particular significance from this study was the finding of an anomalously large surface relaxivity of magnetite compared to that of the other iron minerals. Differences in the NMR response of iron minerals were seen in column experiments during the reaction of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand with aqueous Fe(II) solutions to form goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite; indicating the potential use of NMR as a means of monitoring geochemical reactions. The final part of the research project investigated the impact of heterogeneity, at the pore-scale, on the NMR response. This work highlighted the way in which the geochemistry, by controlling the surface relaxivity, has a significant impact on the link between NMR data and the microgeometry of the pore space.

  6. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the regulatory control of nuclear safety in 2008, including the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as nuclear waste management and nuclear materials. The control of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste management, as well as nuclear non-proliferation, concern two STUK departments: Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Nuclear Waste and Material Regulation. It constitutes the report on regulatory control in the field of nuclear energy, which the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is required to submit to the Ministry of Employment and the Economy pursuant to section 121 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Decree. The first parts of the report explain the basics of the nuclear safety regulation included as part of STUK's responsibilities, as well as the objectives of the operations, and briefly introduce the objects of regulation. The chapter concerning the development and implementation of legislation and regulations describes changes in nuclear legislation, as well as the progress of STUK's YVL Guide revision. The chapter also includes a summary of the application of the updated YVL Guides to nuclear facilities. The section concerning the regulation of nuclear facilities contains a complete safety assessment of the nuclear facilities currently in operation or under construction. For the nuclear facilities in operation, the section describes plant operation, events during operation, annual maintenance, development of the plants and their safety, and observations made during monitoring. Data and observations gained during regulatory activities are reviewed with a focus on ensuring the safety functions of nuclear facilities and the integrity of structures and components. The report also includes a description of the oversight of the operations and quality management of organisations, oversight of operational experience feedback activities, and the results of these oversight activities. The radiation safety of nuclear

  7. Determinantes de la eficiencia en el canal de distribución: análisis en agencias de viajes

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers Rubio, Ricardo; Mas Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    El incremento de la competencia entre agencias de viajes y el impacto del comercio electrónico como una alternativa al canal de distribución turístico tradicional han dado lugar a un entorno en el que la gestión eficiente de los recursos productivos resulta fundamental para las agencias de viajes. Así, el objetivo del trabajo consiste en estimar la eficiencia con la que operan los intermediarios del sector minorista español de distribución turístico, y conocer la influencia de algunos de sus ...

  8. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  9. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  10. El enfoque de las capacidades, la agencia cognitiva y los recursos morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Reyes Morela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque de Sen se presenta como una alternativa en el terreno de la justicia distributiva. Su noción central es la de capacidad de agencia, es decir, la libertad efectiva para alcanzar aquello que se tienen razones para valorar. A su vez, la idea de agencia cognitiva refiere a la capacidad de revisar o reforzar estas razones. Bajo la autocomprensión de las sociedades modernas, la única forma válida de desarrollarla es a través de la deliberación pública. Del intercambio surgen los recursos morales (entre ellos las razones morales que permiten modificar la concepción del bien y fortalecer sentido de justicia de los sujetos.The Sen’s approach is presented as an alternative in the field of distributive justice. Its main concept is the capability of agency, namely the effective freedom to achieve whatever you have reason to value. In turn, the idea of cognitive agency refers to the capability to review and strengthen these reasons. Under the self-understanding of modern societies, the only valid way to develop them is through public deliberation. Through the exchange emerge the moral resources that allow to modify the conception of the good and strengthen the sense of justice of the people.

  11. Safety review, assessment and regulatory inspection on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA conducted surveillance in 1999 on the Yibin Nuclear Fuel Plant (YNFP) and the laboratory for the Qinghua HTR elements. A CP was granted for the Pilot Plant of Spent Fuel Reprocessing in NNFP and a review and assessment on nuclear safety for the construction application of product line with the fuel elements of HWR in the Baotou No. 202 plant and a review and assessment was performed. The NNSA approved the nuclear material license at QNPP and performed surveillance on the nuclear material control for the 6 licensees of nuclear material such as the INET/Tu, QNPJVC etc

  12. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  13. Under control. An archeology of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume includes a variety of photographs from different German research and power reactors, simulators, the infrastructure of power plants, working situations in the power plant, including fuel exchange and inspection procedures, the dismantling of decommissioned power nuclear facilities and radioactive waste storage facilities. The second part includes interviews with scientists concerning radiobiology, nuclear waste storage, fuel reprocessing, reactor physics, reactor operation, training in the simulator and risk research.

  14. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors generate 15% of the world's supply electric power. The substantial growth in world energy demand is inevitably continuing throughout the next century. Nuclear power which has already paid more than enough for itself and its development, will provide increasing share of electricity production both in the developed and developing countries. For Pakistan with limited natural resources such as oil, gas, and fully tapped hydel power, nuclear power is the only viable option. However, things are not simple for developing countries which embark on nuclear power program. A technical infrastructure should be established as it has been shown by the experience of Control and Instrumentation of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The national report describes the program of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in (NPP) Computers, Control and Instrumentation for design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Control for N4 nuclear steam supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, J.F.; Tetreau, F.; Colling, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    New designs have been used in the instrumentation and control systems for the Framatome N4 1400 MWe nuclear power plants. The design philosophy of the reactor protection system, nuclear instrumentation and rod control systems are described. Programmable control techniques and distributed intelligence via a communications system based on dedicated local networks are used in the design for other instrumentation and control functions. The 1400 MWe, Chooz B1 unit will be the first PWR to use the new design. The integrated protection system, reactor protection, nuclear control and instrumentation functions and the control rod drive control systems are illustrated and described. The way in which the reactor control systems interconnect is illustrated and explained. (U.K.).

  17. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  18. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications

  19. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  20. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the ? field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  1. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  2. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  3. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  4. The ANEEL and the PL 3.337/2004; analysis of the management, organization and social control of the regulator agencies under the legal optics; A ANEEL e o PL 3.337/2004: uma analise da gestao, organizacao e controle social das agencias reguladoras sob o prisma juridico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mails: hirdanmedeiros@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    Since 1990 movement of opening economic sectors and public services long ago explored only the State in Brazil, what it parallel caused the institution of agencies with the target to oversee and to regulate definitive sector affection to the utility public. Ahead of this context, the agency process was attended to it, with looks it to monitor, to regulate and to oversee the activities of steady the incoming actors and already in these markets by means of specific and various laws. Thus, justifying the importance of the existence of a General Law of the Regulating Agencies, the Legislative Bill meets in the National Congress no. 3.337/04. Therefore, the present work, by means of bibliographical research and analysis the Bill in question, it intended to approach the points most controversial raised by studious of the Brazilian right in relation to the impact of the these changes proposals in the structure of the National Agency of Electric Energy. In this direction, the main focus was the contract of management, the interaction between the agencies and the institutions of free market defense, the agencies of control and the public hearings and consultations. (author)

  5. Cranial Reconstruction following the Removal of an Infected Synthetic Dura Mater Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Yoshioka, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Staged cranial reconstruction after the removal of an infected synthetic dura mater substitute using an algorithmic approach is feasible and safe, produces satisfactory cosmetic results, and is not associated with any complications.

  6. Autoimmune Oophoritis with Multiple Molecular Targets Mitigated by Transgenic Expression of Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka, Noriyuki; Tong, Zhi-Bin; Vanevski, Konstantina; Tu, Wei; Cheng, Mickie H.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic expression of the MATER autoantigen in antigen-presenting cells significantly mitigates autoimmune oophoritis in mice with implications for diagnosis and tolerance induction in human autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.

  7. PPARs: Nuclear Receptors Controlled by, and Controlling, Nutrient Handling through Nuclear and Cytosolic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, which are known to regulate lipid homeostasis, are tightly controlled by nutrient availability, and they control nutrient handling. In this paper, we focus on how nutrients control the expression and action of PPARs and how cellular signaling events regulate the action of PPARs in metabolically active tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and white adipose tissue. We address the structure and function of the PPARs, and their interaction with other nuclear receptors, including PPAR cross-talk. We further discuss the roles played by different kinase pathways, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK MAPK, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB, and the NAD+-regulated protein deacetylase SIRT1, serving to control the activity of the PPARs themselves as well as that of a key nutrient-related PPAR coactivator, PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α. We also highlight how currently applied nutrigenomic strategies will increase our understanding on how nutrients regulate metabolic homeostasis through PPAR signaling.

  8. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of bacterial-cellulose-fibre-reinforced Mater-Bi® bionanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamonangan Nainggolan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of fibres of bacterial cellulose (FBC to commercial starch of Mater-Bi® have been investigated. FBC produced by cultivating Acetobacter xylinum for 21 days in glucose-based medium were purified by sodium hydroxide 2.5 wt % and sodium hypochlorite 2.5 wt % overnight, consecutively. To obtain water-free BC nanofibres, the pellicles were freeze dried at a pressure of 130 mbar at a cooling rate of 10 °C min−1. Both Mater-Bi and FBC were blended by using a mini twin-screw extruder at 160 °C for 10 min at a rotor speed of 50 rpm. Tensile tests were performed according to ASTM D638 to measure the Young’s modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used to observe the morphology at an accelerating voltage of 10 kV. The crystallinity (Tc and melting temperature (Tm were measured by DSC. Results showed a significant improvement in mechanical and thermal properties in accordance with the addition of FBC into Mater-Bi. FBC is easily incorporated in Mater-Bi matrix and produces homogeneous Mater-Bi/FBC composite. The crystallinity of the Mater-Bi/FBC composites decrease in relation to the increase in the volume fraction of FBC.

  10. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.)

  11. Sensitive Magnetic Control of Ensemble Nuclear Spin Hyperpolarisation in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai-Jing; Avalos, Claudia E; Seltzer, Scott J; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander; Bajaj, Vikram S

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarisation, which transfers the spin polarisation of electrons to nuclei, is routinely applied to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance; it is also critical in spintronics, particularly when spin hyperpolarisation can be produced and controlled optically or electrically. Here we show the complete polarisation of nuclei located near the optically-polarised nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond. When approaching the ground-state level anti-crossing condition of the NV electron spins, 13C nuclei in the first-shell are polarised in a pattern that depends sensitively and sharply upon the magnetic field. Based on the anisotropy of the hyperfine coupling and of the optical polarisation mechanism, we predict and observe a complete reversal of the nuclear spin polarisation with a few-mT change in the magnetic field. The demonstrated sensitive magnetic control of nuclear polarisation at room temperature will be useful for sensitivity-enhanced NMR, nuclear-based spintronics, and quant...

  12. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  13. Is it possible to limit or control a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled response after a limited aggression by using strategic nuclear weapons is improbable alone for reasons relating to political institutions and political psychology. As long as it is in the least possible that a threat with selective nuclear strikes may result in a great atomic war and by that in mutual destruction the threat itself is - according to rational standards - unbelievable. Plans to prepare oneself technically and politically to make a nuclear war for several months at an controlled extent are the expression of a wrong way of peaceful policy and military strategy. The money spent for such plannings is at best wasted money. (orig./HSCH)

  14. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  15. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new and extremely valuable fuel for electric power production, uranium, requires very careful inventory control from the time the reactor operator assumes financial responsibility for this material until, as partially expended fuel, it is transferred to another facility and the remaining part of its initial value is recovered. Most power reactor operators were operating fossil-fuelled power plants before the advent of nuclear power and have long since established rather complete and adequate controls for these fossil fuels. The reactor operator must have no less adequate controls for the special nuclear material used in his nuclear plant. Power reactor, operation is not an ancient science and during its relatively short history our engineers and scientists have been constantly improving plant designs and methods of operation to reduce costs and make our nuclear plants competitive with fossil-fuelled conventional plants. Nuclear material management must be as modern and efficient as is humanly possible to ensure that technological advances leading to reduced costs are not lost by poor handling of nuclear fuel and the records pertaining to fuel inventory. Nuclear material management requires the maintaining of complete and informative records by the power reactor operator. These records need not be complex to satisfy the criteria of completeness and adequacy. In fact, simplicity is extremely desirable. Despite the fact that nuclear fuel is new and completely different to our conventional fuels no mystery should be attached thereto. Nuclear material control as part of nuclear material management is not limited to simple inventory work but it is the basis for a great deal of other activity that is an inherent part of any power reactor operations such as irradiated fuel shipments, reprocessing of spent fuel, with its associated accounting for reclaimed fuel and material produced during reactor operation, and the establishing and maintaining of an adequate

  16. Agencias de empleo y desarrollo local: ¿una actividad del Tercer Sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calvo Palomares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el desarrollo económico y social de un territorio necesita de los esfuerzos mancomunados de todos y cada uno de los agentes presentes en el medio. Es por ello que el presente artículo pretende reflexionar sobre la vinculación directa existente entre dos de ellos, por un lado las Agencias de Desarrollo Local (ADL como máximo exponente del modelo de desarrollo local y por otro las organizaciones pertenecientes al Tercer Sector, como entidades clave en el sostenimiento y desarrollo social de la comunidad. Para ello partiendo de las características propias del modelo actual de desarrollo local implantado, propondremos dos decálogos de conclusiones, que analicen tanto las similitudes como las divergencias existentes entre estos dos modelos.

  17. El contrato de agencia comercial. Análisis dentro del contexto del derecho romano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Camacho López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: Premisa. Principios derivados del sistema jurídico romano-germánico aplicables al contrato de agencia comercial. i. Algunas figuras de la actividad mercantil en el derecho romano. ii. Cláusulas de no competencia. A. Posibles fuentes de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. 1. Obsequium. 2. Operae iuratae. 3. Operae stipulatae. 4. Stipulatio. 5. Contratos innominados. 6. Lex mancipii. B. Licitud o ilicitud de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. C. Condena por el incumplimiento de la obligación de no competir. iii. Consecuencias de la terminación del contrato. A. Revocación del mandato por parte del mandante. B. Renuncia del mandato por parte del mandatario. iv. Conclusiones

  18. El espionaje y agencias de seguridad: los Estados Unidos y la Federación Rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alejandra Alba Useche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución del espionaje y la tecnología desde la Guerra Fría entre los Estados Unidos y la Federación Rusa se ha desarrollado a través de las Agencias de Seguridad, pero desde los ataques del 11-S, hubo un giro en los métodos de atacar el terrorismo; este tema se convirtió en la prioridad para Estados Unidos y para el resto del mundo. Por esta razón, se están desarrollando vertiginosamente programas de vigilancia, recopilación y análisis de información, sirviéndose del ciberespacio y del ciberespionaje, donde ahora todos somos observados y la privacidad ha sido reemplazada por la vigilancia ‘en aras’ de la seguridad.

  19. Use of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control for Nuclear Security Purposes at Facilities. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) works in a complementary fashion with the international safeguards programme and physical protection systems to help prevent, deter or detect the unauthorized acquisition and use of nuclear materials. These three methodologies are employed by Member States to defend against external threats, internal threats and both state actors and non-state actors. This publication offers guidance for implementing NMAC measures for nuclear security at the nuclear facility level. It focuses on measures to mitigate the risk posed by insider threats and describes elements of a programme that can be implemented at a nuclear facility in coordination with the physical protection system for the purpose of deterring and detecting unauthorized removal of nuclear material

  20. Control of WWER-440 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The V-1 reactor control systems are described. The data acquisition and processing system fulfils four main functions, ie., reactor start-up and power increase to 10% of the rated power, automatic power control within 3% and 110% of the rated power, reactivity compensation, and reactor protection. The automatic control system ensures constant steam pressure maintained with an accuracy of +-0.05 MPa. Reactivity compensation and spatial power distribution is mainly safeguarded by boric acid control. The V-1 reactor protection system has four levels of accident protection depending on the gravity of the failure. The philosophy of automation of the V-1 reactor control and protection system is based on autonomous automatic controlers and on the direct control of the individual sets and technological equipment. In conclusion, development trends are briefly outlined of control and protection systems of light water reactor power plants. (Z.M.)

  1. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    2000-06-01

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final

  2. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author)

  3. Immune response to dehydrated human dura mater : evaluation in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadioglu H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety white hybrid rabbits, each weighing 2.5 to 3.5 kg, were used for this experimental model. Thirty rabbits were used for control, and sixty other rabbits were investigated for the response of host to the dural graft. In all animals, a dural defect, 1 x 1 cm in size, was created on the left parietal area following craniotomy. In the control group the excised free dural piece was then sutured again to the area from which it had been excised before. The dural defect was closed with dehydrated human dura mater (DHD in the half of the rabbits in the group of study, and with autogenous fascia lata (AFL in the other half. After operation, animals in each group were then subjected to one of five different groups comprising of 3,14,30,60 and 90 days follow-up periods. At the end of follow-up periods, histological, parameters such as cellular inflammatory response, development of fibrous tissue, capsulation, and calcification were examined in specimens obtained from the animals. There was no significant difference between AFL and DHD grafts. In conclusion, it seems that DHD is suitable as an ideal dural graft, because the immune response of host to DHD was almost similar to AFL.

  4. Technology Center for Nuclear Control 2004 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research describe the activities of TCNC in KAERI, given the authority from the Government. TCNC is carrying out technical assistance to the Government after reviewing the safeguards and physical protection at the nuclear facilities, while developing the divers technologies related to the export control and nuclear material accountancy. Relating to the safeguards implementation, activities for national safeguards inspection and supporting activities for IAEA safeguards inspection are described. For this, Results of national safeguards inspection and facility status are analyzed. Besides, implementation of the Additional Protocol and IAEA's complementary access supporting activities due to the effectuation of the Additional Protocol are introduced. With regards to the nuclear control planning, technical support for the government about the North Korea nuclear issues and export control, international cooperation are delineated. Holding a non-proliferation workshop, web-site operation of TCNC and Yaksan and work for the publication of TCNC newsletter are also described as a part of nuclear control planning related work. For the safeguards technology area, operation of remote monitoring system using VPN, works for tracing nuclear activities through swipe analysis and the development and improvement of verification equipment such as OFS are presented. Businesses related to the physical protection such as supporting for establishing a plan to implement the effectuated law such as approval examination of physical protection regulations and inspection on facilities and transport protection and development of design basis threat and emergency manual for physical protection etc. are mentioned

  5. Nuclear export criteria and controls in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the export licensing procedure and the modifications made to it under the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (NNPA) to achieve greater control over exports of nuclear material and facilities. Export licences from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are now required for certain items connected with nuclear plant construction and the procedure for obtaining the views of the Executive Branch have been formalised. The President is enabled to override the denial of an export licence by the NRC. Amongst the new criteria on the export licensing procedure added to the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, the NNPA provides that the IAEA Safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty are applicable to exported nuclear material or facilities, together with adequate physical protection measures. (NEA)

  6. Instrumentation and control system for Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation and Control System for nuclear recycle facilities have advanced step by step from manual operation from the operating gallery in the 1960s to hardwired panel based operation from the control room in 1980s and to remote operation through PLC/SCADA systems from control room in the last decade. This paper describes the requirements and associated challenges in Instrumentation and control system design for Integrated nuclear recycle facilities being set up by Nuclear Recycle Board. This will be the forerunner for many such plants being executed by the Board. It details the changes in design philosophy over existing plants in reprocessing and waste management. The paper also explains the design provisions made and the implementation of the same for safe operation of the facility for the designed period. (author)

  7. Medical control of salaried employees in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation indicates some regulatory principles of labour medicine, and the arrangements specific to nuclear base installations. It comments how intervening companies are treated in terms of authorization, control and dosimetry. It presents the organisation of medical control, some of its practical aspects, evokes some critical aspects of working conditions, and outlines some various improvements and the administrative difficulties

  8. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  9. Bayesian Control for Concentrating Mixed Nuclear Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Robert L.; Smith, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    A control algorithm for batch processing of mixed waste is proposed based on conditional Gaussian Bayesian networks. The network is compiled during batch staging for real-time response to sensor input.

  10. Modern insect control: Nuclear techniques and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium dealt primarily with genetic methods of insect control, including sterile insect technique (SIT), F1 sterility, compound chromosomes, translocations and conditional lethals. Research and development activities on various aspects of these control technologies were reported by participants during the Symposium. Of particular interest was development of F1 sterility as a practical method of controlling pest Lepidoptera. Genetic methods of insect control are applicable only on an area wide basis. They are species specific and thus do not reduce populations of beneficial insects or cause other environmental problems. Other papers presented reported on the potential use of radiation as a quarantine treatment for commodities in international trade and the use of radioisotopes as ''tags'' in studying insects

  11. Safety management on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the NNSA conducted some inspections on the YIBIN Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant that was under normal operation and the Pilot plant of NPP spent fuel Reprocessing that was construction at the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex. The NNSA also issued the OP to Tsinghua University for its Fuel Fabrication Laboratory of HTR-10 after safety review. The NNSA conducted the safety review on the CP application for the Fabrication Facility of Fuel Element for Heavy Water Reactor (CANDU-6) at the Baotou Nuclear Fuel Plant of CNNC in Baotou. The NNSA finished the safety review on the Beilong intermediate-level and low-level Radioactive Waste Repository in Guangdong. The NNSA conducted some inspections on the nuclear material control, and completed the verification of the Nuclear Material License of China Corporation of Atomic Energy Industry and other two organizations

  12. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1999-10-01

    The report describes regulatory control of the safe use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in 1998. STUK is the Finnish nuclear safety authority. The submission of this report to the Ministry of Trade and Industry is stipulated in Section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. It was verified by regulatory control that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with conditions set out in the operating licences of the plants and with regulations currently in force. In addition to supervising the normal operation of the plants, STUK oversaw projects carried out at the plant units, which related to the uprating of their power and the improvement of their safety. STUK issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry a statement about applications for the renewal of the operating licences of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, which had been submitted by Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy. Regulatory activities in the field of nuclear waste management were focused on the storage and final disposal of spent fuel as well as the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. STUK issued a statement to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment programme pertaining to a spent fuel repository project, which had been submitted by Posiva Oy, as well as on Imatran Voima Oy's application concerning the operation of a repository for medium- and low-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. The use of nuclear materials was in compliance with the regulations currently in force and also the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were ensured by safeguards control. In international safeguards, important changes took place, which were reflected also in safeguards activities at national level. International co-operation continued based on financing both from STUK's budget and from additional sources. The focus of co-operation funded from outside sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of

  13. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  14. Mutual control of X-rays and nuclear transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunst, Jonas Friedrich

    2015-12-14

    In the course of this Thesis the mutual control between X-rays and nuclear transitions is investigated theoretically. In the first Part, we study the nuclear photoexcitation with the highly brilliant and coherent X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Apart from amplifying the direct resonant interaction with nuclear transitions, the super-intense XFEL can produce new states of matter like cold, high-density plasmas where secondary nuclear excitation channels may come into play, e.g., nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC). Our results predict that in the case of {sup 57}Fe targets secondary NEEC can be safely neglected, whereas it is surprisingly the dominating contribution (in comparison to the direct photoexcitation) for the XFEL-induced {sup 93m}Mo isomer triggering. Based on these case studies, we elaborate a general set of criteria to identify the prevailing excitation channel for a certain nuclear isotope. These criteria may be most relevant for future nuclear resonance experiments at XFEL facilities. On the opposite frontier, the interplay between single X-ray photons and nuclear transitions offer potential storage and processing applications for information science in their most compact form. In the second Part of this Thesis, we show that nuclear forward scattering off {sup 57}Fe targets can be employed to process polarization-encoded single X-rays via timed magnetic field rotations. Apart from the realization of logical gates with X-rays, the polarization encoding is used to design an X-ray quantum eraser scheme where the interference between scattering paths can be switched off and on in a controlled manner. Such setups may advance time-energy complementarity tests to so far unexplored parameter regimes, e.g., to the domain of X-ray quanta.

  15. Mutual control of X-rays and nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this Thesis the mutual control between X-rays and nuclear transitions is investigated theoretically. In the first Part, we study the nuclear photoexcitation with the highly brilliant and coherent X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Apart from amplifying the direct resonant interaction with nuclear transitions, the super-intense XFEL can produce new states of matter like cold, high-density plasmas where secondary nuclear excitation channels may come into play, e.g., nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC). Our results predict that in the case of 57Fe targets secondary NEEC can be safely neglected, whereas it is surprisingly the dominating contribution (in comparison to the direct photoexcitation) for the XFEL-induced 93mMo isomer triggering. Based on these case studies, we elaborate a general set of criteria to identify the prevailing excitation channel for a certain nuclear isotope. These criteria may be most relevant for future nuclear resonance experiments at XFEL facilities. On the opposite frontier, the interplay between single X-ray photons and nuclear transitions offer potential storage and processing applications for information science in their most compact form. In the second Part of this Thesis, we show that nuclear forward scattering off 57Fe targets can be employed to process polarization-encoded single X-rays via timed magnetic field rotations. Apart from the realization of logical gates with X-rays, the polarization encoding is used to design an X-ray quantum eraser scheme where the interference between scattering paths can be switched off and on in a controlled manner. Such setups may advance time-energy complementarity tests to so far unexplored parameter regimes, e.g., to the domain of X-ray quanta.

  16. Modern control technology for improved nuclear reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main complaints leveled at reactor control systems by utility spokesmen is complexity. One only has to look inside a power reactor control room to appreciate this viewpoint. The high reliability and versatility of modern microprocessors makes possible distributed control systems with only performance data and abnormal conditions being relayed to the control room. In a sense, this emulates the human-body control system where routine repetitive actions are handled in an involuntary manner. The significance of expert systems to the nuclear reactor control and safety systems is their ability to capture human and other expertise and make it available, upon demand, and under almost all circumstances. Thus, human problem-solving skills acquired by the learning process over a long period of time can be captured and employed with the reliability inherent in computers. This is especially important in nuclear plants when human operators are burdened by stress and emotional factors that have a dramatic effect on performance level

  17. Use of hafnium in control bars of nuclear reactors; Uso de hafnio en barras de control de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin-mx

    2003-07-01

    Recently the use of hafnium as neutron absorber material in nuclear reactors has been reason of investigation by virtue of that this material has nuclear properties as to the neutrons absorption and structural that can prolong the useful life of the control mechanisms of the nuclear reactors. In this work some of those more significant hafnium properties are presented like nuclear material. Also there are presented calculations carried out with the HELIOS code for fuel cells of uranium oxide and of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides under controlled conditions with conventional bars of boron carbide and also with similar bars to which are substituted the absorbent material by metallic hafnium, the results are presented in this work. (Author)

  18. Transcending sovereignty. In the management and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective control of nuclear material is fundamentally important to the credibility and reliability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), international safeguards are applied to non-nuclear- weapon State Parties for the purpose of verifying compliance with their undertakings not to seek to acquire nuclear weapons or explosive devices by assuring that safeguarded nuclear activities and material are not diverted from their intended peaceful use. Reflecting the sovereign State basis upon which the international system rests, the control and protection of nuclear materials within the State are the responsibility of the national authority. This division of responsibility between international verification of non-diversion on the one hand and national responsibility for material protection on the other has worked quite well over time. But it has not created a seamless web of fully effective control over nuclear material. 34 In so far as safeguards are concerned, six points are to be made: 1. INFCIRC/153 Agreements: Completion by all NPT Parties of the required safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Fifty States Party to the NPT still have not entered into treaty-obligated safeguards agreements with the IAEA. 2. Adherence by all States having full-scope safeguards INFCIRC/540. As noted, very few States have thus far negotiated and implemented the strengthened safeguards arrangements. 3. United Nations Security Council action to take its 1992 assertions (related to compliance and enforcement) on proliferation and safeguards a step further. 4. Non-NPT Party support for international Safeguards. 5. Safeguards financing. 6. IAEA Access to export license information

  19. Development of Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. G.; Lee, B. D.; So, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To implement obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral agreements more effectively, we proposed a computerized system named the Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System (NCAMITS) as a part of the Nuclear Transparency Enhancement Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The database system is designed not only to undertake the facility-level accounting for and control of nuclear material at KAERI, but also to meet the requirements of the State (National) System of Accounting and Control (SSAC). Since the NCAMITS will provide services for the facility operators as well as the safeguard information managers at KAERI, the development of the system is supposed to accommodate the end-user's convenience and the manager's sophisticated specifications as well.

  20. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field nuclear I and C. Areas covered are: (1) role of the operator and control room design; (2) transition from analog to digital technology; (3) computerized operator support systems for fault management; (4) control strategies and techniques; (5) Nuclear power plant I and C architecture; (6) instrumentation and (7) computer standards and tools. The finding relate to poor reactions

  1. La diversité des capitalismes latino-américains : les cas de l’Argentine, du Brésil et du Mexique The diversity of Latin-American capitalisms: the case of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico La diversidad de los capitalismos latinoamericanos: el caso de Argentina, Brasil y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Théret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article prolonge des travaux antérieurs sur l’effet de la diversité des configurations institutionnelles sur les trajectoires récentes de développement économique en Argentine, au Brésil et au Mexique. La première partie est consacrée à la caractérisation et aux transformations des coalitions socio-politiques dominantes dans les trois pays. Les deux parties suivantes examinent l’empreinte de ces coalitions socio-politiques dans les trois domaines relativement autonomes que sont les relations de travail, les systèmes monétaire et financier, et la structure organisationnelle de l’État. La conclusion s’attache à montrer que les différences observées dans les degrés d’autonomie de l’État et les forces organisatrices des syndicats et des entrepreneurs définissent différent modèles économiques et formes d’insertion dans l’économie internationale, qui permettent de parler d’une diversité des capitalismes propres à l’Amérique latine.This article analyses the way in which different socio-political configurations have had a significant effect on the economic development of Argentina, Brasil and Mexico. The characteristics of the socio-political coalitions in the three countries are presented, and their imprints on industrial relationships, monetary and financial systems, and the organizational structures of the State are studied. In conclusion, it is suggested that the observed differences in the three countries in the degrees of autonomy of the State, and the organizational forces of the unions and of the entrepreneurs define different economic patterns and forms of insertion in the international economy that allow to speak of a diversity of capitalisms genuine to Latin America.Este articulo prolonga trabajos anteriores sobre el efecto de la diversidad de configuraciones institucionales sobre las trayectorias recientes del desarrollo económico en Argentina, Brasil y México. La primera parte esta

  2. Nuclear safety. ICFTU proposals for the international control of the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    are strong proponents of its use and others have said that they are only prepared to accept its application if safety controls are substantially improved. All affiliates of the ICFTU are convinced that energy policy options must be widened through increased research and development of new and renewable sources and through extensive energy conservation measures. The environmental impact of all methods of energy generation must be assessed on the basis of the public availability of all relevant information. It is in this context, that whatever their views about the desirability or otherwise of nuclear power, all ICFTU affiliates recognise the immediate need to assure the highest possible level of safety for all nuclear plants and activities everywhere - for example to deal with radioactive wastes created over the last 30 years. Even if some countries opt out of nuclear power it is likely that many others will be committed to it for many years. Given the widespread effects of a catastrophic failure anywhere in the world we must therefore all be concerned to strengthen the international safety regime. Because of their historic role in campaigning for health and safety at work, unions are well placed to exercise an independent watchdog role - making use of the knowledge and skills of their members in the nuclear industry - and are also able to speak on behalf of a large membership which is representative representative of the wide public concern about nuclear safety. Immediately following the Chernobyl disaster, the ICFTU Executive Board adopted a resolution (reproduced as Appendix 2 to this document) calling for immediate steps to tighten up nuclear safety. In the light of subsequent developments, the Confederation has now given further detailed consideration to the whole question of nuclear safety and has decided to publish this report which contains detailed proposals for tighter international control of nuclear energy via the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  3. REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN 2011%REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011REFLECTIONS ON THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL IN2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Schulte

    2011-01-01

    @@ The first vision for removing the threat of nuclear weapons, within a year of their first use, was the far-reaching agenda of the Acheson Lilienthal Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy in 1946[1] proposing that all fissile material should be transferred to a new international agency (the Atomic Development Authority) which would release small amounts to individual nations for peaceful uses.This proposal, like many others, fell victim to the ideologically aggravated suspicions of the Cold War.But, over time, and even during periods of intense east-west suspicion, a substantial body of negotiated agreements has been achieved.Almost all necessarily involved the nuclear superpowers, who led the way in the expansion of nuclear weapons, and whose arsenals therefore needed to be limited as a precondition for achieving wider global nuclear stability.

  4. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations – Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Gray; Robert Anderson; Julio G. Rodriguez; Cheol-Kwon Lee

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I&C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. In order to demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a testbed representing a facility’s critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar testbeds for common critical infrastructure I&C for over ten years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I&C testbed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar testbed. The following information will discuss I&C testbed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI.

  5. Hermenéutica de la persona. Modos de reconocimiento a través de la agencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guzmán Castillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar cómo y por qué reconocemos a los otros como personas plenas, y cuáles son los mecanismos sociales que justifican y permiten que algunas personas sean tratadas como objetos, de forma opresiva y discriminatoria. En mi análisis partiré de la agencia intencional como elemento necesario en cualquier modelo de construcción de la persona. Aún así, se discutirá si la intencionalidad puede considerarse como un atributo exclusivo de los humanos. Expondré tres modelos explicativos para describir la manera en que las personas se relacionan unos con otros y con el entorno. Estos modelos son: el de los tipos literarios, el del dipolo de agencia y el modelo espacial de agencia. Finalmente reivindicaré la importancia del cuerpo como instancia constitutiva del constructo persona, con una importancia igual a la de la subjetividad y la de las circunstancias ambientales.

  6. Next generation nuclear arms control staff development initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The current demographics for staff with nuclear expertise within the United States National Laboratory complex are dominated by a well experienced, but departing late-career workforce, a cadre of mid-career staff that are relatively few in number, and entry-level staff that are well educated but inexperienced, particularly in nuclear arms control and international nuclear safeguards affairs. Although there are a few significant United States Department of Energy (DOE) Programs that have been established to deal with this issue across the Laboratory complex (Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, as two examples), it remains the responsibility of the individual laboratories to provide internal education, training and development activities to move the next generation of nuclear arms control practitioners to higher levels of competency and responsibility. This presentation describes an internal Next Generation Nuclear Arms Control Staff Development Initiative for early- to mid-career technical and policy experts from a broad range of disciplines at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Elements of this internally funded PNNL initiative include, inter alia, student selection criteria, course focus and objectives, core curriculum topics, the distinguished guest speakers series, practical applications of new knowledge and other student responsibilities for action and engagement, training for technical publication, funding issues, and successes and achievements from the very first class of 2012. (author)

  7. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  8. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoming

    2012-09-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  9. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department of metallurgy, NRC Inchass is embarking on a programme of on a laboratory scale, fuel pins containing uranium dioxide pellets are going to be produced. The department is making use of the expertise and equipment at present available and is going to utilize the new fuel pin fabrication unit which would be shortly in operation. The fabrication and testing of uranium dioxide pellets then gradually adapt them and develop, a national know how in this field. This would also involve building up of indigenous experience through proper training of qualified personnel. That are applied to ensure quality of U o2 pellets, the techniques implemented, the equipment used and the specifications of the equipment presently available. The following parameters are subject to quality control tests: density. O/U ration, hydrogen content, microstructure, each property will be discussed, measurements related to U o2 powders, including flow ability, bulk density, O/U ratio, bet surface area and water content will be critically discussed. Relevant tests to ensure Q C of pellets are reviewed. These include surface integrity, density, dimensions, microstructure.4 fig., 1 tab

  10. Method for controlling xenone control rod in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To adequately conduct entire withdrawal or entire insertion of xenone control rods by comparing the control rod worths of the xenone control rods and the xenone amount. Method: A turbine output signal is inputted to a load variation detection circuit and, if the variation coefficient is with a predetermined setting value, it is judged that the load variation has been completed and the load is settled constant, the result of which is inputted to the control rod selection device. The reactor power signal is inputted to a control rod selection device and the number density of iodine and the number density of xenone are determined based on the neutron flux and the maximum or minimum value of the xenone at a constant load is calculated based on both of the data. Then, a function representing the variation amount of the xenone reactivity having the maximum or minimum value as the variant is determined. By comparing the function and the constant load signal, the operation for the xenone control rods is judged or selected. According to this invention, the conventional method of compensating the xenone amount variation with the adjustment of the boron concentration can be substituted with the xenone control rods. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Los despachos de agencia (teletipos como tipo documental Agency dispatches (teletypes as a documentary type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caldera Serrano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el despacho de agencia como tipo documental que debe ser conservado y analizado por parte de los departamentos de documentación de los medios de comunicación tanto de prensa escrita como audiovisuales y sonoros. Para llevar a cabo dicho análisis se realiza un estudio sobre su estructura semántica discursiva que sirva como base para la identificación de los puntos de acceso con los que debe contar la base de datos que albergue dicho material: información temática; cronológica, geográfica y onomástica.An agency's dispatch is analyzed as a documentary type (print, audiovisual and sound material which must be preserved and analyzed by the documentation departments of the mass media. In order to carry out such analysis, a study of the semantic structure of their discourse is made to serve as a basis for the identification of access points that the data base requires if it is to store such material: subject, chronological, geographic and author information.

  12. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Regional Seminars to Address Current Nuclear Export Control Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of nuclear-related exports, a critical component of the nonproliferation regime, is facing several opportunities and challenges. As countries sign and ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards Additional Protocol (AP), they will begin to report far more export information, including exports of a list of items similar to the Nuclear Supplier Group's Trigger List that existed when the AP was developed in the mid-1990s. This positive development contrasts with challenges such as globalization, transshipments, and tracking of end-uses. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is proposing that the US Department of Energy (DOE) develop regional seminars that address these types of issues related to export/import controls. The DOE seminars would be designed to supplement regional seminars sponsored by the IAEA and member states on topics related to the Additional Protocol (referred to as 'IAEA seminars'). The topic of nuclear export/import controls is not thoroughly addressed in the IAEA seminars. The proposed DOE seminars would therefore have two objectives: familiarizing countries with the export/import provisions of the Additional Protocol, and addressing challenges such as those noted above. The seminars would be directed particularly at countries that have not ratified the AP, and at regions where export-related problems are particularly prevalent. The intent is to encourage governments to implement more effective nuclear export control systems that meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  14. Maintaining quality control in a nontraditional nuclear technology degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regents College, created by the Board of Regents of the University of The State on New York in 1971, has been offering, since January 1985, AS and BS degrees in nuclear technology. The impetus for establishing the nuclear technology degrees came from nuclear utility management and had to do with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed rule regarding degreed operators on shift. There are a variety of ways to earn credits in Regents College degree programs: (1) college courses taken for degree-level credit from regionally accredited colleges; (2) courses sponsored by business, industry, or government that have been evaluated and recommended for credit by the New York National or American Council on Education (ACE's) Program on Noncollegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI); (3) military education that has been evaluated by ACE PONSI; (4) approved college-proficiency examinations; and (5) special assessment: an individualized examination of college-level knowledge gained from experience or independent study. Nuclear technology students primarily use college course work, evaluated military education, and proficiency examinations to complete degree programs. However, an increasing number of utilities are having training programs PONSI evaluated, resulting in an increased use of these courses in the nuclear technology degrees. Quality control is a function of several factors described in the paper

  15. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of tile most significant problems that will face investors, managers and operators in nuclear activities and especially in the field of commercial nuclear power, will be the proper control of a nuclear materials inventory that will exceed US $5000 million in value by 1980. Special nuclear materials are expensive when compared to most materials of commerce, e.g. US prices for 90% enriched uranium and 3% enriched uranium as hexafluoride, and for heavy water are $10 808, $254 and $61.60 per kg, respectively. Moreover, in many cases these materials are subjected because of health and safety requirements to special governmental controls not directly related to their monetary value. Despite the high monetary values assigned to these materials, they are destined to be used in large quantity, e.g. some 50- 75 t of 3% enriched material will be used in 500-MW light-water-moderated reactor, and perhaps the equivalent of 200 to 300 reactors of such size will be in operation throughout the world by 1980. Past experience has resulted in the development of special procedures and practice for the commercial control of the large quantity, lower-value materials such as coal or iron ore and for the small quantity, higher value materials such as the precious metals. While they have like prices, special nuclear materials are different in kind and will be handled in quantities much greater than the precious metals. However, while special techniques or special adaptations of old techniques may be necessary, proper use of various established inventory control practices should be sufficient in most cases to protect adequately the investment of nations and individuals in these expensive materials. This paper establishes criteria for materials control. It specifically considers the appropriateness of various techniques of inventory control ranging from annual balancing of book records of receipts and shipments through detailed daily physical inventory in the light of the specific value

  16. Tsetse control, diagnosis and chemotherapy using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the seminar was on recent advances in the use of nuclear techniques in the diagnosis and control of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis. The proceedings contain the full text of sixteen selected papers addressing the disease and its diagnosis, chemotherapy, vector biology, ecology and control. Synopses of the other papers presented are also included. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Coordination control design and simulation for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination control of nuclear power plant is a complex problem researchers faced. In this paper a scheme that the feed water valve opening as a power reference signal is presented. And it builds the physical models based on the lumped parameters equations, and designs the control system according to the scheme. At last, the simulation results show that this scheme is valid and the outlet pressure has less overshoot. (author)

  18. Demonstration of Quantum Entanglement Control Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jing-Yi; ZHANG Jing-Fu; DENG Zhi-Wei; LU Zhi-Heng

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the two forms of the quantum entanglement control, the quantum entanglement swapping and preservation are demonstrated in a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. The pseudopure state is prepared to represent the quantum entangled states through macroscopic signals. Entanglement swapping is directly realized by a swap operation. By controlling the interactions between the system and its environment,we can preserve an initial entangled state for a longer time. The experimental results are in agreement with the experiment.

  19. 3D Printing: A Challenge to Nuclear Export Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of manufacturing critical nuclear-fuel cycle technology using 3D printers in order to circumvent export controls. In particular, it examines the possibility that it may soon be possible to 3D-print maraging steel for use in a centrifuge to enrich uranium. The paper finds that while significant technological challenges remain, an expert with access to an off-the-shelf 3D printer, advanced quality control technology and knowledge of centrifuges should be able...

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  1. Healing of Deep Wound Infection without Removal of Non-Absorbable Dura Mater (Neuro-Patch®): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nan-Xiang; Tan, Daisong Albert; Fu, Peng; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Tong, Song; Yu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    We report on a female patient who received microvascular decompression due to hemifacial spasm. Neuro-Patch® was used during the operation to repair and replace damaged dura mater. Six days after the operation, the incision wound was found to be infected. Abscesses were present deep in the incision. However, because the artificial dura mater was attached so tightly to the original dura mater, the infection was not able to spread inside the skull. After 3 months of meticulous wound cleaning and drug treatment to promote the growth of granulation tissue, we were able to gradually achieve healing of the infection without having to remove the non-absorbable artificial dura mater. By describing this case and the results of a review of the pertinent literature, we discuss the possibility of recovery of an infection without removal of artificial dura mater. PMID:27649762

  2. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Knowledge Economy is pivotal for moving the wealth and development of traditional industrial sectors - abundant in manual labor, raw materials and capital - to areas whose products, processes and services are rich in technology and knowledge. Even in research areas such as nuclear energy, where goods are based on high technology, the ability to transform information into knowledge, and knowledge into decisions and actions, is extremely important. Therefore, the value of products from these areas depends more and more on the degree of innovation, technology and intelligence incorporated by them. Thus, it has become increasingly important and relevant to acquire strategic knowledge and make it available to the organization. Therefore, the objective of this article is to present the construction of a Nuclear Knowledge Portal for aiding and streamlining the Licensing and Management activities of the CNEN. (author)

  3. Nuclear knowledge portal for supporting licensing and controlling nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge economy is pivotal for moving the wealth and development of traditional industrial sectors - abundant in manual labour, raw materials and capital - to areas whose products, processes and services are rich in technology and knowledge. Even in research areas such as nuclear energy, where goods are based on high technology, the ability to transform information into knowledge, and knowledge into decisions and actions, is extremely important. Therefore, the value of products from these areas depends more and more on the degree of innovation, technology and intelligence incorporated by them. Thus, it has become increasingly important and relevant to acquire strategic knowledge and make it available to the organisation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the construction of a Nuclear Knowledge Portal for aiding and streamlining the Licensing and Management activities of the CNEN. (author)

  4. Multivariable robust control of an integrated nuclear power reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Etchepareborda A.; Flury C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The design of the main control system of the CAREM nuclear power plant is presented. This plant is an inherently safe low-power nuclear reactor with natural convection on the primary coolant circuit and is self-pressurized with a steam dome on the top of the pressure vessel (PV). It is an integrated reactor as the whole primary coolant circuit is within the PV. The primary circuit transports the heat to the secondary circuit through once-through steam generators (SG). There is a feedwater val...

  5. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  6. 76 FR 36993 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Clarification of Classification for Human Dura Mater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...). In the Federal Register of November 24, 2004 (69 FR 68612), FDA published a final rule regarding... of the final rule, human dura mater was regulated as a medical device under Sec. 882.5975. As stated... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 882 (formerly Docket No. 1997N-0484P)...

  7. Interaction of ionizing radiation with mater; Oddzialywanie promieniowania jonizujacego z materia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogocki, D. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The early radiation effects (e.g. excitation, ionization) have been described and compared for different kind of radiation interacting with mater. The mechanism of energy deposition in connection with radiation dose and their spatial distribution has been shown.The commonly used definitions and units in radiation dosimetry have been also reviewed. 4 refs, 4 figs.

  8. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  9. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  10. Factores determinantes y coste económico del absentismo de pacientes en consultas externas de la Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Jabalera Mesa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Identificar los factores de la persona, el proceso y el contexto que influyen en el cumplimiento de las citas de consultas externas en la Agencia Sanitaria Costa del Sol, describiendo el perfil del paciente que no acude a su cita, los motivos del absentismo y realizando una estimación del coste económico. Método: Estudio observacional, multicéntrico de casos y controles, mediante encuesta a pacientes citados en consultas ambulatorias durante 2013 y 2014 y análisis de costes por consultas. Resultados: Participaron en el estudio 882 pacientes (294 casos y 588 controles. El olvido (29,6%; n=87 y el fallo en la comunicación (16%; n=47, fueron los principales motivos manifestados por los pacientes absentistas. Una menor demora en la cita y la edad avanzada se asociaban significativamente con menos ausencias, al igual que haber frecuentado más las consultas en el último año. El coste económico fue superior a 3 millones de euros para una tasa de inasistencia del 13,8%. Conclusiones: Los pacientes jóvenes que no frecuentan habitualmente las consultas constituyen el grupo de mayor riesgo de ausencia a las citas programadas en nuestra área sanitaria. Los principales motivos del absentismo son evitables y podrían beneficiarse de intervenciones como la mejora de los procedimientos de comunicación o sistemas de recordatorio de citas.

  11. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea.

  12. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  13. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  14. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  15. Non destructive nuclear measurements for control and characterization purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report for accreditation to supervise researches, the author proposes a large and rather precise overview of his research works which dealt with the upstream and downstream parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. After having discussed the different needs associated with non destructive nuclear measurements during the fuel cycle, the author describes his past research activities. In the following parts, he discusses control and characterization methods associated with the upstream and downstream parts of the fuel cycle: fuel density variation measurement, non destructive control of uranium-235 content of enriched uranium ingots, examination of induced photo-fissions in radioactive waste parcels, use of electron accelerator for simultaneous neutron and photon examination, measurement of the spatial distribution of the photonic component from the Mini Linatron, association of non destructive measurement techniques

  16. Efeito direto de cada norma (IAS/IFRS) nas rubricas das DF e nos principais indicadores económico-financeiros em resultado da alteração do referencial contabilístico: evidência empírica

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Cristina Maria Amendoeira

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar o impacto produzido pela alteração do normativo contabilístico, procurando identificar o efeito direto de cada norma International Accounting Standards/ International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS) nos principais indicadores económico-financeiros. Para tal foram formuladas as duas seguintes questões: Q1: A alteração do normativo POC/DC para as IAS/IFRS produziu alterações significativas na informação financ...

  17. Control policies impact on commercial trade in nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restructuring of the economic sectors, improvement of the business environment and, implicitly, the development of the appropriate legislative framework correspond to the main objectives of the Work Programme issued by the Government of Romania with view to fulfil the criteria imposed by the European Commission for the accession of Romania to European Union planned for the year 2007. One of the legislative package section, being under revision of the Legislative Chamber of Romania, is referring to power sector, where remarkable efforts are made in connection with energy and gas market liberalization towards 40% opening, correction applied to the thermal and electric power and gas tariffs, with a view to get fully cover of the production costs, start up of the privatisation process for some of the distribution companies and all these represent part of the main priorities of the Romanian government for the restructuring of the power sector. SN Nuclearelectrica SA - SNN SA - has as domain of its main activities the development of the nuclear program in Romania regarding: Cernavoda Unit 1 operation for production and delivery of electric power to the National Grid (since 1996), the nuclear fuel fabrication at Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti, the completion and commissioning of the Cernavoda Unit 2 and start up, in the near future, of the work for Unit 3 completion. The trade activity within the power production sector using nuclear fuel is governed, due to its specific, by the rules and laws of Romania and are also subject of the international rules related to the foreign trade and, particularly to the policy of transaction of the special materials on international market. This category of special materials, named strategic materials with dual use, are under the control of the National Agency for Export Control - ANCEX, as well as other specialised and dedicated Romanian authorities, as: National Commission for the Nuclear Activities Control - CNCAN, specialized

  18. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-05-03

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

  20. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  1. A neural network application to control a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a few examples in the literature of the use of neural networks as a controller for systems with highly nonlinear dynamics. Since a nuclear power reactor is a highly nonlinear system, the purpose of the project described in this paper is to create a neural network that can generate the control signals for a nonlinear reactor model. The data for training and recall in the neural network come from a simulation of the advanced neutron source reactor performed with the ACSL software package. The modified Pontryagin's maximum principle was used to generate the control equations, where control of the rector is achieved by the changes of reactivity due to control rod movement and the inlet temperature change. The reactor was required to follow two given demands: the reactor power demand and the coolant temperature demand

  2. Safety in the nuclear era. Politics - strategy - arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given on safety and the factors specifying safety in Europe; the history of the NATO and development of an alliance of sovereign states; nuclear deterrence - the politico-strategic standard of the nuclear era; the East/West struggle for military power; co-operative arms control - theory and practice of stability in the nuclear era; alternative schemes and models; SDI and EURECA - present and future chances and risks. The world is at the beginning of a fascinating development likely to be culminating in the control over and utilization of space, and the mastering of various technical problems be they of a civil or military nature. It remains to be seen whether man will be able to handle the new additional technical capacities in an ethically and politically responsible way. Be that as it may, political scepticism and negative reactions will not succeed in blocking the dynamic forces inherent in the development described. This is especially true for SDI and EURECA. Both schemes are full of both chances and risks. While chances ought to be made the most of risks must be controlled through policies guided by reason. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Nuclear material accountancy and control system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Safeguards and Physical Protection Coordination (COSAP) integrates the structure of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) that is a governmental entity in Brazil. COSAP itself is responsible for the control of nuclear materials, the physical protection of facilities handling nuclear or radioactive materials and the control of the illicit traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials. Besides this control of the nuclear material implemented by the state safeguards system, all the nuclear material after the starting point of application of safeguards is subject to a regional safeguards system (implemented by ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials) and an international safeguards system (implemented by IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency). Under this scope, COSAP has to maintain the inventory knowledge of nuclear material of all nuclear facilities in the country updated, and to report inventory changes to ABACC and IAEA based on data collected from the operators of the facilities. Nowadays, this data collection is made by means of collections of MS-Excel spreadsheets for support documents, general ledgers and inventory lists which is not the best situation. The accounting reports are then prepared and submitted by encrypted e-mail to ABACC and IAEA. COSAP has recently been involved in upgrading the Nuclear Material Accountancy and Control System of Brazil. Such upgrading is based on an entirely new software system (E-GAMMA) that is being developed right now in Brazil by CNEN staff. This software will be a Web system installed in a dedicated server under a secure environment maintained at CNEN headquarters, and each facility or institution will be provided with the necessary hardware and software to access the system (Digital Clients Certificates, Smart Cards, VPN, computers, etc). Users will access the system with strong passwords with creation rules and expiration dates controlled by the

  5. Advanced control room design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power industry has seen a continuous growth of size and complexity of nuclear power plants. Accompanying these changes have been extensive regulatory requirements resulting in significant construction, operation and maintenance costs. In response to related concerns raised by industry members, Combustion Engineering developed the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room. The goal of NUPLEX 80TM is to: reduce design and construction costs; increase plant safety and availability through improvements in the man-machine interface; and reduce maintenance costs. This paper provides an overview of the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room and explains how the stated goals are achieved. (author)

  6. Control room systems design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides a resource for those who are involved in researching, managing, conceptualizing, designing, manufacturing or backfitting power plant control room systems. It will also be useful to those responsible for performing reviews or evaluations of the design and facilities associated with existing power plant control room systems. The ultimate worth of the publication, however, will depend upon how well it can support its users. Readers are invited to provide comments and observations to the IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power. If appropriate, the report will subsequently be re-issued, taking such feedback into account. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Role of Nuclear Material Accounting and Control System for Ensuring Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) already arose at the initial stage of industrial production and utilization of nuclear materials (NM) whose cost is very high and which are potentially dangerous for human health and life. The unified methodological approach at the international level to creation of NM accounting and control systems was developed in the IAEA late in seventies of the last century during design and implementation of the IAEA safeguards system, required by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This approach was fixed, first of all, in the model agreement for application of safeguards in accordance with NPT (INFCIRC/153 corrected), and in the “Guidelines for States’ Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material”. In these documents, requirements were established for NMAC structure, including requirements for organization of material balance areas (MBAs) and for the system of records and reports. At that time in the IAEA, quantity (NM significant quantities) and timeliness (time of detecting NM diversion) criteria of achieving the IAEA inspections goals in IAEA safeguards application were accepted. In some sense these criteria were target parameters for effective functioning of NMAC system. Created in many IAEA member states for safeguards purposes, systems of accounting and control of NM solve successfully problems not only in the safeguards area, but also in other areas where information about NM quantity, quality and location is required. Recent IAEA recommendations concerning NMAC systems are presented in the guidebook “Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook” stated from the viewpoint of IAEA safeguards application

  8. Emociones, agencia y experiencia escolar: el papel de los vínculos en los procesos de inclusión escolar en el nivel secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nobile

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace unos años venimos explorando el modo en que la dimensión emocional de la experiencia escolar interviene en los procesos de inclusión-exclusión educativa en el nivelsecundario. Aquí analizamos en profundidad las entrevistas realizadas a 16 jóvenes de sectores populares que han egresado de las llamadas “Escuelas de Reingreso” en las que se indagaron las formas en que ellos enunciaban su experiencia emocional, explorando lasfuentes de dicha emocionalidad. Respeto, entusiasmo y tranquilidad fueron lasformas enunciativas utilizadas para describir sus experiencias. Nuestra hipótesis es que el tipo de vínculos construidos con los docentes en el marco de un formato escolar particular genera una emocionalidad positiva, que permite resignificar la trayectoria escolar personal, reposicionarse frente a la institución escolar y potenciar su sensación de agencia, en términos de sentirse con mayores márgenes de control acerca de su propia vida, permitiéndole de este modo desplegar diferentes tipos de estrategias personales para su integración laboral, educativa y familiar.

  9. Una arquitectura para el uso de las redes sociales por agencias gubernamentales en la gestión de emergencias

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña Ruano, Pablo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Una emergencia es una situación imprevisible que requiere de acciones de respuesta para minimizar posibles daños humanos y materiales. La gestión de emergencias consiste en un conjunto de actividades para la mitigación, preparación, respuesta y recuperación de una situación de emergencia que involucra a agencias gubernamentales, organizaciones no gubernamentales, comunidades de voluntarios, comunidades de práctica, el sector privado y los ciudadanos. Durante las 4 fases de la gestión de emerg...

  10. PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA UNA AGENCIA SITUADA EN VENEZUELA QUE OFRECE CURSOS DE IDIOMAS EN EL EXTRANJERO

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ CASADO, CARLOS

    2014-01-01

    Con la realización del presente Trabajo Final de Carrera, se pretende realizar un Plan de Empresa para la Creación, Plan de desarrollo y Viabilidad para una agencia de cursos de inglés en el extranjero y con oficina en Venezuela bajo la marca: Eurolingua. El objetivo de este plan de negocio es la implantación de una oficina de Eurolingua en Venezuela con el fin de buscar una apertura a nuevos mercados emergentes y contrarrestar los efectos que está provocando la crisis económica española e...

  11. Survey procedure: Control and accountability of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure outlines the method by which the Department of Energy (DOE) San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) will plan and execute periodic field surveys of the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) program and practices at designated contractors' facilities. The surveys will be conducted in accordance with DOE Order 5630.7, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials Surveys (7/8/81) to ascertain compliance with applicable DOE Orders and SAN Management Directives in the 5630 series, as well as the adequacy of the contractor's program and procedures. Surveys will be conducted by the Safeguards and Security Division of DOE-SAN. The survey team will review and evaluate the adequacy of the contractor's procedures and practices for nuclear material control and accounting by means of physical inventory, internal control, measurement and statistics, material control indicators, records and reports, and personnel training. The survey will include an audit of records and reports, observation of inventory procedures, an independent test of the inventory and a review and evaluation of the inventory differences, accidental losses, and normal operational losses as applicable to the facility to be surveyed

  12. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water

  13. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water reactor power plants

  14. Heterogeneous Nuclear Reactor Models for Optimal Xenon Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, Ishtiaq Ahmad

    Nuclear reactors are generally modeled as homogeneous mixtures of fuel, control, and other materials while in reality they are heterogeneous-homogeneous configurations comprised of fuel and control rods along with other materials. Similarly, for space-time studies of a nuclear reactor, homogeneous, usually one-group diffusion theory, models are used, and the system equations are solved by either nodal or modal expansion approximations. Study of xenon-induced problems has also been carried out using similar models and with the help of dynamic programming or classical calculus of variations or the minimum principle. In this study a thermal nuclear reactor is modeled as a two-dimensional lattice of fuel and control rods placed in an infinite-moderator in plane geometry. The two-group diffusion theory approximation is used for neutron transport. Space -time neutron balance equations are written for two groups and reduced to one space-time algebraic equation by using the two-dimensional Fourier transform. This equation is written at all fuel and control rod locations. Iodine -xenon and promethium-samarium dynamic equations are also written at fuel rod locations only. These equations are then linearized about an equilibrium point which is determined from the steady-state form of the original nonlinear system equations. After studying poisonless criticality, with and without control, and the stability of the open-loop system and after checking its controllability, a performance criterion is defined for the xenon-induced spatial flux oscillation problem in the form of a functional to be minimized. Linear -quadratic optimal control theory is then applied to solve the problem. To perform a variety of different additional useful studies, this formulation has potential for various extensions and variations; for example, different geometry of the problem, with possible extension to three dimensions, heterogeneous -homogeneous formulation to include, for example, homogeneously

  15. Nuclear developments: the DMAX advanced reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framatome has recently developed a new system for controlling the rod cluster control assemblies of pressurized water reactors, called the DMAX. The associated reactor control method is called 'mode X'. The DMAX system will be installed in all 'N4' model Framatome nuclear steam supply systems, the first two of which are presently under construction on the Chooz site in France. It will enable fine controlling of the reactor coolant temperature and the axial power offset, entirely automatically, due to double closed-loop regulation. The new DMAX system allows temperature control and continuous maintenance of a stable reactor core power distribution, because of an original method for controlling the movements of the control rods within the reactor. The disturbing xenon oscillations are practically eliminated and the operator is freed from the need of constantly monitoring the axial power offset, which is necessary in the commonly used 'A' or 'G' control modes. The probability of penalizing initial conditions in case an incident or accident occurs is considerably reduced in mode X, with the DMAX system, and the reactor's load-following performances are improved. In addition, the reactivity variations that must necessarily be compensated for in mode G by changing the boric acid concentration of the reactor coolant can be simply compensated for by control rod movements in mode X. This possibility yields a major reduction in the volume of liquid effluents that must subsequently be created. The system is outlined and its operation explained. (author)

  16. Fact sheet on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are facing challenges in several instrumentation and control (I and C) areas with ageing and obsolete components and equipment. With license renewals and power uprates, the long-term operation and maintenance of obsolete I and C systems may not be a cost-effective and reliable option. The effort needed to maintain or increase the reliability and useful life of existing I and C systems may be greater in the long run than modernizing I and C systems or replacing them completely with new digital systems. The increased functionality of the new I and C systems can also open up new possibilities to better support the operation and maintenance activities in the plant. The IAEA recognizes the importance of the profound role the I and C systems play in the reliable, safe, efficient, and cost-effective operations of NPPs by supporting the activities of the Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI). The group was established in March 1970. Its membership currently includes thirty Member States and three international organizations. The most recent meeting of the TWG-NPPCI was held in May 2005 in Vienna. The meeting report is available at http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/twg_nppc.html. The next meeting of the TWGNPPCI will be the 21st meeting of the advisory body, and it will be held in May 2007

  17. Subcritical space nuclear system without most movable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and analysis of advanced space nuclear reactor (ASNR) whose design combines the advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and space nuclear reactor (SNR). As opposed to current SNRs designs, ASNR is a subcritical system driven by 232U–Be neutron source to generate thermal power continuously. Most movable control systems in the SNR design are removed. The detailed neutronic calculations by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended), including keff, flux, burn-up, loss-ratio of neutron source and immersion reactivity, show that ASNR has higher criticality safety and more compact structure to bear the risk of immersion accident compared with the past SNRs, and the new system can provide more thermal power than RTG. Furthermore, the neutron source efficiency is optimized to improve the utilization of 232U–Be neutron source with the improvement of criticality safety. Compared with the past designs of space nuclear power, ASNR could provide enough thermal power and avoid the occurrence of serious immersion accident in the case of total control system failure. ASNR has potential for future deep space missions. (author)

  18. The Remotely Controlled Robot System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactivity has been our major concern. So, it makes the needs of remotely controlled robot system necessary for maintenance and repair services. Up to now, several foreign companies have been contracted for the maintenance of the steam generators of nuclear power plants in Korea, to acquire its own capability of maintaining the steam generators of it impossible for Korea to acquire its own capability of maintaining the steam generators. In case of emergency, it is difficult to take appropriate steps on its own. In order to resolve the above problems, it seems inevitable to develop the robot system for the inspection and repair of steam generator. This project intends to acquire domestic capabilities of maintaining steam generators, so that this advanced skills could be applied to the related areas. As a result, it will save immense money in the future. the purposes of development of the remotely controlled robot system are : to perform the desired tasks at the polluted area without requiring entry of personnel. to closely inspect the steam generator U-tubes at high speed. to inspect the steam generator intelligently and efficiently under the extreme circumstances where radioactivity problem is very severe. to use for the repair of steam generator tube. Considering from the social and technical standpoint, we can say that the development of the remotely controlled robot system for nuclear power plants resulted in great achievements. From the social standpoint, it should be recognized that domestic robot for nuclear power plant was successfully developed and operator was protected against radioactivity. Also, we advanced our skills in the area of mechanical and control system design for an articulated robot. Using the robot controller in hierarchical structure, it was possible to control the robot remotely. In addition, resolver feedback typed A C servo drive was proven to be sturdy in hazardous environment. Now we are confident that our robot will

  19. Human engineering guide for enhancing nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project was to develop near-term human engineering approaches, that is, those which can be implemented while the plant is operating or during a planned shutdown, for enhancing existing nuclear control rooms. Primary data for the Guide was collected during site visits to four pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants representing a mix of Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) vendors and architects/engineers. Structured interviews, checklists, walkthroughs/talkthroughs, surveys, and task analyses were used. Data on boiling water reactors (BWRs) were collected in a meeting with representatives of the BWR Owners Group. All enhancement approaches were reviewed extensively with cognizant industry representatives for feasibility and acceptability before being including in the Guide

  20. Nuclear PTEN controls DNA repair and sensitivity to genotoxic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, C; Ho, J; Srikumar, T; Dowling, RJO; Gorrini, C; Miller, SJ; Mak, TW; Neel, BG; Raught, B; Stambolic, V

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of the Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is associated with many human cancers. In the cytoplasm, PTEN antagonizes the Phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN also accumulates in the nucleus, where its function remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that SUMOylation (SUMO) of PTEN controls its nuclear localization. In cells exposed to genotoxic stress, SUMO-PTEN was rapidly excluded from the nucleus dependent on the protein kinase Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Cells lacking nuclear PTEN were hypersensitive to DNA damage, while PTEN-deficient cells were susceptible to killing by a combination of genotoxic stress and a small molecule PI3K inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may have implications for individualized therapy for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors. PMID:23888040

  1. Programmable logic controller (PLC) for safety systems of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A programmable logic controller (PLC) has been developed by RCnD, BARC for use in the safety critical systems in nuclear power plants. This PLC uses qualified hardware developed in RCnD for use in NPP. The programming software conforms to IEC-61131 part 3. The application programming is done on function block diagram (FBD) editor and the FBD is automatically converted into code in high level language (C / C++). This feature makes the application easily decipherable and therefore easily subjected to reviews and other validation techniques. The key to make quality software for use in nuclear systems is to enforce various standards in the design and development of the software, something, which is not possible to do with a commercially available PLC. This PLC with its software completely transparent lends itself to rigorous verification and validation easily

  2. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1993. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regular meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the Merlin-Gerin Headquarters in Paris and was attended by twenty one national delegates and observers from 17 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Paris, 21-22 October 1993, (2) report by the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1991-1993 in the NPPCI area, and (3) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The papers and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economic aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Fuzzy control applied to nuclear power plant pressurizer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S., E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants (NPPs) the pressure control in the primary loop is very important for keeping the reactor in a safety condition and improve the generation process efficiency. The main component responsible for this task is the pressurizer. The pressurizer pressure control system (PPCS) utilizes heaters and spray valves to maintain the pressure within an operating band during steady state conditions, and limits the pressure changes, during transient conditions. Relief and safety valves provide overpressure protection for the reactor coolant system (RCS) to ensure system integrity. Various protective reactor trips are generated if the system parameters exceed safe bounds. Historically, a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller is used in PWRs to keep the pressure in the set point, during those operation conditions. The purpose of this study has two main goals: first is to develop a pressurizer model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs); second is to develop a fuzzy controller for the PWR pressurizer pressure, and compare its performance with the P controller. Data from a simulator PWR plant was used to test the ANN and the controllers as well. The reference simulator is a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant with a total thermal output of 2785 MWth. The simulation results show that the pressurizer ANN model response are in reasonable agreement with the simulated power plant, and the fuzzy controller built in this study has better performance compared to the P controller. (author)

  4. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  5. Diferencias en la eficiencia técnica de la gestión online y tradicional de las agencias de viajes en España

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle Muñoz de Cuerva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Tesis inédita presentada en la Universidad Europea de Madrid. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales. Programa de Doctorado en Economía y Empresa El sector de las agencias de viajes en España está atravesando un periodo de grandes transformaciones. Por un lado las nuevas herramientas surgidas gracias a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han modificado tanto la gestión interna de las agencias, como el funcionamiento del propio mercado. Por otro, el sector está sufriendo las consecu...

  6. Eficiencia económica en las agencias de viajes tradicionales y online. Una aplicación al mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Lacalle Muñoz de Cuerva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Las nuevas herramientas surgidas gracias a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han modificado tanto la gestión interna de las agencias de viajes, como el funcionamiento del propio mercado. Por otro lado, el sector está sufriendo las consecuencias de la crisis económica y como resultado, un gran número de agencias ha desaparecido de la industria de la intermediación turística española en los últimos años. Unido a este hecho, se ha observado que las transacciones realizadas a tr...

  7. El Contrato de Agencia Comercial y los Cambios Introducidos en la Negociación del TLC Entre EE.UU. y los Países Andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en consideración que dentro del tratado de libre comercio entre los Países Andinos y los Estados Unidos, se negociaron algunos cambios importantes en la regulación sobre el contrato de agencia comercial, ésta investigación tiene como objetivo principal, mostrar cuales fueron los puntos negociados por los Estados Unidos y por Colombia para este contrato, y exponer cuáles serán los cambios que el Congreso colombiano tendrá que introducir al Código de Comercio, en materia de agencia comercial.

  8. El Contrato de Agencia Comercial y los Cambios Introducidos en la Negociación del TLC Entre EE.UU. y los Países Andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en consideración que dentro del tratado de libre comercio entre los Países Andinos y los Estados Unidos, se negociaron algunos cambios importantes en la regulación sobre el contrato de agencia comercial, ésta investigación tiene como objetivo principal, mostrar cuales fueron los puntos negociados por los Estados Unidos y por Colombia para este contrato, y exponer cuáles serán los cambios que el Congreso colombiano tendrá que introducir al Código de Comercio, en materia de agencia comercial.

  9. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  10. Claudia Quinta (Pro Caelio 34 and an altar to Magna Mater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Winsor Leach

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the items of sculpture from the Capitoline collection now housed in the Museum of the Power Station Montemartini is a marble relief altar of the Claudian Period (E. Simon's dating dedicated to the mater deorum and the navis salvia and depicting the arrival of the goddess Cybele at Rome by ship. The dedicator is one Claudia Syntyche and the sculpture alludes to the legends attached to a much honored woman of the Claudian family whom Cicero, in his oration pro Caelio brought on stage in a cameo appearance to bolster his case against the controversial contemporary woman Clodia Metelli as one of the accusers of his client M. Caelius Rufus. This paper will consider questions raised by the iconography of the altar with reference to the development of Claudia's legend in Roman mythology and subsequently ask who was this Claudia the dedicator and why did she choose Magna Mater for her vow?

  11. Study, design and evaluation of nuclear reactor computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor control is a complex process that varies with each reactor and there is no universal agreement as to the best type of control system. After the use of conventional systems for a long time, attention turned towards digital techniques in the reactor control system. This interest emerged because of the difficulties faced in the data manipulation, mainly for post-incident analysis. However, it is not sufficient to insert a computer in a system to solve all the data-handling problems and also the insertion of a computer in a real-time system is not without any effect on the overall system. The scope of this thesis is to show the important parameters that have to be taken into account when choosing and evaluate the performances of the selected system

  12. A minimum attention control center for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Centers for Nuclear Power Plants have characteristically been designed for maximum attention by the operating staffs of these plants. Consequently, the monitoring, control and diagnostics oriented cognitive activities by these staffs, were mostly ''data-driven'' in nature. This paper addresses a control center concept, under development by Combustion Engineering, that promotes a more ''information-driven'' cognitive interaction process between the operator and the plant. The more ''intelligent'' and therefore less attentive nature of such interactive process utilizes computer implemented cognitive engineered algorithms. The underlying structure of these algorithms is based upon the Critical Function/Success Path monitoring principle. The paper highlights a typical implementation of the minimum attention concept for the handling of unfamiliar safety related events. (author)

  13. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project intends to establish the basic technology of intelligent control and automation to be applied to the next generation nuclear plant. For that, the research status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas at first. The characteristics and availability of those techniques such as neural network, fuzzy rule based control and reasoning, multimedia, real-time software and qualitative modelling are studied through a series of simulations and experiments. By integrating each technologies studied above, we developed a hierarchical, intelligent control system for an autonomous mobile robot as a test bed. The system is composed of several modules of software and hardware subsystems, which are implemented by use of the intelligent techniques. Through the analysis of the results and experiences, we investigated the feasibility of application of the basic technology to the next generation plant. (Author)

  14. Accounting and cost control of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) chart or classification of accounts, 2) all plant expenses, 3) cost control, 4) storage of spare parts and supplies, 5) control of applicable dose rate, 6) charges for insurance. The accuracy of accounting and cost control is a primary thing for the efficiency in a nuclear power station. The much more important factor is the availability. It is necessary to save costs by a more effective storage or a more detailed and automatic process of single jobs in the workshop. But a very definite experience made in Obrigheim is the fact that not only commercial people know which financial loss will occur if the plant is out of operation one hour. This knowledge is also important for the technical people and for the workers in the workshops. The technical responsibility and the security in operation of the plant and the commercial understanding for the risk of non-availability do not exclude each other. (HP)

  15. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify and correct the lacks in control rooms of operating power plants and plants under construction an extensive program has been started in the USA. In Finland as in other countries using nuclear power, the development in the USA particularly with regard to the requirements imposed on nuclear power plants is carefully followed. The changes in these requirements are sooner or later also reflected in the guidelines given by the Finnish authorities. It is therefore important to be able to form a notion of how the new requirements apply to Finnish conditions. Especially it is important to review the latest assessment guidelines for control room implementation (NUREG-0700). Thus we can avoid possible over hasty conclusions. The aim of the analysis of the method and experiments presented in NUREG 0700 report was to create a basis for assessment of the suitability of the method for Finnish control room implementation. The task group has made a general methodical analysis of the method, and partly tried it in assessment of the TVO2 control room. It is obvious that direct conclusions from the American situation are misleading. It can be considered unfeasible to follow the American requirements as such, because they can lead to unwanted results. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) can be considered successful. It can also be used during planning to observation of small discrepancies. However, we can question the applicability of some requirements. It is, though, more essential that the control room entity has neither in this nor in several other programs been reached or standardized. In spite of the difficulties we should try to reach this most important goal. (author)

  16. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: D and C. Session D contains papers on magnetic confinement theory and modelling tokamaks, and session C the papers on non-tokamak confinement system. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Communications involving the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated communications within the operations component of a nuclear power plant, with a primary emphasis on control room communications. A structured interview technique was developed following preliminary interviews at the plant, and pretested at AECB headquarters. Patterns were identified from questions asked on communications links, work relationships, miscommunications, procedures, instrumentation and responses to problems. The study was an exploratory one, conducted under a limited budget, to provide background information and to identify areas for further investigation. The report offers recommendations about areas for further research

  19. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains, in addition to the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture, the papers on tokamaks, and session E the papers on heating and current drive. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs, have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  1. Application of bilinear control technology in nuclear reactor power adjustment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilinear control technology of modern control theory is applied to nuclear reactor engineering. One group point reactor model is used as a bilinear model of nuclear fission. This bilinear system is assured of being globe stability with Lyapunov's stability theorem. And Riccati equation is adopted to realize the optimal control of the system. The simulation results show that a better control effect can be obtained when using the bilinear control of the nuclear reactor power adjustment system

  2. Computer simulation of nuclear reactor control by means of heuristic learning controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial of application of two techniques of Artificial Intelligence: heuristic Programming and Learning Machines Theory for nuclear reactor control is presented. Considering complexity of the mathematical models describing satisfactorily the nuclear reactors, value changes of these models parameters in course of operation, knowledge of some parameters value with too small exactness, there appear diffucluties in the classical approach application for these objects control systems design. The classical approach consists in definition of the permissible control actions set on the base of the set performance index and the object mathematical model. The Artificial Intelligence methods enable construction of the control system, which gets during work an information being a priori inaccessible and uses it for its action change for the control to be the optimum one. Applying these methods we have elaborated the reactor power control system. As the performance index there has been taken the integral of the error square. For the control system there are only accessible: the set power trajectory, the reactor power and the control rod position. The set power trajectory has been divided into time intervals called heuristic intervals. At the beginning of every heuristic interval, on the base of the obtained experience, the control system chooses from the control (heuristic) set the optimum control. The heuristic set it is the set of relations between the control rod rate and the state variables, the set and the obtained power, similar to simplifications applied by nuclear reactors operators. The results obtained for the different control rod rates and different reactor (simulated on the digital computer) show the proper work of the system. (author)

  3. Risk Informed Approach for Nuclear Security Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance to States for developing a risk informed approach and for conducting threat and risk assessments as the basis for the design and implementation of sustainable nuclear security systems and measures for prevention of, detection of, and response to criminal and intentional unauthorised acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. It describes concepts and methodologies for a risk informed approach, including identification and assessment of threats, targets, and potential consequences; threat and risk assessment methodologies, and the use of risk informed approaches as the basis for informing the development and implementation of nuclear security systems and measures. The publication is an Implementing Guide within the IAEA Nuclear Security Series and is intended for use by national policy makers, law enforcement agencies and experts from competent authorities and other relevant organizations involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of nuclear security systems and measures related to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control

  4. Digital computer control of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the use of digital computers in energy producing systems has been limited to data acquisition functions. These computers have greatly reduced human involvement in the moment to moment decision process and the crisis decision process, thereby improving the safety of the dynamic energy producing systems. However, in addition to data acquisition, control of energy producing systems also includes data comparison, decision making, and control actions. The majority of the later functions are accomplished through the use of analog computers in a distributed configuration. The lack of cooperation and hence, inefficiency in distributed control, and the extent of human interaction in critical phases of control have provided the incentive to improve the later three functions of energy systems control. Properly applied, centralized control by digital computers can increase efficiency by making the system react as a single unit and by implementing efficient power changes to match demand. Additionally, safety will be improved by further limiting human involvement to action only in the case of a failure of the centralized control system. This paper presents a hardware and software design for the centralized control of a research nuclear reactor by a digital computer. Current nuclear reactor control philosophies which include redundancy, inherent safety in failure, and conservative yet operational scram initiation were used as the bases of the design. The control philosophies were applied to the power monitoring system, the fuel temperature monitoring system, the area radiation monitoring system, and the overall system interaction. Unlike the single function analog computers that are currently used to control research and commercial reactors, this system will be driven by a multifunction digital computer. Specifically, the system will perform control rod movements to conform with operator requests, automatically log the required physical parameters during reactor

  5. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, held in Washington D.C., 1-6 October 1990, and organized in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, was devoted to the exchange and dissemination of reports on the steady progress in the research on both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, aiming ultimately for the production of commercial energy from controlled thermonuclear reactors. More than two hundred technical papers presented work on tokamak experiments, inertial confinement, non-tokamak confinement systems, magnetic confinement theory and modelling, plasma heating and current drive, the ITER project, technology and reactor concepts, and the economic, safety and environmental aspects of thermonuclear fusion. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Direct digital control of furnaces irradiated in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental direct digital control system has been realised in the 'C.E.N.G.', in order to verify that a computer makes easier the control of the experiments done in the nuclear reactors and to solve the theoretical and technical difficulties. The regulation is applied to thermal processes. The sampled data systems theory permits to choose the type of an efficient and simple digital compensator, and to establish a diagram which gives the values of the correcting parameters (obtained by minimizing the difference between the output and the input when perturbations occur). The programme execute, in simultaneity, supervision and regulation. Complex possibilities of printing out measures and alarms existed. The computer works out an incremental correction which makes step motors to turn. These motors act on the heating organs. The theoretical values and answers have been confirmed. The accuracy was limited essentially by the input quantification (1/1000 th). The comfort of such a system has been noticeable. (author)

  7. Control of information as an element of nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of information as an element of physical protection has a long history in the field of national security. The nuclear industry is familiar with the constraints on proprietary information; and, with an effective date of October 1, 1980 for Parts 25 and 95 in Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations, certain activities had to cope with rules for safeguarding of classified information. In applying the rules it is important to understand the differences between national security information and restricted data, and how guidance is promulgated both by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by the Department of Energy. More recently, with a fully effective date of January 20, 1982, the NRC published rules for the protection of unclassified safeguards information. The scope is much broader than for the classified information. For example, the rules are applicable to power reactors. In this paper the directives which provide the details for compliance with all these rules are identified, and their application is discussed. NRC inspectors will be checking for compliance with the rules. Once problems of compliance are resolved, the more difficult question of evaluating the impact of information control procedures on the effectiveness of a physical protection system can be addressed

  8. Method of controlling creep velocity for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear fuels containing UO2, the shape of fuel crystal particles is changed, to vary and control the creep behavior. That is, the creep evaluation diameter dc defined as dc = (1/n)2 D is applied as a crystal particle size to compensate the equation of the creeping velocity. In this case, D represents the diameter of an equivalent circle area of a crystal particles, d represents a diameter on the bases of a particle surface area or the diameter on the basis of a standard of peripheral length, and d = nD. In view of the above, the creeping velocity after the change of the particle size can accurately be forecast. Accordingly, the creeping velocity can be controlled not only by changing the particle size but also by changing the shape of the particle. The crystal tissues of nuclear fuels having a satisfactory FP (fission products) gas retainability and a satisfactory PCI (pellet-cladding interaction) characteristics can thus be defined. (I.N.)

  9. Multivariable control systems design: a case study of robust control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided robust multivariable control system design procedure is given. The procedure allows the possibility of adding extra controllers which can be used to improve the robustness characteristics of the nominal system. New robustness results in output feedback control system designs are presented which lead to reduction of conservatism in robustness tests. A mathematical model of a real physical system, a nuclear power plant, is used to demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology for stability robustness analysis and robust multivariable control systems design. (author)

  10. Suboptional control study of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts of modern control theory and, in particular, of optimal control have been used to develop a general and systematic method of regulator design starting from the non-linear mathematical model of the plant. This method was applied to the study of the control of a nuclear reactor plant of the SGHWR type (steam generating heavy water reactor), of 105 MW electric power, working at the Atomic Energy Authority Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset, England. The optimal linear regulator, computed for the free system, is incorporated into the system with saturation limits on its control inputs. This is one reason for suboptimality. Then only measurable state variables carrying large amounts of feedback control (compared with the rest of the variables) were used on the regulator, hence the second reason for suboptimality. In the course of this work a new method of optimal linear regulator design for external disturbances was applied. It is computationally very simple and also permits a simple calculation of transients by using the same eigenvector matrix regardless of the disturbance. 22 references. (U.S.)

  11. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  12. Report on nuclear installations safety and security control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the parliamentary office for evaluation of scientific and technological choices bearing on the safety and security of nuclear installations is divided into 2 volumes bearing on: - Volume I: nuclear installations safety. - nuclear safety and international organizations. - works separation: Finland, Belgium and Federal Republic of Germany. - French organization. - Volume II: security and information. - French nuclear security. - Public information

  13. The evolution of legal approaches to controlling nuclear and radiological weapons and combating the threat of nuclear terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herbach

    2015-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of international law related to the weaponization of nuclear and other radioactive materials, focusing in particular on the law pertaining to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism. International efforts to control atomic energy have evolved substantially since the on

  14. Agencia, materialidad y documentación del arte de los medios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Alsina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El arte de los medios goza de una larga y fértil historia que ha generado innumerables prácticas artísticas de gran calidad así como no pocos estudios  teóricos e históricos sobre las diferentes tendencias, creadores, o sobre las diferentes zonas geográficas que han intervenido e intervienen en la construcción de su pasado y su presente (Wilson,2001; Paul, 2003; Daniels, 2004, 2005; Popper, 2007; Grau, 2007; Alsina, 2007; Shanken 2009. No obstante las própias características y el componente experimental inherente a este conjunto de prácticas también ha aportado importantes preguntas relativas a la transformación de la naturaleza de los procesos que el arte de los medios introduce en las formas tradicionales de habérselas con el arte y el mundo del arte. El propósito de este artículo es incidir específicamente en aquellos procesos vinculados a la construcción de archivos y documentación, así como tambien a la propia conservación del arte de los medios, a través de un análisis de la problemática de la materialidad y la agencia en las prácticas artísticas . La perspectiva que adoptaremos no se limitará a la discusión técnica de las diferentes soluciones a las problemáticas planteadas por las mismas prácticas sino más bien a la problematización del problema mismo desde la perspectiva de la arqueología de los medios (Kittler, 1997; Ernst 2005; Zielinski, 2006; Huhtamo, Parikka, 2011; y el conjunto de reflexiones vinculadas al denominado nuevo materialismo (Delanda, 2000; Barad, 2003; Law, 2007; Coole, 2010 . La misma diversidad de taxonomías aparecidas en relación al arte de los medios, en donde a menudo se destaca en la propia terminología su base tecnológica -video arte, net art, software art, a-life art etc..- nos sirve de punto de partida para reivindicar hasta qué punto la agencialidad del substrato  material y tecnológico de la práctica artística está indisolublemente unida a su discurso simb

  15. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  16. Las Agencias de Viajes ante la influencia de las Redes Sociales en el turismo. El caso de Ourense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rodríguez Cid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo turístico tradicional ha experimentado un cambio con la llegada de las nuevas tecnologías. Las tradicionales herramientas de marketing empleadas por las Agencias de Viajes se están quedando atrás para dar paso a nuevos y mejorados métodos de comercialización y promoción de productos turísticos basados en la utilización de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC. Los hábitos de compra han cambiado debido a la rápida evolución de Internet en los últimos 10 años. Se ha pasado de la Web 1.0, de carácter estático y de lectura, a la Web 2.0 que ha generalizado la creación de contenidos y la comunicación on -line entre usuarios, convirtiéndose en creadores y a su vez en consumidores de la información. En los últimos años, las empresas turísticas han comenzado a crear canales de comercialización directos con el cliente, evitando así negociar con los intermediarios, lo que ha mejorado la eficiencia y la reducción de costes. Esto ha permitido que los usuarios puedan contratar un viaje o un servicio turístico a través de la red con unos costes notablemente inferiores. El asesoramiento que antes sólo se encontraba en las Agencias de Viajes, ahora es proporcionado por los usuarios que han consumido el servicio y cuya experiencia aporta una visión única y diferente. Todo este fenómeno ha ocasionado que este sector pase a un segundo plano, con un turista más experimentado, más exigente y familiarizado con estas nuevas herramientas nacidas de la Web 2.0. Numerosas agencias han cerrado sus negocios y tienden a desaparecer tal y como las conocemos actualmente. Sin embargo, son muchas las posibilidades que se les presentan si se adaptan al mercado actual, un entorno que fomenta el uso de las nuevas tecnologías y que utiliza la Web 2.0 y las Redes Sociales para mantener y captar nuevos clientes.

  17. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  18. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  19. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  20. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  1. Quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication on the inspection basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every plant productive of electric power requires the use of energetics for the transformation to electricity. In the nucleo electric plant the energetic is the uranium, in which it makes ensembles and is used as fuel in the reactor. To assure that the fuel ensembles fulfill the specifications and requirements of design stipulated in the nucleo electric plant is that under a quality control through inspections during the fabrication process. The purpose of this work is to study and verify that the lineaments of the standard 10 CFR 50 appendix B 'Quality assurement for nuclear plants' specially in the criteria 'Inspections' that is used to guarantee the quality of the ensembles. This standard is the one that rules every activity and operation inside the pilot plant and its established in the quality program in the production of nuclear fuel for the Laguna Verde plant. The quality of the assemble is verified through each one of the tests or inspections due to the importance of it in the fabrication of fuel. (Author)

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a survey of the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants a description of I and C systems of the operating plants is presented together with a brief outlook for future developments to be implemented at plants which are under construction. Special attention is paid to the adopted techniques for power distribution investigation and control in the WWER 1000 reactor core in the case of load changes. Basic futures of the in-core measurement systems are outlined. Measures implemented in the I and C systems of the operating units to improve their performance are described. Information on the country's approach to NPP personnel training and training aids usage as well as information on development work in the area of surveillance and monitoring systems completes the paper. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  3. Teoría de agencia: una revisión del origen biológico del delito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Araya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la causa del conflicto entre principal y agente, buscando respuestas en las disciplinasde la biología, particularmente en las ciencias de la antropología criminal. Se ha realizado un ensambleentre los hallazgos de la teoría de agencia y la teoría de los delitos de cuello blanco, reinterpretando lasactuaciones del agente desde su configuración entre instinto, herencia y personalidad. Los resultadosen las ciencias biológicas podrían aportar nuevas interpretaciones y explicaciones en las ciencias de laadministración, avanzando hacia mejores conceptualizaciones del conflicto, mediante teorías con mayorcontenido empírico. En general, pese al conflicto permanente entre las partes, su dinámica potencia losresultados perseguidos por el principal.

  4. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  5. Neural networks for control of nuclear reactors systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new architecture of artificial neural networks was developed with the development of new control systems for nuclear facilities and robotics. The new concepts introduced with this architecture were based in the design of task dedicated networks, in the use of multiple synaptic contacts with new transfer functions, and in the use of synaptic plasticity processes similar to that of biological organisms. These concepts take advantage of the evolutionary aspects of biological systems in their architecture, signal transmission, and memory and learning processes, given rise to a generalization capacity not obtained with classical feed-forward (F-F) neural networks. The new concepts were applied to the control of a planar two-link robotic manipulator and to the control of a natural circulation water loop. Its efficiency and generalization capacity were compared with a classic neural network in F-F, trained with the back propagation algorithm. The excellent performance obtained, mainly in the manipulator's problem, that characterizes a system of dynamic more complex, demonstrated that the use of the new task specialized network, produces much better results than the results obtained with use of generic F-F networks. The training task in the new proposed neural network was 150 times faster than the F-F neural network training with back-propagation. The results showed that the positioning errors with the new model were up to 60 times smaller than the errors found with the F-F network. (author)

  6. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  7. Tumefactive immunoglobulin G4-related disease involving the dura mater: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Hoon; Ko, Yong; Paik, Seoung Sam; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a well-known disorder characterized by an inflammatory reaction with an increase in the number of IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with sclerosis. IgG4-related disease often affects the dura mater with a pattern of diffuse thickening when the central nervous system is involved. However, some nodular dural thickening requires discrimination from tumors because of obviously different treatment options. We report of a case of IgG4-related disease with tumefactive dural involvement.

  8. Development of Power Controller System based on Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)-type TRIGA Mark II was installed in the year 1982. The Power Controller System (PCS) or Automated Power Controller System (APCS) is very important for reactor operation and safety reasons. It is a function of controlled reactivity and reactor power. The existing power controller system is under development and due to slow response, low accuracy and low stability on reactor power control affecting the reactor safety. The nuclear reactor is a nonlinear system in nature, and it is power increases continuously with time. The reactor parameters vary as a function of power, fuel burnup and control rod worth. The output power value given by the power control system is not exactly as real value of reactor power. Therefore, controller system design is very important, an adaptive controller seems to be inevitable. The method chooses is a linear controller by using feedback linearization, for example Model Reference Adaptive Control. The developed APCS for RTP will be design by using Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC). The structured of RTP model to produce the dynamic behaviour of RTP on entire operating power range from 0 to 1MWatt. The dynamic behavior of RTP model is produced by coupling of neutronic and thermal-hydraulics. It will be developed by using software MATLAB/Simulink and hardware module card to handle analog input signal. A new algorithm for APCS is developed to control the movement of control rods with uniformity and orderly for RTP. Before APCS test to real plant, simulation results shall be obtained from RTP model on reactor power, reactivity, period, control rod positions, fuel and coolant temperatures. Those data are comparable with the real data for validation. After completing the RTP model, APCS will be tested to real plant on power control system performance by using real signal from RTP including fail-safe operation, system reliable, fast response, stability and accuracy. The new algorithm shall be a satisfied

  9. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  10. Controlling the power output of a nuclear reactor with fuzzy logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) in the domain of nuclear industry presents a tremendous challenge. The main reason for this is the public awareness of the risks of nuclear reactors and the very strict safety regulations in force for nuclear power plants. The very same regulations preven

  11. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  12. Sensor controlled robotic welding for nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the proposed research is to apply real time monitoring, artificial intelligence and on-line correction to dynamically control the depth of weld penetration and weld integrity during the welding process. Welding is a major technique used in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of power generating and energy conversion systems. In the welding process, fluctuations in process variables lead to weld defects such as lack of penetration, cracks, porosity and undesirable metallurgical structures. This research will apply advanced infrared sensing techniques which have been successfully used in seam tracking to the equally complex problem of weld defect and weld puddle penetration control. Thermal temperature distributions of plates being welded will be dynamically measured during welding using infrared techniques. These temperature distributions will be used to interpret changes in the size and shape of the molten metal pool and the presence of conditions that may lead to defects in the solidified weld. The ultimate result of this research will be the development of machines which are capable of sensing and altering process variables to eliminate defective welds and increase the productivity of the welding process. Successful completion of this proposed research will lead to potential major improvements in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of advanced nuclear reactors and promote increased safety and reliability while decreasing construction costs. 47 refs., 50 figs

  13. Implementation of a quality control program in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectilinear scanners and dose calibrators were tested for a variety of operating conditions and performance.The tests for rectilinear scanners were based on image quality obtained with phantoms of the brain, liver and thyroid. The parameters investigated for rectilinear scanners included the direct control of the operator, such as the proper setting of the focal distance, the velocity, the photopeak calibration, contrast, correct collimator, line spacing and back ground count.The accuracy of dose calibrators was checked with sources of Cs-137, Co-57 and Co-60. The linearity of dose calibrators was checked with sources of technetium-99m and geometry was likewise checked with variable volumes of technetium-99m.The evaluation of the proper setting for rectilinear scanners was made by determining the number of hot and cold areas in the phantom before and after corrective adjustments of physical parameters.The results obtained on rectilinear scanners indicated efficiencies in the operating conditions. The results found on dose calibrators shown that geometry effect was minimal; the reproducibility and stability was satisfactory. However,more than a half(60%)of the dose calibrators tested for accuracy and linearity were performed without acceptable limits. We can conclude that is very useful and important the implementation of quality control programme to entire diagnostic process in nuclear medicine. (author)

  14. Investigation of control rod worth and nuclear end of life of BWR control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-15

    This work has investigated the Control Rod Worth (CRW) and Nuclear End of Life (NEOL) values for BWR control rods. A study of how different parameters affect NEOL was performed with the transport code PHOENIX4. It was found that NEOL, expressed in terms of {sup 10}B depletion, can be generalized beyond the conditions for which the rod is depleted, such as different power densities and void fractions, the corresponding variation in the NEOL will be about 0.2-0.4% {sup 10}B. It was also found that NEOL results for different fuel types and different fuel enrichments have a variation of about 2-3% in {sup 10}B depletion. A comparative study on NHOL and CRW was made between PHOENIX4 and the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP. It was found that there is a significant difference, both due to differences in the codes and to limitations in the geometrical modeling in PHOENIX4. Since MCNP is considered more physically correct, a methodology was developed to calculate the nuclear end of life of BWR control rods with MCNP. The advantages of the methodology are that it does not require other codes to perform the depletion of the absorber material, it can describe control rods of any design and it can deplete the control rod absorber material without burning the fuel. The disadvantage of the method is that is it time-consuming.

  15. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  16. Computer-based control of nuclear power information systems at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most highly industrialized countries of the world information plays major role in anti-nuclear campaign. Information and discussions on nuclear power need critical and objective analysis before the structured information presentation to the public to avoid bias anti-nuclear information on one side and neglect of great risk in nuclear power. This research is developing a computer-based information system for the control of nuclear power at international level. The system is to provide easy and fast information highways for the followings: (1) Low Regulatory dose and activity limit as level of high danger for individuals and public. (2) Provision of relevant technical or scientific education among the information carriers in the nuclear power countries. The research is on fact oriented investigation about radioactivity. It also deals with fact oriented education about nuclear accidents and safety. A standard procedure for dissemination of latest findings using technical and scientific experts in nuclear technology is developed. The information highway clearly analyzes the factual information about radiation risk and nuclear energy. Radiation cannot be removed from our environment. The necessity of radiation utilizations defines nuclear energy as two-edge sword. It is therefore, possible to use computer-based information system in projecting and dissemination of expert knowledge about nuclear technology positively and also to use it in directing the public on the safety and control of the nuclear energy. The computer-based information highway for nuclear energy technology is to assist in scientific research and technological development at international level. (author)

  17. Mucopolysaccharidosis: thickening of dura mater at the craniocervical junction and other CT/MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial CT and/or MRI imaging of 8 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) was retrospectively evaluated. Two patients had MPS, IH, 1 had MPS IS, 1 had MPS IVA and 4 had MPS IV. CT and MRI showed thickening of dura mater at the cranio-cervical junction, causing narrowing of the subarachnoid space, in all the patients examined. Spinal cord compression was detected in 4 patients. Other findings were: White matter alterations, mild to severe hydrocephalus, skull dysplasia and odontoid dysplasia. White matter alterations were evident as large areas and as multiple dispersed spots of prolonged T1 and T2 value. Reduced gray/white matter contrast was demonstrated on T2-weighted MRI images. It is important to examine the cranio-cervical junction carefully for thickening of dura mater in all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis examined by CT or MRI, because of the generally progressive clinical course of MPS. In patients with symptomatic cord compression, surgical intervention should be considered. (orig.)

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis: thickening of dura mater at the craniocervical junction and other CT/MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Tortori Donati, P. (Section of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Marzoli, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Dell' Acqua, A. (Dept. of Radiology, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Gatti, R. (3. Pediatric Dept., G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy)); Leone, D. (Intensive Care Unit, G. Gaslini Inst., Genoa (Italy))

    1993-09-01

    Cranial CT and/or MRI imaging of 8 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) was retrospectively evaluated. Two patients had MPS, IH, 1 had MPS IS, 1 had MPS IVA and 4 had MPS IV. CT and MRI showed thickening of dura mater at the cranio-cervical junction, causing narrowing of the subarachnoid space, in all the patients examined. Spinal cord compression was detected in 4 patients. Other findings were: White matter alterations, mild to severe hydrocephalus, skull dysplasia and odontoid dysplasia. White matter alterations were evident as large areas and as multiple dispersed spots of prolonged T1 and T2 value. Reduced gray/white matter contrast was demonstrated on T2-weighted MRI images. It is important to examine the cranio-cervical junction carefully for thickening of dura mater in all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis examined by CT or MRI, because of the generally progressive clinical course of MPS. In patients with symptomatic cord compression, surgical intervention should be considered. (orig.)

  19. Startup control of the TOPAZ-II space nuclear reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Astrin, Cal D.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited. The Russian designed and manufactured TOPAZ-II Thermionic Nuclear Space Reactor has been supplied to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization for study as part of the TOPAZ International Program. A Preliminary Nuclear Safety Assessment investigated the readiness to use the TOPAZ-II in support of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Mission (NEPSTP). Among the anticipated system modifications required for launching the TOPAZ-II sy...

  20. MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare: an interactive and multidisciplinary approach to Geosphere sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Fanelli, Emanuela; Furia, Stefania; Garau, Daniela; Merlino, Silvia; Musacchio, Gemma; Carla Centineo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that Earth and Marine Sciences are not properly treated in scholastic programs and in textbooks are included in a superficial way. These topics are interdisciplinary and experimental (biology, ecology, oceanography and geology) and the recent advance in these fields is strictly linked to technologic improvement. School cannot keep up with the huge advances of knowledge experimented in the last 20 years, also for the lack of didactic laboratories sufficiently updated to support experimental activities. In this context, in 2014-15 three Italian Research Institutes (INGV, ISMAR-CNR and ENEA-CRAM) have decided to support the Unified School District "ISA 10"of Lerici (Liguria, Italy) - comprehensive of kindergartner, primary and middle schools - to develop the project MATER - Pianeta Terra-Mare (Planet Earth and Sea). The acronym MATER (MARe and TERra) has also a gender value, as people involved in the projects were women, mostly researchers and teachers, which have worked side by side with other women belonging to environmental and cultural associations of the territory. This heterogeneous group has a common objective: to promote the diffusion of a scientific culture and to sensitize students from 3 to 14 years towards problems occurring in marine and terrestrial environments, fostering the settlement of a sustainable attitude to the exploitation of natural resources and consciousness to natural hazards, such as earthquakes and floods, quite common in the Ligurian region. MATER has been considered as one of the best projects funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research) inside the Dissemination of Scientific and Technological Culture call for the year 2014. Natural hazards (Planet Earth) and the chemical-physical aspects and resources of the marine environment (Planet Sea) were the two modules of the project. Planet Earth developed through Piovono Idee! (Cloudy with a chance of Ideas!), an interactive exhibition on

  1. On-line chemistry control in EDF Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes Electricite De France (EDF) policy concerning chemistry control in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Due to the great importance of some parameters, and high risks of pollution of grab samples, the main parameters are continuously measured by reliable chemical on-line monitors. EDF has consequently developed a large program of tests to select the best instrument, in a specific facility installed in a NPP. In addition, a guideline document describes all the operations necessary for the correct use of all chemical monitors. Periodic evaluations are organized to ensure the good quality of in-plant measurements: they consist of a complete inspection of all the monitors implemented in the unit, and comparative measurements between the unit monitors and those of Groupe des Laboratories (GDL), the central laboratories of EDF. EDF is presently designing chemical expert systems, making it possible to improve reliability and to shorten response time for all operation phases. The main advantage expected is an improvement of chemistry quality in the plants, resulting from quicker operator reaction in case of abnormal situations

  2. Self-operation type power control device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1993-07-23

    The device of the present invention operates by sensing the temperature change of a reactor core in all of LMFBR type reactors irrespective of the scale of the reactor core power. That is, a region where liquid poison is filled is disposed at the upper portion and a region where sealed gases are filled is disposed at the lower portion of a pipe having both ends thereof being closed. When the pipe is inserted into the reactor core, the inner diameter of the pipe is determined smaller than a predetermined value so that the boundary between the liquid poison and the sealed gases in the pipe is maintained relative to an assumed maximum acceleration. The sealed gas region is disposed at the reactor core region. If the liquid poison is expanded by the elevation of the reactor core exit temperature, it is moved to the lower gas region, to control the reactor power. Since high reliability can be maintained over a long period of time by this method, it is suitable to FBR reactors disposed in such environments that maintenance can not easily be conducted, such as desserts, isolated islands and undeveloped countries. Further, it is also suitable to ultra small sized nuclear reactors disposed at environments that the direction and the magnitude of gravity are different from those on the ground. (I.S.).

  3. Quality control of techetium 99m radiopharmacentical in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel chromatography column scanning (GCS) is a new method for radiochemical quality control. GCS techniques for Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine have been developed for use in both research and routine clinical work. The dependence on several of the parameters of the GCS method have been investigated, e.g. type of gel, column dimensions, eluent, equilibration, elution volume, flow rate and resolution of the recording system (radiochromatographic scanner or scintillation camera). The GCS method has been compared with conventional gel filtration, thinlayer cromatography (TLC) and paper cromatography (PC). The GCS method is to be preferred due to few artifacts, much information, good reproducibility, rapidity, simplicity and the convenience of the test. The GCS method has been applied to the development of labelling techniques for the new radiopharmaceuticals Tc-99m plasmin and Tc-99m unithiol (2.3 dimercaptopropane sodiumsulphonate), use for investigating deep vein thrombosis and renal cortical morphology respectively. The GCS method has also been applied for studying some labelling parameters, the radiochemical purity and the labelling of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin, Tc-99m pyrophosphate, Tc-99m methylenedisphosphate, in addition to Tc-99m plasmin and Tc-99m unithiol. (Author)

  4. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  5. Quality assurance and quality control of nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and analytical laboratories in East and Central European countries need to prove the reliability and credibility of their economic, environmental, medical and legal decisions and their capacity of issuing reliable, verifiable reports. These demands imposed by the European Union aimed at avoiding a possible barrier to trade for the developing countries. In June 1999, in order to help Member States to develop according to EU objectives and the overall situation of the European market, IAEA launched a new co-operation programme designed to help the nuclear analytical laboratories in nuclear institutions and universities of Member States by training in the use of some Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NAT) that include: alpha, beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The Regional IAEA Project, named 'Quality Assurance/Quality Control of Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (NAT) aims at implementing the QA principles via a system of defined consecutive steps leading to a level on which the QA system is self-sustainable for formal accreditation or certification and satisfies the EU technical performance criteria; the requirements are in accordance with the new ISO/IEC 17025 Standard/Dec.1999 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories' - First edition. The Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, IFIN-HH, was admitted for participation in the IAEA Project in June 1999 account taken of its experience in the QA and metrology fields and its performance in the fields of beta and gamma-ray spectrometry, and radiochemical and neutron activation analysis, employed in both basic research and applications for external clients. Two working groups of specialists with the QA and Standardization and Metrology Departments and six analytical groups with the departments of Nuclear Applied Physics, Life Physics and Ionising Radiation Metrology are

  6. Intelligent control system for nuclear power plant mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to fully optimize the efficiency of the perception and navigation components available on a mobile robot, the upper level of a mobile robot control requires intelligence support to unload the work of the teleoperator. This knowledge-based system has to manage a priori data such as the map of the workspace, the mission, the characteristics of sensors and robot, but also, the current environment state and the running mission. It has to issue a plan to drive the sensors to focus on relevant objects or to scan the environment and to select the best algorithms depending on the current situation. The environment workspace is a nuclear power plant building. The teleoperated robot is a mobile wheeled or legged vehicle that moves inside the different floors of the building. There are three types of mission: radio-activity survey, inspection and intervention. To perform these goals the robot must avoid obstacles, pass through doors, possibly climb stairs and recognize valves and pipes. The perception control system has to provide the operator with a synthetic view of the surroundings. It manages background tasks such as obstacle detection and free space map building, and specific tasks such as beacon recognition for odometry relocalization and valve detection for maintenance. To do this, the system solves perception resources conflicts, taking into account the current states of the sensors and the current conditions such as lightness or darkness, cluttered scenes, sensor failure. A perception plan is issued from the mission goals, planned path, relocalization requirements and available perception resources. Basically, the knowledge-based system is implemented on a blackboard architecture which includes two parts: a top-down planning part and a bottom-up perception part. The results of the perception are continuously sent to the operator who can trigger new perception actions. (author)

  7. O Goodwill na Avaliação de Empresas: Um Estudo Sobre a Realização de Testes de Imparidades e as Alterações Contabilísticas no Âmbito das Concentrações de Atividades Empresariais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Sousa Barros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as principais alterações introduzidas no normativo contabilístico internacional no que tange ao goodwill e suas eventuais implicações na informação contabilística divulgada. Ademais, este trabalho caracteriza os intangíveis sem condições de reconhecimento, com destaque para o goodwill, suas especificidades, as controvérsias reinantes entre pesquisadores no tocante à sua contabilização, enfatizando, neste prisma, a necessidade de realização dos testes de imparidade. Nessa esfera, o presente artigo centra-se em analisar a polêmica da determinação da taxa de desconto, estudar o conceito de justo valor e observar a relação entre contabilidade e as técnicas de avaliação de empresas. Por fim, este trabalho lança luz à importância da adoção dessas normas por países como Portugal e Brasil, a fim de garantir uma informação financeira com alto índice de relevância e fiabilidade, afinal as informações divulgadas pelas empresas ajudam os usuários das Demonstrações Financeiras Consolidadas a avaliar a natureza, os riscos e os efeitos financeiros associados às concentrações de atividades empresariais e ao goodwill, aspectos estes de extrema importância para a tomada de decisões.

  8. 10 CFR 50.44 - Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. 50.44... FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.44 Combustible gas control for nuclear power reactors. (a) Definitions—(1) Inerted atmosphere means a containment atmosphere...

  9. Fuzzy-logic approach to HTR nuclear power plant model control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubak, M.; Moscinski, J. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Krakow (Poland)); Jewulski, J. (Institute of Physical Chemistry, Krakow (Poland))

    1983-01-01

    The fuzzy-set theory is used to incorporate linguistic 'rules of the thumb' of a human operator in the HTR nuclear power plant controller. The results of the extensive computer simulations are encouraging and confirm the usefulness of this approach in nuclear power plant control. In the Appendix, a short introduction to fuzzy logic is given.

  10. Fighting Obsolescence in the Nuclear Power Industry. Motor Control Centers-solutions and Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo, J.; Torralba Piqueras, A.

    2014-07-01

    Motor Control Centers (MCCs) are vital to the operation and control of nuclear power plants. A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of MCC components. Obsolescence of various components within the MCCs such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, transformers, etc., are impacting the reliability of MCCs to perform their intended safety function. (Author)

  11. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition of export

  12. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition

  13. Study on Seal Technology for Nuclear Material Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The seals have important application in nuclear safeguards, and are designed to record unauthorizedaccess or entry to inspected material and equipment. They can provide assurance for the continuity andintegrity of nuclear material accountancy. It is very useful to improve the inspection efficiency by means

  14. Los archivos fotográficos de las agencias como fuentes de información para las televisiones españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el uso del material fotográfico en los sistemas de información documental de las empresas audiovisuales televisivas, centrándonos posteriormente en las agencias de información como fuente de información primaria en dichas instituciones. Para realizar este análisis, se describen igualmente los sistemas documentales de las cadenas así como el uso actual de material fotográfico en las empresas audiovisuales. Se descubre el escaso uso de material fotográfico en las empresas televisivas y la cada vez menor existencia de departamentos de documentación fotográfica en las televisiones, siendo sustituido por la adquisición de material fotográfico a agencias de noticias.

  15. Resolution 62/96 Regulation for the accounting and control of the nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Regulation is a complementary disposition of the ordinance number 208 of May 24 National System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and it has as objective to establish the relative norms to this System. As for the responsibilities it establish that the National Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) it is the responsible for the execution from the relative tasks to the National System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials. It establishes the regulations for the following aspects: licenses and authorizations for the transportation of the nuclear material and important components, Of the ceasing of the Accounting and Control, Of the Accounting and Control of the Nuclear Materials, Control of the Important Components, The Inspections, International Organism of the Atomic Energy Safeguards

  16. A organizaçâo contabilística no sector conserveiro entre o final do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX: o caso Júdice Fialho = The accounting model in the Portuguese canned-fish industry between the end of the 19th century and the first...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Faria

    2011-12-01

    evolution of accounting practices in Portugal, namely studies based on the analysis of surviving business records of firms, justifies this study.The study concludes that, in the absence of a set of accounting principles and procedures available to all enterprises, the management of Júdice Fialho sought to adopt, from within the varied material available at the time, those accounting techniques which were most relevant to their business operations and actual needs at that time. During the period under examination, the company’s accounting records did not suffer significant changes. The formation as a partnership in 1938, four years after the death of its founder, could have acted has a stimulus for change, but that didn’t happen.Este estudo tem por objectivo analisar a organização contabilística de uma das maiores empresas da indústria de conservas de peixe portuguesa, a Júdice Fialho, entre o final do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX. Pretende ainda confrontar a organização contabilística existente na empresa com os modelos divulgados na literatura contabilística portuguesa publicada no mesmo período.A justificação para a sua realização residiu na escassez de estudos baseados na análise de registos contabilísticos originais e na disponibilidade, no Arquivo Histórico do Museu Municipal de Portimão (Algarve, de documentação contabilística relativa a esta grande empresa. O estudo conclui que, na ausência de um conjunto de regras e princípios de Contabilidade comuns as todas as empresas, a Júdice Fialho procurou adoptar, considerando a diversidade de soluções contabilísticas divulgadas na literatura da especialidade, a mais adequada às suas características e necessidades reais. A contabilidade da empresa está organizada para fornecer informação sobre os resultados particulares de cada segmento organizacional (fábrica, secção, oficina, depósito, … e não sobre os lucros ou prejuízos obtidos na venda dos diversos produtos

  17. The National Implementation of Nuclear Export Controls: Developing a Best Practices Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear renaissance promises significant benefits to the international community, but also raises security challenges, particularly relating to the trade of nuclear materials and equipment. The objective of this paper is to examine how supply-side non-proliferation efforts can be strengthened by developing a best practices model for national nuclear export control implementation. In order to achieve this goal, nuclear export control measures identified by the 1540 Committee will be used as a framework from which a best practices model can be formed. Such a model concentrates specifically on national legislation and enforcement measures delineated by the Committee in order to bring countries in accordance with international law. Developing a best practices model seeks to deliver an ideal process for national export control law actualization in order to encourage the peaceful development of nuclear energy and develop the infrastructure and framework for precluding nuclear proliferation.

  18. Safety review and assessment on nuclear fuel cycle installations and nuclear materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA conducted a review and assessment, and supervision on the large-sized fuel manufacture line of YNFP and spent fuel storage pool of LNFC and the pilot plant of Spent Fuel Reprocessing. The physical protection of newly constructed nuclear installations were reviewed and assessed and an regulatory inspection was conducted on the units that being granted with a license for nuclear materials

  19. Methodology for the control of equipment ageing in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, F. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: Trudel.Francis@hydro.qc.ca; Abdul-Nour, G. [Univ. du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec (Canada); Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the control of equipment ageing as it applies to CANDU 600 nuclear power plants. The methodology that has been developed is based mainly on the approach proposed in Nuclear Plant Ageing Research (NPAR), a program implemented by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It includes twelve steps covering the selection of the equipment, the understanding and the management of ageing. The methodology complies with the new Canadian nuclear regulations as well as recommendations made by world wide nuclear industry. It has been validated through application to three types of mechanical equipment, with results that are deemed significant. (author)

  20. Control of the safety and security of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has two parts: the first one, composed by these two volumes is prospective; it is an analysis of scientific stacks of safety and economy of the French-German nuclear pressurized type reactor project (E.P.R.) and destined to replace the actual nuclear power plants from 2010. The second part, that will take two volumes, will take stock of the 118 recommends presented in the seven previous reports in the field of safety of nuclear facilities. It will allow to identify the areas that are in evolution and the areas that stagnate. (N.C.)

  1. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to measure

  2. Nonlinear Fuzzy Model Predictive Control for a PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable power and temperature control in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant is necessary to guarantee high efficiency and plant safety. Since the nuclear plants are quite nonlinear, the paper presents nonlinear fuzzy model predictive control (MPC, by incorporating the realistic constraints, to realize the plant optimization. T-S fuzzy modeling on nuclear power plant is utilized to approximate the nonlinear plant, based on which the nonlinear MPC controller is devised via parallel distributed compensation (PDC scheme in order to solve the nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Improved performance compared to the traditional PID controller for a TMI-type PWR is obtained in the simulation.

  3. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council. The primary aim of this Council, which had its first meeting in conjunction with the Madison Conference, is to promote international co-operation in controlled nuclear fusion

  4. Analysis of nuclear export control system and implementing international nonproliferation regime in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's exporting behaviour of nuclear items had been disconnected from the international non-proliferation regime such as IAEA safeguards and export control related with peaceful use of nuclear energy since 1970s. Especially, China had been one of principle suppliers of nuclear facility and technologies to Pakistan and Iran which had developed nuclear weapon programs. On the other hand, according to the rapid growth of economic scale after China began to open to the world, an active program for nuclear power plant as an electricity source had established. This means that China have surfaced as a big market to Korean nuclear industries. Regarding this, the paper dealt with the nuclear export control matters, i.e. the history of nuclear export control system and analyzed on background of enforcement of U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement that had been apolitical issue between U.S. and China. Prospects toward conforming its nuclear export policies, laws and regulations to international standards also analyzed in results

  5. Nuclear reactor control with fuzzy logic approaches - strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the special track on 'Lessons learned from computational intelligence in nuclear applications' at the forthcoming FLINS 2004 conference on Applied Computational Intelligence (Blankenberge, Belgium, September 1-3, 2004), research experiences on fuzzy logic techniques in applications of nuclear reactor control operation are critically reviewed in this presentation. Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined thought a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on the fuzzy logic control for nuclear reactor control project under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (Author)

  6. Muusikapassioon mõttepeeglis. Täna kõlab "Stabat Mater" / Anne Peäske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peäske, Anne, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi "Passio" ettekandest 11.sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus. Elmo Lööve, Raivo Palmaru, Jaan Rääts, Toivo Tulev, Aarne Talvik, Ingmar Kurg, Olev Oja ja Eleonora Pärt Arvo Pärdi muusikast. A. Pärdi "Stabat Mater" ansambli Theatre of Voices esituses 14. sept. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus

  7. Mater Nostra: The Anti-blasphemy Message of the Feminist Punk-Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ivanovna Volkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I develop a blasphemy counter-discourse arguing that it was ecclesial and state authorities who committed blasphemies, which were condemned by Pussy Riot’s punk-prayer. Thus, the performance in this respect may be interpreted as an anti-blasphemy protest. The blasphemy list includes the collaboration of the church with the authoritarian state, known as heresy of Sergianism; Caesar and Temple idolatry, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, Virgin Mary and Folly for Christ’s sake. The punk-prayer may be interpreted as a feminine version of the Lord’s Prayer – Mater Nostra. Several corporeal narratives in the background – women’s dress code and rape debates, Virgin Mary’s belt, and its alleged miraculous ability to help women to deliver a baby – may be seen as allegories of feminist vs. patriarchal opposition in Russian religious and political culture.

  8. French National Safeguards and EDF: 20 Years of Cooperation for the Benefit of Nuclear Material Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, considering its nuclear situation and conscious of its national and international responsibilities in terms of national public security and nuclear non proliferation, the French government set up a national safeguards system under the authority of the Ministry in charge of Industry, a mission of which is to ensure protection and control of nuclear materials. France has developed a comprehensive fuel cycle from mine to reprocessing plants, in which the 59 nuclear power plants operated by Electricite de France (EDF) represent a nodal point. This paper presents the feedback resulting from more than 20 years of implementation of the regulation by the operator and control by the inspectorate. The first part of this paper recalls the French legal framework regarding the use of nuclear materials in nuclear power plants. Emphasis is put on French specificities in terms of nuclear material accountancy and control (NMCandA) and also on the situation of nuclear power plants within this control The second part shows how EDF is organized in order to fulfill its obligations in terms of nuclear material management. A description of the different responsibilities held within the company is given and illustrated by practical examples. The last part of this paper deals with the feedback arising from more than 20 years in the control of nuclear materials held in power plants. Operator's point of view as well as inspectors' one are presented. This point will be highlighted by presenting various actions led jointly by EDF and the competent Authority in order to make the NMCandA more efficient. Finally, demonstration is made that this cooperation not only improves the control in the French nuclear power plants in terms of NMCandA but also provides an enriching experience, which enhances the operator's and the inspector's skills

  9. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.; Brown, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Granda, T.; Baker, C. (Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  10. The simulation study on the Nuclear Heating Reactor's power auto-control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power automatic control system on nuclear heating reactor (NHR) is a multi-input and multi-output non-linear system. The power automatic control system on NHR is studied by modern control theory. Through the simulation experiments, it is clear that adopting μ outer-loop and LQR inner-loop feedback, the best control results are obtained

  11. A study for collaborative management for nuclear spent fuel control. Seeking for nuclear non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the rapid increase of power generation with nuclear fuel in East Asia area, the management and control of nuclear spent fuel from nuclear reactors has become an essential and urgent issue in this area. This study focused on the possibility of forming an intergovernmental collaborative management system for nuclear spent fuel with an emphasize on nuclear non-proliferation among East Asian countries, i.e. China, Korea, Taiwan and Japan who own and operate nuclear power plants. First, we studied the present situation for nuclear spent fuel, including the storage measures, the future fore- cast on the accumulation and the government measures to deal with these spent fuel. Then, based upon first step studies, we examined the pros and cons when the collaborative management is realized particularly from the viewpoint of prevention of nuclear proliferation. Further, we estimated possible means for management and control of nuclear spent fuel, including its system size and cost. Finally, we extracted some technological tasks to be solved and political issues to be discussed. Our findings are as follows. 1. The total amount of the power generation in three East Asian counties (China, Korea and Taiwan) is about 17 million KW presently. This will be tripled to 51 million KW by the year 2010. When Japan's ability is added it is 62 million KW currently and 121 million by 2010. 2. The nuclear spent fuel in Taiwan and Korea will be saturated for their storage capacity. On the other hand, Japan will start to operate her reprocessing plant in Aomori prefecture in 2003 and her new storage capability is completed in 1999. Also in China, a reprocessing pilot plant is under construction and its operation is scheduled in 2001. 3. As their national policy, China and Japan does reprocess from spent fuel but Korea and Taiwan don't. Instead, they take non-reprocessing and direct geological disposal. 4. If the collaborative management of nuclear wastes is realized Multi

  12. Managing modernization of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many reasons why I and C systems need to be modernized in nuclear power plants, including obsolescence, results of aging technology, failure rates, and the need for additional functionality and improved performance. For many plants, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) modernization will be one of the largest and most important activities over the next decade or longer. Modernization of I and C systems will represent a major capital investment for the plants in the future. Therefore, good and informed management to determine what needs to be modernized, how it should be modernized, and then to do the actual modernization is essential in order to minimize the costs and maximize the benefits. While many reports have discussed I and C modernization topics, one topic that needs more work is how to management I and C modernization projects efficiently. In order to have an efficient modernization project, it is essential that the plant does strategic planning to determine what needs to be done with I and C systems in the context of the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments. This includes determining what features the the overall I and C, and control room, of the plant should look like at the end of the time period considered by the strategic planning effort, what systems need to be modernized, what systems can be maintained, the priority order of the systems to be modernized, how the systems should be modernized, and so on. To ensure that the individual I and C and control room modernization projects are done consistently with the strategic plan and the overall plant goals, objectives, and commitments, it is important that management establishes a set of plant specific guidelines and generic requirements and processes that the project will need to follow and that can be used as part of the requirements specifications for the new systems. High level management leadership and support is needed for I and C modernization in order to maintain the high

  13. Annual Report ABACC 2003 - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report describes the actions of the Brazil-Argentine of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), during the year of 2003. The developed work allowed to concluded that there is no event indicating that any nuclear material non-accounted for were deviated for non permitted activities by the Agreement for Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy between Argentine and Brazil and by the Four Parties Agreement among these countries, the ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  14. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  15. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  16. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards

  17. Conceptual design of a digital control system for nuclear criticality experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear criticality is a concern in many areas of nuclear engineering including waste management, nuclear weapons testing and design, basic nuclear research, and nuclear reactor design and analysis. As in many areas of science and engineering, experimental work conducted in this field has provided a wealth of data and insight essential to the formulation of theory and the advancement in knowledge of fissioning systems. In light of the many diverse applications of nuclear criticality, there is a continuing interest to learn and understand more about the fundamental physical processes through continued experimentation. This thesis addresses the problem of setting up and programming a microprocessor-based digital control system (PLC) for a proposed critical experiment using, among other devices, a stepper motor, a joystick control mechanism, and switches. This experiment represents a revised configuration to test cylindrical nuclear waste packages. A Monte Carlo numerical study for the proposed critical assembly has been performed in order to illustrate how results from numerical calculations are used in the process of assembling the control system and to corroborate previous experimental data. In summary, a control system utilizing some common devices necessary to perform a critical experiment (stepper motor, push-buttons, etc.) has been assembled. Control components were sized using the results of a probabilistic computer code (MCNP). Finally, a program was written that illustrates the coupling between the hardware and the devices being controlled in the new test fixture

  18. Control of the safety and the security of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, the professor Carlo Rubbia, Nobel price of physics showed an original concept of nuclear reactor, supposed to produce electric power at competitive prices and generating a minimum of radioactive wastes. Mister claude Birraux, deputy of high Savoy confronts the great options of the RUBBIA project to the safety, radiation protection, non proliferation requirements. He shows that the choices made by C. RUBBIA must be further forward explored, while being careful not to under-estimate the time limits and the necessary costs to the setting up of an eventual completely new nuclear channel. (N.C.)

  19. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  20. Controlling the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Study Guide for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Institute of Peace, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this teaching guide are: (1) to increase student understanding of the prevalence and spread of nuclear weapons; (2) to familiarize students with historic and contemporary measures to control nuclear proliferation and stimulate their thinking of potential strategies for doing so in the future; (3) to develop students' analytical…

  1. Annual Report 2007 - ABACC - Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports activities during the year 2007 related to: technical activities as application of safeguards; management of the Quadripartite Agreement and the SCCC - Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials; training; technical cooperation; outlook for 2008 and; institutional, administrative and financial activities; technical glossary; list of brazilian facilities; list of argentine facilities and a list of institution of nuclear area

  2. Advanced Control Structures of Turbo Generator System of Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Sokólski; Karol Kulkowski; Anna Kobylarz; Kazimierz Duzinkiewicz; Tomasz A. Rutkowski; Michał Grochowski

    2015-01-01

    In the paper a synthesis of advanced control structures of turbine and synchronous generator for nuclear power plant working under changing operating conditions (supplied power level) is presented. It is based on the nonlinear models of the steam turbine and synchronous generator cooperating with the power system. The considered control structure consists of multi-regional fuzzy control systems with local linear controllers, including PID controllers, in particular control loops of turbine...

  3. Risk control of radioactive sources in Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the management experience of radioactive sources in Qinshan nuclear power plant in the past two decades, this paper analyzes the risk factors in the application of radioactive sources, gives the corresponding management measures and suggestions for further improvement. (authors)

  4. Nuclear supplier assessment how to control the nuclear supply chain quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a road map of 84 (low scenario) to 198 (high scenario)* nuclear power plants to be build in the coming decade arise with intensity safety concerns. The challenge for governments and for nuclear companies as they increase construction is to manage a growing army of contractors and subcontractors worldwide and the quality of their production as well as their ability to deliver in time considering the speed-up and increasing pace of project development. Moreover by the last few years, the scope of needs for nuclear companies to set a QA/QC plan all along the supply chain has been increasingly enlarged with new stakes such as cost savings, social responsibilities and technical compliance. At last, with 'nuclear renaissance', the path to renew accreditation of existing suppliers facing international and domestic law/regulations combinations after a long period of low tide is now clear and wide. Nuclear operating companies and EPIC contractors now face a complex situation where on one side political pressure is hugely strong for a zero incident status to be considered as on the contrary the 'renaissance' will be suddenly stopped, on the other the status of 'industrial' maturity of the supply chain candidates is difficult to assess in a uniform and 'fair' way. Through this paper, the speaker will explain the full size supplier assessment strategy from paper to field which has been implemented in the Oil and Gas sector whose requirements of quality is high too. The speaker will present the key practices of this initiative from which the nuclear market can find more than a source of inspiration. (authors)

  5. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  6. Pilot project for control and prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia has a very long and complex border (2.373 km on land, 972 km on sea) with more than 170 land border crossings. Illicit trafficking in people and drugs is very probably occurring daily. Number of international airports and sea ports, intensive nautical tourism, volume of goods in transit between Greece and the rest of EU, great number of border crossings on east south borders (Serbia and Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) are just the most obvious reasons adding to complexity and expensiveness of full and reliable detection system. Croatia signed several international instruments calling for comprehensive national system of control of nuclear material as well as special equipment and non-nuclear materials. Project for control of nuclear and radioactive materials on Croatian borders was initiated at the beginning of 2002 based on IAEA standards and recommendations. The objective of the project is development and implementation of nuclear and other radioactive material control system on the borders of the Republic of Croatia. The scope is to build up capacity for automatic control of border crossings and efficient response to detected nuclear and radioactive materials. the goals accomplished up to now are: Established coordination of all the issues related to control of nuclear and other radioactive materials through national coordination body (customs, police, nuclear safety and security, radiation protection, consultants from university and consulting firms, etc.) and national program setting up general strategy, responsibilities, procedures etc. and education of border crossing officers through seminars and hand on training

  7. Guarding the guardians: Civilian control of nuclear weapons in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book has three separate complementary goals. First, it develops a model to explain how the command and control of nuclear weapons evolves over time. Second, it tells the story of the evolution of one critical aspect of the nuclear command system, the custody of nuclear weapons. Finally, it assesses the general problem of ensuring civilian control over nuclear operations. The focus is on the formation of operational policy. Where to deploy a weapon and at what state of alertness is an operational decision. Part I, The Theory of Civilian Control is divided into three chapters: Civilian control: Principles and problems; Civilian Control: From alerts to war termination; and Explaining changes in civilian control. Part II, The Evolution of Custody Policy has seven chapters: The Atomic Energy Act and the origin of assertive control, 1945-1947; The first test of assertive civilian control, 1948-1949; The breach in assertive control, 1950-1952; Assertive control becomes delegative control, 1953-1958; The resurgence of assertive control, 1959-1962; The cycle continues, 1963-1990; and Conclusion: The future of civilian control

  8. Design concepts for a nuclear digital instrumentation and control system platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present the development results of the nuclear instrumentation and control system in Taiwan. As the Taiwan nuclear power plants age, the need to consider upgrading of both their safety and non-safety-related instrumentation and control systems becomes more urgent. Meanwhile, the digital instrumentation and control system that is based on current fast evolving electronic and information technologies are difficult to maintain effectively. Therefore, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was made a decision to promote the Taiwan Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System project to collaborate with domestic electronic industry to establish self-reliant capabilities on the design, manufacturing, and application of nuclear instrumentation and control systems with newer technology. In the case of safety-related applications like nuclear instrumentation and control, safety-oriented quality control is required. In order to establish a generic qualified digital platform, the world-wide licensing experience should be considered in the licensing process. This paper describes the qualification and certification tools by IEC 61508 for design and development of safety related equipment and explains the basis for many decisions made while performing the digital upgrade. (Author)

  9. Jurisdictional control of administrative acts related to the safety of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper stresses the importance of jurisdictional control over nuclear power plants to ensure their safe operation. It also describes examples of case law concerning such plants in France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Spain. (NEA)

  10. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Puchalski Bartosz; Duzinkiewicz Kazimierz; Rutkowski Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR) working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear react...

  11. Superradiant control of gamma-ray propagation by vibrating nuclear arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiwen

    2013-01-01

    The collective nature of light interactions with atomic and nuclear ensembles yields the fascinating phenomena of superradiance and radiation trapping. We study the interaction of gamma rays with a coherently vibrating periodic array of two-level nuclei. Such nuclear motion can be generated, e.g., in ionic crystals illuminated by a strong driving optical laser field. We find that deflection of the incident gamma beam into the Bragg angle can be switched on and off by nuclear vibrations on a superradiant time scale determined by the collective nuclear frequency, which is of the order of terahertz. Namely, if the incident gamma wave is detuned from the nuclear transition by much larger frequency it passes through the static nuclear array. However, if the nuclei vibrate with the frequency of the gamma ray detuning then parametric resonance can yield energy transfer into the Bragg deflected beam on the superradiant time scale, which can be used for fast control of gamma rays.

  12. Using the general principles of quality assessment of the facilities while examining the nuclear materials accounting and control system at enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of control and regulation in the field of adequate accounting and control of nuclear material is discussed. Ways of improving the nuclear materials accounting and control system at nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation are presented

  13. Radiation control and prevention of nuclear and illicit radioactive trafficking in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of nuclear energy in medicine, industry and research has been widespread in Indonesia in various applications. Based on Nuclear Energy Act No. 10 of 1997, the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency is the regulatory body which has the function of regulating and controlling the utilization of nuclear, radioactive and radiation sources. Some regulations have been amended to harmonize with a number of IAEA publications, including the Basic Safety Standards and the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Indonesia has many seaports and airports as the ports of entry of radioactive sources, so the role of customs and port authorities is very important for preventing illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive sources. The paper addresses the control system of radioactive sources and radiation, provisions of import and export of radioactive sources, and specific issues to be solved to prevent illicit trafficking and to detect unauthorized movement of radioactive sources. (author)

  14. Study and development of advanced control techniques for nuclear reactors and robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, C.

    1989-08-01

    This report studies and develops some aspects of the optimal control theory with the objective of evaluating benefits that the nuclear industry could obtain by applying advanced control techniques. First, the basic relationship between optimal control theory and closed-loop control design has been identified. As a result of this work, new algorithms have been developed for feedback implementations. The applicability of these new algorithms to problems such as state estimation, filtering, model update, and model decoupling has been studied. In addition, new alternatives to control design that are not based on optimal control theory have been developed. A broad range of application examples has been presented for several physical systems, including pressurized water nuclear reactors, boiling water nuclear reactors, steam generators, and robotics. 22 refs., 26 figs.

  15. Features of the control of object 'UKRYTTYA' nuclear safety, during the new safe confinement building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic factors influencing on efficiency of nuclear safety control of object 'Ukryttya' in the period of building of the new safe confinement are pointed out. It is shown that the existing regulation monitoring systems and the new IASC system does not provide the required effectiveness of nuclear safety control. It is offered, along with regulation control, to use, as a backup, research system, that allows to identify operatively causes of abnormal readings in channels of neutron activity control. It is given the basis, that placing of neutron detectors directly in nuclear-hazardons clasters zone is necessary. Systematization control of dynamics of temperature fields in fuel material accumulations areas and optimization of threshold levels in control systems are have to be conducted.

  16. Study and development of advanced control techniques for nuclear reactors and robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies and develops some aspects of the optimal control theory with the objective of evaluating benefits that the nuclear industry could obtain by applying advanced control techniques. First, the basic relationship between optimal control theory and closed-loop control design has been identified. As a result of this work, new algorithms have been developed for feedback implementations. The applicability of these new algorithms to problems such as state estimation, filtering, model update, and model decoupling has been studied. In addition, new alternatives to control design that are not based on optimal control theory have been developed. A broad range of application examples has been presented for several physical systems, including pressurized water nuclear reactors, boiling water nuclear reactors, steam generators, and robotics. 22 refs., 26 figs

  17. Development of a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system for a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system (CNMCAS) for a fuel reprocessing plant is being developed by Allied-General Nuclear Services at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Development work includes on-line demonstration of near real-time measurement, measurement control, accounting, and processing monitoring/process surveillance activities during test process runs using natural uranium. A technique for estimating in-process inventory is also being developed. This paper describes development work performed and planned, plus significant design features required to integrate CNMCAS into an advanced safeguards system

  18. Control of radioactive waste in dismantling of a nuclear facility; Control de residuos radiactivos en desmantelamiento de una instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the dismantling of a nuclear facility are generated radioactive waste that must be suitably processed. The overall process, in a simplified manner, contemplates the characterization in origin, their segregation on the basis of physical, mechanical, and radiological characteristics and their packaging. (Author)

  19. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '91. Technical session on 'Screen-aided man-machine dialogue for process control in nuclear power plant'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were discussed in this session: Experience with fully computerized, screen-based control room operation in fossil-fuel power plant. Results of an evaluation of control room operation with CRT-based information display, and the resulting requirements for fully computerized control rooms in nuclear power plant. Simulator-based verification for 1400 MW PWR main control room. Concept and design of a fully computerized control room for future nuclear power plant. Requirements defined for fully computerized nuclear power plant control rooms from the licensing point of view. (orig./GL)

  20. A framework for selecting suitable control technologies for nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New concepts continue to emerge for controlling systems, subsystems, and components and for monitoring parameters, characteristics, and vital signs in nuclear power plants. The steady stream of new control theories and the evolving state of control software exacerbates the difficulty of selecting the most appropriate control technology for nuclear power plant systems. As plant control room operators increase their reliance on computerized systems, the integration of monitoring, diagnostic, and control functions into a uniform and understandable environment becomes imperative. A systematic framework for comparing and evaluating the overall usefulness of control techniques is needed. This paper describes nine factors that may be used to evaluate alternative control concepts. These factors relate to a control system's potential effectiveness within the context of the overall environment, including both human and machine components. Although not an in-depth study, this paper serves to outline an evaluation framework based on several measures of utility. 32 refs

  1. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of American specialists. The study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field of nuclear I and C. The findings of the study are presented in the report. The scope is limited to pressurized water reactors in Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Norway and Russia. Specific topics include: The role of the operator and control room design; the transition from analog to digital technology; computerized operator support systems for fault management; control strategies and techniques; an investigation of nuclear power plant I and C architecture; instrumentation; computer standards and tools. A companion study is JTEC Panel Report on Nuclear Power in Japan (PB90-215724)

  2. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  3. Destructive and nondestructive methods for controlling nuclear materials for the purpose of safeguards in the CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Control Laboratory (CCL) of the Nuclear Research Institute was charged with the control of nuclear materials in CSSR within the framework of the safeguards system. The CCL has been directed by the Department of nuclear safety and safeguards of CAEC according to a long-term plan, elaborated for controlling nuclear material in CSSR. The CCL has mainly been performing independent, rapid, accurate, and reliable analyses of nuclear materials, using destructive as well as non-destructive methods; the analyses of samples taken in MBA's in CSSR are mentioned, concerning the determinations of U, Pu, and Th contents, isotopic compositions of U and Pu, and burn up. The results of the analyses have served for the material and isotopic balances of fissile materials and the control of fuel reprocessing under laboratory conditions. The methods for sampling and sample transport as well as sample treatment before the analysis are described. The experience is given, obtained at CCL during a routine application of chemical methods for highly precise determinations of U, Pu, and Th (titration-based methods), mass-spectrometric determinations of U and Pu (isotopic composition, IDA using 233U and 242Pu), and burn-up determinations based on radioactive fissile products (Cs, Ru, Ce) and stable Nd isotopes. Some non-destructive methods for controlling nuclear materials (passive gamma-spectrometry) are discussed

  4. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  5. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  6. El proyecto subregional cono sur de control y vigilancia de la hidatidosis The southern cone sub-regional project on cystic echinococosis control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Subregional Cono Sur de Control y Vigilancia de la Hidatidosis: Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, es una herramienta conjunta y colaborativa de los países para promover la implantación o el fortalecimiento de los programas de control. Se hace una descripción de los antecedentes, de los aspectos institucionales que regulan su organicidad y funcionamiento y de las líneas de acción definidas en el proyecto técnico operativo. Se destaca los logros obtenidos a través de los Proyectos de Cooperación Técnica entre Países así como el desarrollo de enfoques integrales e innovadores y la formación de recursos humanos de los programas de control. Algunos de los desafíos futuros son: lograr la sustentabilidad del Proyecto, implementar los grupos técnicos de análisis y evaluación a solicitud de los países, mejorar los sistemas de información regionales, continuar las actividades de capacitación y entrenamiento de recursos humanos y la expansión y fortalecimiento de la cooperación técnica entre países.Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human

  7. Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 7–10 July 2014. The conference was organized in cooperation with the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG), the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). The conference was attended by 285 participants and observers from 76 Member States and 8 organizations. The objective of the conference was: to convene the first of its kind international conference solely dedicated to nuclear forensics: to review the role of nuclear forensics as an essential element of a nuclear security infrastructure; to present scientific achievements and to exchange experience and lessons learned on the implementation of nuclear forensics in support of law enforcement investigations and nuclear security vulnerability assessments; to review current practices in nuclear forensics and to identify advances in analytical tools; to discuss ways of strengthening nuclear forensic capabilities and capacity building in nuclear forensics to ensure sustainability; and to explore mechanisms to enhance international and regional cooperation in nuclear forensics as well as to best position the IAEA to provide assistance to States, upon request, in nuclear forensics. This publication provides the President’s summary and findings of the conference as well as summaries of all the sessions. The accompanying CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of participants and the papers

  8. UNIVERSITY TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS: REFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE AGENCY THEORY EL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE UNIVERSITARIO: REFLEXIONES A TRAVÉS DE LA TEORÍA DE AGENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Jacques Parraguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses some reasons that might explain the insufficient academic level which is perceived in universities of developing countries. The discussion element is the teacher-student relationship which is studied under the perspective of the agency theory. It is concluded that in absence of efficient monitoring mechanisms of the teacher and student’s behavior might proliferate gaps of due diligence which attempts against the quality of the teaching-learning process.En este trabajo se analizan algunas razones que pueden explicar el insuficiente nivel académico que se percibe en universidades de países en vías de desarrollo. El elemento de discusión es la relación profesor-alumno que es estudiada bajo el prisma de la teoría de agencia. Se concluye que en ausencia de eficientes mecanismos de control de la conducta tanto del profesor como del estudiante pueden proliferar vicios de responsabilidad que atentan contra la calidad del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.

  9. ¿Cómo darle visibilidad a la violencia contra las mujeres en Chile? Contribución de las Agencias de las Naciones Unidas

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui Mejía, María Luisa

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el trabajo que está siendo realizado por la Mesa Temática de Género, que es un grupo de Expertas en Género de cinco Agencias de las Naciones Unidas con sede en Chile, que trabajan de forma unida dando apoyo al Servicio Nacional de la Mujer en Chile (SERNAM), para encarar el tema de la violencia contra las mujeres en Chile. El trabajo se concentra prioritariamente en tres áreas: prevención de la violencia, tratamiento de las víctimas y denuncia de...

  10. El Marco Europeo de la integraci??n y la sociedad civil organizada: pr??cticas participativas, patrones de agencia y producci??n de saberes

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Este art??culo se centra en las pr??cticas participativas desarrolladas por la ???sociedad civil organizada??? en el ??mbito del emergente campo pol??tico comunitario de la integraci??n de inmigrantes. Mediante el an??lisis de tres dispositivos, detectar?? la existencia de ciertos patrones de agencia hegem??nicos, los cuales entienden la participaci??n como un proceso ???limitado???, ???encauzado??? y subordinado a exigencias de eficacia de las pol??ticas p??blicas. A su vez, las ant...

  11. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ''Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ''Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points

  12. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.33 Section 74.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF...

  13. Synthesis of digital control systems for nuclear reactors, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate a closed-loop digital control system to regulate a reactor during commanded changes of power level, making use of the optimal control and trajectories derived in the previous paper. Simple application of this optimal control scheme alone would not permit satisfactory control of the reactor, on account of various external disturbances that would affect the control in actual practice. This difficulty has been overcome by linearizing the system equations around the optimal control and trajectories derived as above, and thereto applying modern control theory. The feedback control system is first examined for a case where all requisite state variables are accessible. Then for the case where not all state variables are thus accessible, a method is devised for estimating the inaccessible variables. The estimates are obtained by detecting the accessible state variables a given number of times during each control stage, using the generalized inverse. A closed-loop system is constituted by incorporating this method of estimation into the feedback circuit. The resulting system is shown to provide amply satisfactory performance in terms of response time and the accuracy. (auth.)

  14. Research Status of the Artiifcial Dura Mater%人工硬脑膜材料的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇杭; 胥光申

    2016-01-01

    在神经外科手术中,硬脑膜替代物对于维持解剖学的完整和脑组织保护是十分重要的。近年来,随着组织工程和生物材料研究技术的发展,人工硬脑膜的研究取得许多进展。本文对人工硬脑膜国内外的相关文献进行了检索和综合分析,并展望了未来人工硬脑膜研究重点和发展方向。%Dura mater substitutes are of great importance in keeping anatomies intact and protecting brain tissue in neurosurgical operations. With the continuous development of tissue engineering and biomaterials in recent years, the research progress of the artiifcial dural materials has made remarkable progress. In this paper, the related literature about dura mater both at home and abroad were searched and analyzed comprehensively. The paper also examined the prospect of the focus and development direction of dura mater in the future research.

  15. State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the breakup of the USSR the Republic of Uzbekistan has been working in the following areas, attaching primary importance to producing a legislative the structure for the safe use of nuclear energy: legal framework for nuclear and radiation safety; licensing and control of nuclear facilities and radiation sources; regulations for the safe transport of nuclear and radioactive materials; emergency preparedness. Presentation includes description of principal elements and the function of the SSAC; nuclear activities in Uzbekistan (Atomic inspection safeguarded at the beginning of 2001, 9 installations, 2 Research Reactors, 2 Uranium mine and reprocessing plants, 5 Storage installations). The current Uzbekistan's SSAC has been developed and fully satisfies both the IAEA safeguards requirements. The Republic of Uzbekistan supports the introduction of the 'integrated safeguards'. There is need to further strengthen the relationship between the Uzbekistan's SSAC and the IAEA under an integrated safeguards regime to provide more effective and efficient safeguards application

  16. Control flow of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine by means of an E-service; Control flujo de radiofarmacos en medicine nuclear por medio de un E-servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martin, L.; Gonzalez de Mingo, M. A.; Fragua Redondo, J. A.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Gutierrez Camunas, S.; Redondo Miguel, A. B.

    2013-07-01

    The almost generalized use of single-dose Nuclear Medicine for performing diagnostic tests or treatments, and the consequent complexity that accompanies its management, has resulted in the need to control the flow of material radioisotopic tools. An e-service is designed to manage the flow of radiopharmaceuticals and control its use and spending. This control does not only affect the efficiency in the use and cost of material, but in the radioactive waste associated with the non-use and waste reduction and a more effective organization of the Department. (Author)

  17. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  18. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Food, Agriculture and Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called Nuclear Techniques used in agriculture are of two distinct types but both based on the special characteristics of radio-isotopes which give off radiation or on isotopes which are heavier than the normal element. One type of application uses the radiation given off by isotopes to enable the detection of individual atoms in infinitely small amounts of matter. With this technique we can e.g. follow the travels of fertilizer elements in the soil, into and throughout the crop plant or the travels of animal nutrient atoms throughout the animal and their deposition in milk and meat. This has resulted in enormous advances in crop and livestock research. Very minute traces of pesticides and their residues can be detected in food, in plants and animals and in the environment enabling the development of measures to reduce harmful effects

  19. Poderes y Agencia: el resto es literatura / Proxy and Agency: the Rest is Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheen McNerney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: De entre la gran multitud de emigrantes catalano-parlantes que llegó a la Cuba colonial, un cierto número de mujeres llegó a La Habana en busca de sus esposos, aquellos con los que se habían casado “por poderes” (poders justo antes de realizar el largo viaje. La obra de Carmen Riera Cap al cel obert narra la historia de las hermanas Fortesa, enviadas desde Mallorca. A Isabel la eligió su padre para casarla con un primo rico y se envió a María para acompañarla. Solamente María sobrevive el terrible viaje, que tiene lugar durante la última fase del control español sobre Cuba. Una vez en Cuba y recuperada de los avatares del viaje, María considera la vida monástica, pero en vez de ello, en su primera decisión real, acepta la oferta de matrimonio de Josep Fortalesa.El sistema de poderes continuó aun tras la independencia de Cuba del control de España en 1898 y esta forma de matrimonio conforma el tema de L’herència de Cuba de Margarida Aritzeta, en cuya portada se describe como “absolutament verídica”. Eugènia se casa con Basilio, un vecino de su pequeño pueblo aragonés cuando él, por medio de una carta y billete a la isla, manda que la traigan una vez instalado él allí después del viaje de 1925. Las dos novelas forman, de manera conjunta y a grandes rasgos, unos cien años de historia cubana, desde finales del siglo diecinueve hasta finales del siglo veinte, poniendo de relieve la lucha de mujeres que a menudo parecen arrastradas como hojas secas en un huracán, como diría Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda.

  20. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700

  1. What's getting in the way of teamwork in our nuclear control rooms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear control room crews, like teams of any kind, develop their own unique personalities, or ways of getting things done. These personalities contain both good news and bad news when it comes to teamwork, and evolve from the beliefs and attitudes of the individual supervisors and operators. These beliefs and attitudes translate into behaviors that contribute to, or become barriers to, the teamwork so vital in today's modem nuclear control room. The writer, a consultant who has worked with control room crews at twelve US nuclear plants over the past five years in developing teamwork skills, describes his experiences, observations, and successes with the use of videotape to help operators change or modify their behavior to make them more effective as members of a control room team

  2. Development of technologies for national control of and accountancy for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to establish a rigid foundation of national safeguards and to develop the new technologies for the nuclear control. This project is composed of four different technologies; 1. Monitoring technology for nuclear materials, 2. Detection technology for a single particle, 3. Safeguards information management technology, 4. Physical protection technology. Various studies such as a remote verification system for CANDU spent fuel in dry storage canister, a spent fuel verification system using an optical fiber scintillator, and development of softwares for safeguards and physical protection were performed in the frist phase('99-'01). As a result of this research, it has been identified that the developed technologies could be a crucial means of the control for the nuclear material and facilities related. We are planing to accomplish a steady national safeguard system in the second phase('02-'06). This research will help to elevate the transparency and credibility in national nuclear activities by improving the relative technologies

  3. Problems Related to the Nuclear and Mechanical Design of the Programma Reattore Organico Reactor Control Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper illustrates the methods used for calculating the nuclear design of the control rods in the preliminary and operational phases of the PRO project. Comparisons are made with experimental data and a summary is given of the programming studies carried out. Finally, consideration is given to certain problems connected with the mechanical design of the control rods. (author)

  4. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405...

  5. Quality controls of radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatographic quality controls for Tc-99m; In-113m; I-131; Tl-201 and Ga-67 radiopharmaceuticals are described. Moreover, a chromatographic system which allows to separate different radiopharmaceuticals from In-113m is pointed out. (author)

  6. Two-pulse laser control of nuclear and electronic motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We discuss an explicitly time-dependent two-pulse laser scheme for controlling where nuclei and electrons are going in unimolecular reactions. We focus on electronic motion and show, with HD+ as an example, that one can find non-stationary states where the electron (with some probability......) oscillates back and forth between the two nuclei. We discuss how this finding can be used in a scheme for controlling electron transfer in real-time. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  7. Techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is provided for the guidance of those persons or authorities who are responsible for the organization, control and operation of ventilation systems and air-cleaning installations in nuclear establishments. It is intended to generalize about existing experience in the operation of such systems at nuclear facilities including reactors and laboratories for production, use and handling of radionuclides and other toxic materials. This manual will provide designers and operators of nuclear facilities in which ventilation and air-cleaning systems are used with the factors which have to be considered to create safe working conditions inside facilities and without polluting the atmosphere or the environment to a hazardous level.

  8. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  9. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  10. Report on the status of instrumentation and control in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1988 the twelve nuclear power units in Sweden generated 69 TWh, which was 45% of the total electric power produced in Sweden. The production capacity of the nuclear power plants increased successively by upgrading the units to higher nominal power levels. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following: maintenance, renewal of the I and C systems, training. The operational data of Swedish reactor units are presented. (author). 1 tab

  11. Modelo para la promoción de la salud en comunidades rurales a través del desarrollo de agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Pick; Georgina García Rodríguez; Iwin Leenen

    2011-01-01

    Con el propósito de modificar conductas alimentarias y sanitarias en los habitantes de comunidades marginadas, a través del desarrollo de conocimientos y habilidades psicosociales encaminadas a promover agencia personal y empoderamiento intrínseco, se desarrolló e instrumentó en México un modelo piloto basado en el programa Yo quiero, yo puedo... mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos . La evaluación de dicho programa mostró un efecto sobre conocimientos, comunicación asertiva, agencia pers...

  12. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  13. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within

  14. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  15. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose

  16. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in Pernambuco, Brazil;Controle de qualidade dos calibradores em radionuclideos nos servicos de medicina nuclear de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de F.; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo de A.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Tecnicas Analiticas e Nucleares

    2009-07-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to measure the activity of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, leading to unassured clinical results, treatment ineffective and unnecessary exposed to radiation, so it is very important that this equipment provide a satisfactory performance. To estimate accurately the radiopharmaceuticals activity, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in Pernambuco, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  17. Advanced methods of quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under pressure of current economic and electricity market situation utilities implement more demanding fuel utilization schemes including higher burn ups and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and usage of Mo fuel. Therefore, fuel vendors have recently initiated new R and D programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel. In the beginning of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in Quality Control/Quality Assurance related mainly to product itself. During recent years, emphasis was transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical control methods are now widely implemented replacing 100% inspection. This evolution, some practical examples and IAEA activities are described in the paper. The paper presents major findings of the latest IAEA Technical Meetings (TMs) and training courses in the area with emphasis on information received at the TM and training course held in 1999 and other latest publications to provide an overview of new developments in process/quality control, their implementation and results obtained including new approaches to QC

  18. Quality control in Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center Banja Luka, RS, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete test of publication follows. The aim of this work is to give a review of situations in the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Banja Luka related to quality control. We must perform daily, weekly and monthly control of equipment in the Department of Nuclear Medicine, and we must keep records. In our Department we have equipment from different producers and different year of production: 3 gamma cameras (1973, 1989, 2000); 2 auto gamma counters (2000, 2006); 2 dose calibrators (1973, 2000); 1 thyroid uptake system (2000). Normally procedures for quality control are also different. The situation, according to results of quality control is good. All equipment is working normally and with good performance (except one gamma camera - a problem with hard drive), but we don't have a routine daily control and periodical control for others tests. Keeping a records is another problem. Why? 1. In Bosnia and Herzegovina we don't have Regulatory authority. That means that we don't have legislation, rules, inspection or any other regulatory instruments. 2. There is only school for nurses, we have no special school for medical technician. So, we need an education in that field. 3. Very small number of physicist in hospital, no education for medical and nuclear medicine physicist. Conclusion. Situation in Department of Nuclear Medicine in Banja Luka related to quality control is on the medium level. We are trying to put that on the higher level, but to accomplish that we need additional education for nurses (technicians) and physicist.

  19. El uso de la información de agencia en las ediciones electrónicas de diarios en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sancha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Los diarios de información general disponen en Internet de servicios de información on line actualizados permanentemente, que tienen en las agencias de noticias su fuente informativa fundamental. La urgencia por la publicación y la necesidad de llevar a cabo una actualización acumulativa lleva a una reelaboración mínima de los despachos que sirven las agencias y genera una homogeneización de los contenidos que se publican en los servicios on line de los distintos diarios. La presente investigación aborda mediante datos estadísticos, análisis de casos y entrevistas cómo los matices editoriales de cada publicación se diluyen en la redacción de las noticias y cada medio se ve obligado a buscar nuevos elementos informativos donde imprimir su carácter ideológico y diferenciar su producto de la competencia.

  20. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  1. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Zwanenburg, Floris A; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2013-04-18

    Detection of nuclear spin precession is critical for a wide range of scientific techniques that have applications in diverse fields including analytical chemistry, materials science, medicine and biology. Fundamentally, it is possible because of the extreme isolation of nuclear spins from their environment. This isolation also makes single nuclear spins desirable for quantum-information processing, as shown by pioneering studies on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The nuclear spin of a (31)P donor in silicon is very promising as a quantum bit: bulk measurements indicate that it has excellent coherence times and silicon is the dominant material in the microelectronics industry. Here we demonstrate electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single (31)P nuclear spin qubit with sufficiently high fidelities for fault-tolerant quantum computing. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate quantum non-demolition and electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin with a readout fidelity higher than 99.8 percent-the highest so far reported for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radio-frequency pulses. For an ionized (31)P donor, we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 milliseconds and a one-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98 percent. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear-spin-based quantum-information processing. PMID:23598342

  2. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism. Vienna, 29 October 2001. Statement to the symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics dealt with the ensuring of an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation, namely as follows: Effectiveness of the system; Participation in the system ; Financing of the system; Making Progress in Nuclear Arms Control; Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism. In the Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 2000, the Agency was able to conclude that for all 140 states with safeguards agreements in place the nuclear material and other items placed under safeguards remained in peaceful nuclear activities or were otherwise adequately accounted for. The Agency currently safeguards over 900 facilities in 70 countries on a regular safeguards budget of approximately US $80 million per year. Turning to the major recent challenge, protection against nuclear terrorism, the IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The recent attacks in the United States were, however, a wake-up call to all that more can and must be done. In the week immediately following the tragedy, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution which requested a thorough review of Agency activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism

  3. Research on pressure control of pressurizer in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling; Yang, Xuhong; Liu, Gang; Ye, Jianhua; Qian, Hong; Xue, Yang

    2010-07-01

    Pressurizer is one of the most important components in the nuclear reactor system. Its function is to keep the pressure of the primary circuit. It can prevent shutdown of the system from the reactor accident under the normal transient state while keeping the setting value in the normal run-time. This paper is mainly research on the pressure system which is running in the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. A conventional PID controller and a fuzzy controller are designed through analyzing the dynamic characteristics and calculating the transfer function. Then a fuzzy PID controller is designed by analyzing the results of two controllers. The fuzzy PID controller achieves the optimal control system finally.

  4. Proceedings of the Tripartite Seminar on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Radiochemical Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation and operation of nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting systems and their components at radiochemical plants were discussed in seminar during November 2-6 of 1998. There were 63 Russian and 25 foreign participants in seminar. The seminar programme includes following sessions and articles: the aspects of State NM control and accountancy; NM control and accounting in radiochemical plants and at separate stages of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel elements of commercial reactors; NM control and accountancy in storage facilities of radiochemical plants; NM control and accounting computerization, material balance assessment, preparation of reports; qualitative and quantitative measurements in NM control and accounting at radiochemical plants destructive analysis techniques

  5. Temperature-controlled molecular depolarization gates in nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Leif; Schroder, Leif; Chavez, Lana; Meldrum, Tyler; Smith, Monica; Lowery, Thomas J.; E. Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander

    2008-02-27

    Down the drain: Cryptophane cages in combination with selective radiofrequency spin labeling can be used as molecular 'transpletor' units for transferring depletion of spin polarization from a hyperpolarized 'source' spin ensemble to a 'drain' ensemble. The flow of nuclei through the gate is adjustable by the ambient temperature, thereby enabling controlled consumption of hyperpolarization.

  6. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research contains papers in two sessions: the first part, on Magnetic Confinement Theory and Modelling, was presented in session D at the conference; the second part, on Non-Tokamak Confinement Systems, was given in session C of the conference. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Quality assurance as a system of management control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance is considered as a management control system which the owner of a nuclear power plant has to establish for a nuclear power project for ensuring that a plant is built as designed and that defects are corrected. The building up of such a system should start early enough in project activities and before the plant design and construction, in order to ensure correct performance of all activities related to selection of the site for the nuclear power plant, bid specification and evaluation and procurement of services. The QA is a regulatory requirement, but the prudent plant management would create such a system as part of their total project management systems irrespective of formulation of requirement. In fact regulatory requirement should be considered as the criteria to be used by the regulatory organization for evaluation of licensee's QA system and not as an objective to be reached. In this paper the needs for QA system are justified as part of the development of industrial infrastructure for the nuclear power project. Elements of the system are described such as documented QA programme and organizational structures with defined responsibility and functions of individual organizational units, and with control of information flow across the interfaces. The goals and objectives or the project organizations related to achievement and verification of quality are defined as well as system functions in attaining these objectives. This includes the feedback of information to the management on monitoring of performance in project activities, identifying deficiencies and initiating corrective actions. Domestic participation in the nuclear power plant construction will depend on the ability of local construction and manufacturing organizations to achieve high quality standards of products and services that can affect safety and performance of the nuclear power plant. Introduction of QA systems in project organizations, development of QA programme and

  8. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system

  9. Development of design support tool using integrated hierarchical control chart (HCC) and IEC61131 for nuclear power plant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E.; Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a new intelligent and highly automated Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) and operations mapping solution for nuclear power plant operators that provides control system designers, developers and operators with a single view of all elements and systems across a power plant with the integrated interactive data access and information retrieval capabilities that enables a faster fault diagnostics as well aids in a more efficient decision making for the routine daily tasks. (author)

  10. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  11. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.D.; Lanning, D.D.; Johnson, P.M.H. [eds.] [World Technology Evaluation Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shelton, R.D. [World Technology Evaluation Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A study of instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology used in nuclear power plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study plants in Europe was conducted by a panel of US specialists. This study included a review of the literature on the subject, followed by a visit to some of the leading organizations in Europe in the field nuclear I and C. Areas covered are: (1) role of the operator and control room design; (2) transition from analog to digital technology; (3) computerized operator support systems for fault management; (4) control strategies and techniques; (5) Nuclear power plant I and C architecture; (6) instrumentation and (7) computer standards and tools. The finding relate to poor reactions.

  12. Control rooms and man-machine interface in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of man-machine interface for ensuring safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants has always been recognized. Since the early 1970's, the concepts of operator support and human factors have been increasingly used to better define the role of control rooms. In the late 1970's, the lessons learned from experience considerably accelerated the development of recommendations and regulatory requirements governing the resources and data available to operators in nuclear power plant control rooms, and specified the expertise required to assist them in case of need. This document summarizes the steps which have been taken and are being planned around the world to improve the man-machine interface for safe and economic power generation. It intends to present to the reader useful examples on some selected control room design and man-machine interface practices for operation and surveillance of nuclear power plants. 53 refs, 94 figs, 27 tabs

  13. Current status of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    as environmental sampling to our isotope laboratories. Technical assistance in the establishment of computerized system of nuclear materials accounting and control was solicited from the IAEA in 1985. The computer utilized the VAX11/750. At present, the data were in text file, which we hope to send by electronic mail. (author)

  14. Update: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with cadaveric dura mater grafts--Japan, 1978-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-24

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common of the human prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies), which, according to the leading hypothesis, are caused by an abnormal protein (i.e., prion) that is able to induce abnormal folding of normal cellular prion proteins. Annual worldwide incidence of these always fatal neurodegenerative diseases is estimated at 0.5-2.0 cases per million population. CJD can occur sporadically, or as a genetic disease, or can be transmitted iatrogenically. In 1996, a new human prion disease, variant CJD (vCJD), was first described in the United Kingdom. This disease was believed to have resulted from human consumption of cattle products contaminated with the prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease). That year, in part to check for possible vCJD cases, a national survey was conducted in Japan; 821 CJD cases were identified, including 43 cases associated with receipt of cadaveric dura mater grafts. A single brand of dural graft (Lyodura) produced by a German manufacturer before May 1987 was identified as the most likely vehicle of transmission in all but one case. By 2003, continued surveillance in Japan had identified a total of 97 such cases. Since then, an additional 35 cases have been identified. This report updates previous reports and summarizes the investigation of all 132 cases to date linked to dural grafts. The results suggest that, because of the long incubation period between graft receipt and symptom onset (possibly >24.8 years), continued surveillance in Japan might identify additional CJD cases associated with dural grafts. PMID:18946463

  15. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  16. Control organization in data storage systems for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is dealing with the study of the general organization methods of the control in data storage systems for experimental data and with the presentation of author's contribution to command blocks and programs for such systems. We emphasize control problems in modular systems for experimental data storage, taking into account both the systems equipped with specialized processes and those equipped with computers or microprocessors. We present the design methods of command blocks for specialized installations and the solutions adopted for two types of installations: control block of a synchronous battery assigned to improve siqnal-noise ratio within electronic paramagnetic resonance spectra and modular micro-coded programer of a system for taking over the data from uncorrelated inputs in neutron physics experiments. We also study the organization and command way of data storage and processing modular systems. Methods for functional units interconnection, structure of base lines, and problems proper to configurations of distributed contro are investigated. Next, we present the solutions adopted in order to make up some command units for CAMAC standard systems. In this respect, we describe a fast CAMAC processor and a modular command unit with microprocessor and CAMAC computer interfaces, assigned to DEC PDP 11, FELIX M18 and FELIX MC8 computers. We review the methods used in CAMAC programing, the author's programs to command the installations directed by the control units mentioned above. These programs have been written in many programing languages (ASSEMBLER, IML, CAMAC subroutines which may be called in FORTRAN and BASIC) and have been used in various fields (configurations and interfaces testing, programs developing, command of some concrete installations). (author)

  17. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant

  18. Optimization criteria for control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of dose limitation recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection includes, as a base for deciding what is reasonably achievable in dose reduction, the optimization of radioprotection systems. This paper, after compiling relevant points in the new system, discusses the application of optimization to control and instrumentation of radioprotection systems in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, an extension of the optimization criterion to nuclear safety systems is also presented and its application to control and instrumentation is discussed; systems including majority logics are particularly scrutinized. Finally, eventual regulatory implications are described. (author)

  19. Fundamental attributes of a practical configuration management program for nuclear plant design control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summarizes the results of an evaluation of findings identifies during a number of Safety-System Functional Inspections and Safety System Outage Modification Inspections which are related to configuration management for nuclear plant design control. A computerized database of these findings was generated from a review of the design inspection reports. Based on the results of the evaluation, attributes of a configuration management program were developed which are responsive to minimizing these types of inspection findings. Incorporation of these key attributes is considered good practice in the development of a configuration management program for design control at operating nuclear plants

  20. Verification and validation of software related to nuclear power plant instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is produced in response to a recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The report has objectives of providing practical guidance on the methods available for verification of the software and validation of computer based systems, and on how and when these methods can be effectively applied. It is meant for those who are in any way involved with the development, implementation, maintenance and use of software and computer based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. The report is intended to be used by designers, software producers, reviewers, verification and validation teams, assessors, plant operators and licensers of computer based systems

  1. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  2. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  3. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  4. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy with reference to nuclear export control system, strategy toward IAEA, and NPT review conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study are follows: suggestion for i) our future nuclear development directions, ii) establishment of national export control system, iii) establishment of strategy toward IAEA, and suggestion of our standpoints toward the 4th NPT review conference. This study proposes the following; 1) It is desirable that nuclear power generation strategy is propelled under the premise of economics and proven technology. And international cooperation in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle should be reinforced. 2) It is recommened that nuclear export control system should be government-led. 3) Our country needs to make efforts in increasing the number of Korean staff in the IAEA, and to establish permanent mission which is wholly responsible for the IAEA affairs, and to construct a system which deals with nuclear foregin activities. 4) It is desirable that the basic position of our country toward the 4th NPT review conference should be : i) to urge parties to the NPT to conclude safeguards agreement with IAEA as early as possible, ii) to request nuclear suppliers to mitigate their nuclear technology for peaceful uses to nuclear developing countries, and iii) to urge nuclear weapon states to make further efforts for nuclear disarmament. (author)

  5. Processing used nuclear fuel with nanoscale control of uranium and ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Peruski, Kathryn M.; Prizio, Sarah E.; Bridges, Andrea N. A.; Rudisill, Tracy S.; Hobbs, David T.; Phillip, William A.; Burns, Peter C.

    2016-05-01

    Current separation and purification technologies utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle rely primarily on liquid-liquid extraction and ion-exchange processes. Here, we report a laboratory-scale aqueous process that demonstrates nanoscale control for the recovery of uranium from simulated used nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL). The selective, hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative dissolution of SIMFUEL material results in the rapid assembly of persistent uranyl peroxide nanocluster species that can be separated and recovered at moderate to high yield from other process-soluble constituents using sequestration-assisted ultrafiltration. Implementation of size-selective physical processes like filtration could results in an overall simplification of nuclear fuel cycle technology, improving the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and reducing costs of processing.

  6. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  7. Control and diagnostics for nuclear power plant performance and safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear industry becomes mature, the emphasis has shifted from design and construction to operations, maintenance, people and management. There is a misconception that in a maturing nuclear industry, technological innovations are no longer important. To the contrary, as the progress of the computer and electronic industries continues its revolutionary pace and as the competitive pressures on the utilities intensifies, technological innovations play an increasingly important role in all aspects of operations of nuclear plants. There are ample opportunities and challenges for making significant contributions by using technology. This paper focuses on the technological advances in the area of diagnostics, control and automation for the enhancement of performance and safety of nuclear plants

  8. Analytic control during the production of nuclear purity compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U02 compound is obtained from yellow cake at the Cordoba Production Complex, (Argentina). Analysis and controls during the process are described. Yellow cake is dissolved with sulphuric acid and then a leaching precipitation process originally developed in that complex takes place. In this process ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUC) is obtained by the addition of CO3(NH4)2 and SO4(NH4)2. During the whole process samples are sent to the laboratory for the determinations of humidity, uranium and impurities. In the solvent extraction plant determinations of Uranium are made with dibenzoilmethane and H2O2. In the fresh-eluting total amount of solids as well as Si, Fe, Ca, CO3, OH- and SO4-- are determined. Uranium (U3O8) and carbonates are investigated in the AUTC by gravimetry, ammonium and water are obtained by Kjeldall and Xylol distillation proceses respectively. Controls of Si and Fe by colorimetry and of Ca by atomic absorption permit eventual detections of accidental contaminations. After UO3 is obtained by calcination at 300 deg C, gravimetric determination of U3O8 is made. In this step of the process, CO3, NH4, H2O, Si, Fe, Ca and SO4-- are also detected. UO2 is the final product obtained by reduction of UO3 at 700 deg C. Physical characteristics as fluidity, apparent, TAP and real densities, half diameter of particles, granulometry and microscopic properties are verified. Normally in the UO2 process a series of routine chemical controls are made to determine U3O8, rate O/U, SO4--, Si, Fe Ca, Mo, Cd, Cr, Ni and water (E.A.C.)

  9. To calculating on electromagnetic drive for nuclear reactor control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to the results of calculating a magnetic system for a linear polyphase pecking motor (LPPM) with magnetic flux, passing along an armature (longitudinal flux). The considered LPPM are applied in control rod drives at high temperature gas cooled reactors. Calculation algorithm and flowsheet of the PSTAT1 program (FORTRAN, ES computer), realizing this algorithm are described. Applicability of the considered method for calculating unsaturated magnet systems is concluded on the basis of comparison of the obtained data with experimental results

  10. Survey of networked control systems and their potential applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of networked control systems (NCSs) and their industrial applications. Most widely used NCSs based on fieldbus technologies; namely, ControlNet, Profibus (DP/PA), and Foundation Fieldbus have been discussed. The objectives and benefits of using such networks are presented and factors influencing their design and implementation are examined. Then, some of the special requirements in controlling nuclear power plant (NPP) have been considered. The potential of applying networked control systems in such installations has been discussed. Finally, the concept of wireless networked control systems is also described. (author)

  11. A Nuclear Materials Management Control System for Uranium Reactor Fuel Element Fabrication (A Hypothetical Case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system for effective nuclear materials management requires the collection and dissemination of varying data. This paper describes a control system that will meet the requirements and at the same time eliminate duplication of effort by combining the data collection needs of accountability, production control and process control. The presentation is divided into three parts: the data required; collection, tabulation and distribution of the data; and how the data is used. Each topic will be covered in sufficient detail to provide the nucleus for establishing a control system. (author)

  12. Legal and Administrative Problems of Controlling the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes in the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of the paper is to present some approaches to multinational control of the sea disposal of nuclear wastes, considering both the type of international .control which may be appropriate and the means for accomplishing such control. First, the authors give a brief description of the kind of control which appears to be necessary in protecting public health against the hazards of the disposal of wastes in the sea. The second part consists of a general analysis of the legal problems posed by nuclear wastes. Emphasis is placed on the authority of coastal states to impose unilateral control on the disposal of wastes by other nations if such disposal might adversely affect their interests. The authors inquire into the adequacy of legal remedies as well as the possible rule of law regarding the prevention of damage from waste disposal and the apportionment of liability in the event that such damage does occur. The third part is an analysis of how other problems of control have been handled, both unilaterally and multilaterally. The final part consists of an inquiry into various means of internationally controlling the sea disposal of nuclear wastes. The role of existing international bodies in the maintenance of continuing administrative control at the international level is mentioned. (author)

  13. Evolution of the physical protection and control of nuclear materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brazil started protecting its nuclear materials soon after the end of the World War II, when the Combined Development Trust intended to control the world supply of uranium and thorium. This happened in 1944, but on December 27, 1946, an amendment to the report of Committee II of the United Nations established that the international ownership of the unexplored uranium and thorium would not be mandatory. Brazil nationalized its thorium and uranium reserves in 1951. The Brazil-Germany agreement signed in 1975 enhanced the need for Brazilian nuclear safeguards and security. The physical protection (PP) and control of nuclear materials (CNM) became activities under the supervision of the Brazilian military forces. The System for Protection of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (SIPRON), established on 7 October 1980, took over the responsibilities for PP and other aspects of the Brazilian nuclear program. The central organ of SIPRON was the Brazilian National Security Council (CSN). The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was in charge of coordinating, among others, the PP sector. Earlier that year - on 3 March 1980 - the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) was signed simultaneously in New York and Vienna. The Brazilian congress approved the CPPNM on 27 November 1984, and the Brazilian government deposited the ratification letter on 17 October 1985. On 16 April 1991 the Brazilian government issued a decree to enforce the CPPNM in the Brazilian territory. CNEN published the regulatory documents NE - 2.01 on 19 April 1996, and NN - 2.02 on 21 September 1999 for PP, and CNM, respectively. CNEN has the ultimate responsibility to enforce these regulations. The operational aspects of PP and CNM in Brazil are still improving. Potential nuclear terrorism for example needs to be examined. Activities concerning training personnel and implementing PP and CNM will be described in the paper. (author)

  14. The 3rd questionnaire report of safety control on instrument in nuclear medicine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present 3rd survey was aimed at grasping safety control in nuclear medicine examination and the trend for SPECT usage. Questionnaires were sent to 1238 facilities dealing with nuclear medicine; and 1127 facilities (91.0%) responded. The survey period was three years from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1992. The following 7 items were surveyed: (1) nuclear medicine personnel, (2) nuclear medicine equipments, (3) accidents occurring in nuclear medicine laboratories, (4) risk factors leading to accidents, (5) countermeasures for improving safety control, (6) major breakdown of the machinery and equipment, and (7) demands for makers. Majority of nuclear medicine personnel were male and were less than 50 years old. The number of SPECT equipments increased from 714 in the previous survey to 968. Accidents (personal injuries) and narrow escape from an accident were seen in 45 and 154 cases. Personal injuries such as falling occurred in 37 patients and 8 nuclear medicine personnel. According to nuclear medicine examinations, SPECT was the most common examination associated with accident and narrow escape cases (86/199). Such cases at the beginning of examination were remarkably decreased, as compared with those in the previous two surveys. Accidents were primarily attributable to careless management by personnel. Breakdown of the machinery and equipment was reported in 207 cases. In Item 5, the following contents were presented: heads for examination, personnel's behavior, education, examination equipments, collimators and others. Finally, contents in Item 7 included: equipment design, heads for examination, maintenance or management, data processing, collimators, examination equipments and others. (N.K.)

  15. Instrumentation and control developments in the Los Alamos nuclear test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy contracts the Los Alamos National Laboratory to carry out a Nuclear Weapons Test Program in support of the national defense. The program is one of ongoing research to design, build, and test prototype nuclear devices. The goal is to determine what should ultimately be incorporated into the nation's nuclear defense stockpile. All nuclear tests are conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This paper describes the instrumentation and control techniques used by Los Alamos to carry out the tests. Specifically, the contrast between historical methods and new, computer-based technology are discussed. Previous techniques required large numbers of expensive, heavy hardwire cables extending from the surface to the diagnostics rack at the bottom of the vertical shaft. These cables, which provided singular control/monitor functions, have been replaced by a few optical fibers and power cables. This significant savings has been enabled through the adaptation of industrial process control technology using programmable computer control and distributed input/output. Finally, an ongoing process of developing and applying the most suitable instrumentation and control technology to the unique requirements of the Test Program is discussed. 2 refs.

  16. KEDO LWR construction project and application of nuclear export control to the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear crisis caused by the inconsistency included in DPRK's intial report to the IAEA has passed many stages such as DPRK's declaration to withdraw from NPT and rejection of the IAEA special inspection, etc. Finally, US and DPRK had singed to the Agreed Framework which has several responsibilities to be implemented by each sides. One of them is to supply 2 LWR to the DPRK in place of the freeze of graphite moderated reactors that were operating or constructing in DPRK at that time. As an implementing organization, KEDO has been established. KEPCO, the main contrator of KEDO, is constructing the KEDO Reactor unit 1 at Kumho site according to the Supply Agreement between KEDO and DPRK. It means that the nuclear items such as facilities, equipments, nuclear material and related technology have to transferred to DPRK under the domestic nuclear export control regulation. This paper is prepared to overview the KEDO LWR project with the view of export control and review on the national nuclear export control policies, license requirements, and DDCC management

  17. The experience of implementation and improving import-export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, nuclear, radioactive and radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry and research. Malaysia has initiated new or improved measures to combat illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials through enforcement of a strengthened Act 304 and its regulations. The paper discusses the experience of implementing and improving import and export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia. (author)

  18. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recently established intelligent mobile robot theory and high technologies in computer science, we have designed an inspection automation system for welded parts of the reactor vessel, and we intend to establish basic technologies. The recent status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas, and the characteristics and availability of those techniques such as intelligent mobile robot, digital computer control, intelligent user interface, realtime data processing, ultrasonic signal processing, intelligent user interface, intelligent defect recognition, are studied and examined at first. The high performance and compact size inspection system is designed, and if implemented, it is expected to be very efficient in economic point of view. In addition, the use of integrated SW system leads to the reduction of human errors. Through the analysis results and experiences, we investigated the further feasibility of basic technology applications to the various similar operation systems in NPP. (Author)

  19. Experience with applying the automated control system to maintenance at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated system of maintenance control at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice uses experience gained with the maintenance of the A-1 nuclear power plant. With regard to the range of work operations, maintenance includes inspection, routine repair, overhaul of equipment and replacement. Also observed is the classification of equipment according to whether it may be repaired without reactor shutdown or whether the reactor will have to be shut down. At present the maintenance of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant is being processed by an automated control system into five year variable plans of repairs, annual and monthly plans of repairs, plans of shut-downs and a schedule of unit shutdowns. The repair plan includes over 6000 items. (Z.M.)

  20. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Festival of Science "Theory-knowledge-experience...". Fest will be located on the traditional Main Square, which is visited by thousands of citizens and tourists. Institute of Nuclear Physics as usual participates in this annual event. Our visitors will learn the secrets of the CERN experiments on the Large Hadron Collider - ATLAS, LHCb, ALICE, CMS, find out more about the Higgs particles, antimatter quark-gluon plasma (beeing guided by our scientists and PhD students). One of the attractions will be ATLAS Control Room Virtual Visit. Visiting people will have an opportunity to see how ATLAS is controlled and operated to collect its exciting data and ask questions to scientists and engineers involved in LHC program at CERN. Institute of Nuclear Physics has prepared also several interactive demonstrations of Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Resonance, Hadron Therapy and Crystal Physics. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences carries out basic and applied research in physics, ...

  1. Control of Materials in Italian Nuclear Power Stations and Research Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the management of nuclear materials at a facility with a gas-graphite power reactor using natural uranium, at another with a boiling-water reactor using enriched uranium, at an industrial installation with a research reactor and at a nuclear research laboratory. For each of these installations the control of radioactive materials during fabrication and transport operations, while the materials are being used in reactors or in laboratories, and at the time when the receiver takes delivery of the materials is discussed. The first part of the paper deals, from the management point of view, with all the recording operations and the methods employed for the internal auditing of data on losses, production and transfer of nuclear materials. The second part assesses the shortcomings of the systems at present used in Italy and the problems of official materials management and control services, insofar as they affect safety. (author)

  2. The control density of the administrative courts with regard to nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility does not exist to limit the extent of the activities of administrative courts with regard to the control of the nuclear license decision by a shifting of one part of the ultimate decision competence from the jurisdiction to the executive. The responsibility of the administrative courts which is established in the constitution gives them a comprehensive controlling function with regard to nuclear licensing. Their right of ultimate decision, which is established in the constitution, corresponds to a duty of ultimate decision, which is of paramount importance in such a fundamental law relevant area, as it is nuclear law. The legislator has to help the overburdened courts. The courts themselves are bound to their responsibility as it is laid down in the constitution and the Atomic Energy Act to guarantee legal protection so that any form of self-restraint is inadmissable. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Synthesis of Model Based Robust Stabilizing Reactor Power Controller for Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Habib Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nominal SISO (Single Input Single Output model of PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor type nuclear power plant is developed based on normal moderator pump-up rate capturing the moderator level dynamics using system identification technique. As the plant model is not exact, therefore additive and multiplicative uncertainty modeling is required. A robust perturbed plant model is derived based on worst case model capturing slowest moderator pump-up rate dynamics and moderator control valve opening delay. Both nominal and worst case models of PHWR-type nuclear power plant have ARX (An Autoregressive Exogenous structures and the parameters of both models are estimated using recursive LMS (Least Mean Square optimization algorithm. Nominal and worst case discrete plant models are transformed into frequency domain for robust controller design purpose. The closed loop system is configured into two port model form and H? robust controller is synthesized. The H?controller is designed based on singular value loop shaping and desired magnitude of control input. The selection of desired disturbance attenuation factor and size of the largest anticipated multiplicative plant perturbation for loop shaping of H? robust controller form a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The performance and robustness of the proposed controller is tested under transient condition of a nuclear power plant in Pakistan and found satisfactory.

  4. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility - Development of embedded controller for hydraulic robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Kook; Kim, Jae Kwon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We designed and implemented a reliable hierarchical control system for hydraulic robots for nuclear power plant maintenance. In hazardous environments such as nuclear power plants, robot systems or automated equipment should be used instead of human being for maintenance and repair. Such robot should guarantee high reliability in hazardous environments such as high radiation or high temperature. The overall system is composed of three hierarchical subsystems: i) supervisory controller in safe zone for operator interaction with monitoring and commanding and graphic user interface, ii) master controller in semi-hazardous zone for control function, and iii) slave controller in hazardous zone for sensing and actuation. These subsystems are connected with suitable communication channels: a) master-slave communication channel implemented with CAN (Control Area Network) and b) supervisory-master communication with Ethernet. The master and the slave controllers construct a feedback closed-loop control system. In order to improve reliability, the slave controller is duplicated using cold-standby scheme, and master-slave communication channel is also duplicated. The overall system is implemented harmonically, and we obtained fast control interval of 1msec, which is sufficient for high-performance real-time control. 12 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  5. Application of telerobotic control to remote processing of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In processing radioactive material there are certain steps which have customarily required operators working at glove box enclosures. This can subject the operators to low level radiation dosages and the risk of accidental contamination, as well as generate significant radioactive waste to accommodate the human interaction. An automated system is being developed to replace the operator at the glove box and thus remove the human from these risks, and minimize waste. Although most of the processing can be automated with very little human operator interaction, there are some tasks where intelligent intervention is necessary to adapt to unexpected circumstances and events. These activities will require that the operator be able to interact with the process using a remote manipulator in a manner as natural as if the operator were actually in the work cell. This robot-based remote manipulation system, or telerobot, must provide the operator with an effective means of controlling the robot arm, gripper and tools. This paper describes the effort in progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to achieve this capability. 8 refs

  6. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with ...

  7. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we've been and challenges ahead - Views of an engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ''dual-use'' controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective

  8. Laser bonding with ICG-infused chitosan patches: preliminary experiences in suine dura mater and vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Pini, Roberto; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Giannoni, Luca; Fortuna, Damiano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Corbara, Sylwia; Dallari, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Laser bonding is a promising minimally invasive approach, emerging as a valid alternative to conventional suturing techniques. It shows widely demonstrated advantages in wound treatment: immediate closuring effect, minimal inflammatory response and scar formation, reduced healing time. This laser based technique can overcome the difficulties in working through narrow surgical corridors (e.g. the modern "key-hole" surgery as well as the endoscopy setting) or in thin tissues that are impossible to treat with staples and/or stitches. We recently proposed the use of chitosan matrices, stained with conventional chromophores, to be used in laser bonding of vascular tissue. In this work we propose the same procedure to perform laser bonding of vocal folds and dura mater repair. Laser bonding of vocal folds is proposed to avoid the development of adhesions (synechiae), after conventional or CO2 laser surgery. Laser bonding application in neurosurgery is proposed for the treatment of dural defects being the Cerebro Spinal Fluid leaks still a major issue. Vocal folds and dura mater were harvested from 9-months old porks and used in the experimental sessions within 4 hours after sacrifice. In vocal folds treatment, an IdocyanineGreen-infused chitosan patch was applied onto the anterior commissure, while the dura mater was previously incised and then bonded. A diode laser emitting at 810 nm, equipped with a 600 μm diameter optical fiber was used to weld the patch onto the tissue, by delivering single laser spots to induce local patch/tissue adhesion. The result is an immediate adhesion of the patch to the tissue. Standard histology was performed, in order to study the induced photothermal effect at the bonding sites. This preliminary experimental activity shows the advantages of the proposed technique in respect to standard surgery: simplification of the procedure; decreased foreign-body reaction; reduced inflammatory response; reduced operating times and better handling in

  9. Modeling and Control of a Large Nuclear Reactor A Three-Time-Scale Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shimjith, S R; Bandyopadhyay, B

    2013-01-01

    Control analysis and design of large nuclear reactors requires a suitable mathematical model representing the steady state and dynamic behavior of the reactor with reasonable accuracy. This task is, however, quite challenging because of several complex dynamic phenomena existing in a reactor. Quite often, the models developed would be of prohibitively large order, non-linear and of complex structure not readily amenable for control studies. Moreover, the existence of simultaneously occurring dynamic variations at different speeds makes the mathematical model susceptible to numerical ill-conditioning, inhibiting direct application of standard control techniques. This monograph introduces a technique for mathematical modeling of large nuclear reactors in the framework of multi-point kinetics, to obtain a comparatively smaller order model in standard state space form thus overcoming these difficulties. It further brings in innovative methods for controller design for systems exhibiting multi-time-scale property,...

  10. 10 CFR 1017.11 - Information exempt from being Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scientific information (i.e., information resulting from research directed toward increasing fundamental... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information exempt from being Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. 1017.11 Section 1017.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL...

  11. Annual report - ABACC (accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency) - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1998 of accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency introduces the next main topics: institutional activities - safeguards agreements implementation and administration; technical activities - planning and evaluation, operation, technical support, information accounting and treatment, technical cooperation, technical capacity invigoration; administrative and financial activities

  12. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Control of occupational radiation exposures in TVA nuclear power plants design and operating philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the Tennessee Valley Authority commitment to nuclear power, a formal program has been initiated for keeping inplant personnel radiation exposures as low as practicable (ALAP). The design and operating philosophy relative to implant radiation control at the Browns Ferry plant is described, and the plans for implementation of ALAP criteria in future plants are discussed

  14. Regional training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is an outline of the subjects that are included in a regional training course organized in Buenos Aires (Argentina) by the IAEA with the cooperation of the Argentine Government and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) from September 24 to October 5, 2001

  15. Delegation, Presidential Regimes, and Latin American Regulatory Agencies Delegación, regimenes presidenciales y agencias reguladoras en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Jordana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, a large number of regulatory agencies were created or reformed in different sectors in Latin American countries. Almost all included political delegation mechanisms, intended as formal rules to enhance credible commitments to time-consistent policies. In this paper, using an original data set of agencies’ head tenure in the telecommunications and finance regulatory agencies, we discuss if these mechanisms worked as planned, and find a divergence between actual mandates and the formally established fixed terms, effected by means of systematic early resignations. Our findings reveal, however, some consistent patterns of behavior. Stronger legislative presidential power reduced effective delegation to some extent, and agencies’ organizational strengths protected them from patron-age. We also confirmed the existence of some significant differences be-tween the two sectors examined. Having slightly weaker delegation rules, delegation practices were also less effective in telecommunications than in financial services, contrary to expectations about credible commitments. Durante los años 1990, muchas agencias reguladoras fueron creadas o reformadas en diferentes sectores en los países latinoamericanos. Casi todas incluyeron mecanismos de delegación política, entendidos como reglas formales para mejorar los compromisos creíbles sobre políticas que requieren coherencia en el tiempo. En este trabajo, utilizando un conjunto de datos originales sobre los responsables de las agencias reguladoras de las telecomunicaciones y de las finanzas, se discute si estos mecanismos funcionaron como estaba previsto, identificándose una divergencia entre los mandatos reales y los términos formalmente establecidos, debido a la existencia de numerosas renuncias anticipadas. Nuestros hallazgos revelan, sin embargo, algunos patrones consistentes de comportamiento: un mayor poder presidencial sobre el legislativo reduce la delegación efectiva

  16. Controlling Halo-chaos Complexity for Nuclear Power System and Managing High Technology Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Variability is one of most important features of complexity in the complex systems because of itssensitivities to small perturbation. Various possible competing behaviors in the systems provide greatflexibility in controlling dynamical complexity and can manage/select a desired behavior for applicationsin real world. In many high-tech fields, how to control or manage complexity is of significant andchallenge issue. Taking as a typical example, accelerator driven clean nuclear power system (ADS) is one

  17. Nondestructive control of condition and prediction of cable life time at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most effective methods for nondestructive control of a cable condition, which are used for a periodic assessment of expected life of power and control cables at nuclear power plants of Rosenergoatom Concern OJSC, are presented. In spite of the fact that many methods are based on physical principles that are well-known for a long time, they have been improved due to the experimental data received lately. (author)

  18. Application Of AT89C51 Micro controller For Nuclear Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is to design and develop a micro controller system for nuclear radiation detection. The system to be constructed consists of GM detector, 9 Volt alkaline battery, 500 Volt DC high voltage, preamplifier , AT89C51 micro controller and 4.5 digits LCD seven segment. The AT89C51 micro controller is provided with 16 bit counter/timer, RAM memory, reprogammable flash memory system, parallel and serial I/O ports. By using an AT89C51 micro controller software in assembly language, the result of count testing is displayed on the 4.5 digit LCD seven segment

  19. Concept and structure of instrumentation and control of the Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general structure of instrumentation and control of Atucha II nuclear power plant as well as the technologies used, are described: concepts of functional decentralization and physical centralization; concept of functional group and functional complex; description of the technologies used (physical support) in the project of plant instrumentation and control; description of the different automation levels on the basis of concepts of control interface, automatism, regulation, group and subgroup controls; principles of signal conditioning; concept of announcement of alarms and state: supervisory computer, description of HAS (Hard wired Alarm System) and CAS (Computer Alarm System); application of the above mentioned structure to the project of another type of plants. (Author)

  20. Visualisation of the intact dura mater and brain surface in infant autopsies: a minimally destructive technique for the post-mortem assessment of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Rutty, Guy N; James, Deryk S

    2015-03-01

    During the post-mortem examination of babies and young children, it is important to be able to visualise the brain and its coverings, particularly in cases where a head injury is likely to have occurred. In this paper, we present an improved method for removal of the calvarial bones in infant autopsies to enable viewing of the dura mater and brain. In contrast to the standard post-mortem procedure for observing and removing the brain, this novel technique is minimally disruptive, allowing the dura mater to remain undamaged. Specialised paediatric neurosurgical tools were used to remove the skull bones from 23 neonates, infants and young children during post-mortem examination. In 21 of our 23 cases, the calvarial bones were removed successfully with the dura mater remaining intact. In one case, there was a thickening of the dura mater which created a strong adherence of this membrane to the bone. In another case, the dura mater was slightly damaged due to the inexperience of the operator in using the neurosurgical tools. This method of calvarial bone removal reduces the degree of post-mortem artefact and enhances the ability to observe and photographically document autopsy findings, including the artefact-free detection of signs of injury such as epidural or subdural haematoma, and brain swelling. This technique has now become a routine practise in both of our units to remove the skull bones in infant/young children post-mortem examinations.

  1. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington

  2. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  3. Introduction to digital instrumentation and control techniques used in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 8 yr, the nuclear engineering department at Pennsylvania State University has been teaching a digital interfacing class at the undergraduate (senior) level. With the ever-increasing use of computers in the nuclear engineering area (such as in the use of automated data acquisition systems) and the complexity of control instrumentation, more than a cursory introduction into electronics and computer controls is needed. Because of the ever-increasing popularity, and hence importance, of IBM-PC compatible microcomputers in the engineering fields, the program has been adapted to the Intel 8086 microprocessor. Courses such as this one are helpful in ensuring the students have an adequate design and practice base as required by accrediting groups. The course, is composed of three parts: (1) machine code/assembly language, (2) interfacing, and (3) final project. Experience demonstrates that a course of this inherent complexity can successfully be taught within a nuclear engineering curriculum without extensive prerequisites. The important ingredient is to treat nuclear engineering students for exactly what they are, engineers. By having them use their creativity and adaptability, they can successfully integrate the digital interfacing techniques now routinely used in the nuclear industry

  4. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research Vol. I. Proceedings of a Symposium on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas.

  5. An integrated system for managing multidisciplinary oceanographic data collected in the Mediterranean Sea during the basin-scale research project EU/MAST-MATER (1996 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, C.; Balopoulos, E.; Giorgetti, A.; Fichaut, M.; Iona, A.; Larour, M.; Latrouite, A.; Manca, B.; Maudire, G.; Nicolas, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

    2002-06-01

    An advanced computer and communication technology was used to develop an integrated system and software tools for managing a great diversity of oceanographic data collected in the Mediterranean Sea during 1996-2000. Data were obtained during 108 sea cruises, carried out within the framework of the large-scale international research project MATER (mass transfer and ecosystem response), which was financially supported by the Marine Science and Technology (MAST) Programme of the European Union (EU). Data collection involved the active participation of various research vessels and personnel coming from 58 different laboratories of 13 countries. Data formatting as well as automatic and visual data quality controls were implemented using internationally accepted standards and procedures. Various data inventories and meta-data information, accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), are made available to the user community. A database was developed, which, along with meta-data and other data relevant to the project information, is made available to the user community in the form of a CD-ROM. The database consists of 5861 vertical profiles and 842 time series of basic physical and biogeochemical parameters collected in the seawater column as well as biogeochemical parameters from the analysis of 70 sediment cores. Furthermore, it includes 67 cruise data files of nonstandard additional biological and atmospheric parameters.

  6. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  7. Quality control procedures applied to nuclear instruments. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Control (QC), test procedures for Nuclear Instrumentation are important for assurance of proper and safe operation of the instruments, especially with regard to equipment related to radiological safety, human health and national safety. Correct measurements of radiation parameters must be ensured, i.e., accurate measurement of the number of radioactive events, counting times and in some cases accurate measurements of the radiation energy and occurring time of the nuclear events. There are several kinds of testing on nuclear instruments, for example, type-testing done by suppliers, acceptance testing made by the end users, Quality Control tests after repair and Quality Assurance/Quality Controls tests made by end-users. All of these tests are based in many cases on practical guidelines or on the experience of the own specialist, the available standards on this topic also need to be adapted to specific instruments. The IAEA has provided nuclear instruments and supported the operational maintenance efforts of the Member States. Although Nuclear Instrumentation is continuously upgraded, some older or aged instruments are still in use and in good working condition. Some of these instruments may not, however, meet modern requirements for the end-user therefore, Member States, mostly those with emerging economies, modernize/refurbish such instruments to meet the end-user demands. As a result, new instrumentation which is not commercially available, or modernized/refurbished instruments, need to be tested or verified with QC procedures to meet national or international certification requirements. A technical meeting on QC procedures applied to nuclear instruments was organized in Vienna from 23 to 24 August 2007. Existing and required QC test procedures necessary for the verification of operation and measurement of the main characteristics of nuclear instruments was the focus of discussion at this meeting. Presentations made at the technical meeting provided

  8. A brief review of intermediate controlled nuclear syntheses (ICNS) without harmful radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadronic mechanics gave birth to new magnecular fuels. The present day demand is of clean energy source that is cheap and abundant. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind etc. Nuclear energy conventionally produced by fission reactions emits hazardous radiation and radioactive waste. The requirements of clean and safe energy gets fulfilled by novel fuel that achieved by elevating the traditional quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics and to hadronic chemistry. In the present paper, a comprehensive review on both the theoretical and experimental aspect of the Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Synthesis (ICNS) as developed by Italian American Scientist Professor R. M. Santilli

  9. Nuclear power, the environment and national control arrangements in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national control arrangements for the prevention, monitoring and regulation of environmental pollution arising from discharges of radioactivity by nuclear fuel cycle operators are described. The regulation procedures arise from the provisions contained in the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 and embody a system of site specific Authorisation Certificates which permits the operators to release radioactive wastes to the surrounding environment. The Authorisation process is described together with the structure and inter-relationships of the enforcing Inspectorates. New responsibilities for radioactive waste management are also discussed in the light of changes in Government policy following the publication of the White Paper ''Nuclear Power and the Environment''. (author)

  10. Aceitabilidade de um futuro banco de objetos simuladores para controle de qualidade em medicina nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Carla Lima Ferreira; Divanizia do Nascimento Souza

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aceitabilidade para a implantação no Brasil de um banco de objetos simuladores nacional, ou bancos regionais, para uso compartilhado desses objetos em atividades de controle de qualidade nos serviços de medicina nuclear. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as respostas dadas em um questionário que foi enviado a supervisores de radioproteção e físicos médicos de serviços de medicina nuclear do Brasil. Inicialmente, o questionário foi valida...

  11. A brief review of intermediate controlled nuclear syntheses (ICNS) without harmful radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanjewar, R. B. [Department of Chemistry Dharampeth M. P. Deo Memorial Science College, NAGPUR-440033, India rb-lanjewar@rediffmail.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    Hadronic mechanics gave birth to new magnecular fuels. The present day demand is of clean energy source that is cheap and abundant. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind etc. Nuclear energy conventionally produced by fission reactions emits hazardous radiation and radioactive waste. The requirements of clean and safe energy gets fulfilled by novel fuel that achieved by elevating the traditional quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics and to hadronic chemistry. In the present paper, a comprehensive review on both the theoretical and experimental aspect of the Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Synthesis (ICNS) as developed by Italian American Scientist Professor R. M. Santilli.

  12. Dynamic nuclear polarization and optimal control spatial-selective 13C MRI and MRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Mads Sloth; Laustsen, Christoffer; Maximov, Ivan I.;

    2013-01-01

    . This is achieved through the development of spatial-selective single-shot spiral-readout MRI and MRS experiments combined with dynamic nuclear polarization hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate on a 4.7T pre-clinical MR scanner. The method stands out from related techniques by facilitating anatomic shaped region......Aimed at 13C metabolic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) applications, we demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) may be combined with optimal control 2D spatial selection to simultaneously obtain high sensitivity and well-defined spatial restriction...

  13. The System for Controlling Source and Special Nuclear Material at the Eurochemic Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurochemic is constructing a reprocessing plant near Mol (Belgium). The main characteristics of the plant and the different process steps are summarized. To maintain proper control of source and special nuclear material, the facilities of the company are divided into material balance areas. All transfers into and out of these areas are determined. Depending on their significance for the overall material balance, different precision requirements have been established according to a scale of significance which is briefly discussed. To adjust the book balance, physical inventories are periodically performed. The corresponding inventory procedures are outlined. The books used for nuclear materials accounting and the principles of the accounting system are summarized. (author)

  14. Influencia del estilo directivo en la comunicación interna de las organizaciones. Una aplicación a las agencias de publicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Preciado-Hoyos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo parte del presupuesto de que la manera como se dirige una organización entraña una forma específica de comunicar, por lo que al identificar el tipo de dirección que se despliega pueden preverse los com - portamientos de comunicación de un directivo. Para ello se formula un mo - delo de relaciones entre estilo directivo y comunicación interna. A partir de un análisis teórico se identifican cinco estilos prototípicos: laissez-faire , orientado a la tarea, orientado a las relaciones, liderazgo y liderazgo caris - mático, y se definen los modos de comunicación propios de cada uno de ellos. En la segunda parte del artículo, el modelo se contrasta en una mues - tra de agencias de publicidad españolas.

  15. Instrumentation and control in the Canadian nuclear power program -1989 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada currently has 18 CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in operation and 4 under construction, for an installed nuclear capacity of 15,500 MWe. Most of the reactors are in the province of Ontario where 50% of the electricity is nuclear generated. Atomic Energy of Canada is developing the CANDU-3, a 450 MWe reactor incorporating the latest available technologies, including distributed control. The three Canadian Utilities with CANDU reactors have made a major commitment to full-scope training simulators. In Canada there is a growing commitment to developing major improvements to the interface between the control systems, the field equipment and the operating staff. The development program underway makes extensive use of information technology, particularly expert systems and interactive media tools. Out of this will come an advanced CANDU control concept that should further improve the reliability and availability of CANDU stations. (author). 3 refs

  16. Analysis results for the stereotypes regarding colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is applied and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. Two hundred fifty college students participated in the experiment. The results suggest that we can use any color coding system in the conventional control room and the CRT in the control deck because most people have no special previous color-meaning association but red-emergency relation.

  17. Regularity of the wear control of radioactive sources from the nuclear measurers; Regularidad del control del desgaste de fuentes radioactivas de los medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira L, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 - Cidade Universitaria -CEP(ZC) 05508-900, tel: (005511) 3816-9215, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)]. e-mail: mflima@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The control of radioactive sources in Brazil is regulated by the CNEN (National Comissao of Nuclear Energy). The Laboratory of Descontaminacao of the IPEN (Institute of Energy Y Nuclear Investigations) it offers to the companies that work with nuclear measurers, essays for control of the source wear according to the ISO 9978/1992 through the smear tests Y of leakage. The analyses are taken in alpha Y beta detectors of low bottom radiation with annual detection limits around 1 Bq. Certificates of the accepted analyses by the CNEN for sources that already passed its time of validity assured by the makers, but its continue operational are emitted. The smear test is repeated the whole year, while the leakage test repeats to every two years. A balance of the last two years of the activities of the laboratory shows the regularity of the clients Y the growth of companies specialized in radioprotection with official of radioprotection, credited by the regulatory authority that its act as intermediaries in the process, contacting the clients, gathering the samples next to the proprietors of sources Y hiring our services. Overalls, proves that the inspection activities by part of the regulatory authority are fulfil. In 2004, 192 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 86 sources by leakage. In 2005, 232 sources were analyzed by the smear method Y 60 sources by leakage. All the leakage tests was made in sources of Americium of oneself Y only client that brings the sources so that they dismantle them to him in the Sources production laboratory of the IPEN. By the quantity Y age of the sources that were analyzed in those two years, it is proven that the number of sources without use conditions (total activity measured by the two added methods smaller than 180Bq) it doesn't arrive to 2%. (Author)

  18. Parameters-adjustable front-end controller in digital nuclear measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: One digitizer is used to implement a digital nuclear measurement for the acquisition of nuclear information. Purpose: A principle and method of a parameter-adjustable front-end controller is presented for the sake of reducing the quantitative errors while getting the maximum ENOB (effective number of bits) of ADC (analog-to-digital converter) during waveform digitizing, as well as reducing the losing counts. Methods: First of all, the quantitative relationship among the radiation count rate (n), the amplitude of input signal (Vin), the conversion scale of ADC (±V) and the amplification factor (A) was derived. Secondly, the hardware and software of the front-end controller were designed to fulfill matching the output of different detectors, adjusting the amplification linearly through the control of channel switching, and setting of digital potentiometer by CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device). Results: (1) Through the measurement of γ-ray of Am-241 under our digital nuclear measurement set-up with CZT detector, it was validated that the amplitude of output signal of detectors of RC feedback type could be amplified linearly with adjustable amplification by the front-end controller. (2) Through the measurement of X-ray spectrum of Fe-5.5 under our digital nuclear measurement set-up with Si-PIN detector, it was validated that the front-end controller was suitable for the switch resetting type detectors, by which high precision measurement under various count rates could be fulfilled. Conclusion: The principle and method of the parameter-adjustable front-end controller presented in this paper is correct and feasible. (authors)

  19. Materials Control System for Enriched Uranium Chemical Processing Facility for Irradiated Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems for management and control of nuclear material in an enriched uranium chemical processing facility are not too different from those historically used in the chemical industry. The difference is one of degree rather than substance. The monetary and strategic value of the material being processed as well as the potential health and safety hazards inherent in handling nuclear material often dictate a level of effort and system detail above that which might seem reasonable to the casual observer. Among those areas of consideration which are of particular importance in the development of an effective nuclear materials management (NMM) system as based on experience gained at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are the following: organizational structure, accounting system, measurement system, implementation and integration of system, records and reports, internal audit, and inventory management. (author)

  20. Evaluation of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine service; Avaliacao do controle de qualidade de radiofarmacos em servico de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jamille A. Lopes; Lira, Renata F. de, E-mail: jam_alt@hotmail.com, E-mail: renatafariasdelira@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are a type of pharmaceutical preparation associated with radionuclides with purpose of diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) should perform quality control of radiopharmaceuticals according to the recommendations of the manufacturer and scientific evidences accepted by the National Agency Sanitary Surveillance ( Brazilian ANVISA). This study evaluated the quality of the main radiopharmaceuticals in a NMS of the state of Pernambuco in relation to pH and radiochemical purity. The results showed that 96.8% of the radiopharmaceuticals showed radiochemical purity and all pH values were within the range recommended by the American pharmacopoeia. The study found that the quality control when inserted into the NMS, provides important data that allows exclusion of radiopharmaceuticals with low radiochemistry purity, favoring a reliable diagnosis and ensuring good radiation protection practices and biosecurity for patient and occupationally exposed individuals.

  1. Efficacy of Spinal Pia Mater Incision and Laminoplasty Combined with Internal Fixation for Old Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-long Jiao; Zhi-zhong Li; Ming Tan; Yong-qin Pan; Zhi-gang Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of incising spinal pia mater to relieve pressure and unilateral open-door laminoplasty with internal screw fixation for treatment of the dated spinal cord injury.Methods From March,2009 to July,2010,16 cases with chronic cervical cord injury underwent spinal dura mater incision and unilateral open-door laminoplasty with internal screw fixation.Nerve functions of pre- and postoperation were evaluated by Frankel classification and the Japanese Orthopaedic Asso ciation (JOA) scale.The improvement rate of JOA score at the indicated time was recorded.Results Postoperative Frankel classification rating of 16 patients improved obviously.JOA scores at the 1st month,3rd month,6th month,and 12th month after surgery were 7.9±2.3,8.5±1.6,8.9±2.1,and 12.4± 2.5,respectively,and significantly increased compared with that prior to surgery (5.5±0.6).At the end of follow-up period,JOA score was significantly higher than that of pre treatment (P<0.05).The recovery was relatively rapid during the first 3 months following the surgery,then entered a platform period.Conclusion It is effective for patients with dated spinal cord injury to undergo spinal decompression and laminoplasty.

  2. Training and Professional Development of Specialists in Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Accounting and Control in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the core of the national policy of Ukraine governing physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear material, radioactive wastes and other sources of ionizing radiation lie the recognition that activity carried out by individuals in area of regulation and implementation of physical protection measures is a profession in the domain of nuclear energy use and radiation safety, as well as the need to create a state system for professional training, retraining and skill improvement of physical protection personnel.1. The Ukrainian Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry as a central executive authority responsible for physical protection of nuclear installations, nuclear material, radioactive wastes and other sources of ionizing radiation at facilities in the Ministry’s jurisdiction sees professional training and development of physical protection specialists as a key factor in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Based on the understanding that a specialist is an individual having a specialty, highly qualified, profoundly knowledgeable in a certain scientific or technical discipline, and demonstrating skill in both the basics and in-depth aspects of their profession, the Ministry listed goals and responsibilities of specialists and requirements to their knowledge, skill, and professional experience in 2008. Also in 2009, jointly with the concerned authorities the Ministry developed requirements to the physical protection department and personnel. Accordingly, the main task is to provide the fuel and energy sector of Ukraine with experts and high-level professionals, those who are experts in their field, are highly qualified and profoundly knowledgeable in the field of physical protection, control and accounting of nuclear materials

  3. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  4. An automatically controlled system for waste transport in low level nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe Steel has developed and manufactured a fully automatic remote-controlled system for the storage of up to 42 000 waste drum packages discharged from nuclear reprocessing facilities. The system includes two forklifts and an elevator both of which are controlled via a remote control center. The forklifts can transport up to 4 ton waste packages. The elevator can transport a forklift carrying a maximum weight package. The system also includes a rescue vehicle that can be manually operated at a distance from a remote station using ITV cameras. (author)

  5. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  6. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such a s situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  7. Instrumentation and control engineering at ENACE (Argentine Nuclear Enterprise of Electric Power Plants S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the techniques used in the project of instrumentation and control for the Atucha II nuclear power plant, from the original flow diagram of the system whose instrumentation and control is requested to the functional binary diagrams and control loops, through measurement sheets and other documentation. An account of the organization and handling of this mass of information is given, using an electronic processing system of data file for the project. A brief description of the task implied in the completing and updating of these files defines the scheme in which all the documentation development associated with a given process is included. (Author)

  8. Assistance to newly independent states in establishing state systems of accounting and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear trade and co-operation among States are essential dependent upon effective and credible safeguards. The disintegration of the former Soviet Union has resulted, inter alia, in the emergence of a number of newly independent States (NIS). With one exception, all the NIS have declared their intention either to become or to remain non-nuclear-weapon States, but many of them have nuclear programmes. However, the nuclear infrastructure on which those programmes once rested is no longer in place and needs to be reconstructed. The paper outlines work under way among the IAEA, its Member States and the NIS relating to the establishment and development in the NIS of State Systems of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear material. The paper describes IAEA activities in the NIS, including fact-finding missions and technical visits, the successful attempts to find donor States providing voluntary funding and expertise, and the co-ordination of technical support between the IAEA and the donor States. (author). 3 tabs

  9. Ultrafast control of nuclear spins using only microwave pulses: towards switchable solid-state quantum gates

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrikas, George; Papavassiliou, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Since the idea of quantum information processing (QIP) fascinated the scientific community, electron and nuclear spins have been regarded as promising candidates for quantum bits (qubits). A fundamental challenge in the realization of a solid-state quantum computer is the construction of fast and reliable two-qubit quantum gates. Of particular interest in this direction are hybrid systems of electron and nuclear spins, where the two qubits are coupled through the hyperfine interaction. However, the significantly different gyromagnetic ratios of electron and nuclear spins do not allow for their coherent manipulation at the same time scale. Here we demonstrate the control of the alpha-proton nuclear spin, I=1/2, coupled to the stable radical CH(COOH)2, S=1/2, in a gamma-irradiated malonic acid single crystal using only microwave pulses. We show that, depending on the state of the electron spin (mS=+1/2 or -1/2), the nuclear spin can be locked in a desired state or oscillate between mI=+1/2 and mI=-1/2 on the na...

  10. Nuclear EGFR characterize still controlled proliferation retained in better differentiated clear cell RCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahel, J; Dordevic, G; Markic, D; Mozetic, V; Spanjol, J; Grahovac, B; Stifter, S

    2015-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid kidney tumor representing 2-3% of all cancers, with the highest frequency occurring in Western countries. There was a worldwide and European annual increase in incidence of approximately 2% although incidence has been stabilized in last few years. One third of the patients already have metastases in the time of the diagnosis with poor prognosis because RCC are radio and chemoresistant. The prognostic value of EGFR over-expression in RCC is a controversial issue that could be explained by different histological types of study tumors and non-standardized criteria for evaluation of expression. Recent evidences points to a new mode of EGFR signaling pathway in which activated EGFR undergoes nuclear translocalization and then, as transcription factor, mediates gene expression and other cellular events required for highly proliferating activities. According to our observations, the membranous expression of EGFR associates with high nuclear grade and poor differentiated tumors. On the other hand, nuclear EGFR expression was high in low nuclear graded and well differentiated tumors with good prognosis. We hypothesize that this mode of EGFR signaling characterizes still controlled proliferation retained in well differentiated RCC with Furhman nuclear grade I or II.

  11. Design of Multi Objectives Control Systems to Control Nuclear Reactor Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Testing Research Reactor (ETRR-2) nonlinear twelfth order model is linearized and reduced to lower order model. Model order reduction methodologies such as balanced truncation, Schur reduction method, Hankel approximation and Coprime factorization have been used in the reduction process. The reactor actually controlled by PD controller with fixed tuning parameters. LMI state feedback, LMI-pool assignment, H∞ and observer based controllers based third order model are proposed to be used in the reactor power control instead of the PD controller. A comparison of LMI, LMI-Pole placement,H∞ control systems and those of based observer relative to the PD controller has been performed which showed better response and disturbance rejection for the proposed controllers.

  12. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  13. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4th 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator 99Mo-99mTc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 99mTc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  14. Use of control room simulators for training of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis and operational experience consistently indicate that human error is the greatest contributor to the risk of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Subsequent to the Three Mile Island accident, major changes were made internationally in reducing the potential for human error through improved procedures, information presentation, and training of operators. The use of full scope simulators in the training of operators is an essential element of these efforts to reduce human error. The operators today spend a large fraction of their time training and retraining on the simulator. As indicated in the IAEA Safety Guide on Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants, NS-G-2.8, 2002, representative simulator facilities should be used for training of control room operators and shift supervisors. Simulator training should incorporate normal, abnormal and accident conditions. The ability of the simulator to closely represent the actual conditions and environment that would be experienced in a real situation is critical to the value of the training received. The objective of this report is to provide nuclear power plant (NPP) managers, training centre managers and personnel involved with control room simulator training with practical information they can use to improve the performance of their personnel. While the emphasis in this publication is on simulator training of control room personnel using full scope simulators, information is also provided on how organizations have effectively used control room simulators for training of other NPP personnel, including simulators other than full-scope simulators

  15. Impact of holmium fibre laser radiation (λ = 2.1 μm) on the spinal cord dura mater and adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, S. A.; Kamynin, V. A.; Ryabova, A. V.; Loshchenov, V. B.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Kurkov, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of holmium fibre laser radiation on the samples of biologic tissues (dura mater of spinal cord and adipose tissue with interlayers of muscle) is studied. The experimental results are evaluated by the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones. The experiment shows that in the case of irradiation of the spinal cord dura mater samples the size of carbonisation and coagulation necrosis zones is insignificant. In the adipose tissue the carbonisation zone is also insignificant, but the region of cellular structure disturbance is large. In the muscle tissue the situation is opposite. The cw laser operation provides clinically acceptable degree of destruction in tissue samples with a minimal carbonisation zone.

  16. Quality assurance/quality control, reliability and availability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part this lectures will present a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World and discuss key parameters such as load factors and non-availability. Some main reasons for reliable performance of nuclear power plants are given. The second part of this lecture deals with the question how quality assurance and quality control measures do directly influence plant reliability, availability and, thus, economy. Derived from worldwide experience gained from operating nuclear power plants, it may be concluded that the implementation of an overall quality assurance programme does not only satisfy safety requirements set forth by the nuclear regulatory bodies, but has also a considerable impact on plant reliability and availability. A positive effect on these figures will be achieved if the established quality assurance programme provides for a coordinated approach to all activities affecting quality. It is discussed how the quality of a product should be controlled and what kind of quality assurance measures by performed examples are given to demonstrate that the expenditure for maintenance work on components will decrease if planned and systematic quality assurance actions have been implemented during all procurement stages. (orig./RW)

  17. Acceptability of a future phantoms bank for quality control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the acceptability of a national or regional phantoms bank to be deployed in Brazil for shared use in quality control activities by nuclear medicine centers. Materials and Methods: The authors analyzed the answers to a questionnaire applied to medical physicists and radioprotection supervisors in Brazilian nuclear medicine centers. Initially, the questionnaire was validated by professionals in the city of Aracaju, SE, which is located in the Northeast region. The present study sample was geographically distributed as follows: the Northeast region, with answers from 13 professionals of nuclear medicine centers; the North region, with 2 professionals; the South region, with 7 professionals; the Southeast region, with 43 professionals; and the Midwest region, with 2 professionals. Results: According to the data analyzed, 82% of the respondents consider that the implementation of a phantoms bank would be a suitable alternative for improving nuclear medicine quality control. The interest in sharing the bank was reported by 87% of the respondents. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the motivation for a shared use of a future phantoms bank. (author)

  18. Technology transfer of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many beneficial applications of radiation and radioisotopes in industry which are now well established in advanced countries, the applications of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry have great potential for developing Member States. The use of nucleonic on-stream analyzers in the coal industry has resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits in addition to minimization of environmental pollution. Large savings have also resulted from the use of such analyzers in the processing of other minerals. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have demonstrated great potential in oil and gas evaluation. Radiotracer investigations have led to process optimisation and trouble shooting in various stages in ore processing and metallurgy. Though the technical and economic benefits of applications of nuclear techniques in the mineral industry are well recognised, technology transfer in these areas has been hampered by a variety of factors. In order to review the status and trends in nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry and the problems and considerations in their technology transfer to developing Member States, the IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting in Bombay, India, 15-19 January 1990. The present publication is based on the 7 contributions presented at this meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  20. Personnel exposure control system with auto thermoluminescence dosimeter in Shimane Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Hideo; Ochi, Susumu (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    In the past, film badges and pocket dosimeters were put on the persons who entered a controlled area in a nuclear power station to measure the external radiation exposure. For these, read out error or mistake, delay in taking out the result, trouble for monitoring many persons, etc. were problems. To solve these problems, the auto thermoluminescence dosimeter (ATLD) system has been introduced in Shimane Nuclear Power Station in place of pocket dosimeters since the second half of fiscal 1978. The outline of the system and the composition and software of the TLD automatic readout system are described. For the control of access to controlled areas, workers are forced to pass the check point where watchmen check everyone's ID card, and subjected to the check-up with the TLD automatic readout device. The checking items in the case of entering the areas are: (1) confirmation of licensee, (2) confirmation of the term of validity for the medical examination on ionizing radiation, (3) checking for exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (4) confirmation of time limit to stay in controlled areas, and (5) TLD element annealing condition. The checking items in the case of leaving the areas are: (1) checking for identifying the TLD element that the personnel has brought in, (2) exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (3) time for which the personnel stayed in controlled areas.