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Sample records for argentina unexpected high

  1. Unexpected response of high Alpine Lake waters to climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Hansjörg; Nickus, Ulrike; Mair, Volkmar; Tessadri, Richard; Tait, Danilo; Thaler, Bertha; Psenner, Roland

    2007-11-01

    Over the past two decades, we have observed a substantial rise in solute concentration at two remote high mountain lakes in catchments of metamorphic rocks in the European Alps. At Rasass See, the electrical conductivity increased 18-fold. Unexpectedly high nickel concentrations at Rasass See, which exceeded the limit in drinking water by more than 1 order of magnitude, cannot be related to catchment geology. We attribute these changes in lake water quality to solute release from the ice of an active rock glacier in the catchment as a response to climate warming. Similar processes occurred at the higher elevation lake Schwarzsee ob Sölden, where electrical conductivity has risen 3-fold during the past two decades.

  2. Unexpected properties of interactions of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data on proton-proton interactions in high energy collisions show quite a special and unexpected behaviour of the proportion of elastic scattering compared to inelastic processes with increasing energy. It decreases at the beginning (at comparatively low energies) but then starts increasing. From Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) energies of 23.5 - 62.5 GeV up to higher energies 7 - 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) it increases by a factor more than 1.5! According to intuitive classical ideas we would expect a stable tendency with increasing proportion of the break-down of protons compared to their survival probability. One can assume that either the asymptotic freedom or the extremely short time of flight of high energy protons through each other are in charge of such a surprising effect. The unquestionable principle of unitarity combined with the available experimental data on elastic scattering is used to get new conclusions about the shape of the interaction region of colliding proton...

  3. Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues, Julio J.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of being a marginal player in the GATT trade negotiations, Argentina decided to participate actively in the Uruguay Round. This chapter measures the imbalance between the concessions given and received and concludes that the value of the first are far more important than the second. I discusss the economic consequence of this imbalance, and the prospects that the outcome of the Doha Round can be more balanced outcome for Argentina.

  4. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  5. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  6. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the socio-economic, energy and environmental context in which climate change mitigation actions in Argentina shall be inserted. To that end, the dynamic of the Argentine economic development, its influence on the energy system and environmental impacts is summarised. From the environmental standpoint, emphasis shall only be made on the impact of economic development patterns and energy policies on GHG emission. (au) 73 refs.

  7. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Michetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Draparnaldia mutabilis posee un talo compuesto por un sistema rizoidal postrado reducido y un sistema erguido que muestra una marcada diferenciación entre filamentos axiales y laterales, estos últimos agrupados en fascículos densos, altamente ramificados. La reproducción asexual ocurre por medio de zoósporas que poseen un patrón de germinación erguido. El registro de esta especie constituye la primera cita cierta para la República Argentina. Se presenta además, una clave con las especies mejor definidas.

  8. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Galperin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las bases sobre las que se está desarrollando el proceso de transición hacia la TV digital en Brasil y Argentina, y se discuten las posibilidades que la transición presenta para replantear la estructura de mercado y el modelo de regulación de la TV abierta en los países del Mercosur. La principal hipótesis es que la TV digital abre una oportunidad única para reformar el actual modelo de radiodifusión basado en la concesión de un número reducido de licencias a operadores de tipo generalista. Al multiplicar la capacidad de transmisión y facilitar el desarrollo de servicios interactivos tanto de entretenimiento como educativos y de información, la transición a la TV digital se ofrece como instrumento de política pública para alcanzar objetivos clave en materia de comunicación, como el pluralismo, la apertura del mercado y el achicamiento de la llamada brecha digital.

  9. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benedetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un diagnóstico ambiental de un sector de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina basado en el arbolado urbano de alineación. El arbolado constituye un componente fundamental de los paisajes artifi ciales ya que contribuye al aumento del confort y al mejoramiento de la calidad del medio. En este sentido, actúa como un factor moderador de las condiciones climáticas, la contaminación y la salud de la población. El municipio de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca tiene como proyecto la realización de inventarios del arbolado en los distintos barrios, para lograr optimizar la relación entre la cantidad de ejemplares arbóreos y la densidad poblacional. Es importante considerar la variedad de ejemplares en función del uso del suelo y de las características ambientales de cada sector. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un diseño metodológico para la elaboración del plano verde de la ciudad.

  10. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  11. Unexpected Windy Weather Around a Highly Magnetized Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, George A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Watts, Anna; Gelfand, Joseph; Baring, Matthew G.; Kust Harding, Alice; Pavlov, George G.; van der Horst, Alexander; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Gögüs, Ersin; Lin, Lin; Roberts, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs) historically represented two distinct subclasses of neutron stars. Magnetars are slowly-rotating (~2-12 s), isolated neutron stars (NSs) with super-strong magnetic fields, B~10^13-10^15 G. RPPs, on the other hand, are rapidly-rotating (~0.01-0.3~s), isolated NSs with surface dipole magnetic field in the range ~10^11-10^13 G. Most pulsars possess a large rotational energy loss rate that powers a relativistic magnetized particle wind, often seen as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN; the Crab PWN being the most famous). There has not yet been convincing evidence for a wind nebula around magnetars, most likely due to their low rotational energy loss rate. Here, we report the study of new deep X-ray observations of the peculiar extended emission around the magnetar Swift J1834.9-0846. Our new results strongly support a wind nebula as the nature of the extended emission, thus, establishing Swift J1834.9-0846 as the first magnetar to possess a surrounding nebula. This implies that wind nebulae are no longer exclusive to RPPs and, along with recent discoveries in the field, further narrow the gaps between these two sub-populations of isolated NSs. The physical properties of this wind nebula, however, show peculiarities, especially its high radiative efficiency of about 10%, only shared with two other known very young RPPs, the Crab and its twin.

  12. The cheater's high: the unexpected affective benefits of unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedy, Nicole E; Moore, Celia; Gino, Francesca; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2013-10-01

    Many theories of moral behavior assume that unethical behavior triggers negative affect. In this article, we challenge this assumption and demonstrate that unethical behavior can trigger positive affect, which we term a "cheater's high." Across 6 studies, we find that even though individuals predict they will feel guilty and have increased levels of negative affect after engaging in unethical behavior (Studies 1a and 1b), individuals who cheat on different problem-solving tasks consistently experience more positive affect than those who do not (Studies 2-5). We find that this heightened positive affect does not depend on self-selection (Studies 3 and 4), and it is not due to the accrual of undeserved financial rewards (Study 4). Cheating is associated with feelings of self-satisfaction, and the boost in positive affect from cheating persists even when prospects for self-deception about unethical behavior are reduced (Study 5). Our results have important implications for models of ethical decision making, moral behavior, and self-regulatory theory.

  13. Dark Adaptation at High Altitude: An Unexpected Pupillary Response to Chronic Hypoxia in Andean Highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Katherine; Labrique, Alain B; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Danz, David; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-09-01

    Healy, Katherine, Alain B. Labrique, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, David Danz, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Luis Huicho, Fabiola León-Velarde, and William Checkley. Dark adaptation at high altitude: an unexpected pupillary response to chronic hypoxia in Andean highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 17:208-213, 2016.-Chronic mountain sickness is a maladaptive response to high altitude (>2500 m above sea level) and is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis and hypoxemia resulting from long-term hypobaric hypoxia. There is no known early predictor of chronic mountain sickness and the diagnosis is based on the presence of excessive erythrocytosis and clinical features. Impaired dark adaptation, or an inability to visually adjust from high- to low-light settings, occurs in response to mild hypoxia and may serve as an early predictor of hypoxemia and chronic mountain sickness. We aimed to evaluate the association between pupillary response assessed by dark adaptometry and daytime hypoxemia in resident Andean highlanders aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru. Oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was recorded using a handheld pulse oximeter. Dark adaptation was quantitatively assessed as the magnitude of pupillary contraction to light stimuli of varying intensities (-2.9 to 0.1 log-cd/m(2)) using a portable dark adaptometer. Individual- and stimulus-specific multilevel analyses were conducted using mixed-effect models to elicit the relationship between SpO2 and pupillary responsiveness. Among 93 participants, mean age was 54.9 ± 11.0 years, 48% were male, 44% were night blind, and mean SpO2 was 89.3% ± 3.4%. The magnitude of pupillary contraction was greater with lower SpO2 (p dark-adapted conditions was exaggerated with hypoxemia and may serve as an early predictor of chronic mountain sickness. This unexpected association is potentially explained as an excessive and unregulated sympathetic response to hypoxemia at altitude.

  14. Unexpected High Sensory Blockade during Continuous Spinal Anesthesiology (CSA in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ketelaars

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 98-year-old woman presented for a hemiarthroplasty of the left hip. Because of her age and cardiac and pulmonary co-existing diseases we decided to provide adequate regional anesthesia by continuous spinal anesthesia. Fragmented doses of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% were administered through a system consisting of a spinal catheter connected to an antimicrobial filter. After an uneventful surgical procedure, prior to removal of the catheter, this system was flushed with 10 mL of normal saline in order to try to prevent post-dural-puncture headache. After arrival at the postanesthesia care unit and fifteen minutes after removal of the catheter the patient suffered an unexpected high thoracic sensory blockade and hypotension requiring treatment. The continuous spinal anesthesia technique can be used in selected cases to be able to administer local anesthetic agents in a slow and controlled manner to reach the desired effect. The risk of post-dural-puncture headache using this technique in elderly patients is very low and therefore precludes the need to try to prevent it. We have described a potentially dangerous complication of flushing a bupivacaine-filled system into the spinal canal of an elderly patient resulting in an undesirable high sensory blockade.

  15. Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferter, Keno; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Strehlow, Harry Vincent;

    2013-01-01

    Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: .While catch-and-release (C&R) is a well-known practice in several European freshwater recreational fisheries, studies on the magnitu...

  16. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  17. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs. Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow.

  18. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-09-14

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats.

  19. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

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    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  20. Unexpected Formation of Highly Functionalized Dihydropyrans via Addition-Cyclization Reactions Between Dimethyl Oxoglutaconate and α,β-Unsaturated Hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jason E; Etoga, Jean-Louis G; Gajewski, Mariusz; Degraw, Joseph I; Thompson, Charles M

    2009-05-20

    The condensation between dienophiles and α,β-unsaturated hydrazone azadienes was previously reported to afford piperidines. During an attempt to adapt this reaction to the preparation of piperidine-based conformationally-restricted analogs of glutamate, it was discovered that the electrophile, dimethyl oxoglutaconate (DOG) led to highly substituted dihydropyrans in 20-50% yield. The unexpected pyran product likely results from an initial 1,4-addition of the hydrazone to the oxoglutaconate followed by intramolecular cyclization of the resultant enolate oxygen to the α,β-unsaturated iminium ion. Further manipulations afford substituted tetrahydropyran 6-methamino-2,4-dicarboxylic acids.

  1. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de humedales de altura de la Provincia de Jujuy-Argentina Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude wetlands of Jujuy province-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Seeligmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la flora diatomológica perteneciente a 13 humedales de altura ubicados entre los 3500-4683 m s. n. m. de la Provincia de Jujuy (Argentina. Se identificaron, excluyendo las especies de Navicula sensu stricto, 51 géneros y 157 taxones infragenéricos, de los cuales tres son nuevas citas para Argentina y 43 se registran por primera vez para Jujuy. Se propone una nueva combinación: Craticula cuspidata var. gracilis. Muy interesante resultó el hallazgo de Cylindrotheca gracilis (Bréb. Grunow, nunca antes mencionado para este tipo de ambientes. Sólo Amphora veneta Kützing estuvo presente en más del 90 % de los cuerpos de agua estudiados mientras que Nitzschia hungarica Grunow, Craticula cuspidata (Kützing D. G. Mann var. cuspidata y Luticola cohnii (Hilse Lange-Bertalot fueron halladas en más del 60% de las muestras.A diatomological analysis of thirteen high altitude wetlands, between 3500-4683 m a. s. l. of Jujuy Province (Argentina was performed. Fifty one genera and one hundred and fifty seven infrageneric taxa, excluding Navicula sensu stricto species, were identified; three of them are new records for Argentina and 43 are new for Jujuy Province. A new combination is proposed: Craticula cuspidata var. gracilis. The finding of Cylindrotheca gracilis (Bréb. Grunow is important, since it has not been previously mentioned for this kind of environments. Amphora veneta Kützing var. veneta was recorded in more than 90 % of the studied waterbodies while Nitzschia hungarica Grunow, Craticula cuspidata (Kützing D. G. Mann var cuspidata and Luticola cohnii (Hilse Lange-Bertalot were found in more than 60% of the samples.

  2. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology.

  3. Unexpected high vulnerability of functions in wilderness areas: evidence from coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliola, Laurent; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wantiez, Laurent; Parravicini, Valeriano; Villéger, Sébastien; Mou-Tham, Gerard; Frolla, Philippe; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-01-01

    High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Fish functional diversity in these wilderness areas is highly vulnerable to fishing, explained by species- and abundance-based redundancy packed into a small combination of traits, leaving most other trait combinations (60%) sensitive to fishing, with no redundancy. Functional vulnerability peaks for mobile and sedentary top predators, and large species in general. Functional vulnerability decreases for certain functional entities in New Caledonia, where overall functional redundancy was higher. Uncovering these baseline patterns of functional vulnerability can offer early warning signals of the damaging effects from fishing, and may serve as baselines to guide precautionary and even proactive conservation actions. PMID:27928042

  4. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in mic...... root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's "hidden biodiversity"....

  5. The discovery of high-Tc superconductivity-unexpected discovery, unconventional behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andreone

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   A brief review on some peculiar properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS is presented. Twenty years after the discovery, it appears more and more clear that the behaviour of this new class of materials is remarkably different from what have been re-classified as “conventional” superconductors. In the following we will focus our attention on the study of two phenomena, namely the Josephson effect and the Meissner effect, where the unconventional nature of superconductivity in HTS offers exciting perspectives both for the understanding of the underlying mechanism, so far still unknown, and for the large potential of applications in different areas of superconducting electronics.

  6. Autoadhesion of High-Molecular-Weight Monodisperse Glassy Polystyrene at unexpected low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    -bulk corresponding to a second-order phase transition temperature). To our knowledge, this is the first observation of such nature, which gives further evidence of the lowering of the T-g at polymeric surfaces and the persistence of this effect at early stages of healing of polymer-polymer interfaces.......Healing of symmetric interfaces of amorphous anionically polymerized high- and ultra-high-molecular weight (HMW and UHMW, respectively) polystyrene (PS) in a range of the weight-average molecular weight M-w from 102.5 (M-w/M-n = 1.05) to 1110 kg/ mol (M-w/M-n = 1.15) was followed at a constant...... healing temperature, T-h, well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer bulk [Tg-bulk = 105 - 106degreesC as measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)]. The bonded interfaces were shear fractured in tension on an Instron tester at ambient temperature. Autoadhesion at symmetric HMW...

  7. Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just below the cubic packing density of spheres of C = 52%. These experimental results also imply that natural flows may be able to transport vast volumes of non-cohesive sediment with relative ease, especially

  8. Strain and High Temperature Superconductivity: Unexpected Results from Direct Electronic Structure Measurements in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Cloetta, D.; Mitrovic, S.; Onellion, M.; Xi, X.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.

    2003-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals very surprising strain-induced effects on the electronic band dispersion of epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4-δ thin films. In strained films we measure a band that crosses the Fermi level (EF) well before the Brillouin zone boundary. This is in contrast to the flat band reported in unstrained single crystals and in our unstrained films, as well as in contrast to the band flattening predicted by band structure calculations for in-plane compressive strain. In spite of the density of states reduction near EF, the critical temperature increases in strained films with respect to unstrained samples. These results require a radical departure from commonly accepted notions about strain effects on high temperature superconductors, with possible general repercussions on superconductivity theory.

  9. An Unexpected Reaction between 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongbao K. Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new compound was detected during the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from glucose and cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl at high temperatures. Further experiments found that it was derived from the reaction of HMF with [Bmim]Cl. The structure of new compound was established as 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoylimidazole (BMI based on nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis, and a possible mechanism for its formation was proposed. Reactions of HMF with other imidazolium-based ionic liquids were performed to check the formation of BMI. Our results provided new insights in terms of side reactions between HMF and imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which should be valuable for designing better processes for the production of furans using biomass and related materials.

  10. COSMIC-LAB: Unexpected Results from High-resolution Spectra of AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at clarifying one of the least studied phases of stellar evolution: the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Recent results obtained for Galactic globular clusters (GCs) suggest that the AGB stage may contain crucial information about the evolutionary history of exotic stars (Beccari et al. 2006) and multiple-populations (Campbell et al. 2013) in the parent cluster. The thesis presents the analysis of a large sample of high-resolution spectra of AGB stars in four Galactic GCs, acquired at the Very Large Telescope (ESO) and the 2.2 meter telescope (MPG). The obtained results provide evidence of a previously unknown physical mechanism affecting the neutral species of some chemical elements in the atmosphere of most AGB stars: because of it, the abundances derived from neutral lines are systematically underestimated, while those measured from ionized lines remain unaffected. Such a behaviour exactly corresponds to what expected in the case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) conditions i...

  11. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2016-01-01

    variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full......Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected...... in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...

  12. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß......-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 % and 7.2 % of community...

  13. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of −0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's “hidden biodiversity.” PMID:27630629

  14. Unexpected High Brightness Temperature 140 PC from the Core in the Jet of 3C 120

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Sogorb, Mar; Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G

    2009-01-01

    We present 1.7, 5, 15, 22 and 43 GHz polarimetric multi--epoch VLBA observations of the radio galaxy 3C 120. The higher frequency observations reveal a new component, not visible before April 2007, located 80 mas from the core (which corresponds to a deprojected distance of 140 pc), with a brightness temperature about 600 times higher than expected at such distances. This component (hereafter C80) is observed to remain stationary and to undergo small changes in its brightness temperature during more than two years of observations. A combination of jet bending, significant flow acceleration, and a very strong shock --for such large distance from the core-- may explain the unusually high Tb of C80, but it seems very unlikely that this corresponds to the usual shock that emerges from the core and travels downstream to the location of C80. It appears that some other intrinsic process in the jet, capable of providing a local burst in particle and/or magnetic field energy, may be responsible for the enhanced bright...

  15. The Unexpected Re-Growth of Ice-Entombed Bryophytes in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Farge, C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid retreat of glaciers and ice caps throughout the Canadian Arctic is exposing pristine vegetation preserved beneath cold-based ice. For the past half century this vegetation has been consistently reported as dead. This interpretation has been overturned by the successful re-growth of Little Ice Age (1550-1850 AD) bryophytes emerging from the Teardrop Glacier, Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island (79° N) collected in 2009. Some populations showed regeneration in the field and lab experiments confirmed their capacity to regrow. The species richness of these subglacial populations is exceptional, comprising >62 species that represent 44% of the extant bryophyte flora of Sverdrup Pass. Cold-based glaciers are known to provide critical habitats for a variety of microbiota (i.e., fungi, algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria and viruses) in high latitude ecosystems. The regeneration of Little Ice Age bryophytes fundamentally expands the concept of biological refugia to land plants that was previously restricted to survival above and beyond glacial margins. Given this novel understanding of subglacial ecosystems, fieldwork is now being extended southward to plateau ice caps on Baffin Island, Nunavut, where ice retreat is exposing subglacial populations of greater antiquity (thousands to tens of thousands of radiocarbon years before present). Bryophytes by nature are totipotent (stem cell equivalency) and poikilohydric (desiccation tolerance), which facilitate their unique adaptation to extreme environments. Continuity of the Arctic bryophyte flora extends back through the Holocene to the late Tertiary [Beaufort Fm, 2-5 Ma], when the majority of taxa were the same, based on records spanning the archipelago from Ellesmere to Banks Island. This record contrasts with that of vascular plants, which have had a number of extinctions, necessitating recolonization of arctic populations from outside the region. The biological significance of a stable bryophyte element highlights their

  16. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea-ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aerosols on clouds and their radiative properties is one of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. A recent study has concluded that better characterisation of pristine, natural aerosol processes leads to the largest reduction in these uncertainties. Antarctica, being far from anthropogenic activities, is an ideal location for the study of natural aerosol processes. Aerosol measurements in Antarctica are often limited to boundary layer air-masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the sea ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the ice-breaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the Polar Front, with mean Polar Cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air-masses quickly from the free-troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea ice boundary layer air-masses travelled equator-ward into the low albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei where, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol

  17. Unexpected, high-Q, low-frequency peaks in seismic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David J.; Vernon, Frank L.

    2015-09-01

    It was established over a decade ago that the normal modes of the Earth are continuously excited at times without large earthquakes, but the sources of the `seismic hum' have remained unresolved. In addition to the normal modes of the Earth, we show spectral lines in seismic data with frequencies which correspond closely to normal modes of the Sun. Moreover, the widths of the low-frequency lines in the seismic spectra are similar to those of solar modes and much narrower than those of the Earth's normal mode peaks. These seismic lines are highly coherent with magnetic fields measured on both the Geostationary Operations Environmental Satellite (GOES)-10 satellite and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft located at L1, 1.5 million km sunward of Earth suggesting that the solar modes are transmitted to the Earth by the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind. The solar modes are split by multiples of a cycle/day and, surprisingly, by the `quasi two-day' mode and other frequencies. Both the phase of the coherences and slight frequency offsets between seismic and geomagnetic data at observatories exclude the possibility that these effects are simply spurious responses of the seismometers to the geomagnetic field. We emphasize data from low-noise seismic observatories: Black Forest (BFO), Piñon Flat (PFO), Eskdalemuir (ESK) and Obninsk (OBN). Horizontal components of seismic velocity show higher coherences with the external (ACE) magnetic field than do the vertical components. This effect appears to be larger near the seismic torsional, or T-mode, frequencies.

  18. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics, we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs, cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  19. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Sindaco, Roberto; Santos, Xavier; Fasola, Mauro; Llorente, Gustavo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot) and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics), we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs), cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  20. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    cobalamin and diseases. We report associations mainly with cancer, liver and kidney diseases, but also with a number of other diagnostic entities. The pathogenic background is poorly understood and is likely to be multi-factorial, involving increased concentrations of one or both of the circulating...

  1. Unexpected Up/Down asymmetry measured in axial radiation exiting high-temperature dynamic-hohlraum x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Lemke, R. W.; Mock, R. C.; Oliver, B. V.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Nash, T. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Waisman, E. M.; Peterson, D. L.; Chrien, R. E.; Idzorek, G. C.; Watt, R. G.; Roderick, N. F.; Haines, M. G.

    2002-11-01

    A 10 TW radiation source has been developed on the 20-MA Z facility that produces a high-temperature ( 215 eV) x-ray pulse. The pulse is generated in the positive z-direction through a REH (radiation exit hole), primarily from the interior of a collapsing dynamic-hohlraum (DH) centered within a z-pinch [1]. By adding an identical REH at the bottom of the hohlraum, radiation generated in the negative z direction through the bottom offers the possibility of doubling the utility of the hohlraum. Because of the up/down symmetry of the DH about the mid-plane of the z-axis (aside from the power feed), a radiation pulse similar to that exiting the top-REH (anode) is expected leaving the bottom-REH (cathode). Measurements indicate, however, that the peak radiated power exiting the top-REH is 2±0.2 times that exiting the bottom-REH. In contrast, the total energy radiated from either REH is about the same. Detailed measurements of this unexpected asymmetry, apparently dependent on polarity, together with potential origins of the asymmetry are discussed. [1] T. W. L. Sanford, et al, in press, Phys. Plasmas 9, (Aug. 2002). *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by the Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC = 0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health

  3. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  4. Argentina: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, W

    1987-10-01

    In 1987 Argentina had a population of 31.5 million, with an annual rate of increase of 1.6%. The total fertility rate was 3.3, and the birth rate was 24/1000 population. Mortality stood at 8/1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 35.3/1000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 70 years. 84% of the population lives in Argentina's urban areas. Current government policies call for regional development to maintain and increase population in rural areas and control growth in urban centers. 90% of the population is of European descent, largely as a result of high rates of immigration during the 1880s-1930s from countries such as Spain and Italy. In 1985 the gross national product per capita was US$2130. Argentina is rich in resources and almost self-sufficient in terms of basic foodstuffs, power supply, and advanced communication networks. On the other hand, political conflicts and economic crises have hindered the realization of both human and natural resource potential. 80% of the value of export products is the amount due in interest on foreign debts.

  5. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Spain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring’s source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (<1 µM of oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons.

  6. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Najar, Fares Z.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2015-01-01

    Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring’s source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons. PMID:26417542

  7. An unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the C. elegans putative aminophospholipid translocases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miteva Yana

    2008-10-01

    . Although individually dispensable, tat-1 through 4 seem to be at most only partly redundant. Expression patterns and the sterol deprivation hypersensitivity deletion phenotype of tat-2 through 4 suggest that these genes carry out subtle metabolic functions, such as fine-tuning sterol metabolism in digestive or steroidogenic tissues. These findings uncover an unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the genes encoding the putative aminophospholipid translocases.

  8. Highly visible science: a look at three decades of research from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jane M Russell; J. Antonio del Río; Cortés, Héctor D.

    2007-01-01

    Since the international visibility of scientific research is especially important for developing countries, the multidisciplinary journals Nature and Science were analyzed for the papers published from 1973 to 2005 by Latin America´s three most productive countries, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, and these compared with those from Spain. The total numbers of publications were: Spain, 696; Brazil, 411; Mexico, 227; and Argentina, 127. Both Spain and Brazil published over 65% of the total papers...

  9. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  10. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  11. High resolution inventory of GHG emissions of the road transport sector in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Allende, David; Pinto, Sebastián; Castesana, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Air quality models require the use of extensive background information, such as land use and topography maps, meteorological data and emission inventories of pollutant sources. This challenge increases when considering the vehicular sources. The available international databases have uneven resolution for all countries including some areas with low spatial resolution associated with large districts (several hundred km). A simple procedure is proposed in order to develop an inventory of emissions with high resolution (9 km) for the transport sector based on a geographic information system using readily available information applied to Argentina. The basic variable used is the vehicle activity (vehicle - km transported) estimated from fuel consumption and fuel efficiency. This information is distributed to a spatial grid according to a road hierarchy and segment length assigned to each street within the cell. Information on fuel is obtained from district consumption, but weighted using the DMSP-OLS satellite "Earth at night" image. The uncertainty of vehicle estimation and emission calculations was tested using sensitivity Montecarlo analysis. The resulting inventory is calibrated using annual average daily traffic counts in around 850 measuring points all over the country leading to an uncertainty of 20%. Uncertainties in the emissions calculation at pixel level can be estimated to be less than 12%. Comparison with international databases showed a better spatial distribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, but similar total national values.

  12. An unexpected plasma cholinesterase activity rebound after challenge with a high dose of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorandeu, F; Foquin, A; Briot, R; Delacour, C; Denis, J; Alonso, A; Froment, M T; Renault, F; Lallement, G; Masson, P

    2008-06-27

    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) are to be feared in military operations as well as in terrorist attacks. Among them, VX (O-ethyl-S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) is a low volatility liquid that represents a percutaneous as well as an inhalation hazard if aerosolized. It is a potent irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor that causes severe signs and symptoms, including respiratory dysfunction that stems from different mechanisms. VX-induced pulmonary oedema was previously reported in dogs but mechanisms involved are not well understood, and its clinical significance remains to be assessed. An experimental model was thus developed to study VX-induced cardiovascular changes and pulmonary oedema in isoflurane-anaesthetized swine. In the course of this study, we observed a fast and unexpected rebound of plasma ChE activity following inhibition provoked by the intravenous injection of 6 and 12 microg kg(-1) of VX. In whole blood ChE activity, the rebound could stay unnoticed. Further investigations showed that the rebound of plasma esterase activity was neither related to spontaneous reactivation of ChE nor to VX-induced increase in paraoxonase/carboxylesterase activities. A bias in Ellman assay, haemoconcentration or severe liver cytolysis were also ruled out. All in all, these results suggest that the rebound was likely due to the release of butyrylcholinesterase into the blood stream from ChE producing organs. Nature of the organ(s) and mechanisms involved in enzyme release will need further investigations as it may represent a mechanism of defence, i.e. VX scavenging, that could advantageously be exploited.

  13. High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Jean K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects. Results Seventeen samples from HIV positive FSWs were genotyped by env HMA, showing the presence of 9 subtype F, 6 subtype B and 2 subtype C. Sequence analysis of the protease/RT region on 16 of these showed that 10 were BF recombinants, three were subtype B, two were subtype C, and one sample presented a dual infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. Full-length genomes of five of the protease/RT BF recombinants were also sequenced, showing that three of them were CRF12_BF. One FSW had a dual HIV-1 infection with subtype B and a BF recombinant. The B sections of the BF recombinant clustered closely with the pure B sequence isolated from the same patient. Major resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs were found in 3 of 16 (18.8% strains. Conclusion The genetic diversity of HIV strains among FSWs in Argentina was extensive; about three-quarters of the samples were infected with diverse BF recombinants, near twenty percent had primary ART resistance and one sample presented a dual infection. Heterosexual transmission of genetically diverse, drug resistant strains among FSWs and their clients represents an important and underestimated threat, in Argentina.

  14. Determination of the UV solar risk in Argentina with high-resolution maps calculated using TOMS ozone climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Cede, Alexander; Luccini, Eduardo; Stengel, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The connection between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various skin diseases is well known. In this work, we present the computer program "UVARG", developed in order to prevent the risk of getting sunburn for persons exposed to solar UV radiation in Argentina, a country that extends from low (tropical) to high southern hemisphere latitudes. The software calculates the so-called "erythemal irradiance", i.e., the spectral irradiance weighted by the McKinlay and Diffey action spectrum for erythema and integrated in wavelength. The erythemal irradiance depends mainly on the following geophysical parameters: solar elevation, total ozone column, surface altitude, surface albedo, total aerosol optical depth and Sun-Earth distance. Minor corrections are due to the variability in the vertical ozone, aerosol, pressure, humidity and temperature profiles and the extraterrestrial spectral solar UV irradiance. Key parameter in the software is a total ozone column climatology incorporating monthly averages, standard deviations and tendencies for the particular geographical situation of Argentina that was obtained from TOMS/NASA satellite data from 1978 to 2000. Different skin types are considered in order to determine the sunburn risk at any time of the day and any day of the year, with and without sunscreen protection. We present examples of the software for three different regions: the high altitude tropical Puna of Atacama desert in the North-West, Tierra del Fuego in the South when the ozone hole event overpasses and low summertime ozone conditions over Buenos Aires, the largest populated city in the country. In particular, we analyzed the maximum time for persons having different skin types during representative days of the year (southern hemisphere equinoxes and solstices). This work was made possible by the collaboration between the Argentine Skin Cancer Foundation, the Institute of Physics Rosario (CONICET-National University of Rosario, Argentina) and the Institute of

  15. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  16. An unexpected pulmonary bystander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Vorm, van der P. A.; Koning, K. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood eosi

  17. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population.

  18. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, C; Prybylski, D; Subhachaturas, W; Tanpradech, S; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Johnston, L G; Akarasewi, P; Anand, A; Fox, K K; Whitehead, S J

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of sex work in Thailand has shifted substantially over the last two decades from direct commercial establishments to indirect venues and non-venue-based settings. This respondent-driven sampling survey was conducted in Bangkok in 2007 among female sex workers (FSW) in non-venue-based settings to pilot a new approach to surveillance among this hidden population. Fifteen initial participants recruited 707 consenting participants who completed a behavioural questionnaire, and provided oral fluid for HIV testing, and urine for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Overall HIV prevalence was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3-24.7). Three-quarters of women were street-based (75.8%, 95% CI 69.9-81.1) who had an especially high HIV prevalence (22.7%, 95% CI 18.2-28.4); about 10 times higher than that found in routine sentinel surveillance among venue-based FSW (2.5%). STI prevalence (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-10.8) and 1.0% (95% CI 0.2-1.9), respectively. Lower price per sex act and a current STI infection were independently associated with HIV infection (P < 0.05). High HIV prevalence found among FSW participating in the survey, particularly non-venue-based FSW, identifies need for further prevention efforts. In addition, it identifies a higher-risk segment of FSW not reached through routine sentinel surveillance but accessible through this survey method.

  19. Unexpected high-temperature stability of β-Zn4Sb3 opens the door to enhanced thermoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianping; Li, Xudong; Qiao, Guanjun; Wang, Zhao; Carrete, Jesús; Ren, Yang; Ma, Lingzhi; Fei, Youjian; Yang, Baifeng; Lei, Lei; Li, Ju

    2014-01-29

    β-Zn4Sb3 has one of the highest ZT reported for binary compounds, but its practical applications have been hindered by a reported poor stability. Here we report the fabrication of nearly dense single-phase β-Zn4Sb3 and a study of its thermoelectric transport coefficients across a wide temperature range. Around 425 K we find an abrupt decrease of its thermal conductivity. Past this point, Zn atoms can migrate from crystalline sites to interstitial positions; β-Zn4Sb3 becomes metastable and gradually decomposes into Zn(hcp) and ZnSb. However, above 565 K it recovers its stability; in fact, the damage caused by decomposition can be repaired completely. This is key to its excellent thermoelectric performance at high temperature: the maximum ZT reaches 1.4. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to shed light on the microscopic behavior of the material.

  20. Hepatitis C virus genotyping in Greece: unexpected high prevalence of genotype 5a in a Greek island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatapanis, Stylianos; Tsoplou, Panagiota; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Vasiageorgi, Aggeliki; Stampori, Maria; Saitis, Ioannis; Tsitsopoulos, Eustathios; Lisgos, Phillipos; Skorda, Lamprini; Ketikoglou, Ioannis; Goulis, Ioannis

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 5 (G5) is a rare genotype reported mainly in South Africa. However, increasing data suggest the sporadic presence of this genotype in different European countries. To assess the epidemiology of HCV-G5 in Greece, genotyping was performed in 973 consecutive patients infected with HCV, referred to 7 hepatology centers throughout Greece, from January 2005 to December 2009. Genotype 5a (19 patients, 1.9%) was the fifth most prevalent genotype after genotype 1 (408 patients, 41.9%), genotype 3 (318 patients, 32.7%), genotype 4 (158 patients, 16.2%), and genotype 2 (70 patients, 7.2%). The majority of patients infected with G5 (16/19,84.2%) were referred to the General Hospital of Rhodes, an island in south-east Greece. The HCV genotype distribution in that particular island, indicates a particularly high G5 prevalence of 12.8%, after genotype 1 (40%), genotype 3 (28%), and genotype 4 (15%). Among the patients from Rhodes infected with G5 (n = 16), 13 (81.2%) were females. The mean age was 62.3 ± 6.5 years, significantly older than the patients infected with other HCV genotypes (mean age 40.6 ± 7.2, P < 0.0001). Nine out of the 16 cases (56.2%) presented features of high pre-treatment viral loads. Advanced liver fibrosis (Metavir F3-F4) was found in four out of five performed liver biopsies. Ten patients received treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and a sustained viral response were achieved in six cases. The source of infection is unknown but parenteral iatrogenic routes of transmission seem to have contributed significantly to the spread of genotype 5a in this region.

  1. Rafaela, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Brinda información acerca de la provincia de Rafaela, Argentina. Da a conocer el planeamiento estratégico de Rafaela, los temas a resolver con el sector privado, así como las acciones para abordar la relación público-privada.

  2. Argentina; Argentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  3. Unexpected generation of super-high energetic electrons at relativistic circularly polarized laser-solid interactions in the presence of large scale pre-plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, D; Luan, S X; Yu, W

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the previous work "Identifying the source of super-high energetic electrons in the presence of pre-plasma in laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities [arXiv: 1512.02411]", we have investigated the role of circularly polarized (CP) laser pulses while keeping other conditions the same. It is found that in the presence of large scale pre-formed plasmas, super-high energetic electrons can be generated at relativistic CP laser-solid interactions. For laser of intensity 10$^{20}\\ $W$/$cm$^2$ and pre-plasma scale-length 10$\\ \\mu$m, the cut-off energy of electron by CP laser is 120$\\ $MeV compared with 100$\\ $MeV in the case of linearly polarized (LP) laser. The unexpected super-high energetic electron acceleration can also be explained by the two-stage acceleration model, by considering the polarization transition of the reflected laser from CP to elliptically polarized (EP). The polarization state transition is addressed, and a modified scaling law in the presence of EP laser is obt...

  4. Honey bee diet in intensive farmland habitats reveals an unexpectedly high flower richness and a major role of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requier, Fabrice; Odoux, Jean-François; Tamic, Thierry; Moreau, Nathalie; Henry, Mickaël; Decourtye, Axel; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    In intensive farmland habitats, pollination of wild flowers and crops may be threatened by the widespread decline of pollinators. The honey bee decline, in particular, appears to result from the combination of multiple stresses, including diseases, pathogens, and pesticides. The reduction of semi-natural habitats is also suspected to entail floral resource scarcity for bees. Yet, the seasonal dynamics and composition of the honey bee diet remains poorly documented to date. In this study, we studied the seasonal contribution of mass-flowering crops (rapeseed and sunflower) vs. other floral resources, as well as the influence of nutritional quality and landscape composition on pollen diet composition over five consecutive years. From April to October, the mass of pollen and nectar collected by honey bees followed a bimodal seasonal trend, marked by a two-month period of low food supply between the two oilseed crop mass-flowerings (ending in May for rapeseed and July for sunflower). Bees collected nectar mainly from crops while pollen came from a wide diversity of herbaceous and woody plant species in semi-natural habitats or from weeds in crops. Weed species constituted the bulk of the honey bee diet between the mass flowering crop periods (up to 40%) and are therefore suspected to play a critical role at this time period. The pollen diet composition was related to the nutritional value of the collected pollen and by the local landscape composition. Our study highlights (1) a food supply depletion period of both pollen and nectar resources during late spring, contemporaneously with the demographic peak of honey bee populations, (2) a high botanical richness of pollen diet, mostly proceeding from trees and weeds, and (3) a pollen diet composition influenced by the local landscape composition. Our results therefore support the Agri-Environmental Schemes intended to promote honey bees and beekeeping sustainability through the enhancement of flower availability in

  5. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  6. Occupancy dynamics in a tropical bird community: unexpectedly high forest use by birds classified as non-forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Zipkin, Elise F.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Worldwide loss of biodiversity necessitates a clear understanding of the factors driving population declines as well as informed predictions about which species and populations are at greatest risk. The biggest threat to the long-term persistence of populations is the reduction and changes in configuration of their natural habitat. 2. Inconsistencies have been noted in the responses of populations to the combined effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. These have been widely attributed to the effects of the matrix habitats in which remnant focal habitats are typically embedded. 3. We quantified the potential effects of the inter-patch matrix by estimating occupancy and colonization of forest and surrounding non-forest matrix (NF). We estimated species-specific parameters using a dynamic, multi-species hierarchical model on a bird community in southwestern Costa Rica. 4. Overall, we found higher probabilities of occupancy and colonization of forest relative to the NF across bird species, including those previously categorized as open habitat generalists not needing forest to persist. Forest dependency was a poor predictor of occupancy dynamics in our study region, largely predicting occupancy and colonization of only non-forest habitats. 5. Our results indicate that the protection of remnant forest habitats is key for the long-term persistence of all members of the bird community in this fragmented landscape, including species typically associated with open, non-forest habitats. 6.Synthesis and applications. We identified 39 bird species of conservation concern defined by having high estimates of forest occupancy, and low estimates of occupancy and colonization of non-forest. These species survive in forest but are unlikely to venture out into open, non-forested habitats, therefore, they are vulnerable to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Our hierarchical community-level model can be used to estimate species-specific occupancy dynamics for focal

  7. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de Ambientes Acuáticos de Altura de la Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina II Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude aquatic environments of Catamarca Province in Argentina. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Maidana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución al conocimiento de las diatomeas de humedales de altura, se analizaron 14 muestras pertenecientes a distintos cuerpos de agua de la Provincia de Catamarca (Argentina, entre los 2420 y 4240 m s. n. m. Se identificaron 208 taxones infragenéricos de los cuales 90 son nuevas citas para la Provincia de Catamarca. Se mencionan por primera vez para Argentina los géneros: Frankophila y Microcostatus y las especies: Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella chilensis var constricta Hustedt y Surirella wetzellii Hustedt. Además se propone una nueva combinación: Ulnaria ulna var. constricta.In this research focusing the diatoms of high topographic wetlands, 14 samples of different freshwater bodies (between 2,420 and 4,240 m a. s. l. were studied. Two hundred and eight infrageneric taxa were identified, 90 of them are new records for the Catamarca province. The genera: Frankophila and Microcostatus and the species Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella

  8. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in high altitude sites of the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvana Velázquez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in National Parks is essential for the establishment of policies for conservation. The aim of this study was to characterize the AMF communities in the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. We surveyed AMF spores associated with the rhizospheres of 9 plant species in the Patagonian Steppe (PS, Challhuaco Hill (ChH, Catedral Hill (CH, and Tronador Hill (TH regions and detected a total of 27 Glomeromycota species. Acaulospora laevis was dominant at all sites. The AMF community was dominated by Acaulosporaceae, as regards the number of species and contribution of each one to the total number of spores. Three Glomeromycota families were detected at PS, the site with the lowest elevation; whereas five to six families were detected at ChH, CH, and TH. Cluster analysis indicated that the AMF communities were grouped according to habitat. We concluded that certain patterns of the AMFcommunity structure detected were equivalent to those of high-altitude environments from other studies, while others were unique to the Patagonian region; thus suggesting that historical influences like dispersion and speciation played a critical role in shaping AMF community composition in such high-altitude environments.

  9. Assessment of land influence on a high-latitude marine coastal system: Tierra del Fuego, southernmost Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Oscar; Comoglio, Laura; Spetter, Carla; Duarte, Claudia; Asteasuain, Raúl; Freije, Rubén Hugo; Marcovecchio, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    The study deals with the determination of physico-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic matter, and photosynthetic pigments on a monthly basis during an annual cycle from nine sampling sites of the coastal zone of a high-latitude ecosystem (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Nitrites and phosphates concentrations were similar to other systems of the south Atlantic coast (median, 0.30 and 1.02 μM, respectively), while nitrates were higher in all sampling periods (median, 45.37 μM), and silicates were significantly smaller (median, 7.76 μM). Chlorophyll a and phaeopigments have shown median values of 0.38 and 0.85 mg m(-3), respectively, while saturated values of dissolved oxygen were recorded throughout the study. The analysis reflected that nutrient enrichment seems to be linked to an anthropogenic source, the presence of peatlands areas, and a sink of Nothofagus pumilio woods. The area could be characterized in three zones related to (1) high urban influence, (2) natural inputs of freshwater, and (3) mixed inputs coming from moderate urban impacts.

  10. High-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism in the collision zone between the Chilenia and Cuyania microcontinents (western Precordillera, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, F. L.; Willner, A. P.; Vujovich, G. I.; Massonne, H.-J.

    2016-12-01

    In central-western Argentina, an Early Paleozoic belt including mafic-ultramafic bodies, marine metasedimentary rocks and high-pressure rocks occur along the western margin of the Precordillera and in the Frontal Cordillera. First pressure-temperature estimates are presented here for low-grade rocks of the southern sector of this belt based on two metasedimentary and one metabasaltic sample from the Peñasco Formation. Peak metamorphic conditions resulted within the range of 345-395 °C and 7.0-9.3 kbar within the high-pressure greenschist facies. The corresponding low metamorphic gradient of 13 °C/km is comparable with subduction related geothermal gradients. Comparison between these results and data from other localities of the same collision zone (Guarguaraz and Colohuincul complexes) confirms a collision between Chilenia and the composite margin of western Gondwana and suggests a stronger crustal thickening in the south of the belt, causing exhumation of more deeply buried sequences. During the Early Paleozoic a long-lived marine sedimentation coupled with the intrusion of MORB-like basalts occurred along a stable margin before the collision event. This contrasts with the almost contemporaneous sedimentation registered during accretion in accretionary prism settings and additionally proves the development of a collision zone along western Precordillera and the eastern Frontal Cordillera as well as the existence of Chilenia as a separate microcontinent.

  11. en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Davolos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacia finales de la década pasada comienza a cobrar dinamismo la protesta social en Argentina como respuesta a la crisis resultante de las políticas neoliberales que dominaron la escena nacional en los noventa. En ese contexto, grupos de trabajadores ocupan empresas en riesgo de cerrar sus puertas, organizándose para operarlas en forma autogestionaria. Aquí se estudian las características del mercado de trabajo, así como las tradiciones y los recursos que permitieron a los trabajadores llevar adelante este tipo de acciones, delineando distintas trayectorias que otorgaron inteligibilidad al fenómeno analizado.

  12. Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Acuña

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona central de la Patagonia, Argentina, se encuentra sometida a explotación petrolera y sus suelos se caracterizan por ser deficientes en nitrógeno. Esto causaría un efecto negativo en los procesos de atenuación natural que se desarrollan en los suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos. El objeto de este estudio fue determinar cual es el efecto de la deficiencia de nitrógeno sobre la biodegradación de los hidrocarburos en un suelo de la Patagonia, Argentina. Se trabajó con tres microcosmos a los que se les realizó tratamientos diferentes. En uno se monitoreo la atenuación natural del sistema, en otro la fertilización con nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K, y en el último la fertilización con P y K. Durante el seguimiento se determinaron mineralización y medición de hidrocarburos, y se realizaron recuentos bacterianos y determinación de nitrato, nitrito y amonio. Los resultados indican que es posible la biodegradación de hidrocarburos en el suelo deficiente de nitrógeno de la Patagonia estudiado en tiempos mas prolongados que en aquellos que se realiza una fertilización con nitrógeno. El nitrógeno necesario para el proceso sería obtenido por los microorganismos del suelo por fijación biológica.

  13. "Approaches to the Teaching of Special Relativity Theory in High School and University Textbooks of Argentina"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriassecq, Irene; Greca, Ileana Maria

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we presented an analysis of the representation of the special relativity theory (SRT) in the most used texts in high school, Polimodal level and university level in the teaching in the Argentine Republic, from a historic, epistemological and didactic perspective. The results show that none of the analyzed texts would allow a…

  14. High-tension electricity network expansions in Argentina: decision mechanisms and willingness-to-pay revelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, O.O. [Departamento de Economia y Finanzas, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Chile 1142 lo piso, 1073 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dal-Bo, P. [Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Romero, C.A. [Departamento de Economia y Finanzas and Centro de Estudios Economicos de la Regulacion, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes the procedures established by the present regulation for high-tension network expansions, studies its optimality and points its main problems. According to the present regulatory scheme, the decision to expand the high-tension network system is on the hands of the private sector. A simple model of the Argentine electricity system and its regulation allowed the simulation of cases in which the present 'Public Contest' method could result in the rejection of socially desirable projects and the acceptance of undesirable ones. Three main reasons for the existence of wrong incentives to investment are found. First, since consumers are not included in the mechanism, they have no way to reveal their willingness-to-pay for the investment. Second, the approximation of the future use of the line is done in such a way that it leaves important nodes under represented, thereby affecting the optimality of the mechanism. Third, the profit agents obtain from a line may not be related to their use, e.g. the generators profits depend also on generation costs.

  15. High Incidence of Respiratory Involvement in a Cluster of Brucella suis-Infected Workers from a Pork Processing Plant in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, J C; García, J L; Cardinali, P S; Seijo, A P; Benchetrit, A G; Echazarreta, S E; Garro, S L; Deodato, B; Baldi, P C

    2016-12-29

    Epidemiological and clinical aspects of Brucella suis infection in 17 workers from a pork processing plant in Argentina occurring between January 2014 and July 2015 are presented. All patients reported working 9 h daily without adequate personal protection garment. Blood cultures were positive for Brucella spp. in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3%). All isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 1. Although fever, sweats, asthenia, myalgia and hepatic involvement were the most frequent clinical manifestations, an unusually high incidence of respiratory involvement was found. From 13 patients in which chest radiography was performed, four (30%) had radiological abnormalities, including lobar pneumonia in two cases (one with pleural effusion) and interstitial involvement in other two. The high frequency of respiratory involvement in our series makes necessary to consider brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of respiratory diseases in pork processing plant employees.

  16. Argentina Welcomes Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On July 13,China-Argentina Entrepreneur Luncheon Meeting was held in Beijing.Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner,President of Argentina,Hui Liangyu,Vice Prime Minister of China and Wan Jifei,President of CCPIT attended the meeting.

  17. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  18. Spectrometric mixture analysis: An unexpected wrinkle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert De Levie

    2009-09-01

    The spectrometric analysis of a mixture of two chemically and spectroscopically similar compounds is illustrated for the simultaneous spectrometric determination of caffeine and theobromine, the primary stimulants in coffee and tea, based on their ultraviolet absorbances. Their analysis indicates that such measurements may need an unexpectedly high precision to yield accurate answers, because of an artifact of inverse cancellation, in which a small noise or drift signal is misinterpreted in terms of a concentration difference. The computed sum of the concentrations is not affected.

  19. Are rogue waves really unexpected?

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We present a third-order nonlinear model for the statistics of unexpected waves drawing on the work of Gemmrich & Garrett (2008). The model is verified by way of Monte Carlo simulations of Gaussian seas and comparisons to oceanic measurements. In particular, the analysis of oceanic data suggests that both skewness and kurtosis effects must be accounted for to obtain accurate predictions. As a specific application, the unexpectedness of the Andrea and WACSIS rogue wave events is examined in detail. Observations indicate that the crests of these waves have nearly the same amplitude ratio $h/H_s\\sim1.6$, where $H_s$ is the significant wave height. Both waves appeared without warning and they were nearly two-times larger than the surrounding $O(10)$ waves, and thus unexpected. The model developed here predicts that the two rogue waves are stochastically similar as they occur on average once every $10^{4}$ waves. Further, the maximum crest height actually observed is nearly the same as the threshold $h_{10^{6}...

  20. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.

  1. Calcium chloride doped zinc-cobalt metal-cyanide complex: Unexpected highly activity towards ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jun Huang; Xing Hong Zhang; Zheng Jiang Hua; Guo Rong Qi

    2010-01-01

    Highly active calcium chloride (CaCl2) doped Zn-CoⅢ double metal-cyanide (Ca-DMC) catalysts were firstly reported. Ca-DMCs presented a very higher polymer yield (54 kg polymer/g catalyst) at relative low temperature (80-115 ℃) toward ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of propylene oxide (PO) than did DMC catalysts without modification.

  2. A comparative metagenome survey of the fecal microbiota of a breast- and a plant-fed Asian elephant reveals an unexpectedly high diversity of glycoside hydrolase family enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Ilmberger

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic and metagenomic study of elephant feces samples (derived from a three-weeks-old and a six-years-old Asian elephant was conducted in order to describe the microbiota inhabiting this large land-living animal. The microbial diversity was examined via 16S rRNA gene analysis. We generated more than 44,000 GS-FLX+454 reads for each animal. For the baby elephant, 380 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified at 97% sequence identity level; in the six-years-old animal, close to 3,000 OTUs were identified, suggesting high microbial diversity in the older animal. In both animals most OTUs belonged to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Additionally, for the baby elephant a high number of Proteobacteria was detected. A metagenomic sequencing approach using Illumina technology resulted in the generation of 1.1 Gbp assembled DNA in contigs with a maximum size of 0.6 Mbp. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested high metabolic diversity regarding the use of polymers and aromatic and non-aromatic compounds. In line with the high phylogenetic diversity, a surprising and not previously described biodiversity of glycoside hydrolase (GH genes was found. Enzymes of 84 GH families were detected. Polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs, which are found in Bacteroidetes, were highly abundant in the dataset; some of these comprised cellulase genes. Furthermore the highest coverage for GH5 and GH9 family enzymes was detected for Bacteroidetes, suggesting that bacteria of this phylum are mainly responsible for the degradation of cellulose in the Asian elephant. Altogether, this study delivers insight into the biomass conversion by one of the largest plant-fed and land-living animals.

  3. Pediatric intensive care in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, E J

    1993-09-01

    8.2% of the gross domestic product is spent annually on health care in Argentina, a country of 32 million people. There is 1 medical doctor of every 147,000 beds in a total 3180 hospitals. The infant mortality rate in Argentina is 24.5/1000 live births which is high compared to developed countries. Perinatal causes and congenital anomalies are the main cause of death after the neonatal period, and accidents, cardiac disease, and respiratory tract infections are the main causes of death among children over age 1 year. Argentina has approximately 35 pediatric intensive care units (ICU), but 154 of 244 beds are within or near the capital. Only 2 hospitals have pediatric intensive care fellowship programs, so full time dedicated staff is rare. 250 registered pediatricians dedicated to intensive care are in the Argentine Pediatric Society and the nurse/bed ratio is 1:2-1:3. Moreover, the country has neither postanesthesia recuperation units, burn units, chronic ventilation units, nor approved home assistance programs, and intermediate care is not clearly standardized. These inadequacies have led to a shortage of beds and the caring for of critically ill children in general pediatric or emergency wards in hospitals which lack adequate equipment; patients are often discharged inappropriately to clear bed space. Even so, prehospital and emergency room care tends to be provided without the necessary coordination with the pediatric ICU, and structural conditions regarding electrical self-sufficiency, air conditioning, and circulation are met in only few units. Despite the existence of these adverse conditions for the care of critically ill children, a pediatric organ transplant program developed since 1987 has demonstrated 70% to 100% survival rates for 16l orthotopic liver and 9 heart transplants, respectively. Alternatives to improving intensive care in Argentina include optimizing the response of emergency and critical care delivery systems, categorizing hospitals and

  4. High-resolution Late Pleistocene paleomagnetic secular variation record from Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia (Argentina): preliminary results from the ICDP-PASADO drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe; St-Onge, Guillaume; Haberzettl, Torsten; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution paleomagnetic reconstructions from sedimentary sequences are scarce in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, the millennial- to centennial-scale variability of the geomagnetic field is under-represented in the Southern Hemisphere relative to the Northern Hemisphere and the possible global nature of that variability cannot be assessed. Here we present the first high-resolution Late Pleistocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) reconstruction from the continental archive Laguna Potrok Aike south of 42°S in South America. Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W) is a maar lake located in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field in southern Patagonia (Argentina). Previous studies revealed very high Holocene sedimentation rates (> 100 cm/ka) in the center of the lake. During the austral spring 2008, the multi-national Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO) science team drilled two ~100 m holes under the framework of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). A preliminary Holocene age model based on comparison of magnetic susceptibility data from the PASADO core with the well-dated (radiocarbon- and tephra-based chronology) core located nearby in the center of the lake (PTA03-12) indicates a continuous deposition of ~19 m of lacustrine sediments since the last 16 ka cal. BP. Hysteresis measurements using an alternating gradient force magnetometer indicate a magnetic assemblage dominated by magnetite grains in the pseudo-single domain range. Principal component analysis (PCA) inclination and declination profiles were constructed from the stepwise alternating field demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) measured on u-channels at 1 cm intervals using a 2G Enterprises cryogenic magnetometer. The PCA inclinations vary around the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination for the latitude of the coring site and the maximum angular deviation (MAD) values are generally lower than 5°, indicating

  5. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  6. High rate of infection with the human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type II in four Indian populations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, J F; Del Pino, N; Esteban, E; Sherman, M P; Dube, S; Dube, D K; Basombrio, M A; Pimentel, E; Segovia, A; Quirulas, S

    1993-12-01

    Sera from 215 non-drug-injecting Toba and Mataco-Mataguayo pure Indians belonging to four communities in northern Argentina were examined using assays that allow differentiation between reactivities due to type-specific antigens of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV). Three of these populations have very little contact with non-Indian groups and reside in remote, isolated areas. HTLV-II type-specific seroreactivity was present in 24 (13.7%) of the 175 Indians older than 13 years of age and in none of the 40 who were of younger ages. None of the Indians had antibodies reacting with HTLV-I type-specific antigen. Seroreactivity was more prevalent and appeared at younger ages in females than in males. The majority of the HTLV-II-seropositive Indians belonged to the more isolated communities. The seroprevalences among the Tobas and Mataco-Mataguayo Indians were comparable. With the exception of a Toba who was positive in a test for Treponema pallidum, no serological evidence of sexually transmitted infections with this spirochete, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus was found among the Indians tested. None of the 55 non-Indian people tested in the region showed HTLV-II type-specific seroreactivity. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes of seropositive Indians confirmed that the virus present in these populations is HTLV-II. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified genomic segments showed that the virus belongs to the HTLV-II subtype which has been found to be endemic in other Paleo-American Indians.

  7. High strain-rate deformation fabrics characterize a kilometers-thick Paleozoic fault zone in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, Steven J.; Simpson, Carol

    2003-06-01

    High strain rate fabrics that transgress a crustal depth range of ca. 8-22 km occur within a major Paleozoic fault zone along the western margin of the Sierras de Córdoba, central Argentina. The NNW-striking, east-dipping 'Tres Arboles' fault zone extends for at least 250 km and separates two metamorphic terranes that reached peak temperatures in the middle Cambrian and Ordovician, respectively. Exposed fault zone rocks vary from a 16-km-thickness of ultramylonite and mylonite in the southern, deepest exposures to 520 °C. Reaction-enhanced grain size reduction and grain boundary sliding were the predominant deformation mechanisms in these high strain rate rocks. Ultramylonites in the intermediate depth section also contain evidence for grain boundary sliding and diffusional mass transfer, although overprinted by late stage chlorite. In the shallowest exposed section, rocks were deformed at or near to the brittle-ductile transition to produce mylonite, cataclasite, shear bands and pseudotachylyte. The overall structure of the Tres Arboles zone is consistent with existing fault zone models and suggests that below the brittle-ductile transition, strain compatibility may be accommodated through very thick zones of high temperature ultramylonite.

  8. Astronomy in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Muriel, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the current state of Astronomy in Argentina and describes its origins. We briefly describe the institutions where astronomical research takes place, the observational facilities available, the training of staff and professionals, and the role of the institutions in scientific promotion. We also discuss the outreach of Astronomy towards the general public, as well as amateur activities. The article ends with an analysis of the future prospects of astronomy in Argentina.

  9. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case.

  10. Multiplicity and clustering in Taurus star-forming region. I. Unexpected ultra-wide pairs of high-order multiplicity in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchêne, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This work analyses the spatial distribution of stars in Taurus with a specific focus on multiple stars and wide pairs in order to derive new constraints on star formation and early dynamical evolution scenarios. Methods: We collected the multiplicity data of stars in Taurus to build an up-to-date stellar/multiplicity catalog. We first present a general study of nearest-neighbor statistics on spatial random distribution, comparing its analytical distribution and moments to those obtained from Monte Carlo samplings. We introduce the one-point correlation Ψ function to complement the pair correlation function and define the spatial regimes departing from randomness in Taurus. We then perform a set of statistical studies to characterize the binary regime that prevails in Taurus. Results: The Ψ function in Taurus has a scale-free trend with a similar exponent as the correlation function at small scale. It extends almost 3 decades up to 60 kAU showing a potential extended wide binary regime. This was hidden in the correlation function due to the clustering pattern blending. Distinguishing two stellar populations, single stars versus multiple systems (separation ≤1 kAU), within Class II/III stars observed at high angular resolution, we highlight a major spatial neighborhood difference between the two populations using nearest-neighbor statistics. The multiple systems are three times more likely to have a distant companion within 10 kAU when compared to single stars. We show that this is due to the presence of most probable physical ultra-wide pairs (UWPs, defined as such from their mutual nearest neighbor property), that are themselves generally composed of multiple systems containing up to five stars altogether. More generally, our work highlights; 1) a new large population of candidate UWPs in Taurus within the range 1-60 kAU in Taurus and 2) the major local structural role they play up to 60 kAU. There are three different types of UWPs; either composed of two

  11. Unexpected sensitivity of the annual net ecosystem exchange to the high frequency loss corrections in a grazed grassland site in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadou, Ossenatou; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis; De Ligne, Anne; Bernard, Heineisch; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Although widely used to measure CO2 and other gas fluxes, the eddy covariance technique still needs methodological improvements. This research focuses on the high frequency loss corrections, which are especially important when using a closed-path infrared gas analyzer. We compared three approaches to implement these corrections for CO2 fluxes and evaluated their impact on the carbon balance at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO), an intensively grazed grassland site in Belgium. The carbon balance at DTO is also the object of a separate analysis (Gourlez de la Motte et al., Geophysical Research Abstract, Vol. 18, EGU2016-6813-1, 2016). In the first approach, the computation of correction factors was based on the measured sensible heat cospectra ('local' cospectra), whereas the other two were based on theoretical models (Kaimal et al., 1972). The correction approaches were validated by comparing the nighttime eddy covariance CO2 fluxes corrected with each approach and in situ soil respiration measurements. We found that the local cospectra differed from the Kaimal theoretical shape, although the site could not be considered 'difficult' (i.e., fairly flat, homogeneous, low vegetation, sufficient measurement height), appearing less peaked in the inertial subrange. This difference greatly affected the correction factor, especially for night fluxes. Night fluxes measured by eddy covariance were found to be in good agreement with in situ soil respiration measurements when corrected with local cospectra and to be overestimated when corrected with Kaimal cospectra. As the difference between correction factors was larger in stable than unstable conditions, this acts as a selective systematic error and has an important impact on annual fluxes. On the basis of a 4-year average, at DTO, the errors reach 71-150 g C m-2 y-1 for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), 280-562 g C m-2 y-1 for total ecosystem respiration (TER) and 209-412 g C m-2 y-1 for gross primary productivity (GPP

  12. Listening to Those at the Frontline: Patient and Healthcare Personnel Perspectives on Tuberculosis Treatment Barriers and Facilitators in High TB Burden Regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Iribarren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Argentina, tuberculosis (TB control measures have not achieved key treatment targets. The purpose of this study was to identify modes of treatment delivery and explore patient and healthcare personnel perceptions of barriers and facilitators to treatment success. Methods. We used semistructured group and individual interviews for this descriptive qualitative study. Eight high burden municipalities were purposively selected. Patients in treatment for active TB (n=16, multidisciplinary TB team members (n=26, and TB program directors (n=12 at local, municipal, regional, and national levels were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results. Modes of treatment delivery varied across municipalities and types of healthcare facility and were highly negotiated with patients. Self-administration of treatment was common in hospital-based and some community clinics. Barriers to TB treatment success were concentrated at the system level. This level relied heavily on individual personal commitment, and many system facilitators were operating in isolation or in limited settings. Conclusions. We outline experiences and perspectives of the facilitating and challenging factors at the individual, structural, social, and organizational levels. Establishing strong patient-healthcare personnel relationships, responding to patient needs, capitalizing on community resources, and maximizing established decentralized system could mitigate some of the barriers.

  13. Geochemistry of Paraná-Etendeka basalts from Misiones, Argentina: Some new insights into the petrogenesis of high-Ti continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämö, O. Tapani; Heikkilä, Pasi A.; Pulkkinen, Arto H.

    2016-04-01

    The Early Cretaceous (˜135-131 Ma) Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts, preserved in bulk in the Paraná basin of southern Brazil and vicinity, have been divided into low-Ti and high-Ti types that govern the southern and northern halves of the basin, respectively. We have examined a new sample set from the southern margin of the northern high-Ti segment of Paraná basalts in Misiones, northeastern Argentina. These basalts are strongly to moderately enriched in TiO2 (2-4 wt.%), have relatively high Ti/Y (300-500), low MgO (3.5-6.5 wt.%), and high Fe (FeO(tot) 12-14 wt.%) and belong to the Pitanga and Paranapanema magma types of Peate et al. (1992). Nd and Sr isotope compositions are quite unvarying with ɛNd (at 133 Ma) values of -4.6 to -3.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7054-0.7059 and show no variation with fractionation. Compared to high-Ti lavas in the central and northern parts of the Paraná high-Ti basalt segment, the lavas from Misiones are similar to those in the northeastern magin of the basin but less radiogenic in initial Nd isotope composition than those in the central part. This variation probably reflects mixed EM1-EM2 source components in the sublithospheric mantle. A polybaric melt model of a sublithospheric mantle source at the garnet lherzolite-spinel lherzolite transition is compatible with the observed Ti budget of the Pitanga and Paranapanema lavas, regardless of the Nd isotope composition of their purported source.

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of highly zoonotic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) based on 8279bp of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas.

  15. Endometriosis: A Highly Unexpected Skin Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Dinc

    2016-04-01

    4. Malebranche AD, Bush K. Umbilical endometriosis: A rare diagnosis in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Can J Plast Surg. 2010;18:147-8. 5. Bagade PV, Giurguis MM. Menstruating from the umbilicus as a rare case of primary umbilical endometriosis: A case report. J Med Case Rep. 2009;3:9326.

  16. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  17. Helosis (Balanophoraceae en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fontana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustrated. Developement and ecology are also given. Helosis is also a new generic record for Argentina.

  18. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  19. A lab in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  20. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  1. Albert Einstein visits Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, A; Gangui, Alejandro; Ortiz, Eduardo L.

    2005-01-01

    This is a detailed, day by day, account of Albert Einstein's activities, both social and scientific, during his 30-day stay in Argentina in 1925, including his lectures on relativity at the various local universities and his visit to the National Academy of Sciences, as follows from his personal Diary of the trip to South-America and other contemporary documents.

  2. Saturn's Rings Reveal Unexpected Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2004-01-01

    Safely in orbit around Saturn, NASA's Cassini spacecraft sent back its first close-up images of the massive planet's rings on July 1, revealing an unexpectedly varied terrain featuring surprisingly sharp edges, braids and delicate ridges.

  3. Sequential development of tidal ravinement surfaces in macro- to hypertidal estuaries with high volcaniclastic input: the Miocene Puerto Madryn Formation (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, Roberto A.; Cuitiño, José I.

    2016-12-01

    The late Miocene beds of the Puerto Madryn Formation (Provincia del Chubut, Argentina) are formed by shallow marine and estuarine sediments. The latter include several tidal-channel infills well exposed on the cliffy coast of the Peninsula Valdés. The Bahía Punta Fósil and Cerro Olazábal paleochannels are end members of these tidal channels and show a fining-upward infilling starting with intraformational channel lag conglomerates above deeply erosional surfaces interpreted as fluvial ravinement surfaces (the erosion surface formed in the purely fluvial or the fluvially dominated part of the estuary, where erosion is driven by fluvial processes). These are overlain and eventually truncated (and suppressed) by the tidal ravinement surface (TRS), in turn covered with high-energy, bioclastic conglomerates mostly formed in the "tidally dominated/fluvially influenced" part of an estuary. Above, large straight or arcuate point bars with alternatively sandy/muddy seasonal beds and varying trace and body fossil contents were deposited from the freshwater fluvially dominated to saline-water tidally dominated part of the estuary. The upper channel infill is formed by cross-bedded sands with mud drapes and seaward-directed paleocurrents, together with barren, volcaniclastic sandy to muddy heterolithic seasonal rhythmites, both deposited in the fluvially dominated part of the estuary. Volcanic ash driven by the rivers after large explosive volcanic eruptions on land resulted in sedimentation rates as high as 0.9 m per year, preserving (through burial) the morphology of tidal channels and TRSs. The channel deposits were formed in a tide-dominated, macrotidal to hypertidal open estuary with well-developed TRSs resulting from strong tidal currents deeply scouring into the transgressive filling of the channels and eventually cutting the fluvial ravinement surface. The TRSs extended upstream to the inner part of the estuary during long periods of low sedimentation rates

  4. Los que ponen el cuerpo: el profesor de secundaria en la Argentina actual Aqueles que colocam o corpo: o professor do ensino médio na Argentina hoje Those who put the body: the high school teacher in Argentina today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Tenti Fanfani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un análisis de los profesores de enseñanza secundaria en la Argentina, tomando como base la existencia de una crisis en el modelo tradicional de la escuela de esta etapa escolar, lo que sugiere que las condiciones de los profesores y los estudiantes han cambiado, como han cambiado otras condiciones sociales, todavía sin que la escuela tenga acompañado a estos cambios. El artículo utiliza los datos del Censo Nacional de Docentes en Argentina entre 1994 y 2004 y los resultados muestran un amplio panorama de trabajo de los profesores ante los desafíos de la escuela secundaria en la Argentina, sobre todo al señalar que es muy difícil de aislar los impactos generados por un profesor, en particular, en la formación de los estudiantes; que los efectos del trabajo docente en la escuela operan conjuntamente a los factores exógenos; que la valorización y las consecuencias de la formación promovida en la escuela a los estudiantes, a veces sólo se produce en tiempo muy distinto del trabajo escolar. Por último, la obra se cierra con la idea de que los estudiantes y sus familias y los propios profesores no se equivocan con respecto a la imagen que representa un buen maestro. Sucede que el problema de la expansión de esta realidad está ligado a las acciones de los sistemas de educación a favor de una expansión de la escolarización, pero sin las condiciones necesarias para ampliar la calidad de la enseñanza.O artigo apresenta uma análise sobre os docentes da escola secundária argentina, tomando como pano de fundo a existência de uma crise do modelo tradicional da escola desta etapa escolar, sugerindo-se que as condições dos docentes e dos alunos têm mudado, como têm mudado as demais condições sociais, sem que, contudo, a escola secundária tenha acompanhado tais mudanças. O artigo utiliza dados do Censo Nacional dos Docentes da Argentina dos anos de 1994 e 2004 e os resultados mostram um amplo pano-rama do

  5. Lower Pliensbachian caldera volcanism in high-obliquity rift systems in the western North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, Leonardo; Gregori, Daniel; Strazzere, Leonardo; Falco, Juan I.; Dristas, Jorge A.

    2014-12-01

    In the Cerro Carro Quebrado and Cerro Catri Cura area, located at the border between the Neuquén Basin and the North Patagonian Massif, the Garamilla Formation is composed of four volcanic stages: 1) andesitic lava-flows related to the beginning of the volcanic system; 2) basal massive lithic breccias that represent the caldera collapse; 3) voluminous, coarse-crystal rich massive lava-like ignimbrites related to multiple, steady eruptions that represent the principal infill of the system; and, finally 4) domes, dykes, lava flows, and lava domes of rhyolitic composition indicative of a post-collapse stage. The analysis of the regional and local structures, as well as, the architectures of the volcanic facies, indicates the existence of a highly oblique rift, with its principal extensional strain in an NNE-SSW direction (˜N10°). The analyzed rocks are mainly high-potassium dacites and rhyolites with trace and RE elements contents of an intraplate signature. The age of these rocks (189 ± 0.76 Ma) agree well with other volcanic sequences of the western North Patagonian Massif, as well as, the Neuquén Basin, indicating that Pliensbachian magmatism was widespread in both regions. The age is also coincident with phase 1 of volcanism of the eastern North Patagonia Massif (188-178 Ma) represented by ignimbrites, domes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Marifil Complex, related to intraplate magmatism.

  6. Regional Seismology in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-11

    Historia (Pananerican Institute of Geography and History, sponsored by the Organization of American States: Revista Geoffsica (Geophysical Journal). B...South America and the Recurrence Relation of Earthquakes. Revista Geofisica del Instituto Panamericano do Geograffa • Historia (IPGH), No. 4, June, 155...Underground Explosion, 8-18 September, Oslo, Norway. Universidad Nacional do San Juan, 1979. Informs del Simposio Bi- nacional Argentina-Estados Unidos sobre

  7. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  8. de la sociedad argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galeano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre un período de la historia argentina en el cual la "mirada médica", a través de un grupo de prestigiosos intelectuales, se convirtió en una clave de interpretación de la sociedad argentina. El análisis gira en torno a la obra de uno de los médicos higienistas más influyentes, José María Ramos Mejía, deteniéndose especialmente en su libro más famoso: Las multitudes argentinas (1899. La hipótesis principal que recorre el texto es la siguiente: la medicalización de la sociedad, acentuada luego de las epidemias de cólera y fiebre amarilla de mediados del siglo XIX, ofreció a las elites públicas la posibilidad de construir dominios legítimos de intervención estatal. Intromisiones del Estado en la vida privada que, además de ser algo resistidas por la población, entraban en tensión con los principios teóricos del liberalismo que los propios miembros de la elite defendían.

  9. Integrating satellite imagery-derived data and GIS-based solar radiation algorithms to map solar radiation in high temporal and spatial resolutions for the province of Salta, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, Luis; Dorner, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    An accurate estimation of solar radiation availability is vital for planning solar energy generation systems. Classically, this type of estimation is made by cumulating data for periods of one year and serves to determine locations with the highest solar radiation availability. However, the integration of high shares of technologies such as photovoltaics in the energy matrix and the evaluation of the economic viability of these systems under time-dependent promotion mechanisms, also requires estimations in a high temporal resolution. When looking at the yearly solar resource availability, the north-west of Argentina is one of the regions of the world with the highest solar radiation potential. Yet estimations are available mainly in low spatial resolutions and there are only few studies that try to characterize the temporal variability of the solar resource in this part of the world. This paper presents a methodology to integrate satellite imagery derived data and a GIS-based solar radiation algorithm in order to generate a high resolution solar irradiance spatiotemporal data set for the province of Salta, north-west Argentina. This data set describes in a better way the differences in solar resource availability between flat and mountainous regions in the province, serves to accurately identify locations with the highest global solar radiation and to characterize its variability on time. Furthermore, the presented methodology can be easily replicated for the rest of South America that is covered by Down-welling Surface Shortwave Flux (DSSF) product provided by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility.

  10. Circadian variation in unexpected postoperative death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night....... This study examined the circadian variation of sudden unexpected death following abdominal surgery between 1985 and 1989 inclusive. Deaths were divided into those occurring during the day (08.00-16.00 hours), evening (16.00-24.00 hours) and night (24.00-08.00 hours). Twenty-three deaths were considered...... to have been totally unexpected. Of 16 such patients undergoing autopsy, pulmonary embolism was the cause of death in five. In the remaining 11 patients, death occurred at night in eight (P

  11. Discovering the Unexpected in Astronomical Survey Data

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    Most major discoveries in astronomy are unplanned, and result from surveying the Universe in a new way, rather than by testing a hypothesis or conducting an investigation with planned outcomes. For example, of the 10 greatest discoveries made by the Hubble Space Telescope, only one was listed in its key science goals. So a telescope that merely achieves its stated science goals is not achieving its potential scientific productivity. Several next-generation astronomical survey telescopes are currently being designed and constructed that will significantly expand the volume of observational parameter space, and should in principle discover unexpected new phenomena and new types of object. However, the complexity of the telescopes and the large data volumes mean that these discoveries are unlikely to be found by chance. Therefore, it is necessary to plan explicitly for these unexpected discoveries in the design and construction of the telescope. Two types of discovery are recognised: unexpected objects, and unex...

  12. Anal fistula: intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A

    2011-07-28

    Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. Despite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical examination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the operation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected findings that can be encountered during anal fistula surgery and how to overcome them.

  13. Anal fistula: Intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A Abou-Zeid

    2011-01-01

    Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. De-spite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical ex-amination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the oper-ation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected find-ings that can be encountered during anal fistula sur-gery and how to overcome them.

  14. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  15. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  16. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use o

  17. Some Unexpected Results Using Computer Algebra Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Felix; Garcia, Alfonsa; Garcia, Francisco; Hoya, Sara; Rodriguez, Gerardo; de la Villa, Agustin

    2001-01-01

    Shows how teachers can often use unexpected outputs from Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to reinforce concepts and to show students the importance of thinking about how they use the software and reflecting on their results. Presents different examples where DERIVE, MAPLE, or Mathematica does not work as expected and suggests how to use them as a…

  18. República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos (CENSUD)

    2008-01-01

    El sistema de gobierno en la Argentina adopta la forma representativa, republicana y federal (Constitución Nacional, art. 1º).Por su extensión -que corresponden al Continente Americano; al Continente Antártico (incluyendo las Islas Orcadas del Sur) y las islas australes (Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur)- ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los países americanos (después de Canadá, Estados Unidos de América y la República Federativa del Brasil) y el séptimo a nivel mundial. Con una población de má...

  19. Laboratory-based prospective surveillance for community outbreaks of Shigella spp. in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R Viñas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To implement effective control measures, timely outbreak detection is essential. Shigella is the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in Argentina. Highly resistant clones of Shigella have emerged, and outbreaks have been recognized in closed settings and in whole communities. We hereby report our experience with an evolving, integrated, laboratory-based, near real-time surveillance system operating in six contiguous provinces of Argentina during April 2009 to March 2012. METHODOLOGY: To detect localized shigellosis outbreaks timely, we used the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic algorithm of SaTScan, embedded in WHONET software. Twenty three laboratories sent updated Shigella data on a weekly basis to the National Reference Laboratory. Cluster detection analysis was performed at several taxonomic levels: for all Shigella spp., for serotypes within species and for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes within species. Shigella isolates associated with statistically significant signals (clusters in time/space with recurrence interval ≥365 days were subtyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using PulseNet protocols. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In three years of active surveillance, our system detected 32 statistically significant events, 26 of them identified before hospital staff was aware of any unexpected increase in the number of Shigella isolates. Twenty-six signals were investigated by PFGE, which confirmed a close relationship among the isolates for 22 events (84.6%. Seven events were investigated epidemiologically, which revealed links among the patients. Seventeen events were found at the resistance profile level. The system detected events of public health importance: infrequent resistance profiles, long-lasting and/or re-emergent clusters and events important for their duration or size, which were reported to local public health authorities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The WHONET-SaTScan system may serve as a

  20. Hedeoma mandonianum (Lamiaceae en Argentina Hedeoma mandonianum (Lamiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Slanis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se confirma la presencia de H. mandonianum Wedd. en el Noroeste de Argentina, la cual había sido citada previamente para los Andes de Perú y Bolivia. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies argentinas de Hedeoma como así también descripción, ilustraciones, usos, distribución geográfica y observaciones ecológicas de la especie aquí tratada.In this paper the presence of H. mandonianum Wedd. from Northwestern Argentina is confirmed. This species has been previously cited for the Andes of Peru and Bolivia. A description, illustrations, uses, geographical distribution and ecological observations of the treated species are presented herein, together a key to identify the species of the genus Hedeoma in Argentina.

  1. Unexpected Molecular Weight Effect in Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Holt, Adam P; Wang, Huiqun; Fan, Fei; Bocharova, Vera; Martin, Halie; Etampawala, Thusitha; White, B Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Kang, Nam-Goo; Dadmun, Mark D; Mays, Jimmy W; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2016-01-22

    The properties of the interfacial layer between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles largely determine the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Although the static thickness of the interfacial layer was found to increase with the molecular weight (MW), the influence of MW on segmental relaxation and the glass transition in this layer remains to be explored. In this Letter, we show an unexpected MW dependence of the interfacial properties in PNC with attractive polymer-nanoparticle interactions: the thickness of the interfacial layer with hindered segmental relaxation decreases as MW increases, in sharp contrast to theoretical predictions. Further analyses reveal a reduction in mass density of the interfacial layer with increasing MW, which can elucidate these unexpected dynamic effects. Our observations call for a significant revision of the current understandings of PNCs and suggest interesting ways to tailor their properties.

  2. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...... of plans into reality, but as an uncontrollable process in which multiple translations twist policies and plans from below. The significant question is therefore not whether plans succeed, but how they succeed....

  3. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...... of plans into reality, but as an uncontrollable process in which multiple translations twist policies and plans from below. The significant question is therefore not whether plans succeed, but how they succeed....

  4. Argentina: Nationality, Demography and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-22

    The Western Border It extends along the Andes ridge from the North of Argentina’s Catamarca Province to the intersection of the Beagle Channel with the...And the Chilean workers are not powerless. For example, during the Chilean-Argentine clash over the Beagle Channel (1980), coal production almost...and others. "Probiemas Argentinosy sus Soluciones", Ed. Pleamar, Buenos Aires, 1976. 3. Levene, H. " Historia Argentina", Ed. Pleamar, Buenos Aires

  5. Metropolization in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dagnino Pastore, José María; Canavese, Paula

    1996-01-01

    A partir de la regla de "orden-magnitud" el trabajo formula el concepto de "metropolización" (Smger) y explicita su relación con el índice de urbanización usual. Rastrea la evolución de la metropolización en Argentina a través de sus ocho censos, tanto para el conjunto de todos los centros urbanos como para tres subconjuntos: grandes, medianos y pequeños. El trabajo presenta después la idea de economías de "concentración geográfica" de las actividades (Lösch), explorando su relación -bajo sup...

  6. Argentina, ¿trabaja?

    OpenAIRE

    De Sena, Angélica; Chahbenderian, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    En la última década en la Argentina se implementaron una serie de políticas sociales denominadas socio-productivas, socio-laboral y socio-económicas con el objeto de mejorar la situación de desempleo o precariedad laboral de la población. Las mismas pueden considerarse un modo de compensación de los efectos de exclusión del régimen de producción y acumulación vigente. En este contexto en el año 2009 nace el Plan “Ingreso Social con Trabajo” desde el Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, que declar...

  7. gobierno dividido en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Alonso García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre el gobierno dividido en Argentina, y un análisis sobre las consecuencias negativas que tiene el binomio presidencialismo –multipartidismo para la gobernabilidad y el desarrollo institucional del país. El estudio del caso argentino permite comprobar que el gobierno en minoría no constituye un obstáculo para el desarrollo institucional, y que los problemas que de él se derivan, como el bloqueo legislativo y el conflicto institucional pueden solventarse, evitando la crisis. En este sentido, se analiza el papel jugado por los partidos provinciales, que han sido determinantes para evitar los problemas vinculados con el gobierno dividido

  8. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  9. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  10. Coccocypselum pulchellum (Rubiaceae, nuevo registro para Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita Coccocypselum pulchellum por primera vez para Argentina, en Predio Guaraní, Misiones. Esta es la tercera especie de Coccocypselum registrada para la flora de Argentina junto con C. hasslerianum y C. lanceolatum. Se incluyen descripciones, ilustraciones y una clave para reconocer las tres especies argentinas de Coccocypselum.

  11. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  12. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  13. Outbreak of swine influenza in Argentina reveals a non-contemporary human H3N2 virus highly transmissible among pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Javier A; Pena, Lindomar; Dibárbora, Marina; Rimondi, Agustina; Piñeyro, Pablo; Insarralde, Lucas; Quiroga, María A; Machuca, Mariana; Craig, Maria I; Olivera, Valeria; Chockalingam, Ashok; Perfumo, Carlos J; Perez, Daniel R; Pereda, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Sporadic outbreaks of human H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infections in swine populations have been reported in Asia, Europe and North America since 1970. In South America, serological surveys in pigs indicate that IAVs of the H3 and H1 subtypes are currently in circulation; however, neither virus isolation nor characterization has been reported. In November 2008, an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs consistent with swine influenza virus (SIV) infection was detected in Argentina. The current study describes the clinical epidemiology, pathology, and molecular and biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus isolate shared nucleotide identities of 96-98 % with H3N2 IAVs that circulated in humans from 2000 to 2003. Antigenically, sera from experimentally inoculated animals cross-reacted mainly with non-contemporary human-origin H3N2 influenza viruses. In an experimental infection in a commercial swine breed, the virus was of low virulence but was transmitted efficiently to contact pigs and caused severe disease when an infected animal acquired a secondary bacterial infection. This is the first report of a wholly human H3N2 IAV associated with clinical disease in pigs in South America. These studies highlight the importance of two-way transmission of IAVs and SIVs between pigs and humans, and call for enhanced influenza surveillance in the pig population worldwide.

  14. Serological based monitoring of a cohort of patients with chronic Chagas disease treated with benznidazole in a highly endemic area of northern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia L Niborski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate well-documented diagnostic antigens, named B13, 1F8 and JL7 recombinant proteins, as potential markers of seroconversion in treated chagasic patients. Prospective study, involving 203 patients treated with benznidazole, was conducted from endemic areas of northern Argentina. Follow-up was possible in 107 out of them and blood samples were taken for serology and PCR assays before and 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after treatment initiation. Reactivity against Trypanosoma cruzi lysate and recombinant antigens was measured by ELISA. The rate of decrease of antibody titers showed nonlinear kinetics with an abrupt drop within the first three months after initiation of treatment for all studied antigens, followed by a plateau displaying a low decay until the end of follow-up. At this point, anti-B13, anti-1F8 and anti-JL7 titers were relatively close to the cut-off line, while anti-T. cruzi antibodies still remained positive. At baseline, 60.8% (45/74 of analysed patients tested positive for parasite DNA by PCR and during the follow-up period in 34 out of 45 positive samples (75.5% could not be detected T. cruzi DNA. Our results suggest that these antigens might be useful as early markers for monitoring antiparasitic treatment in chronic Chagas disease.

  15. del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación, desde una perspectiva holística, buscó conocer en las familias de niños que asisten a los comedores comunitarios en un barrio capitalino de Santiago del Estero, Argentina, la red de apoyo que utilizan y los recursos que obtienen para poder resolver sus necesidades cotidianas. Es un estudio cuanticualitativo. Los datos fueron recolectados por encuestas parcialmente estructuradas y entrevistas en profundidad. El análisis de los datos se basó en identificación de frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para los datos cualitativos se usó el referencial fenomenológico heideggeriano. Los resultados indican que 48% de las familias tienen 4 a 5 elementos en la red de apoyo; 91% buscan alimentos, 84% salud y el 73% trabajo; esta reducida red les genera importantes dificultades al momento de satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. La falta de trabajo y baja escolaridad son los principales condicionantes de su aislamiento social.

  16. Hungry China Shops in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chinese investment is flooding into Argentina as the Asian giant expands its global commodity hunt from the raw materials used in industry to the foodstuffs needed to feed its 1.3 billion citizens. China's investment in Latin America hit USI15.6 billion during the 12-month period through the end of May, nearly three times greater than the year-ago period, consulting firm Deloitte said in a report.Of that amount, Brazil received about 60% and Argentina close to 40%.

  17. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Remondegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tick paralysis (TP occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described.

  18. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  19. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  20. Unexpected consequences of midwifery in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jane

    2015-11-01

    This article presents information from the Caring for the carers conference held at George Eliot Hospital in July 2015. For many midwives, feelings of stress are an unexpected consequence of rising birth rates, low staffing levels and negative organisational cultures, so our aim was that delegates would take away skills for 'surviving' in maternity services. The conference was the catalyst to a project at George Eliot NHS Trust to improve the wellbeing of staff so that they can develop a positive outlook towards the care which they offer. As part of the project, a toolkit for survival was produced which helps to prompt maternity workers to remember their own wellbeing. This project is continuing to grow and the results will be available next year.

  1. Support for an “A-type” Pangea reconstruction from high-fidelity Late Permian and Early to Middle Triassic paleomagnetic data from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, Mathew; van der Voo, Rob; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Tohver, Eric; Hendriks, Bart W. H.; Torsvik, Trond H.; Vizan, Haroldo; Dominguez, Ada

    2011-12-01

    A major disparity is observed between the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of Laurussia and Gondwana when the landmasses are re-assembled in a conventional "A-type" Pangea. This discrepancy has endured from the earliest paleomagnetic reconstructions of the supercontinent, and has prompted discussions of non-dipole paleomagnetic fields and alternative paleogeographic models. Here we report on a joint paleomagnetic-geochronologic study of Late Permian and Early to Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks from Argentina, which demonstrates support for an A-type model, without requiring modification to the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis. New SHRIMP U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar isotopic dating has reinforced the inferred age of the sequences, which we estimate at ˜264 Ma (Upper Choiyoi Group) and ˜245 Ma (Puesto Viejo Group). Field-stability tests demonstrate that the volcanic rocks are carrying early/primary magnetizations, which yield paleopoles: 73.7°S, 315.6°E, A95: 4.1°, N: 40 (Upper Choiyoi) and 76.7°S, 312.4°E, A95: 7.3°, N: 14 (Puesto Viejo). A comprehensive magnetic fabric analysis is used to evaluate structural restorations and to correct for magnetization anisotropy. The paleomagnetic results derived from volcaniclastic rocks are interpreted to be affected by inclination shallowing, and corrections are discussed. A comparison of these new results with the existing Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic data from Gondwana suggests the presence of widespread bias in the latter. We contend that such bias can explain the observed APWP disparity, at least for Late Permian-Middle Triassic time, and that alternative paleogeographic reconstructions or non-dipole paleomagnetic fields do not need to be invoked to resolve the discrepancy.

  2. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  3. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  4. Sessea regnellii (Solanaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez a Sessea regnelli para la flora argentina. Se presenta una descripción de la especie sobre la base de los ejemplares examinados, como así también ilustraciones y observaciones ecológicas.

  5. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  6. Phoenix Rising: The Helen Sawyer Hogg Telescope Finds a New Home in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, R. F.; Levato, O. H.

    2004-12-01

    For 26 years (1971-1997), the University of Toronto operated a very productive 60-cm optical telescope on Carnegie's Cerro Las Campanas in north-central Chile. Due to a series of cutbacks in subsidies through NSERC, Canada's research-funding agency, the doors were closed on 01 July 1997 (Canada Day). Following an agreement between astronomers at DDO (Canada) and CASLEO, Argentina, the telescope and dome were relocated on Cerro Burek in Parque Nacional El Leoncita, Argentina, just on the other side of the Andes from Ovalle, Chile. The new building is 3 meters higher and has a dozen ventilating windows. The result is unexpectedly superior seeing. The average point spread function is 0.7 arcseconds. During construction of the building and rebuilding of the telescope, all decisions were made with the intention of operating the telescope remotely, initially from the warmroom of the CASLEO 2.15 meter telescope and ultimately from Toronto and San Juan.

  7. The Consequential Problems of Unexpected Events for Human Element and Construction Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Khosravi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected events are unpredictable or beyond the control of human. The aim of this study was to identify the consequential problems of unexpected events faced by construction managers and project managers. In undertaking this investigation, we used an exploratory semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey method. The results of this research showed that the consequential problems of unexpected events were frequently wicked, wicked messes and messes types of problems. These wicked, wicked messes and messes problems grew rapidly by high behavioral complexity of human affected environment and high dynamic complexity of interdependent systems in construction projects. We discovered human behavioral problems as wicked kind of problems for human element could lead to noticeable effects on project manager, such as irresponsibility and making a bizarre decision. Also, we identified wicked messes and messes problems, including loss of reputation and litigation, for construction organizations could terminate the viability of organizations and projects. Furthermore, we found out that three most important factors for responding successfully to the consequential problems of unexpected events were: 1 organizations’ structure and support, 2 competent project manager and 3 immediate actions. The findings of the study revealed that leadership, communication skills and hard-working were essential attributes of the competent project manager in responding to the consequential problems of unexpected events. Lastly, this research suggests the development of managerial reactive skills and control of behavioral responses through learning practice as key components of the required approach that need further investigations in future researches.

  8. Theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Stepanovic, Michael; Young, Liane

    2016-08-01

    Theory of mind, or mental state reasoning, may be particularly useful for making sense of unexpected events. Here, we investigated unexpected behavior across both social and non-social contexts in order to characterize the precise role of theory of mind in processing unexpected events. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how people respond to unexpected outcomes when initial expectations were based on (i) an object's prior behavior, (ii) an agent's prior behavior and (iii) an agent's mental states. Consistent with prior work, brain regions for theory of mind were preferentially recruited when people first formed expectations about social agents vs non-social objects. Critically, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited greater activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which also discriminated in its spatial pattern of activity between unexpected and expected outcomes for social events. In contrast, social vs non-social events elicited greater activity in precuneus across both expected and unexpected outcomes. Finally, given prior information about an agent's behavior, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited an especially robust response in right temporoparietal junction, and the magnitude of this difference across participants correlated negatively with autistic-like traits. Together, these findings illuminate the distinct contributions of brain regions for theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

  9. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-04-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind with semiquantitative assessment of the following six parameters: (a) height of the follicular epithelium, (b) the amount of lymphocytes, (c) the presence of plasma cells, (d) hyperplastic follicular changes, (e) oxyphilic changes, and (f) fibrosis. The most striking result was the finding of extensive lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis, especially, is easily overlooked at autopsy as there are no macroscopic changes and often no prior symptoms or history of thyroid disease pointing towards this condition. Analyses of thyroid hormones are unreliable in predicting endocrine status in life. Routine microscopy of the thyroid gland is therefore advocated in cases of sudden unexpected death in order to diagnose thyroid disease, in particular silent (painless) thyroiditis.

  10. Ombud's Corner: unexpected turn in the conversation?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Regular informal conversations with colleagues play a very important part in weaving the fabric of team spirit. They allow us to build the working relationships that are vital to the success of our projects and to create an environment of good will that is instrumental in averting potential conflict or crises. However, sometimes they can come with unexpected surprises…   Eric and his colleagues always meet on Monday mornings to have coffee together, before starting the working week. This is a very privileged moment for the team when there are no formal barriers or professional concerns: Mary may talk about a film that she saw at the weekend, Eric often goes hiking in the Jura with his friend Stefan, Hans has always got a story about his son’s prowess on the school football team and occasionally there is a bit of special news such as Louisa’s recent marriage, Pierre’s baby’s christening or Claude’s daughter’s graduation&...

  11. An unexpected reaction of cyanothioacetamide: Novel preparation of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives under MWI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sen Fan; Xia Wang; Xiao Yan Li

    2008-01-01

    An unexpected multi-component reaction of cyanothioacetamide with aldehyde and aminopyrazole under MWI was reported. Through this reaction, a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives was prepared in high yields via simple operational procedure.

  12. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  13. FROM PIONS TO PROTON DECAY: Tales of the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    This account recalls early observations of elementary particles from cosmic ray experiments, using the nuclear emulsion technique. Discoveries in this field in the 1940s and 50s led to the development of high energy particle accelerators and associated detectors, resulting eventually in the observation of the quark and lepton constituents of matter and of the fundamental interactions between them, as described in the Standard Model. The concept of unification of the fundamental interactions led to the prediction of proton decay, and although this has not been observed, the unwanted background due to atmospheric neutrino interactions led to the discovery of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass, and the first indications of new physics beyond that of the Standard Model. In all this research, unexpected developments have often played an important role.

  14. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, S; Smith, A B

    2012-01-22

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

  15. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to

  16. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7

  17. 42 CFR 493.861 - Standard; Unexpected antibody detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure...

  18. Construcción de ciudadanía. El caso de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Alberto Masi Rius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la dinámica de los procesos migratorios de países limítrofes en la Argentina contemporánea. Analiza, en primera instancia, el alto grado de vulnerabilidad social que los inmigrantes y comunidades latinoamericanas padecen en Argentina, autoconsiderado un país con una fuerte matriz europea de pensamiento. En segundo lugar, reflexiona sobre las estrategias organizativas de las principales colectividades de inmigrantes y la modalidad en que las organizaciones latinoamericanas en Argentina participan en el proceso de construcción de ciudadanía, en un contexto adverso en términos políticos, sociales y económicos.Palabras clave: Ciudadanía social, inmigración latinoamericana en Argentina, redes de inmigrantes___________________________Abstract:The investigation focuses the dynamics of the migratory processes of bordering countries in the contemporary Argentina. First it analyzes the high degree of social vulnerability that immigrants and Latin-American communities suffer in Argentina, autoconsidered a country with a strong European style of thought. Secondly, he thinks about the organizational strategies of the immigrants' main collectivities and the modality in which the Latin-American organizations in Argentina take part in the process of construction of citizenship.Keywords: Social citizenship, Latin-American immigration in Argentina, immigrants' networks

  19. An Unexpected and Efficient Synthesis of Open-chain Derivatives of Bistetronic Acid under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Feng; MA Ning; ZHOU Dianxiang; ZHANG Ge; JIANG Bo; TU Shujiang

    2009-01-01

    An unexpected and efficient synthesis of novel open-chain derivatives of bistetronic acid has been successfully achieved in glyclol under microwave irradiation (MW).This method has the prominent advantages of short reaction time,high yield,operational simplicity as well as environmental friendliness.

  20. Unexpected relationships of substructured populations in Chinese Locusta migratoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ya-Jie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly migratory species are usually expected to have minimal population substructure because strong gene flow has the effect of homogenizing genetic variation over geographical populations, counteracting random drift, selection and mutation. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria belongs to a monotypic genus, and is an infamous pest insect with exceptional migratory ability – with dispersal documented over a thousand kilometers. Its distributional area is greater than that of any other locust or grasshopper, occurring in practically all the temperate and tropical regions of the eastern hemisphere. Consequently, minimal population substructuring is expected. However, in marked contrast to its high dispersal ability, three geographical subspecies have been distinguished in China, with more than nine being biologically and morphologically identified in the world. Such subspecies status has been under considerable debate. Results By multilocus microsatellite genotyping analysis, we provide ample genetic evidence for strong population substructure in this highly migratory insect that conforms to geography. More importantly, our genetic data identified an unexpected cryptic subdivision and demonstrated a strong affiliation of the East China locusts to those in Northwest/Northern China. The migratory locusts in China formed three distinct groups, viz. (1 the Tibetan group, comprising locusts from Tibet and nearby West China high mountain regions; this is congruent with the previously recognized Tibetan subspecies, L. m. tibetensis; (2 the South China group, containing locusts from the Hainan islands; this corresponds to the Southeast Asia oriental tropical subspecies L. m. manilensis; (3 the North China group, including locusts from the Northwest and Northern China (the Asiatic subspecies L. m. migratoria, Central China and Eastern China regions. Therefore, the traditional concept on Locusta subspecies status established from

  1. Mida õpetab Argentina finantskriis? / Karsten Staehr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staehr, Karsten, 1962-

    2002-01-01

    Norra majandusanalüütik kirjeldab Argentina majanduspoliitikat, analüüsib tehtud vigu ning hoiatab avatud majandusega Eestit võimalike tulevaste välisshokkide eest. Diagramm: SKP kasv ja üleüldine riigieelarve tasakaal 1991-2001 Argentinas

  2. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  3. Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in unexpected ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Barred tiger salamanders [Ambystoma mavortium (Baird, 1850)] exhibit two trophic morphologies; a typical and a cannibalistic morph. Cannibalistic morphs, distinguished by enlarged vomerine teeth, wide heads, slender bodies, and cannibalistic tendencies, are often found where conspecifics occur at high density. During 2012 and 2013, 162 North Dakota wetlands and lakes were sampled for salamanders. Fifty-one contained A. mavortium populations; four of these contained cannibalistic morph individuals. Two populations with cannibalistic morphs occurred at sites with high abundances of conspecifics. However, the other two populations occurred at sites with unexpectedly low conspecific but high fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] abundances. Further, no typical morphs were observed in either of these later two populations, contrasting with earlier research suggesting cannibalistic morphs only occur at low frequencies in salamander populations. Another anomaly of all four populations was the occurrence of cannibalistic morphs in permanent water sites, suggesting their presence was due to factors other than faster growth allowing them to occupy ephemeral habitats. Therefore, our findings suggest environmental factors inducing the cannibalistic morphism may be more complex than previously thought.

  4. TUC 510: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con alta tolerancia a las virosis presentes en el noroeste argentino TUC 510: New variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with high tolerance to viruses in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    to production. The objective of this work is to present a new cultivar of black dry edible bean that has high levels of tolerance to these viruses and that could replace commercial varieties already grown in Northwestern Argentina. In 1995, eight advanced lines of black dry edible bean from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT were introduced. These were tested in comparison with commercial controls NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 and TUC 500. From 1997 to 2000, the lines were evaluated in yield comparative trials in Monte Redondo and La Cocha (Tucuman and Campichuelo (Salta. In every trial, a randomized complete block design was applied, and tests of individual variance and homogeneity of variance (Levenne's test were conducted. Each plot consisted of four six-meter-long lines, set at 0,70 m away from each other, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. Assessment parameters were: a during the whole cycle: virus complex tolerance and vegetative and reproductive adaptation, and b during harvest: yield (kg/ ha and commercial quality. Genotype TUC 510 was found to exhibit the highest yield levels, both general and particular in each location, with an average rate of 1470 kg/ha. Moreover, this cultivar was outstanding for its tolerance to BGMV and BDMV (3.0 and its capacity of adaptation (3.0 to the evaluated environmental conditions. These features justify the official registration of TUC 500 as a new variety of black dry edible bean.

  5. Unexpected Expectations The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Wapner, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected Expectations: The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball explores how paradoxical challenges involving mathematical expectation often necessitate a reexamination of basic premises. The author takes you through mathematical paradoxes associated with seemingly straightforward applications of mathematical expectation and shows how these unexpected contradictions may push you to reconsider the legitimacy of the applications. The book requires only an understanding of basic algebraic operations and includes supplemental mathematical background in chapter appendices. After a history o

  6. en Argentina en los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fabián Delfini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los efectos de la implantación de las políticas económicas neoliberales desde 1990 en Argentina sobre la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza, en un marco en que el crecimiento económico no provocó disminuciones sustantivas sobre las variables en estudio. Se emplea el concepto de “estancamiento dinámico ” para analizar las variables propuestas, pues éste sí permite dar cuenta de las regulaciones vigentes durante la década en estudio.

  7. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  8. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, M. [CONICET-UNS. 12 de Octubre y San Juan, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  9. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Hebe M; Lozada, Mariana; Olivera, Nelda L

    2012-01-01

    The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs.

  10. Molecular evidence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in reptiles in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2014-01-01

    In the central area of Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections in reptiles are still unknown. A nested polymerase chain reaction of the rpoB gene was used to detect C. pneumoniae in cloacal swab samples from 19 reptiles at a recreational area. Eleven (57.89%) reptiles were positive; the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of this bacterium. Neither C. pneumoniae DNA in the caregivers pharynges nor IgM antibodies anti-C. pneumoniae in their serum samples were detected; however, caregivers presented very high titers of IgG anti-C. pneumoniae. The detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in reptiles demonstrated the circulation of this agent in the recreational area and could be responsible for the exacerbated immune response of the personnel handling the reptiles, which suggests a potential zoonotic cycle. This is the first report of the detection of C. pneumoniae in reptiles in Argentina.

  11. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  12. [The health system of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  13. Astrophysics: Unexpected X-ray flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Two sources of highly energetic flares have been discovered in archival X-ray data of 70 nearby galaxies. These flares have an undetermined origin and might represent previously unknown astrophysical phenomena. See Letter p.356

  14. High-resolution images above the Pampean flat slab of Argentina (31-32°S) from local receiver functions: Implications on regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Jean-Baptiste; Pérez Luján, Sofía; Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan; Rocher, Sebastián; Zandt, George

    2016-09-01

    In the flat slab region of the South Central Andes (∼31-32°S), geological observations suggest that the regional crustal structure is inherited from the accretion of different terranes during the Ordovician. These structures were later reactivated, first in extension during the Triassic and later in compression during the Andean uplift since the Miocene. Seismological observations confirmed that those fault structures extend to depth with décollement levels that accommodate current crustal shortening in the region. In order to get better insight on the regional tectonics we computed higher frequency receiver functions (RF) from local slab seismicity of intermediate ∼100 km depth. Using a common conversion point (CCP) stacking method we obtained cross sections showing high vertical resolution crustal structure at the transition between the Precordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. In addition we performed a joint inversion of our high frequency RFs with surface wave data from ambient noise tomography allowing us to constrain absolute seismic wave velocities. Our higher resolution images reveal more structural details down to a depth of 80 km and laterally over the flat slab in good agreement with previous studies. Our results help to better identify very shallow discontinuities in seismic velocities. Recent petrological analyses combined with our high-resolution RF structure correlates with a crustal mafic composition and partial eclogitization in the lower crust. We observe a shift in the crustal structure between the Precordillera (east) and the Frontal Cordillera (west). Regional seismicity and previously determined focal mechanisms superimposed over our images indicate this shifting is a thrust structure extending down to a depth of 40 km. Our results suggest the presence of a master fault between the Cuyania (Western Precordillera) and Chilenia (Frontal Cordillera) terranes that probably accommodates the crustal deformation in the Pampean flat slab region

  15. Unexpected Patterns of Plastic Energy Allocation in Stochastic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Barbara; Taborsky, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    When environmental conditions vary stochastically, individuals accrue fitness benefits by exhibiting phenotypic plasticity. Here we analyze a general dynamic-programming model describing an individual’s optimal energy allocation in a stochastic environment. After maturation, individuals repeatedly decide how to allocate incoming energy between reproduction and maintenance. We analyze the optimal fraction of energy invested in reproduction and the resultant degree of plasticity in dependence on environmental variability and predictability. Our analyses reveal unexpected patterns of optimal energy allocation. When energy availability is low, all energy is allocated to reproduction, although this implies that individuals will not survive after reproduction. Above a certain threshold of energy availability, the optimal reproductive investment decreases to a minimum and even vanishes entirely in highly variable environments. With further improving energy availability, optimal reproductive investment gradually increases again. Costs of plasticity affect this allocation pattern only quantitatively. Our results show that optimal reproductive investment does not increase monotonically with growing energy availability and that small changes in energy availability can lead to major variations in optimal energy allocation. Our results help to unify two apparently opposing predictions from life-history theory, that organisms should increase reproductive investment both with improved environmental conditions and when conditions deteriorate (“terminal investment”). PMID:19196158

  16. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  17. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kanneganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  18. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, María A.; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Squiquera, Luis; Barreda, Victoria; Rodriguez Fermepín, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Rey, Jorge; Picconi, María; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, among MSM from Buenos Aires (2007–2009). Methods Responding Driven Sampling was used for recruitment of MSM. Participants completed a structured web-based survey and provided biological samples. Results A total of 496 MSM were studied for HIV, HBV, HCV, and T pallidum infections. Chlamydia and HPV diagnoses were only performed in 98 and 109 participants, respectively. Prevalence of HIV was 17.3%, HBV 22.9%, HCV 7.5%, T pallidum 20.5%, HPV 83.5%, and C trachomatis 1.7%. In the year prior to the evaluation, 71% of the participants had had sex with men and/or trans and women (MMW) while 29% had not had sex with women (MM). Comparing MM to MMW, prevalence of HIV (30.7% vs. 11.9%, pHIV incidence (5.60 vs. 4.28 per 100 persons-year, p = 0.032). HPV genotypes 16, 6, and 11 were the most frequently found; 40.7% of the MSM had more than one genotype and one high risk genotype was detected in 43.6% of participants. Conclusions Both MM and MMW are at high risk of infection for HIV and other STIs. Rates of HIV, HBV, T pallidum and HPV infections are higher in the MM group. PMID:22768137

  19. Sistema de salud de Argentina The health system of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belló

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS, que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll

  20. Vaginal Evisceration: An Unexpected Complication of Conization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ is routinely performed for the management of high grade intracervical neoplasia (CIN. Several uncommon complications have been described, including postoperative peritonitis, pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery, and bowel fistula. We report a unique case of postoperative vaginal evisceration and the subsequent management. Case. A 73-years-old woman underwent LLETZ for high grade CIN. On postoperative day 3, she was admitted for small bowel evisceration through the vagina. Surgical management was based on combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach and consisted in bowel inspection and reinstatement, peritoneal washing, and dehiscence repair. Conclusions. Vaginal evisceration is a rare but potentially serious complication of pelvic surgery. This case report is to make clinicians aware of such complication following LLETZ and its management.

  1. Anticipating Serendipity. Preparing for the Unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe Thomas J.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serendipity—using "fortunate accidents" for learning or discovery—is a valued if too infrequent route to progress. Although serendipity cannot be scheduled or relied upon, one can develop skills, flexibility and habits of mind that make the recognition and incorporation of serendipitous discoveries more likely. This paper overviews at a high level a program of activities and concepts aimed at preparing modern professionals and communities to leverage the fortunate occurrences they encounter.

  2. Argentina: entre o Mercosul e a Alca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura mostrar que a Argentina não está numa encruzilhada na sua política externa, tendo que escolher entre Mercosul ou Alca. Ao contrário, a Argentina vê o Mercosul como um caminho que leva à Alca, afirmando uma posição que se tornou possível depois da confluência de outros fatores, como a posição brasileira frente a Alca e o modelo de integração regional proposta para o Mercosul.This article seeks to show that Argentina is not in crossroads in your foreign policy, having to choose between Mercosur and FTAA. In contrast, Argentina sees Mercosur as a way that leads to FTAA, affirming a position that become possible after a confluence of others factors, as the Brazilian position front Alca and the model of regional integration proposal for Mercosur.

  3. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  4. Evaluating impacts of unexpected earning on precision of profit estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision in earning report has always been a concern among investors, and when there are some negative adjustments on earning, investor may find it challenging to decide whether they should hold or sell their shares. This paper studies the impact of earning precision and unexpected earning adjustments on firms whose share are listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The proposed study of this paper considers three hypotheses including whether earning precision has negative relationship with unexpected profit, whether it has a negative with unexpected decline in profit and finally, whether, in prediction on negative news compared with positive news, there is a negative relationship between stronger earnings forecast and precision of earning forecast. The study gathers the necessary data from official news released for some firms whose shares were active over the period 2003-2012. The study uses two regression models and the results of regression analysis have confirmed all hypotheses of this survey.

  5. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  6. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...... generates emissions of N2O. The large quantity of substances, sprayed by terrestrial and aerial means, has negative impacts on biodiversity, water, soil, and human and animal health. The intensive production of soybeans also leads to social impacts, including loss of livelihoods and food sovereignty...

  7. Challenges in pulmonary hypertension: managing the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Karen M; Palazzini, Massimiliano

    2015-12-01

    The diverse challenges associated with diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary hypertension are illustrated in this case-based review. Case 1 describes a patient diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with right heart failure and active systemic lupus erythematosus who was effectively treated with an up-front triple combination of PAH therapies and immunosuppressive therapy. In case 2, a diagnosis of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease was reached after a combined approach of clinical suspicion, physical examination, and invasive and noninvasive tests. Cautious PAH therapy and high-dose diuretics provided clinical benefit in this patient and served as a bridge to lung transplantation. These cases highlight the need for ongoing follow-up of patients with PAH, comprising frequent assessment of treatment success and continued diagnostic evaluation.

  8. Challenges in pulmonary hypertension: managing the unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Olsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The diverse challenges associated with diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary hypertension are illustrated in this case-based review. Case 1 describes a patient diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH with right heart failure and active systemic lupus erythematosus who was effectively treated with an up-front triple combination of PAH therapies and immunosuppressive therapy. In case 2, a diagnosis of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease was reached after a combined approach of clinical suspicion, physical examination, and invasive and noninvasive tests. Cautious PAH therapy and high-dose diuretics provided clinical benefit in this patient and served as a bridge to lung transplantation. These cases highlight the need for ongoing follow-up of patients with PAH, comprising frequent assessment of treatment success and continued diagnostic evaluation.

  9. [The ACCOMPLISH trial: are results really unexpected?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

    2009-01-07

    The ACCOMPLISH trial consists of a randomized morbidity-mortality study involving 11506 hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, randomly allocated to a fixed dose combination containing an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (B, benazepril) and either a calcium antagonist (A, amlodipine) or a diuretic (HCTZ, hydrochlorothiazide). The target blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was achieved after a 6 month titration period in 75.4% of patients receiving B+A, versus 72.4% in those on B + HCTZ. Over a mean follow-up of 3 years, the B + A drug regimen was found to reduce significantly more effectively the relative risk cardiovascular mortality (-20%), fatal and non fatal myocardial infarction (-22%) and coronary revascularization (-14%), appearing therefore particularly effective to prevent complications due to myocardial ischemia.

  10. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  11. Successful operation of a cooperative SLR station of China and Argentina in San Juan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; E ALONSO; XIANG QingGe; HUANG DongPing; YIN ZhiQiang; LIU WeiDong; E ACTIS; R PODESTA; WANG TanQiang; GUO TangYong; QU Feng; A M PACHECO; AA GONZALEZ

    2008-01-01

    We introduced the observations and researches using a Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system with high precision,which was designed and made in China and installed in the Observatory of San Juan Uni-versity,Argentina,the capability of the system and the achievement of the cooperative procedure be-tween China and Argentina.The SLR station in San Juan,set up by China and Argentina,is quite sig-nificant for improving the distribution of SLR stations and enhancing the orbital coverage of the whole earth.Since the SLR system started to work in the Observatory of San Juan University in the beginning of 2006,the operation is rather good,and rich data with high precision have been obtained.Further plan of the cooperation for the near future is also presented.

  12. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-22

    GABARRUS TRANSLATED BY: LT GREGORY STOVER, USNR-R NISC TRANSLATION UNIT 0166 SOURCE: TECNOLOGIA MILITAR, NO. 4, 1983; PP. 50, 53-54; SPANISH DTIC S ELECTE...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54

  13. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Fernández Zambón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad industrial, de cualquier época, tiene una gran importancia para el hombre, pues al igual que el resto de los procesos económicos, es el reflejo del accionar cotidiano de la sociedad sobre el espacio. Considerando esto, el presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar al patrimonio industrial como recurso para organizar rutas turísticas que permitan en algunos casos recuperar espacios industriales abandonados o usar establecimientos industriales en funcionamiento pero que pueden incorporarse a este tipo de desarrollo turístico. La creación de rutas turísticas puede permitir la reactivación de las economías locales, por constituirse en definitiva en una nueva actividad económica. Para lograr esto es necesario articular el sector público y el privado. De esta forma es posible, a través de la creación de rutas turísticas del patrimonio industrial, generar un desarrollo turístico local sustentable.

  14. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    FIT. This can prevent serious complications. Restricting dietary fructose may give relief from symptoms in a high proportion of patients with this disorder.

  15. Openness to the unexpected: Our Pathways to Careers in a Federal Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kurt R.; Bunnell, David B.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Many fisheries professionals may not be in the job they originally envisioned for themselves when they began their undergraduate studies. Rather, their current positions could be the result of unexpected, opportunistic, or perhaps even “lucky” open doors that led them down an unexpected path. In many cases, a mentor helped facilitate the unforeseen trajectory. We offer three unique stories about joining a federal fisheries research laboratory, from the perspective of a scientist, a joint manager-scientist, and a manager. We also use our various experiences to form recommendations that should help the next generation of fisheries professionals succeed in any stop along their journey, including being open to opportunities, setting high expectations, and finding a strong and supportive team environment to work in.

  16. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  17. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  18. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...)] Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Institution of five-year reviews concerning the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico. AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the suspended investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead...

  19. Food-borne botulism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebagliati, Victoria; Philippi, Romina; Tornese, Mariela; Paiva, Analia; Rossi, Laura; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-05-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Although the disease is uncommon it is a cause of great concern due to its high rate of mortality. Food-borne outbreaks of botulism occur worldwide and require immediate public health attention and acute care resources. Analysis of outbreaks showed that the food products most often involved were fermented fish products in Alaska; home-canned food, oil preservation and restaurant sauce in the rest of the United States (US) and in London and; and home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols in Argentina. The diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food. Botulism must be immediately identified as even one case suggests the start of an epidemic and should be treated as a public health emergency. Therefore, the purpose of the following review is to recognize the risks associated with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods, and to encourage prevention by seeking to make all public health professionals aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  20. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  1. Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-05

    Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion.

  2. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  3. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Identifying risk and preventing mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhatoo, Samden; Noebels, Jeffrey; Whittemore, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Premature death among individuals with epilepsy is higher than in the general population, and sudden unexpected death is the most common cause of this mortality. A new multisite collaborative research consortium, the Center for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) Research (CSR), has received major funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to examine the possible biologic mechanisms underlying this potentially preventable comorbidity and develop predictive biomarkers for interventions that could lower SUDEP incidence. This inaugural report describes the structure of the CSR, its priorities for human and experimental research, and the strategic collaborations and advanced tools under development to reduce this catastrophic outcome of epilepsy. The CSR Partners Program will work closely with committed volunteer agencies, industry, and academic institutions to accelerate and communicate these advances to the professional and lay community.

  4. Unexpected but Incidental Positive Outcomes Predict Real-World Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A Ross; Fleming, Stephen M; Glimcher, Paul W

    2016-03-01

    Positive mood can affect a person's tendency to gamble, possibly because positive mood fosters unrealistic optimism. At the same time, unexpected positive outcomes, often called prediction errors, influence mood. However, a linkage between positive prediction errors-the difference between expected and obtained outcomes-and consequent risk taking has yet to be demonstrated. Using a large data set of New York City lottery gambling and a model inspired by computational accounts of reward learning, we found that people gamble more when incidental outcomes in the environment (e.g., local sporting events and sunshine) are better than expected. When local sports teams performed better than expected, or a sunny day followed a streak of cloudy days, residents gambled more. The observed relationship between prediction errors and gambling was ubiquitous across the city's socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods and was specific to sports and weather events occurring locally in New York City. Our results suggest that unexpected but incidental positive outcomes influence risk taking.

  5. Fuzzy Concepts in the Detection of Unexpected Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bíla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes three essential classes of unexpected situations (UX1, UX2, UX3, and concentrates attention on UX3 detection. Theconcepts of a special Model of System of Situations (MSS and a Model of a System of Faults (MSF are introduced. An original method isproposed for detecting unexpected situations indicating a violation of a proper invariant of MSS (MSF. The presented approach offers apromising application for starting and ending phases of complex processes, for knowledge discoveries on data and knowledge basesdeveloped with incomplete experience, and for modeling communication processes with unknown (disguised communication subjects. Thepaper also presents a way to utilize ill-separable situations for UX3 detection. The paper deals with the conceptual background for detectingUX3 situations, recapitulates recent results in this field and opens the ways for further research.

  6. Study on Unexpected Cycloaddition Reactions of Imines with THF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An unexpected tricyclic compound 2,3,3a,4,5,9b-hexahydrophenylfuro[3,2-c] quinoline 4 and its aromatized product 6 were obtained when the cycloaddtion of imine 1 and substituted norbornene 2 was carried out in THF with a catalytic amount of boron trifluoride. The structures of the products were determined by spectral data, and the mechanism of reaction was substantiated by the imitation reaction.

  7. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  8. Hepatitis C in Argentina: epidemiology and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaite LA; Marciano S; Galdame OA; Gadano AC

    2014-01-01

    Luis Alejandro Gaite, Sebastián Marciano, Omar Andrés Galdame, Adrián Carlos GadanoHepatology Unit, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in Argentina, where from 1.5% to 2.5% of adults are infected. Most of the infections were acquired 30–50 years ago. It is estimated that more than half of infected individuals are not aware of their infe...

  9. de la Argentina y notas nomenclaturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma E. Rúgolo de Agrasar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera revisión del género Deyeuxia para la Argentina se reconocen 58 taxones nativos de América, tres de ellos son endémicos de la Argentina, y los restantes también crecen en Bolivia, Brasil y Chile. Se describen tres nuevos taxones para la ciencia: Deyeuxia alba subsp. breviaristata (Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay; Deyeuxia heterophylla var. puberilemma (Perú; Deyeuxia trichodonta var. hirsuta (Argentina: Salta. Se establece un nuevo nombre: Deyeuxia nana, para en Agrostis caespitosa. Las siguientes once entidades constituyen nuevas citas para Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Ecuador: Deyeuxia brevifolia var. brevifolia y Deyeuxia brevifolia var. expansa (Chile; Deyeuxia cabrerae var. cabrerae, D. cabrerae var. aristulata (Chile; D. cabrerae var. trichopoda (Chile; Deyeuxia curta (Ecuador; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; D. diemii (Chile; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; Deyeuxia hackelii (Chile; Deyeuxia minima (Argentina y Ecuador; Deyeuxia sclerantha (Ecuador; Deyeuxia spicigera var. spicigera (Chile; Deyeuxia spicigera var. cephalotes (Argentina y Deyeuxia trichodonta var. trichodonta (Bolivia. Se establecen cinco nuevas combinaciones: Deyeuxia reitzii, Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa., Deyeuxia rupestris var. minor, D. tarmensis var. macrochaeta y Deyeuxia velutina var. nardifolia. Se adicionan nuevos sinónimos en las siguientes entidades: Deyeuxia heterophylla (Calama grostis mulleri, Calamagrostis macbridei; Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa (Calamagrostis leonardii, Calamagrostis longearistata f. pilosa y Calamagrostis epigeios (Calamagrostis chilensis. Esta revisión incluye una evaluación crítica de los caracteres morfológicos (algunos estudiados con MEB con valor taxonómico para Deyeuxia y sus especies aquí estudiadas, como también una discusión de las relaciones de Deyeuxia con sus géneros más afines. Se presentan en detalle consideraciones nomenclaturales sobre taxones problemáticos, claves dicotómicas para distinguir Deyeuxia de

  10. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-12-16

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  11. Mining unexpected temporal associations: applications in detecting adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huidong Warren; Chen, Jie; He, Hongxing; Williams, Graham J; Kelman, Chris; O'Keefe, Christine M

    2008-07-01

    In various real-world applications, it is very useful mining unanticipated episodes where certain event patterns unexpectedly lead to outcomes, e.g., taking two medicines together sometimes causing an adverse reaction. These unanticipated episodes are usually unexpected and infrequent, which makes existing data mining techniques, mainly designed to find frequent patterns, ineffective. In this paper, we propose unexpected temporal association rules (UTARs) to describe them. To handle the unexpectedness, we introduce a new interestingness measure, residual-leverage, and develop a novel case-based exclusion technique for its calculation. Combining it with an event-oriented data preparation technique to handle the infrequency, we develop a new algorithm MUTARC to find pairwise UTARs. The MUTARC is applied to generate adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from real-world healthcare administrative databases. It reliably shortlists not only six known ADRs, but also another ADR, flucloxacillin possibly causing hepatitis, which our algorithm designers and experiment runners have not known before the experiments. The MUTARC performs much more effectively than existing techniques. This paper clearly illustrates the great potential along the new direction of ADR signal generation from healthcare administrative databases.

  12. Erythemal ultraviolet irradiance in Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palancar, G.G.; Toselli, B.M. [INFIQC-CONICET, Cordoba (Argentina). Dpto. de Fisico Quimica

    2002-07-01

    Biologically active solar Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV{sub ery}, 280-315nm) is monitored in Cordoba, Argentina (31{sup o}24'S, 64{sup o}11'W, 400m a.s.l) using the Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) pyranometer, model UVB-1. Measurements of the solar broadband UV-B irradiances are presented for the period of November 1998-December 1999. The site selected for the measurements represents semi-urban conditions and is along the most frequent wind direction (NE-SW) with reference to downtown, following the direction of prevailing winds. For clear sky days, the measurements are in good agreement with results of a radiative transfer model. However, examination of the record of solar ultraviolet measurements showed substantial reduction of the UV-B radiation on days with high levels of air pollution, which are associated with high concentration of particulate matter. Particulate matter is the only pollutant that surpasses the air quality standard several times during the year in Cordoba City. In this work, we investigate the daily variation of the UV-B radiation to assess its response to air pollution, physical variables, and meteorological factors. The main findings are that tropospheric aerosol is the most important UV-B attenuating factor (up to 40%), whereas tropospheric ozone and other UV absorber air pollutants like SO{sub 2} are not important. The results are consistent with the fact that pollution in Cordoba has mostly primary character with CO, NO{sub x}, and PM{sub 10} being the most important air pollutants. The UV-B radiation correlates well with simultaneous records of total radiation, but the reduction factors reflect stronger effects on the UV radiation than on total radiation. (Author)

  13. Attentional gain and processing capacity limits predict the propensity to neglect unexpected visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papera, Massimiliano; Richards, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous allocation of attentional resources allows the visual system to encode and maintain representations of stimuli in visual working memory (VWM). However, limits in the processing capacity to allocate resources can prevent unexpected visual stimuli from gaining access to VWM and thereby to consciousness. Using a novel approach to create unbiased stimuli of increasing saliency, we investigated visual processing during a visual search task in individuals who show a high or low propensity to neglect unexpected stimuli. When propensity to inattention is high, ERP recordings show a diminished amplification concomitantly with a decrease in theta band power during the N1 latency, followed by a poor target enhancement during the N2 latency. Furthermore, a later modulation in the P3 latency was also found in individuals showing propensity to visual neglect, suggesting that more effort is required for conscious maintenance of visual information in VWM. Effects during early stages of processing (N80 and P1) were also observed suggesting that sensitivity to contrasts and medium-to-high spatial frequencies may be modulated by low-level saliency (albeit no statistical group differences were found). In accordance with the Global Workplace Model, our data indicate that a lack of resources in low-level processors and visual attention may be responsible for the failure to "ignite" a state of high-level activity spread across several brain areas that is necessary for stimuli to access awareness. These findings may aid in the development of diagnostic tests and intervention to detect/reduce inattention propensity to visual neglect of unexpected stimuli.

  14. China Looks to Argentina to Grow Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ It might sound perverse for a Chinese company to go halfway round the globe to grow soya and other crops on unproductive land in a dry corner of Argentina. Yet that is what Beidahuang Group, a state-owned farm company based in the north-eastern Chinese province of Heilongjiang, is doing in the Pa-tagonian province of Rio Negro.

  15. Education Reform Brings New Challenges to Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    A description of recent changes in Argentina's system of education looks at underlying policy, the redesigned schooling system, emphasis placed on English language instruction, the teacher training system, and problems in the process for assuring an adequate flow of qualified English teachers. (MSE)

  16. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  17. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  18. Argentina : trade patterns and challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Anos-Casero, Paloma; Rollo, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Argentinean export growth was impressive during the recent economic boom (2003-2007). However, decomposing export growth reveals that the extensive margin (increases in exports of existing products to existing markets) dominates, while the intensive margin (increases in exports of new products or new markets) contributes little to export growth. Argentina's trade product concentration has ...

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  20. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  1. [Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Colomar, Mercedes; Gibbons, Luz; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women > or = 18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay), during antenatal visits in public hospitals of large urban regions; 44% of the women in Argentina and 53% in Uruguay had been or were regular smokers. 11% of the surveyed women in Argentina and 18% in Uruguay continued smoking during pregnancy. In both countries, the proportion of women who lived with smokers, allowed smoking at home, and were regularly or always exposed to tobacco smoke indoors, were 49%, 46% and 20% in the subgroup of women who never smoked, 67%, 60% and 32% in those who quit, and 78%, 75% and 52% in those who continued smoking, respectively. The study confirms a serious public health problem in both countries, and documents that environmental exposure persists in subgroups of women, even in those who quit smoking. It is important that the public health sector should provide access to effective programs for smoking cessation, to women who smoke during pregnancy. For the development of a new program, any intervention intending to have at least a moderate and sustainable success, it should seriously consider including components targeting the smoking environment of the pregnant women who smoke.

  2. Aphididae (Hemiptera on ornamental plants in Córdoba (Argentina Aphididae (Hemiptera en plantas ornamentales de Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Szpeiner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In 30 surveys across Cordoba city and surroundings (Argentina I recorded, from November 2001 to May 2002, a total of 109 ornamental plants infested with aphid colonies. Surveys were conducted in the local botanical garden as well as homestead gardens and nurseries. Seventeen species of aphids were identified, 4 of which are new species in the area, from 47 ornamental plants. In a total of 59 plant/aphid associations, 38 new associations were found. I present the first record of aphids colonizing Cactaceae in Argentina. Most aphid colonies were medium and a high proportion (more than 40% showed alate individuals. The most frequent aphid species, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch were especially associated with the most frequent damages: curled leaves or buds and necrosis, respectively. More than 30% of aphid colonies were attended by ants. Camponotus Mayr and Prenolepis Mayr were the ant genus attending the highest number of aphid species.En 30 censos realizados en la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores (Argentina se registraron, entre noviembre de 2001 y mayo de 2002, un total de 109 plantas ornamentales infestadas de colonias de áfidos. Los censos fueron realizados en jardines, viveros y el jardín botánico de la ciudad. Se identificaron 47 especies de plantas ornamentales infestadas con 17 especies de áfidos (4 nuevas en el área. Se establecen 59 relaciones áfido/planta, de las cuales 38 son nuevas. Se obtuvo el primer registro de áfidos que colonizan Cactaceae en Argentina. La mayoría de las colonias de áfidos fueron medianas y una alta proporción (más del 40 % mostró individuos alados. Aphis gossypii Glover y Aphis craccivora Koch, fueron las especies más frecuentes y generaban los daños más conspicuos, como el enrollamiento y la necrosis foliar. Más del 30% de las colonias estuvieron atendidas por hormigas, siendo Camponotus Mayr y Prenolepis Mayr los géneros de hormigas que frecuentaban el mayor número de

  3. Signs of illness preceding sudden unexpected death in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, R. E.; Fleming, P J; Azaz, Y; Rudd, P. T.

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether signs of illness reported by parents can be used to identify babies at risk from the sudden infant death syndrome. DESIGN--A two year prospective case-controlled study based in a geographically defined area. SETTING--Four health districts in Avon and north Somerset. SUBJECTS--Babies who had died suddenly and unexpectedly aged between 1 week and 2 years (index babies) and two control babies for each index baby selected from the same health visitor's list and mat...

  4. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  5. Unexpected death holograms: Animitas urban appeal in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautaro Ojeda Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at performing an integral analysis of the relation between popular religiousness and urban space in Chilean animitas [little shrines] practices. In order to do this, we propose a multipurpose analysis scheme, holding the concept of "unexpected death hologram". This scheme puts forward three supplementary classifications: animita as a holographic subject, as a holographic object and as a holographic place. Finally, these three classifications supplemented by interviews and topologic analyses show almost all the sociospatial factors present in this practice, accounting for the urban importance that this type of popular practice has

  6. [Hereditary angioedema. Treatment of acute attacks in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrán, Alejandro; Malbrán, Eloisa; Menéndez, Alejandra; Fernández Romero, Diego S

    2014-01-01

    In the world, hereditary angioedema (HAE) affects 1 every 50000 persons. It is characterized by highly disabling and recurrent episodes of cutaneous, abdominal and laryngeal episodes of angioedema. Asphyxia related mortality ranges from 15 to 50%. In Argentina a plasma derived C1 inhibitor concentrate (pdC1INH) has been available for the treatment of acute attacks for many decades, however, only15 (26%) out of 58 patients had received pdC1INH at least once until 2008, and only2 (3.4%) had used it regularly. After worldwide approval of the new drugs for the treatment of acute HAE attacks, adding icatibant to pdC1INH in Argentina, and after publication of the therapeutic guide for the country, 42 (82%) out of 51 patients from the original group has pdC1INH available to treat their next attack. However, 16 (18%) patients continue without access to medication and other 15 (35.7%) obtain their therapy spuriously through some other affected relative in their environment. Only 12 (28.6%) patients of the group self-treated at home. Access to treatment has greatly improved, but needs to be extended to all patients and self-treatment at home should be encouraged.

  7. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina.

  8. A Pulsar and White Dwarf in an Unexpected Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    motion of the pulsar (black solid lines; current position marked with diamond) in our galaxy over the past 1.5 Gyr. This motion is typical for low-mass X-ray binary descendants, favoring a binary-evolution model over a 3-body-interaction model. [Antoniadis et al. 2016]In the first model, the eccentric binary was created via adynamic three-body formation channel. This possibility is deemed unlikely, as the white-dwarf properties and all the kinematic properties of the system point to normal binary evolution.In the secondmodel, the binary system gains its high eccentricity after mass transfer ends, when the pulsar progenitor experiences a spontaneous phase transition. The authors explore two options for this: one in which the neutron star implodes into a strange-quark star, and the other in which an over-massive white dwarf suffers a delayed collapse into a neutron star. Both cases are deemed unlikely, because the mass inferred for the pulsar progenitor is not consistent with either model.In the third model, the system forms a circumbinary disk fueled by material escaping the proto-white dwarf. After mass transfer has ended, interactions between the binary and its disk gradually increase the eccentricity of the system, pumping it up to what we observe today. All of the properties of the system measured by Antoniadis and collaborators are thus far consistent with this model.Further observations of this system and systems like it (several others have been detected, though not yet confirmed) will help determine whether binary evolution combined with interactions with a disk can indeed explain the formation of this unexpectedly eccentricsystem.CitationJohn Antoniadis et al 2016 ApJ 830 36. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/830/1/36

  9. Processing expected and unexpected uncertainty is modulated by fearless-dominance personality traits - An exploratory ERP study on feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Sailer, Uta; Derntl, Birgit; Pfabigan, Daniela M

    2017-01-01

    Expectancy and certainty regarding an outcome are important factors during performance monitoring. However, the separate contributions of expected and unexpected uncertainty on different measures of performance monitoring, including feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 components, are not well established. The current study investigated their relationship to fearless-dominance, a personality construct described by high social potency and low anxiety. Accurately predicting environmental outcomes in certain and uncertain situations might be a prerequisite of social potency, therefore it may be associated with increased performance monitoring and its ERP correlates. Consequently, expected-uncertain and unexpected-uncertain feedback (by violating previously learned certain and expected feedback) was introduced in addition to expected-certain feedback in healthy individuals during a probabilistic gambling task. In both FRN and P300 components, difference waves were more pronounced for unexpected-uncertain and expected-uncertain compared to expected-certain feedback. Moreover, more fearless-dominant individuals showed diminished feedback processing specifically in expected-uncertain trials, but concurrently enhanced attentional processing in expected-certain trials. These findings indicate adaptive and situation-appropriate utilization of performance monitoring resources in individuals with more pronounced fearless-dominance personality traits. The results indicate that a precise differentiation of expected and unexpected uncertainty in fearless-dominant individuals is mandatory in order to better understand the underlying personality construct and related behavior.

  10. Droplets sliding down inclined planes: unexpected dynamics on elastomer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourlier-Fargette, Aurelie; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Neukirch, Sebastien

    2016-11-01

    Droplet dynamics on an angled surface results from a competition between the weight of the droplet, capillary forces, and viscous dissipation inside the drop. The motion of droplets on stiff surfaces has been investigated for a long time, both experimentally and theoretically, while recent studies have shown the interesting physics underlying the sliding of droplets on soft surfaces. We focus on the dynamics of water-glycerol mixture droplets sliding down vertical plates of silicone elastomers, highlighting an unexpected behavior: the droplet dynamics on such a surface includes two regimes with different constant speeds. These results contrast with those found in the literature for droplets sliding on materials such as treated glass. We investigate the universality of this behavior on various elastomers, and study in detail the two regimes and the sharp transition observed between them. Different candidates can be responsible for the sudden speed change: bistability, chemical interaction with the substrate, softness of the material, etc. Our experiments to clarify the role of each of them reveal an unexpected link between microscopic phenomena at the scale of the polymer matrix and the macroscopic dynamics of a droplet.

  11. Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Frank, Darya; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Fardo, Francesca; Winston, Joel S; Hauser, Tobias U; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. Furthermore, the degree to which trial-by-trial pupil fluctuations encoded this nonlinear interaction correlated with trial level confidence. Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18103.001 PMID:27776633

  12. La migracion internacional en Argentina hacia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvelo

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los principales lineamientos de la migración internacional en Argentina hacia el año 2010, con detenimiento en el período 2000-2010. En el caso de la inmigración no nativa se basa en información de los censos nacionales de población 2001 y 2010. En el caso de la migración internacional de la población nativa de Argentina el análisis se sustenta en información de censos extranjeros hasta la ronda 2000 y en otras fuentes de datos de los principales países de destino hasta 2010 (Estados Unidos y España.

  13. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  14. Volcanic Ash Hazards and Risk in Argentina: Scientific and Social Collaborative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, E. I., II; Violante, R. A.; Vazquez Herrera, M. D.; Martinez Fernandez, M. D. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the absence of alerts or volcanic impacts during 60 years (from 1932, Quizapu-Descabezado Grande -one of the major eruptions of the XX Century- until 1991 Hudson eruption) there was mild remembrance of volcanic hazards in the collective memory of the Argentina citizens. Since then and until April 2015, the social perception changed according to different factors: age, location, education, culture, vulnerability. This variability produces a maze of challenges that go beyond the scientific knowledge. Volcanic health hazards began to be understood in 2008 after the eruption of Chaiten volcano. The particle size of ashfall (international flights for several weeks. The fear of another eruption did not wait long when Calbuco volcano started activity in April 2015, it came at a time when Villarrica volcano was also in an eruptive phase, and the SERNAGEOMIN Chile, through the Observatory OVDAS of the Southern Andes, faced multiple natural disasters at the same time, 3 volcanoes in activity, lahars, pyroclastic flows and floods in the North. In Argentina, critical infrastructure, farming, livestock and primary supplies were affected mainly in the western region. Copahue volcano, is increasing unstability on seismic and geochemistry data since 2012. Caviahue resort village, distant only 8 Km. from the active vent happens to be a high vulnerable location. In 2014 GEVAS (Geology, Volcanoes, Environment and Health) Network ARGENTINA Civil Association started collaborative activities with SEGEMAR and in 2015 with the IAPG (Geoethics, Argentina), intending to promote Best Practices in volcanic and geological hazards. Geoscientists and the volcano vulnerable population are aware about the governmental commitment to assume a strategic planning for mitigation, facing a volcanic emergency. Recently, university undergraduate students from Chile and Argentina are networking to acquire the skills needed for a better preparedness to the next volcanic eruption.

  15. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  16. ZANTHOXYLUM ARMATUM (RUTACEAE, SU PRESENCIA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez a Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum como especie asilvestrada para la flora argentina, en la provincia de Córdoba. Se presenta una descripción sobre la base de los ejemplares examinados, ilustraciones, mapa de distribución y observaciones ecológicas, como así también las diferencias con taxones similares.

  17. Journalism studies in Argentina: background and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Amado; Natalia Pizzolo

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism stud...

  18. SMEs in Argentina: Who are the Exporters?

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P.; Martincus, Christian Volpe

    2009-01-01

    There exists a growing body of literature which looks at export decisions made by firms. Most studies focus on developed countries and do not explore whether different behavioral patterns prevail over the firm size distribution. This paper aims at filling this gap in the literature by analyzing the export behavior of a statistically representative sample of 192 Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country, Argentina, over the period 1996-1998. We find that the level of emp...

  19. La izquierda Argentina: nuevamente el fracaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rodríguez Kauth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los acontecimientos políticos y sociales ocurridos en Argentina desde finales de 2001, se estudia el papel protagónico que tuvieron las diversas organizaciones en que se ha atomizado la izquierda vernácula. Esto es no sólo en el plano electoral, sino también en el de las movilizaciones junto a la participación popular que reclamaba su presencia.

  20. Sunflower crop in Argentina to date

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez A.; de Romano A.

    2006-01-01

    Inside a panorama of a spectacular grain production in the last 10 years in Argentina, sunflower crop participates with an annual production of more than 3,500,000 t. During that period, many advances were made in the improvement of diseases resistance: Verticillium wilt, downy mildew and head rot. Also oil yield per hectare continued to increase. The new hybrids have new qualities, for example imidazolinones resistance, which allows farmers to keep yields, although the soils destined to sunf...

  1. Prospects for Corn Ethanol in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Miguel Carriquiry

    2012-01-01

    Countries that export biofuel feedstocks such as grain or sugar and that are also importers of motor fuels will have a natural competitive advantage over other countries in the production of biofuels. Argentina is one of a very few countries that both export potential feedstocks and import gasoline and diesel. This combination means that an Argentine ethanol plant will pay less for feedstock and receive a higher price for ethanol than an ethanol plant located in a country that imports feedsto...

  2. Culturas ciudadanas y partidos tradicionales: Argentina y Uruguay (1982-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel SERNA

    2009-11-01

    . In spite of this, the two-parties political system ("radicales" and "peronistas" without any leftist parties at all. On the contrary, Uruguay registered huge changes in its party system. In fact, the two parties scheme led to a pluralist one, with an enormous increase and power of the left.3.—Argentina because of human rights violations culpables were judge, being under amnesty afferwards. On the Uruguayan case general amnesty law was the choose it was aplied to human rights violations responsables and was plebiscitated among civil society. The different consequences of these are analised about the consolidation political system.4.—"Punishment voting" and high rotation between voters from traditional parties, are the recent and generalized processes in Argentina and Uruguay. A not slight difference should be remarked: in Argentina, the traditional parties have not decreased the total votes. In Uruguay, just the reverse: the less votes to this kind of parties have been acute during the last years.

  3. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  4. The Case of Argentina, 1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El consenso sobre los beneficios netos de la presencia de bancos extranjeros en los países emergentes parece en alguna medida debilitarse a raíz de la experiencia de los años noventa, que constituye una fase de fuerte expansión y fortalecimiento de dicha presencia. Distinguiendo entre la presencia y la dominancia en el mercado local por parte de los bancos extranjeros, el presente trabajo analiza la experiencia argentina en el período 1993-2000. Para este fin, se reconstruyo por primera vez la serie completa de los balances bancarios. Los resultados sugieren que la aumentada presencia de bancos extranjeros no ha producido beneficios significativos, mientras que todo el sistema bancario se ha aventajado por el clima de mayor crecimiento y de estabilidad monetaria. Como parte de la estrategia perseguida por parte del poder público, la creciente dominancia de los bancos extranjeros resulta uno de los factores que han empobrecido la biodiversidad de la banca argentina. De todos modos, parte de los problemas que atormentaron a la economía argentina en los años noventa podrían ser considerados más como el resultado de la adopción de una abertura financiera completa que como consecuencia de la dominancia creciente por parte de los bancos extranjeros.

  5. Unexpected fold in the circumsporozoite protein target of malaria vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doud, Michael B.; Koksal, Adem C.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Song, Gaojie; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-10-09

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is the major surface component of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and is essential for host cell invasion. A vaccine containing tandem repeats, region III, and thrombospondin type-I repeat (TSR) of CS is efficacious in phase III trials but gives only a 35% reduction in severe malaria in the first year postimmunization. We solved crystal structures showing that region III and TSR fold into a single unit, an '{alpha}TSR' domain. The {alpha}TSR domain possesses a hydrophobic pocket and core, missing in TSR domains. CS binds heparin, but {alpha}TSR does not. Interestingly, polymorphic T-cell epitopes map to specialized {alpha}TSR regions. The N and C termini are unexpectedly close, providing clues for sporozoite sheath organization. Elucidation of a unique structure of a domain within CS enables rational design of next-generation subunit vaccines and functional and medicinal chemical investigation of the conserved hydrophobic pocket.

  6. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy genetics: Molecular diagnostics and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alica M; Behr, Elijah R; Semsarian, Christopher; Bagnall, Richard D; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Cooper, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies clearly document the public health burden of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Clinical and experimental studies have uncovered dynamic cardiorespiratory dysfunction, both interictally and at the time of sudden death due to epilepsy. Genetic analyses in humans and in model systems have facilitated our current molecular understanding of SUDEP. Many discoveries have been informed by progress in the field of sudden cardiac death and sudden infant death syndrome. It is becoming apparent that SUDEP genomic complexity parallels that of sudden cardiac death, and that there is a pauci1ty of analytically useful postmortem material. Because many challenges remain, future progress in SUDEP research, molecular diagnostics, and prevention rests in international, collaborative, and transdisciplinary dialogue in human and experimental translational research of sudden death.

  7. Unexpectedly wide rf-induced synchrotron sideband depolarizing resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. M.; Ellison, T. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; von Przewoski, B.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Bychkov, M. A.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Crandell, D. A.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Kaufman, W. A.; Krisch, A. D.; Lorenzon, W.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Wong, V. K.; Ohmori, C.; Minty, M. G.; Martin, P. S.; Russell, A. D.; Sivers, D. W.

    1998-10-01

    Using an rf solenoid magnet, we studied the depolarization of a stored 104.1 MeV vertically polarized proton beam. The two primary rf depolarizing resonances were properly centered around the protons' circulation frequency fc, at fc(3-νs) and fc(νs-1), where νs is the spin tune; moreover, each resonance was roughly consistent with the expected width of about 720 Hz. Each primary rf resonance had two synchrotron sideband resonances at the expected frequencies. The two νs-1 sidebands were deep dips while the two 3-νs sidebands were very shallow; this was not expected. Moreover, all four sideband resonances were unexpectedly wider than the two primary resonances.

  8. A "present" for the future: the unexpected value of rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Tami; Brooks, Alison Wood; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-10-01

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we used a time-capsule paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we found that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences, as opposed to extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: Individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer rediscovering those moments in the future to engaging in an alternative fun activity. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten.

  9. Castleman Disease: An Unexpected Cause of a Solitary Pleural Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiachra Moloney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman disease (CD is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder, the etiology of which is unclear. Clinically it may manifest as localized disease (unicentric or disseminated disease (multicentric. CD occurs in the thorax in 70% of cases, abdomen and pelvis in 15%, and in the neck in 10–15% of cases. We present a case of a pleural mass located posteriorly in a paraspinal location, which was discovered incidentally in a 50-year-old man and was subsequently resected followed by an unexpected diagnosis of Castleman disease on histological examination. In this report, we review the clinical and histological findings in a rare presentation of Castleman disease and discuss the findings in this case as part of an overall review of the typical radiological findings seen in Castleman disease.

  10. Detecting the unexpected: a research framework for ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Catherine A; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Frieder, Christina A; Baumann, Hannes; Bockmon, Emily E; White, Meredith M; Carter, Brendan R; Benway, Heather M; Blanchette, Carol A; Carrington, Emily; McClintock, James B; McCorkle, Daniel C; McGillis, Wade R; Mooney, T Aran; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    The threat that ocean acidification (OA) poses to marine ecosystems is now recognized and U.S. funding agencies have designated specific funding for the study of OA. We present a research framework for studying OA that describes it as a biogeochemical event that impacts individual species and ecosystems in potentially unexpected ways. We draw upon specific lessons learned about ecosystem responses from research on acid rain, carbon dioxide enrichment in terrestrial plant communities, and nitrogen deposition. We further characterize the links between carbon chemistry changes and effects on individuals and ecosystems, and enumerate key hypotheses for testing. Finally, we quantify how U.S. research funding has been distributed among these linkages, concluding that there is an urgent need for research programs designed to anticipate how the effects of OA will reverberate throughout assemblages of species.

  11. The unexpected clustering of the optical afterglow luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Nardini, M; Ghirlanda, G; Tavecchio, F; Firmani, C; Lazzati, D

    2006-01-01

    We studied the behaviour of the optical afterglow lightcurves of a sample of 24 Gamma--Ray Bursts (GRBs) with known redshift and published estimates of the optical extinction in the source frame, detected before the SWIFT satellite launch. We found an unexpected clustering of the optical luminosities at 12 hours in the source frame. The distribution of the optical luminosities is narrower than the distribution of X-ray luminosities at the same time. Few (3) bursts stand apart from the main optical distribution, being fainter by a factor of about 15. We also analysed the optical luminosities of the SWIFT burst with known redshift finding that the luminosity distribution is similar to the pre SWIFT GRBs one, even if they have a different mean redshift. These results can suggest the existence of a family of intrinsically optically under--luminous dark GRBs.

  12. Sudden and unexpected death from pituitary tumor apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Balko, M Gregory; Hunsaker, John C

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary tumor apoplexy refers to a clinical syndrome precipitated by the expansion of a pituitary adenoma by hemorrhage or infarction. Individuals may present with myriad signs, including sudden onset of severe headache, visual changes, altered mental status, cranial nerve palsies, and hormonal dysfunction. This disorder constitutes a medical emergency and warrants an expedited evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment to prevent the potential sequelae of permanent visual loss, endocrine abnormalities, or death. We report a case of sudden death from undiagnosed pituitary tumor apoplexy. The decedent was evaluated by medical personnel on three occasions in the week prior to her death for severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and photophobia. Postmortem examination demonstrated a hemorrhagic infarction of a pituitary adenoma with necrosis and expansion out of the sella turcica. The recognition of and treatment for a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy requires a rapid multidisciplinary effort. Failure of prompt diagnosis may be fatal and require a medico-legal death investigation for sudden and unexpected death.

  13. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Evaluation of forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Luo; Zhang, Yang; Zielke, H Ronald; Levine, Barry; Zhang, Xiang; Chang, Lin; Fowler, David; Li, Ling

    2012-11-30

    Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by seizures. Mortality is significantly increased in patients with epilepsy. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common seizure-related category of death. A retrospective study of forensic autopsy cases from 2007 to 2009 at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) yielded a total of 104 sudden unexpected deaths directly or indirectly caused by an epilepsy/seizure disorder in the State of Maryland. Of these deaths, 74 cases met a general accepted definition of SUDEP. The age of SUDEP individuals ranged from 14 to 63 with the majority of subjects in the ages between 21 and 50 years (58 cases, 78.4%). Males were slightly more likely than females to die of SUDEP (male:female=1.5:1 based on the rate). The onset age of epilepsy was documented in 47.3% of cases (35/74) based on investigation and medical records. Of the 35 cases, 12 subjects had early onset epilepsy (onset ages 1-15 years) and 20 subjects had duration of epilepsy for more than 10 years. The majority of deaths (61 of the 74 cases, 82.4%) were unwitnessed. Death scene investigation showed that 71 deaths (95.9%) occurred inside their residence with 50 subjects (70.4%) found either in bed or on the bedroom floor near the bed. Forty-three out of 74 cases (58.1%) showed neuropathological lesions. Per history, 50 subjects were reported as being on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). However, postmortem toxicological analysis revealed that only 26 subjects (35.1%) had detectable AEDs. Of the 74 cases, seizure disorder or epilepsy was listed as primary cause of death in 66 cases and the term of SUDEP as official cause of death in only 8 cases. This report focuses on the characteristics of death scene investigation and postmortem examination findings of SUDEP cases.

  14. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  15. Wind regime and wind power in North Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palese, C.; Laessig, J.L.; Cogliati, M.G.; Bastanski, M.A. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2000-07-01

    The present paper discusses wind and wind power characteristics in a region north of 40{sup o}S (North Patagonia, Argentina) as well as wind power projects sustainability. Extreme wind episodes influence most economic and social regional activities. Mean flow pattern was studied in three North Patagonia sites: Neuquen, Mari Menuco and Cutral-Co, by sampling analysis of wind direction and intensity during a year. Gusts were quantified and strong winds were studied. Available meteorological power was also estimated. It was observed that North Patagonia is a place of great wind power potential. However, the energy available, which is related to prevailing strong winds, is also associated to high gust occurrence which certainly restricts exploitation. (Author)

  16. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  17. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  18. Overview of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, L.; Valesi, J., E-mail: lalvarez@cnea.gov.ar [National Commission on Atomic Energy, Fuel Engineering Department (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina. It discusses the nuclear activities and electricity production in Argentina, evolution of the activities in fuel engineering, fuel fabrication, fuel performance at Embalse nuclear power plant and spent fuel storage options.

  19. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  20. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  1. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  2. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  3. Argentina v globalizačních procesech

    OpenAIRE

    Chervets, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    The process of globalization is a very important issue these days. This work will describe the process of globalization in Argentina, especially its economic aspect (foreign direct investments, export and import of goods and services, migration of labor force). I will also mention the history of its development and Argentina's membership in most important international and regional organizations.

  4. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  5. Unexpected biotic resilience on the Japanese seafloor caused by the 2011 Tōhoku-Oki tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Takashi; Duros, Pauline; Fontanier, Christophe; Mamo, Briony; Bichon, Sabrina; Buscail, Roselyne; Chabaud, Gérard; Deflandre, Bruno; Goubet, Sarah; Grémare, Antoine; Menniti, Christophe; Fujii, Minami; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Koho, Karoliina Annika; Noda, Atsushi; Namegaya, Yuichi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Radakovitch, Olivier; Murayama, Masafumi; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; Kurasawa, Atushi; Ohkawara, Nina; Okutani, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Arito; Jorissen, Frans; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    On March 11th, 2011 the Mw 9.0 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake resulted in a tsunami which caused major devastation in coastal areas. Along the Japanese NE coast, tsunami waves reached maximum run-ups of 40 m, and travelled kilometers inland. Whereas devastation was clearly visible on land, underwater impact is much more difficult to assess. Here, we report unexpected results obtained during a research cruise targeting the seafloor off Shimokita (NE Japan), shortly (five months) after the disaster. The geography of the studied area is characterized by smooth coastline and a gradually descending shelf slope. Although high-energy tsunami waves caused major sediment reworking in shallow-water environments, investigated shelf ecosystems were characterized by surprisingly high benthic diversity and showed no evidence of mass mortality. Conversely, just beyond the shelf break, the benthic ecosystem was dominated by a low-diversity, opportunistic fauna indicating ongoing colonization of massive sand-bed deposits.

  6. 75 FR 23674 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for...

  7. I Want It All, and I Want It Now: The Political Manipulation of Argentina’s Provincial High Courts I Want It All, and I Want It Now: La manipulación política de las Cortes Supremas provinciales en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castagnola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Provincial supreme courts are important players in local politics because justices can affect the interest of the ruling governors; however, no research has addressed the factors that affect judicial turnover in provincial high courts in new democracies. This research attempts to fill this gap by using original data on the 525 departures of all provincial high court justices in Argentina from 1983 to 2009. My guiding hypothesis is that the stability of a justice on the bench depends on the political proximity of the justice to the ruling governor rather than on the executive’s institutional capacity to impeach. This study reveals that being aligned with the faction of the ruling governor is a major factor in accounting for judicial turnover not only in single-party provinces, as expected, but also in multi-party provinces. Because provincial politics have proven to be a major source of power for national politicians, governors would prefer to have a friendly court during their administration.Las Cortes Supremas provinciales son importantes actores políticos en la política local porque los jueces pueden afectar los intereses de los gobernantes, no obstante no exite investigación que analice los factores que afectan la inestabilidad de las cortes provinciales en las nuevas democracias. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo llenar este vacio analizando las salidas de los 525 jueces de las Cortes Supremas provinciales en Argentina desde 1983 al 2009. La principal hipótesis propone que la estabilidad de los jueces en el cargo depende de la proximidad política del juez con el gobernador de turno mas que con la capacidad institucional del gobernador para relalizar juicio político. Este estudio revela que estar alineado con la facción del gobernador es una factor determinante para explicar la inestabilidad de los jueces en el cargo tanto en provincias con único partido como en provincias con competencia partidaria. La política provicial ha

  8. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  9. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  10. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  11. Cadenas productivas y disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina Productive chains and food availability in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Giai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 2009 se conformó en la Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietistas el Grupo de Estudio sobre Soberanía Alimentaria, constituido por un grupo de Licenciados en Nutrición con interés en el tema. Como primer objetivo, el Grupo se propuso estudiar tres temas: "el Derecho a la Alimentación", "la Producción y Disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina" y "la Canasta Básica de Alimentos". En el presente artículo se expone un resumen de los avances en el segundo tema mencionado.In April 2009, was formed in the Argentina Association of Dieticians and Nutritionists Dietitians the Study Group on Food Sovereignty, established by a group of graduates in nutrition with interest in the subject. As a first objective, the Group was to examine three issues: "The Right to Food", "Production and Availability of food in Argentina" and "Basic Food Basket." This article is a summary of progress on the second topic mentioned.

  12. La familia Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta en Argentina The family Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J Marquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Cyatheaceae comprende alrededor de 500 especies de helechos arborescentes. Su distribución es pantropical y en Argentina se encuentra representada por 4 especies, reunidas en los géneros Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens y C. delgadii. En este trabajo se presenta una actualización de la información disponible hasta el momento referente a estas especies. Se exponen microfotografías de las esporas, que presentan la superficie con lomos en Alsophila y con cordones en Cyathea. Se ilustran los indusios y escamas de la base de los pecíolos, que son de importancia fundamental para la diferenciación de las especies estudiadas. Asimismo se presenta un mapa de distribución y una clave de las especies que crecen en Argentina.The family Cyatheaceae comprises about 500 species of tree ferns. Their distribution is pantropical and in Argentina is represented by four species, grouped in genera Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens and C. delgadii. In this paper, an update of the available information of the mentioned species is presented. A key to diferentiate the species growing in Argentina, their descriptions and a distribution map are also given. Spores are ridged in Alsophila and with rodlets in Cyathea. Indusia and scales of petiole basis are also illustrated.

  13. Eating à la Criolla : Global and Local Foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PILCHER, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the changing meanings of local and global foods in Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. Nineteenth-century Latin America is often viewed as a period of liberal ascendancy when imported goods were highly valued, while on the contrary, the twentieth century is seen as a time of populist nationalism that embraced local culture and, at least until the neoliberal era, rejected European and North American imports. Nevertheless, liberals sought to balance their international sophisticati...

  14. Toxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum isolated from maize of northwest Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Sampietro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six isolates of Fusarium graminearum from grains of maize hybrids harvested in ±west Argentina were grown on autoclaved rice grain to assess their ability to produce type B trichothecenes. Chemical analysis indicated that 38% of isolates were nivalenol (NIV producers only, 31% were major NIV producers with high DON(deoxynivalenol/NIV ratios, 8% were major DON producers with minor NIV production, and 23% were DON producers only. Isolates showed a high variability in their toxigenic potential which was not related to fungal biomass. The distribution of the different chemotypes as well as the high and the low trichothecene-producing Fusarium isolates could not be associated to a geographical origin. Our results confirmed for the first time that isolates of Fusarium graminearum from maize of northwest Argentina are able to produce DON and NIV. A substancial contamination with both NIV and DON is likely in maize from northwest Argentina. Their contents should be quantified in regional surveillances for mycotoxin contamination.

  15. Unexpected (π , π) order in Fe1.1Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; Singh, Deepak

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the evolution of the magnetic and crystal structure in single crystalline Fe1.1Te, an iron-rich parent of the chalcogenide superconductor family. While a structural transition to a monoclinic symmetry occurs at ~ 60 K, magnetic peaks at 2 π . (0 . 48 , 0) only arise below TN ~ 58 K, and can be understood as bicollinear magnetism with discommensuration defects. [2] Unexpectedly, we have also observed resolution limited peaks at approximately (π , π) , arising at the same temperature TN, and exhibiting temperature hysteresis similar to that seen in magnetic susceptibility, perhaps indicating that these peaks are of magnetic origin. Additionally, the position of these peaks is nearly the same as in the parent compounds of the iron pnictide family of superconductors, where magnetic order is simple collinear commensurate antiferromagnetism. The origin of these new peaks near (π , π) and their relationship to the dominant bicollinear magnetic order observed in Fe1.1Te presents a puzzle. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. We acknowledge the support of NIST, US Department of Commerce, in providing the neutron research facilities used in this work.

  16. Identifying unexpected therapeutic targets via chemical-protein interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Yang

    Full Text Available Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an Alzheimer's disease (AD drug-oriented chemical-protein interactome (CPI using a matrix of 10 drug molecules known to treat AD towards 401 human protein pockets, we found that such cryptic targets exist. We recovered from CPI the only validated therapeutic target of AD, acetylcholinesterase (ACHE, and highlighted several other putative targets. For example, we discovered that estrogen receptor (ER and histone deacetylase (HDAC, which have recently been identified as two new therapeutic targets of AD, might already have been targeted by the marketed AD drugs. We further established that the CPI profile of a drug can reflect its interacting character towards multi-protein sets, and that drugs with the same therapeutic attribute will share a similar interacting profile. These findings indicate that the CPI could represent the landscape of chemical-protein interactions and uncover "behind-the-scenes" aspects of the therapeutic mechanisms of existing drugs, providing testable hypotheses of the key nodes for network pharmacology or brand new drug targets for one-target pharmacology paradigm.

  17. Unexpected Molecular Sieving Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2012-08-16

    We studied molecular sieving properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) by estimating the thermodynamically corrected diffusivities of probe molecules at 35 °C. From helium (2.6 Å) to iso-C 4H 10 (5.0 Å), the corrected diffusivity drops 14 orders of magnitude. Our results further suggest that the effective aperture size of ZIF-8 for molecular sieving is in the range of 4.0 to 4.2 Å, which is significantly larger than the XRD-derived value (3.4 Å) and between the well-known aperture size of zeolite 4A (3.8 Å) and 5A (4.3 Å). Interestingly, because of aperture flexibility, the studied C 4 hydrocarbon molecules that are larger than this effective aperture size still adsorb in the micropores of ZIF-8 with kinetic selectivities for iso-C 4H 8/iso-C 4H 10 of 180 and n-C 4H 10/iso-C 4H 10 of 2.5 × 10 6. These unexpected molecular sieving properties open up new opportunities for ZIF materials for separations that cannot be economically achieved by traditional microporous adsorbents such as synthetic zeolites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Ekström, A.; Frömmgen, N.; Hagen, G.; Hammen, M.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Jansen, G. R.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Nazarewicz, W.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papenbrock, T.; Papuga, J.; Schwenk, A.; Simonis, J.; Wendt, K. A.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain `magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.

  19. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  20. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  1. Olivine in an unexpected location on Vesta's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, E; De Sanctis, M C; Palomba, E; Longobardo, A; Mittlefehldt, D W; McSween, H Y; Marchi, S; Capria, M T; Capaccioni, F; Frigeri, A; Pieters, C M; Ruesch, O; Tosi, F; Zambon, F; Carraro, F; Fonte, S; Hiesinger, H; Magni, G; McFadden, L A; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T; Sunshine, J M

    2013-12-05

    Olivine is a major component of the mantle of differentiated bodies, including Earth. Howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites represent regolith, basaltic-crust, lower-crust and possibly ultramafic-mantle samples of asteroid Vesta, which is the lone surviving, large, differentiated, basaltic rocky protoplanet in the Solar System. Only a few of these meteorites, the orthopyroxene-rich diogenites, contain olivine, typically with a concentration of less than 25 per cent by volume. Olivine was tentatively identified on Vesta, on the basis of spectral and colour data, but other observations did not confirm its presence. Here we report that olivine is indeed present locally on Vesta's surface but that, unexpectedly, it has not been found within the deep, south-pole basins, which are thought to be excavated mantle rocks. Instead, it occurs as near-surface materials in the northern hemisphere. Unlike the meteorites, the olivine-rich (more than 50 per cent by volume) material is not associated with diogenite but seems to be mixed with howardite, the most common surface material. Olivine is exposed in crater walls and in ejecta scattered diffusely over a broad area. The size of the olivine exposures and the absence of associated diogenite favour a mantle source, but the exposures are located far from the deep impact basins. The amount and distribution of observed olivine-rich material suggest a complex evolutionary history for Vesta.

  2. Competition can lead to unexpected patterns in tropical ant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Blüthgen, Nico; Fayle, Tom M.; Foster, William A.; Menzel, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Ecological communities are structured by competitive, predatory, mutualistic and parasitic interactions combined with chance events. Separating deterministic from stochastic processes is possible, but finding statistical evidence for specific biological interactions is challenging. We attempt to solve this problem for ant communities nesting in epiphytic bird's nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) in Borneo's lowland rainforest. By recording the frequencies with which each and every single ant species occurred together, we were able to test statistically for patterns associated with interspecific competition. We found evidence for competition, but the resulting co-occurrence pattern was the opposite of what we expected. Rather than detecting species segregation-the classical hallmark of competition-we found species aggregation. Moreover, our approach of testing individual pairwise interactions mostly revealed spatially positive rather than negative associations. Significant negative interactions were only detected among large ants, and among species of the subfamily Ponerinae. Remarkably, the results from this study, and from a corroborating analysis of ant communities known to be structured by competition, suggest that competition within the ants leads to species aggregation rather than segregation. We believe this unexpected result is linked with the displacement of species following asymmetric competition. We conclude that analysing co-occurrence frequencies across complete species assemblages, separately for each species, and for each unique pairwise combination of species, represents a subtle yet powerful way of detecting structure and compartmentalisation in ecological communities.

  3. Cardiac arrhythmias and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velagapudi, Poonam; Turagam, Mohit; Laurence, Thomas; Kocheril, Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major clinical problem in epilepsy patients in the United States, especially those with chronic, uncontrolled epilepsy. Several pathophysiological events contributing to SUDEP include cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory dysfunction, and dysregulation of systemic or cerebral circulation. There is a significant body of literature suggesting the prominent role of cardiac arrhythmias in the pathogenesis of SUDEP. There is evidence to say that long-standing epilepsy can cause physiological and anatomical autonomic instability resulting in life-threatening arrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, and asystole are commonly seen during ictal, interictal, and postictal phase in epilepsy patients. It is unclear if these rhythm disturbances need attention as some of them may be just benign findings. Evidence regarding prolonged cardiovascular monitoring or the benefit of pacemaker/defibrillator implantation for primary or secondary prevention in epilepsy patients is limited. Awareness regarding pathophysiology, cardiac effects, and management options of SUDEP will become useful in guiding more individualized treatment in the near future. (PACE 2011; 1-8).

  4. An Unexpected Near Term Pregnancy in a Rudimentary Uterine Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made.

  5. CIFCA Delegation Visits Brazil and Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Bo

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the UNALE(National Union of State Legislatures)of Brazi land La Plata City of Argentina,the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA)Delegation,led by Vice President Hu Sishe,visited the two countries from May 4 to 13,during which it attended the 18th Conference of UNALE(18th CNLE)in Brasilia,the Brazilian capital.Broad Attendance at CNLE The CNLE,an annual event sponsored by the UNALE,seeks to promote

  6. Clientelism and Political Control in Rural Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Landini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on clientelism frequently addresses political clientelism using strong ideological presuppositions and/or neglecting its subjective dimension. In this article I explore political clientelism in a rural community of the province of Formosa, Argentina from the peasants' point of view. The results suggest that peasants consider the clientelist relation as one that recognizes their personal needs, while the bureaucracy of the state does not. Thus, they perceive clientelist ties as legitimate, criticizing only the fact that the provision of resources by patrons takes place only during elections.

  7. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  8. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...... basalts, trace element variations suggest a significant contribution from lower crustal melts, possibly up to 70% in the most extreme cases. The contaminating lower crustal rocks must have been depleted mafic rocks with a plagioclase component. The extensive melting of lower crust is probably related...

  9. Taxes and landowners in Argentina: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Román, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece un balance de lo que sabemos –y de lo que aún desconocemos- sobre la historia de la relación entre los impuestos y los productores rurales en la Argentina contemporánea. Se lleva a cabo un recorrido por la historiografía sobre los impuestos al mundo agrario en los siglos XIX y XX tanto en el plano nacional como en el provincial y se señalan los aspectos que aún necesitan mayor investigación en este campo. This article provides an overview of our knowledge on the ...

  10. An unexpected finding in a man with multiple pulmonary nodules, a pleural effusion and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yik Lam; Jones, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 47-year old Caucasian man with a history of depression and high alcohol intake who presented with a one-month history of weight loss, dry cough and abdominal pain. He had no smoking history of note. The patient was treated for a suspected chest infection, however developed respiratory failure and was intubated. A CT showed multiple pulmonary nodules, left pleural thickening extending to the mediastinum and bilateral pleural effusions-larger on the left, suggestive of disseminated malignancy. A broncho-alveolar lavage surprisingly contained numerous acid-fast bacilli and no malignant cells. Treatment for tuberculosis was initiated and the patient recovered gradually. After several weeks, a pyrazinamide-resistant organism was cultured and subsequently identified to be Mycobacterium Bovis. We discuss this unexpected finding and review the literature on Bovine Tuberculosis in humans.

  11. Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery Resulting in a Near Miss to a Serious Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Daena Kei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    On 6/26/2015 at 1445 in 894/136, a thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following a routine test where the battery is activated. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery package ruptured after it went into thermal runaway which led to the operator receiving bruising to the palm of the hand from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE, which was safety glasses and a high temperature glove on the hand that was holding the battery.

  12. Land flatworms of the genus Pasipha (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) in Argentina, with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Brusa, Francisco

    2016-07-11

    The genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990 currently includes 22 species, most of them recorded in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Recently, Pasipha hauseri was documented in north-eastern Argentina, thus extending its distribution range. This paper reports new records of the genus Pasipha in the Interior Atlantic Forest ecoregion in Argentina, with the description of three new species: Pasipha atla sp. nov., Pasipha johnsoni sp. nov., and Pasipha mbya sp. nov. These new species exhibit similarities in internal anatomy, such as pharynx cylindrical, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with folded walls and proximally forked, male atrium highly folded, being at least two times longer than the female atrium and with small folds in their proximal portion. However, they can be distinguished from each other mainly by the secretion types discharged into the prostatic vesicle as well as into the male and female atria. In addition, they have different colour patterns on the dorsal surface.

  13. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Aimar, Silvia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Buschiazzo, Daniel; Mendez, Mariano; Costa, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Wind erosion of soils is an important event in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The magnitude of wind erosion occurring under different management practices is relatively well known in this region but less information is available on the quality of the eroded material. Considering that the intensification of agriculture may increase the concentrations of substances in the eroded material, producing potential negative effects on the environment, we analyzed the amount of glyphosate and AMPA in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils of Argentina. Wind eroded materials were collected by means of BSNE samplers in two loess sites of the semiarid region of Argentina: Chaco and La Pampa. Samples were collected from 1 ha square fields at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm height. Results showed that at higher heights the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were mostly higher. The glyphosate concentration was more variable and higher in Chaco (0.66 to 313 µg kg-1) than in La Pampa (4.17 to 114 µg kg-1). These results may be due to the higher use of herbicides in Chaco, where the predominant crops are soybeans and corn, produced under no-tillage. Under these conditions the use of glyphosate for weeds control is a common practice. Conversely, AMPA concentrations were higher in La Pampa (13.1 to 101.3 µg kg-1) than in Chaco (1.3 to 83 µg kg-1). These preliminary results show high concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind eroded materials of agricultural soils of Argentina. More research is needed to confirm these high concentrations in other conditions in order to detect the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the herbicide.

  14. 78 FR 9569 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria Memorandum of January 31, 2013--Delegation of... Determination No. 2013-04 of January 29, 2013 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Relating to Syria... the crisis in Syria. You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the...

  15. Communication of Unexpected and Significant Findings on Chest Radiographs With an Automated PACS Alert System.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Sara A

    2014-08-01

    An integral part of realizing the enormous potential of imaging in patient care is close communication between radiologists and referring physicians. One key element of this process is the communication of unexpected significant findings. The authors examined the performance of a PACS-based alert system in the appropriate communication of reports containing unexpected significant findings to referring physicians.

  16. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Presidential Determination No. 2009-16 of March 11, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related... Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601), I hereby...

  17. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... of January 27, 2009 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Gaza Memorandum for the..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22...

  18. Derechos humanos y sexualidad en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un panorama de la situación de los derechos que tienen que ver con la sexualidad, en la Argentina contemporánea. Basándose principalmente en la legislación positiva, se presenta en primer lugar una síntesis del sistema legal y político, resumiendo a continuación el proceso de inclusión de los derechos sexuales, sobre todo desde 1983, cuando se recuperó la democracia. Las temáticas abordadas son: igualdad civil y conyugalidad, orientación sexual e identidad de género, reproducción, aborto, violencia de género y violencia sexual, VIH/sida, y explotación y trabajo sexual. El artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre las principales deudas pendientes.This paper presents an overview of the situation concerning the rights related to sexuality in contemporary Argentina. Based specially on the positive legislation, it is primarily presented a synthesis of the legal and political system. Next, the paper summarizes the process of inclusion of the sexual rights, mainly since 1983, when democracy has been recovered. The following issues are addressed: civil equality and conjugality; sexual orientation and gender identity; reproduction; abortion; gender a sexual violence; HIV/Aids; and exploitation and sexual work. The paper ends with a consideration about the still remaining doubts.

  19. [Dengue vaccines. A reality for Argentina?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo W; Salomón, Oscar D

    2016-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks have occurred yearly in Argentina since 1998. A number of candidate vaccines have been tested in endemic countries. The most advanced one was licensed in three countries of Latin America for children over 9 years of age. In the present article the benefits and drawbacks of these vaccines as well as the challenges for the implementation of a vaccination strategy in Argentina are discussed. Furthermore, a risk stratification strategy with new criteria and a multidisciplinary vision is suggested as a possible path for the assessment of the pertinence of a vaccination program in areas showing the highest risk of dengue transmission and/or for people at the greatest risk of developing severe dengue. It is also suggested that the definition regarding the status of endemicity should take into account the local realities. Finally, this paper proposes a broad discussion on the evidences, the expected impact and instrumental aspects that would be involved in the incorporation of a dengue vaccine, marketed or in development, into the national immunization program, and especially which subpopulation should be targeted for the immunization strategy to be cost-effective.

  20. Yugoslav teachers in Argentina 1939-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Banović Milesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present reports of Yugoslav teachers who held classes to immigrants in Argentina 1939-1944, organized by the government of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Teachers’ reports to Yugoslav Embassy in Buenos Aires testify of Kingdom of Yugoslavia efforts to oppose assimilation and promote and strengthen “Yugoslav national unity”. The reports also describe general social circumstances of Yugoslav immigrants, show various details from their everyday life and contain valuable data on numerous political, economic, social and cultural problems of this diaspora in Argentina and their relationship with motherland. We believe that archive materials presented in this paper opens numerous questions which could be topics of separate researches. Some of them could be the following: To which extent the teachers’ reports represented the actual situation and to which they were shaped to match policy and expectations of Kingdom of Yugoslavia? What was the actual influence of teachers to spreading the “national unity” among immigrants? Have their work left trace in Yugoslav diaspora and in which way? Beside all of the open issues, it is certain that teachers’ reports contain valuable data on immigrants’ everyday life, curriculum, schooling conditions, relationship with motherland, etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet portala "Pojmovnik srpske kulture"

  1. Oil and nationalism in Argentina: a history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This case study of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, the world's first state-owned oil company, traces the development of Argentina's nationalistic petroleum policy from the discovery of oil on state-owned land in 1907 to the present. The focus is on the period prior to 1930, when the institutions and ideologies that have shaped Argentine petroleum affairs became firmly established. A final chapter summarizes developments since 1930, with emphasis on the impact the Argentine experience has had on other oil-producing countries in Latin America. Prior to World War I, Argentine governments gave little attention to the development of petroleum resources, but the wartime economic crisis demonstrated to many prominent political figures the necessity of shifting from dependence on foreign capital and imported fuel toward greater economic self-sufficiency. A key aspect of this new policy was the founding in 1922 of the state oil agency, YPF, which gradually wrested control of oil resources from the provinces in order to establish a vertically integrated, national petroleum industry. Because of its power and influence, YPF survived the 1930 revolution, became the largest economic enterprise in Argentina, and emerged as the very symbol of national economic independence.

  2. Unexpected Activity of a Novel Kunitz-type Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Jewhurst, Heather L.; Drysdale, Orla C.; Dvořák, Jan; Robinson, Mark W.; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Kunitz-type (KT) protease inhibitors are low molecular weight proteins classically defined as serine protease inhibitors. We identified a novel secreted KT inhibitor associated with the gut and parenchymal tissues of the infective juvenile stage of Fasciola hepatica, a helminth parasite of medical and veterinary importance. Unexpectedly, recombinant KT inhibitor (rFhKT1) exhibited no inhibitory activity toward serine proteases but was a potent inhibitor of the major secreted cathepsin L cysteine proteases of F. hepatica, FhCL1 and FhCL2, and of human cathepsins L and K (Ki = 0.4-27 nm). FhKT1 prevented the auto-catalytic activation of FhCL1 and FhCL2 and formed stable complexes with the mature enzymes. Pulldown experiments from adult parasite culture medium showed that rFhKT1 interacts specifically with native secreted FhCL1, FhCL2, and FhCL5. Substitution of the unusual P1 Leu15 within the exposed reactive loop of FhKT1 for the more commonly found Arg (FhKT1Leu15/Arg15) had modest adverse effects on the cysteine protease inhibition but conferred potent activity against the serine protease trypsin (Ki = 1.5 nm). Computational docking and sequence analysis provided hypotheses for the exclusive binding of FhKT1 to cysteine proteases, the importance of the Leu15 in anchoring the inhibitor into the S2 active site pocket, and the inhibitor's selectivity toward FhCL1, FhCL2, and human cathepsins L and K. FhKT1 represents a novel evolutionary adaptation of KT protease inhibitors by F. hepatica, with its prime purpose likely in the regulation of the major parasite-secreted proteases and/or cathepsin L-like proteases of its host. PMID:27422822

  3. Overview and perspectives for Open Access development in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and perspectives for development of the Open Access movement in Argentina, within the global and regional (Latin American context. It outlines the evolution and current state of initiatives around the two main approaches to Open Access, the golden and green roads. The main Open Access policies and support of OA movement by governments in Latin American region, and particularly in Argentina, are highlighted, while recent studies on publishing practices and authors’ positions regarding Open Access are presented. The paper concludes that the prospects for development of OA in Argentina, both through golden and green roads are favorable, with their strengths and shortcomings

  4. Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from maize in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumero, María Verónica; Reynoso, María Marta; Chulze, Sofía

    2015-04-16

    Fusarium temperatum and Fusarium subglutinans isolated from the Northwest region (NOA region) of Argentina were characterized using a polyphasic approach based on morphological, biological and molecular markers. Some interfertility between the species was observed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two species represented two clades strongly supported by bootstrap values. The toxigenic profile of the strains was also determined. F. temperatum strains were fusaproliferin and beauvericin producers, and only some strains were fumonisin B1 producers. All F. subglutinans strains produced fusaproliferin but none produced beauvericin, indicating a potential toxicological risk from maize harvested in the NOA region of Argentina. This study provides new information about F. temperatum isolated from maize in Argentina.

  5. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedades y las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos que entienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí.Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas e ideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre las prácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.Palabras Clave: movimientos sociales, rebelión popular, Argentina, Anarquismo, movimientos autónomos_____________________ABSTRACT:This article discusses the autonomous social movements that arose after the economic crisis and subsequent popular rebellion in Argentina in December of 2001. The autonomous movements in Argentina, as so many movements around the world today, are movements based on creating new social relationships and communities now, while simultaneously creating new societies and relationships in and for the future. They are movements with a different conception of time and place. They are movements that see the individual and the collective as linked to one another.There is a great deal in common with the experience in Argentina and anarchist practices and ideas. That does not make

  6. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L J; Botting, Joseph P; Jenks, James F; Bylund, Kevin G; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200-million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era.

  7. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L. J.; Botting, Joseph P.; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A.; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage—the Paris Biota—from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200–million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era. PMID:28246643

  8. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  9. Aclerdidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea de la Argentina Aclerdidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Granara de Willink

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran la hembra adulta, el primer estadio y un estadio intermedio de la hembra de Aclerda colihuensis sp. nov., encontrada sobre Chusquea culeou una Bambusaceae, de los bosques andinopatagónicos. Se brinda una clave para las especies de Aclerda Signoret, de la región Neotropical. Se cita esta familia por primera vez para la Argentina.The female, the first stage, and intermediate female stages of Aclerda colihuensis n. sp., are described and illustrated. A key to the neotropical species for Aclerda Signoret is given. This is the first family report from Argentina. The new species was found on Chusquea culeou Desv. Bambusaceae, from the Patagonia forest.

  10. O Plano Real à luz da experiência mexicana e argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute os primeiros dois anos do Plano Real e em especial os seus efeitos sobre as relações externas do Brasil, à luz da experiência de programas de estabilização adotados no México, em 1988-1994, e na Argentina, desde 1991. Embora cada experiência nacional apresente as suas peculiaridades, argumenta-se que a economia brasileira vem revivendo a experiência mexicana e argentina em alguns pontos importantes, combinando sucesso no combate à inflação com acentuada e persistente apreciação cambial, elevados déficits no balanço de pagamentos em conta corrente e dependência de fluxos voláteis de capital internacional.This paper discusses the first two years of Brazil's current stabilization programme - known as the Real Plan - and in particular its effects on the country's external economic relations, in the ligth of similar stabilization programmes adopted in Mexico from 1988 to 1994 and in Argentina since 1991. Although each national experience has its peculiarities, it is shown that the Brazilian economy has been reliving the Mexican and Argentinian experience in some important respects, combining success in terms of inflation reduction, with strong and persistent exchange rate appreciation, high deficits in the balance of payments on current account and dependence on volatile international capital flows.

  11. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Alicia; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Llambi, Laura; Berrueta, Mabel; Gibbons, Luz; Buekens, Pierre; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention’s effect (reduction of exposure to SHS) on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas) or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden). This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective. PMID:28036075

  12. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alemán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention’s effect (reduction of exposure to SHS on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden. This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective.

  13. Evaluation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina for detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ré

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare among the most recent generation of five screening tests licensed in Argentina, in order to evaluate which of the tests has the best sensitivity for detection of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV. The tests analyzed were: Detect-HCV™ (3.0 Biochem ImmunoSystems, Canada; Hepatitis C EIA Wiener Lab., Argentina; Equipar HCV Ab, Italy; Murex HCV 4.0, UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test, Japan. The results obtained showed high discrepancy between the different kits used and show that some of the tests assessed have a low sensitivity for anti-HCV detection in both chronic infections and early seroconversion, and indicate that among the commercially available kits in Argentina, Murex HCV 4.0 (UK and Serodia-HCV particles agglutination test (Japan have the best sensitivity for HCV screening. Although the sensitivity of the assays is the first parameter to be considered for blood screening, more studies should be carried out to assess the specificity of such assays.

  14. Primer registro de Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae en la Argentina First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Amún

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead es una especie polífaga que ataca principalmente los cultivos de Mangifera indica. Se registra por primera vez en la Argentina esta especie de insecto. Los ejemplares estudiados fueron recolectados en árboles de mango, en localidades del noroeste argentino, en enero de 2011 y abril de 2012.Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead is a polyphagous pest that attacks mainly Mangifera indica. This insect species is reported for the first time in Argentina. The studied specimens were collected from mango trees in different places of NW Argentina, in January 2011 and April 2012.

  15. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  16. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

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    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  17. The Pali Aike Windstreak Field, Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Kargel, J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-03-01

    Windstreaks are amongst the most common aeolian landforms on Mars, yet they are extremely rare on Earth. We have identified and carried out field based observations of an outstanding zone of windstreaks in southern Patagonia Argentina.

  18. Clinical approach to the patient with unexpected bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, J M

    2000-10-01

    Bleeding can be considered unexpected if it is disproportionate to the intensity of the haemostatic stress in a patient with no known haemorrhagic disorder or if it occurs in a patient in whom a bleeding disorder has been characterized but is adequately treated. A thorough history usually allows the clinician to predict reasonably accurately whether the patient is likely to have a systemic haemostatic defect (and if so whether it is congenital or acquired), or whether the bleeding likely has a purely anatomical basis. The nature of bleeding is instructive with respect to preliminary categorization. Thus, mucocutaneous bleeding suggests defects of primary haemostasis (disordered platelet-vascular interactions). Bleeding into deeper structures is more suggestive of coagulation defects leading to impaired fibrin clot formation, and delayed bleeding after primary haemostasis is characteristic of hyperfibrinolysis. Localized bleeding suggests an anatomical cause, although an underlying haemostatic defect may coexist. Where bleeding is so acutely threatening as to require urgent intervention, diagnosis and treatment must proceed simultaneously. In the case of minor haemorrhage (not threatening to life or limb) it may be preferable to defer therapy while the nature of the bleeding disorder is methodically investigated. Initial laboratory evaluation is guided by the preliminary clinical impression. The amount of blood loss can be inferred from the haematocrit or haemoglobin concentration, and the platelet count will quickly identify cases in which thrombocytopenia is the likely cause of bleeding. In the latter instance, examination of the red cell morphology, leucocyte differential, and mean platelet volume may allow the aetiological mechanism to be presumptively identified as hypoproliferative or consumptive. With regard to coagulation testing, the activated PTT, prothrombin time, and thrombin time usually constitute an adequate battery of screening tests, unless the

  19. CROSSROADS BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICIES AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES MAINTENANCE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Hecht

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Process of language shift is explained by many researchers since linguistic and anthropological perspectives. This area focuses on the correlations between social processes and changes in systems of use of a language. This article aims to address these issues. In particular, we analyze the links between educational-linguistic policy and the maintenance of the languages spoken in Argentina. In doing so, we explore this field taking into account the linguistic and educational policies implemented about indigenous languages in Argentina.

  20. Some historical aspects of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan H. Hunziker

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is given of the origin and development of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay, along with some of the factors that hampered the development of this area.Uma breve narrativa é dada sobre a origem e desenvolvimento de citogenética em plantas na Argentina e Uruguai, juntamente com alguns fatores que prejudicaram o desenvolvimento desta area.

  1. En torno al 2001 en la narrativa argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Saítta

    2014-01-01

    El artículo propone un panorama de la narrativa argentina de finales del siglo veinte y comienzos del veintiuno con la hipótesis de que aun en tiempos de globalización, postautonomía e internacionalización del mercado editorial es posible trazar líneas de inscripción y diálogo entre la nueva narrativa y las grandes tradiciones de la literatura argentina.

  2. Reflexiones para una historia del documental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guarini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Documentary cinema has had, in Argentina, an uncertain destination, in some periods it was protagonist, and in others almost disappeared.In this last decade it reached levels of interesting production and quality. It is already a common place to associate this growth to the social situation of crisis since 2001 that overflew in “filmed events”. However, in Argentina documentary possesses a long history that includes fundamental names for its construction.

  3. Robust passive dynamics of the musculoskeletal system compensate for unexpected surface changes during human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; de Graaf, Wendy W; Farley, Claire T; Moritz, Chet T; Richard Casius, L J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2009-09-01

    When human hoppers are surprised by a change in surface stiffness, they adapt almost instantly by changing leg stiffness, implying that neural feedback is not necessary. The goal of this simulation study was first to investigate whether leg stiffness can change without neural control adjustment when landing on an unexpected hard or unexpected compliant (soft) surface, and second to determine what underlying mechanisms are responsible for this change in leg stiffness. The muscle stimulation pattern of a forward dynamic musculoskeletal model was optimized to make the model match experimental hopping kinematics on hard and soft surfaces. Next, only surface stiffness was changed to determine how the mechanical interaction of the musculoskeletal model with the unexpected surface affected leg stiffness. It was found that leg stiffness adapted passively to both unexpected surfaces. On the unexpected hard surface, leg stiffness was lower than on the soft surface, resulting in close-to-normal center of mass displacement. This reduction in leg stiffness was a result of reduced joint stiffness caused by lower effective muscle stiffness. Faster flexion of the joints due to the interaction with the hard surface led to larger changes in muscle length, while the prescribed increase in active state and resulting muscle force remained nearly constant in time. Opposite effects were found on the unexpected soft surface, demonstrating the bidirectional stabilizing properties of passive dynamics. These passive adaptations to unexpected surfaces may be critical when negotiating disturbances during locomotion across variable terrain.

  4. On Police's Psychological Crisis Intervention after Unexpected Disasters%突发灾难后警察心理危机干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕姿樵; 车新蕊

    2016-01-01

    警察是一种高危职业,一旦遇到突发灾难,心理危机会冲击警察的心理,进而产生各种心理问题.面对这种情形,有必要对警察心理危机干预进行准确研究,以便改变警察对突发灾难的认知方向,科学处理突发事件,确保警察的身心健康.本文概述了突发灾难后的心理危机干预,指出了开展警察心理危机干预的重要性,分析了突发灾难后警察的心理危机反应,探讨了突发灾难后警察心理危机干预的应对策略.%Police is a highly dangerous career. When unexpected disaster takes place, police's psychology will be influenced by psychological crisis, which will further result in various psychological problems. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out researches on police's psychological crisis intervention, with a view to change police's cognition of unexpected disaster, to help them deal with unexpected incidents scientifically and to guarantee police's physical and psychological health. Basing on this, the paper first generalizes psychological crisis intervention after unexpected disasters and points out the importance to carry out police's psychological crisis intervention; then, it analyzes police's psychological crisis reaction after unexpected disasters, and finally it discusses the countermeasures of police's psychological crisis intervention after unexpected disasters.

  5. Maps, imaginary and environmental memory in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Hollman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While research on social ideas of nature focused on the discursive side of environmental rhetoric during the last decade of the twentieth century, the visual turn has introduced the analysis of its visual facet: the study of the visual representation of nature in photographs, films, paintings and media among many other image-based media. However, scarce attention has received the study of what is provoked by environmental images as well as how they shape our imagination and memory of environmental issues. Based on the analysis of mental maps created by 215 subjects -all of them students of the undergraduate programs of the Faculty of Humanities at Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Province (Argentina in 2013- as the starting point to identify images that have become constitutive environmental memory, the article discusses the role of environmental images in shaping both our ways of looking to nature and our understanding of environmental issues.

  6. en la Argentina, 1880-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dalla Corte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es el resultado de una investigación realizada en el Hospicio de Huérfanos y Expósitos de la ciudad de Rosario, provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, en torno a las señales —breves cartas y objetos— que las madres abandonantes dejaban junto con sus hijos alrededor del mencionado asilo para identificarlos y recuperarlos más tarde, cuando las condiciones sociales y económicas lo hicieran posible. La mayoría de ellas eran mujeres italianas recién llegadas al país que enfrentan su condición de madres, por primera vez, paradójicamente, en la escena del abandono.

  7. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  8. suprema de Justicia de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gustavo Ferreyra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Poder de reforma es político. Reforma y control judicial de constitucionalidad son garantías constitucionales. Puede suceder que la reforma, en lugar de defender, ataque la Constitución, por infringir límites prefijados para su actuación. Se describen y clasifican sentencias de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Argentina sobre la cuestión. Sostengo que si se acepta el control judicial de constitucionalidad, exclusivo y pleno, sobre la reforma, se pulveriza la concepción de que la juridicidad se basa en la premisa de que la voluntad de los ciudadanos posee mayor autoridad que la de quienes actúen en su nombre y representación.

  9. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  10. para la república Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. Hladki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen doce especies del género Xylaria que se citan por primera vez para la Argentina: Xylaria adscendens, X. allantoidea, X. coccophora, X. cubensis, X. fissilis, X. gracillima, X. luxurians, X. melanura, X. multiplex, X. myosurus, X. kretschmarioidea y X. pseudoapiculata. El registro de las últimas dos especies es el segundo a nivel mundial. Se describen por primera vez los estromas anamórficos o estériles obtenidos en cultivo de X. kretschmarioidea, X. luxurians y X. melanura, y los cultivos en agar-avena de X. pseudoapiculata. Se sinominiza X. torulosa con X. coccophora, y se citan nuevos sustratos u hospedantes para la mayoría de las especies.

  11. NUEVAS CITAS DE ASCLEPIADACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Cáceres Moral

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies no mencionadas anteriormente de la Argentina son tratadas e ilustradas: Oxypetalum molle Hook. et Arn. y Oxypetalum ineanum Fourn. Oxypetalum appendieulatum Mart. et Zucc., Oxypetalum confusum Malme, Oxypetalum jörgensenii Meyer, Oxypetalum microphyllum Hook. et Arn., Oxypetalum pannosum Decaisne, Oxypetalum stipatum Malme, Funastrum flavum (Decaisne Malme y Blepharodon lineare (Decaisne Decaisne se registran por primera vez para la flora de Corrientes ..

  12. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  13. movilización social en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Fernández Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las acciones estatales y las practicas de movilización social en torno al problema del desempleo en la Argentina contemporánea, poniendo énfasis en las interacciones entre ambas. Desde un enfoque etnográfico, focalizamos en las organizaciones de desocupados y de empresas recuperadas, para abordar aquellas categorías que resultan más relevantes en las interacciones en el campo, entre las que se destacan las de trabajo digno y genuino. Estas categorías resultan centrales tanto en la configuración de los procesos de construcción identitaria como en la formación de demandas, mostrando la complejidad que asume el problema del desempleo.

  14. [Prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a Rosario Hospital, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambandé, Telma; Damiano, Mario; Borda, Noemí; Notario, Rodolfo; Aita, José

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of Rosario, Argentina. The frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. In an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Aeromonas spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli. C. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), Salmonella in 18 (5,9 %), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 7 (2,3 %). Most cases due ton C. jejuni had mucus and/or blood in their feces. Unexpectedly we didn't fine any cases due to Shigella spp. There was much less cases due to EPEC than in our previous studies, and occurred only in children of less than 5 years old. It is necesary to take in consideration that C. jejuni cause nearly all the cases of diarrhea in patients with mucus and blood in their feces actually in our region.

  15. Mirror Coronograph for Argentina (MICA). Primera Luz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Epple, A.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    En Julio de 1997 se terminó con la primera parte de la instalación del ``Coronógrafo de Espejo para la Argentina'' en la estación de altura Carlos U. Cesco (El Leoncito), gracias al esfuerzo de la gente del Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie (Alemania), del OAFA y del IAFE. Dicho coronógrafo forma parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. El propósito del mismo, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares y terrestres, es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Para ello, ya está observando la corona de emisión en el verde (Fe XIV), rojo (Fe X) y Hα entre 1.05 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente. El diseño del instrumento, el cual fuera ya presentado en esta misma reunión en La Plata en 1996, es esencialmente similar al del telescopio LASCO-C1 a bordo del Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). La adquisición de datos se realiza con un CCD de 1280x1024 pixels, codificando en 12 bits, pudiendo ser el mismo operado en forma remota. En esta reunión presentaremos algunas de las observaciones realizadas durante la puesta a punto del instrumento en el período julio-setiembre de 1997. Asimismo expondremos cómo y por qué sus resultados complementarán a los de su par en el espacio.

  16. Migration trends in Argentina: immigration and exile Dinámica migratoria Argentina: inmigración y exilios

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Fernando Osvaldo

    2010-01-01

    Through the development of a typology of migration flows, the paper reviews the most important trends in the history of Argentina: the massive European immigration, internal migrations, and immigration from neighbouring countries. The paper then discuss the current process of emigration from Argentina, and the return of old immigrants. The paper assess the economic factors involved through an analysis of unemployment, poverty and income distribution indicators in recent years. Finally, the pa...

  17. Suscripción de revistas en línea en la Argentina, 2007 On line journals subscription in Argentina, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Romanos de Tiratel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación orientada a describir aspectos del proceso de suscripción de revistas en línea en la Argentina. Entre abril y setiembre del año 2007 se aplicó una encuesta vía correo electrónico a bibliotecas especializadas y universitarias argentinas para indagar acerca de los actores involucrados en la identificación, evaluación y selección de títulos, en la negociación y firma de las licencias, las modalidades de suscripción y los tipos de recursos suscriptos por esas unidades de información. Se observó una alta participación de los bibliotecarios en todo el proceso que disminuía en la etapa de negociación y firma de los acuerdos de licencia donde los directores institucionales y los administradores tenían un rol más destacado.This paper presents the findings of an investigation aimed at describing aspects of the process of online journals subscription in Argentina. From April to September of 2007 a survey was conducted via electronic mail to special and academic libraries to inquire about Argentine actors involved in the identification, evaluation, and selection of titles, in the negotiation and signing of the licences, the subscription methods, and type of resources subscribed for those information units. There was a high participation of librarians in the process that decreased in the stage of negotiating and signing the licencing agreements where institutional managers and administrators had a more prominent role.

  18. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional...... investigations of young persons suffering a sudden unexpected death. This is probably not unique for Denmark although no data exist to confirm that. The results are worrying and call for a revision of the way these deaths are handled. Mandatory autopsy in sudden unexpected death in young persons is warranted...... differences exist in the investigation of young persons dying suddenly and unexpectedly. METHODS AND RESULTS: All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-2006 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. External examination as well as autopsy status was retrieved...

  19. The accrual anomaly - focus on changes in specific unexpected accruals results in new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    it is demonstrated that different specific components of earnings have significantly different earnings persistence characteristics and that these differences are not fully reflected in share prices. In the analysis presented here the earnings persistence effect of two particular unexpected accrual components...... and unexpected accruals, estimated by the extended Jones model like in both some US-analyses and some international studies of the accrual anomaly phenomenon. It is found that the persistence of earnings is decreasing in the magnitude of the unexpected accrual components of earnings and that the persistence...... of current earnings performance is particularly decreasing in the magnitude of unexpected changes in inventory. The special accrual parts are related to the perceptions of earnings persistence implicit in the market prices, and it is found that the differences in earnings persistence are not rationally...

  20. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina. We... that, in addition to the pest-free status for C. capitata, the Mendoza province of Argentina also...

  1. 75 FR 12734 - Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., 2009). On December 31, 2009, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey...

  2. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  3. Study for compensation of unexpected image placement error caused by VSB mask writer deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-joo; Choi, Min-kyu; Moon, Seong-yong; Cho, Han-Ku; Doh, Jonggul; Ahn, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    The Electron Optical System (EOS) is designed for the electron beam machine employing a vector scanned variable shaped beam (VSB) with the deflector. Most VSB systems utilize multi stage deflection architecture to obtain a high precision and a high-speed deflection at the same time. Many companies use the VSB mask writer and they have a lot of experiences about Image Placement (IP) error suffering from contaminated EOS deflector. And also most of VSB mask writer users are having already this error. In order to use old VSB mask writer, we introduce the method how to compensate unexpected IP error from VSB mask writer. There are two methods to improve this error due to contaminated deflector. The one is the usage of 2nd stage grid correction in addition to the original stage grid. And the other is the usage of uncontaminated area in the deflector. According to the results of this paper, 30% of IP error can be reduced by 2nd stage grid correction and the change of deflection area in deflector. It is the effective method to reduce the deflector error at the VSB mask writer. And it can be the one of the solution for the long-term production of photomask.

  4. NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORD OF Cryptotermes brevis (ISOPTERA, KALOTERMITIDAE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Coronel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The first record of the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 in the city of Corrientes (Argentina is reported. Several C. brevis  colonies were detected inside a local deposit, from wooden crates used for carrying fresh fruits. The observed damage consisted of small rounded holes, partially hollowed wood pieces and presence of debris. The importance of weather factors and the type of material of vegetable and fruit containers in the colonization and dispersion of C. brevis  in this region of Argentina are discussed. Illustrations of soldiers and reproductive C. brevis , and an updated map of the distribution of this termite in Argentina are given.Nuevo registro de distribución de Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae en Argentina Se presenta el primer registro de Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 en la ciudad de Corrientes (Argentina. Se detectaron varias colonias de esta termita dentro de un edificio en contenedores de madera empleados para el transporte de fruta fresca. Los daños observados consistieron en orificios redondos, piezas de madera parcialmente excavadas y presencia de debris fecales. Se discute la importancia de factores climatológicos y del tipo de material de contenedores de fruta, en la colonización y dispersión de C. brevis  en esta región de Argentina. Se presentan ilustraciones de soldados y reproductores de C. brevis  y un mapa actualizado de la distribución de esta termita en Argentina

  5. Arsenic concentration in water and bovine milk in Cordoba, Argentina. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2005-02-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina constitutes one of the largest regions of high arsenic (As) groundwaters known, covering around 1 x 10(6) km2 (Smedley & Kinniburg, 2002; Farías et al. 2004). The high-As groundwaters are from Quaternary deposits of loess (mainly silt) with intermixed rhyolitic or dacitic volcanic ash (Nicolli et al. 1989, Smedley et al. 1998,2002). Early in the last century an endemic disease due to contamination of drinking water with arsenic was recognised. This disease is called HACRE (Hidroarsenicismo Crónico Regional Endémico, Chronic Endemic Regional Hydroarsenism) and is connected with a particular type of skin cancer (Astolfi et al. 1981). One of the most affected region is the province of Cordoba, where Nicolli et al. (1989) reported As concentrations that exceed the maximun level permitted for drinking water of 50 microg/l for 82% of the groundwater samples (n=60) of a study area comprising approximately 10000 km2. The southeast of Cordoba is an important milk production zone in Argentina, where dairy product consumption is up to 192 equivalent milk l/inhabitant/year. As a secretion of the mammary gland, milk can carry numerous xenobiotic substances, which constitute a technological risk factor for dairy products and above all for the health of the consumer (Licata et al. 2004). Nevertheless no studies on the incidence of high-As livestock drinking water in livestock health and its transfer to milk have been performed in Argentina. The aim of the present study was the determination of arsenic content in livestock drinking water and milk from dairy farms located in an area of high-As groundwaters, to analyse the relation between As uptake through water and its transfer to milk.

  6. 76 FR 16609 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010 based on a... published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice...

  7. 77 FR 4763 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... ] antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  8. 77 FR 77031 - Honey From Argentina; Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina; Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review on honey from Argentina because all parties have withdrawn their requests for review and the antidumping duty order on imports of honey from Argentina is being revoked, effective December...

  9. 77 FR 45334 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... conducting a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for the... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina was published on December 10, 2001.\\1\\ On January 3, 2012,...

  10. 76 FR 79655 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary..., petitioners withdrew their request for an antidumping duty administrative review of honey from Argentina for... that ACA is no longer subject to the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. \\2\\ On February...

  11. 77 FR 21968 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... countervailing duty order on honey ] from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...

  12. 76 FR 76374 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... respect to honey from Argentina. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative... order on honey from Argentina (in part). However, Nexco's request for revocation in part from the...

  13. 77 FR 77029 - Honey from Argentina; Final Results of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina; Final Results of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... orders on honey from Argentina because we have concluded that substantially all domestic producers lack..., the Department published the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on honey from Argentina.\\1\\...

  14. 76 FR 5332 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  15. Interannual variability of temperature spells over Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusticucci, M. M; Vargas, W. M [Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-04-01

    This work is aimed at studying the interannual variability of surface temperature cold spells and warm spells due to cold-and warm-air incursions. The effect of the ENSO event on the occurrence of extreme spells having three different indices was studied. In order to track changes during the 1959/96 period, spell parameters, persistence and intensity, have been studied from daily temperatures. The number of extreme spells per year show low frequency variability plus a biennial variability, which is more important in its intensity than in its persistence, and in summer rather than in winter. The number of extreme warm spell increase until the end of the sisties and seventies, reflecting and increase of northeasterly flow. From then onwards, the trend starts to decline significantly over northern Argentina. The interannual variability of extreme winter cold spells increases from the 80's onwards, indicating the variations of anticyclone permanence over the country. Cases are more numerous in the latest years. Extreme spell occurrence in northern Argentina is closely linked to the El nino phenomenon. Winter warm spells are more persistent in an El Nino (0) year and more intense and persistent in the year following El Nino. In summer, however, there is either no difference, or the relationship is reversed, resulting in more intense situations in November and December in the case of La Nina. Cold spells reaching the Northeastern most part of the country are more persistent when La Nina occurs, the conclusions being that the region would be affected by extreme cold spells when La Nina is active. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudia la variabilidad interanual de las olas de calor y frio extremas sobre la Argentina, como la manifestacion de irrupciones extremas de aire tropical y polar. Se consideran las temperaturas de superficie diarias en el periodo de 1959/96, a partir de las cuales se calculan dos parametros para definir las olas: persistencia e intensidad. La

  16. La Tuberculosis infantil y su diagnóstico en la Argentina Childhood tuberculosis and its diagnosis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N.P. Miceli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de tuberculosis (TBC en menores de 5 años en Argentina fue 24.3/ 100.000 habitantes en el año 2000, y la tasa global 31.8/ 100.000. Un 17% de los casos fueron menores de 15 años, lo que indica una activa transmisión de la infección, que se diagnostica generalmente ya con enfermedad avanzada, por la historia de foco, la reacción tuberculínica positiva, y los signos y síntomas clínico- radiológicos. El aporte de la bacteriología al diagnóstico es escaso, empleándose en 0-4 años el aspirado o lavado gástrico. Para el cultivo se usan los medios sólidos a base de huevo o, en laboratorios de referencia, los de detección temprana. Las pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos están disponibles en algunos laboratorios, pero sin un sistema de garantía de calidad; sus resultados deben considerarse sólo dentro del contexto clínico. El fortalecimiento de la red de laboratorios de cultivo facilitará el diagnóstico de certeza de la TBC infantil, la confiabilidad de la notificación, y el conocimiento de la resistencia bacteriana. Para revertir la actual situación epidemiológica es necesario incrementar la investigación de los niños contactos de casos bacilíferos, seguida de quimioprofilaxis o tratamiento según corresponda. La meningitis TBC en menores de 5 años tuvo una disminución significativamente mayor que la de la TBC en adultos, en los últimos 20 años en Argentina. En 2000 se notificaron sólo 10 casos de meningitis en esas edades (0.29/ 100.000. Esto confirma la protección conferida por la vacunación BCG al nacimiento, con alta y continuada cobertura.TB notification rate in infants and children 0-4 years was 24.3/ 100.000 in Argentina, in 2000, for a global incidence of 31.8/ 100.000. A 17% of all TB cases occurred in children (0-14 years, indicating a very active TB transmission. Usually TB is diagnosed when the disease is already advanced. Main criteria for the diagnosis are: a previous contact

  17. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  18. [Traffic law compliance in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramino, Juan Carlos; Carrera, Elena

    2007-08-01

    An observational, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate compliance with certain traffic regulations in city of Santa Fe, Argentina, and compare these with measurements taken in prior years. During January 2-4, 2006, at 13 sites across the city, compliance with the following traffic rules was measured: for car drivers: seat belt use and restricting minors to the rear seat; and for motorcycle drivers: helmet use and not carrying a minor on board. At total of 4 173 cars and 1 013 motorcycles were observed. Only 9% of the car drivers wore seatbelts. Of the 246 cars carrying minors, 56% had a minor in the front seat. Regarding the motorcycles drivers, only 12% wore a helmet and 6.7% had a child on board. When these observations were compared with those of the previous five years, findings showed that over the past three years compliance rates had decreased. The results of this study suggest that most drivers in city of Santa Fe do not obey the stated traffic laws. In order to reduce the high rate of mortality from traffic accidents, in addition to legislation and public-awareness campaigns, a system for enforcing compliance is needed.

  19. Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

    2009-12-19

    The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

  20. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  1. Sites in Argentina for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Project

    CERN Document Server

    Allekotte, Ingo; Etchegoyen, Alberto; García, Beatriz; Mancilla, Alexis; Maya, Javier; Ravignani, Diego; Rovero, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Project will consist of two arrays of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to study high-energy gamma radiation in the range of a few tens of GeV to beyond 100 TeV. To achieve full-sky coverage, the construction of one array in each terrestrial hemisphere is considered. Suitable candidate sites are being explored and characterized. The candidate sites in the Southern Hemisphere include two locations in Argentina, one in San Antonio de los Cobres (Salta Province, Lat. 24:02:42 S, Long. 66:14:06 W, at 3600 m.a.s.l) and another one in El Leoncito (San Juan Province, Lat. 31:41:49 S, Long. 69:16:21 W, at 2600 m.a.s.l). Here we describe the two sites and the instrumentation that has been deployed to characterize them. We summarize the geographic, atmospheric and climatic data that have been collected for both of them.

  2. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Factors Concerning the Unexpected Pregnancy of Women who Applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy

  4. The culture of milk in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aguirre

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the culture of milk and it includes both the micro social aspects of household consumption and the economic macro aspects related to milk production and their market and the welfare distribution in public policies against poverty. The hypothesis is that in Argentina there is a real culture of milk, which gives meaning to consumption, and marks the different income groups within society, as well as their gender and age. But since approximately 20 years ago, in accordance with the restructuring of the dairy industrial complex, that culture of milk has been changing, and its most outstanding features are the following: abandonment of milk as the emblematic food for children and its extension to the adult “formal” consumption; milk is no longer the knowledge of women and becomes the knowledge of experts; increase in milk consumption (dairy products in general as food gets feminine, infantile, medicated, globalised and segmented.Este artículo sobre la cultura de la leche analiza los aspectos microsociales del consumo en el hogar y los aspectos macro de la economía que hacen a la industria lactea y al mercado junto a la distribución asistencial del estado en los programas contra la pobreza. La hipótesis es que en Argentina existe una verdadera cultura de la leche, que da sentido al consumo, marcando con el alimento los diferentes sectores de ingreso de la sociedad, los géneros y las edades. Pero desde hace aproximadamente 20 años, en consonancia con la reconversión del complejo industrial lácteo, esta cultura de la leche esta cambiando, se describen sus aspectos mas salientes tales como : el abandono de la leche como alimento emblemático de los niños y su extensión al consumo “formal” adulto ; deja de ser un alimento rutinario cuyo saber usar residía en las mujeres y su uso pase a ser cosa de especialistas ; a medida se feminiza, infantiliza, medicaliza, globaliza y segmenta la alimentación en general

  5. [Nutritional graph for Argentina's bariatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantelli Pateiro, Laura; Pampillón, N; Coqueugniot, M; De Rosa, P; Pagano, C; Reynoso, C; De Pizzol, C; Iturralde, C; Podestá, S; Penutto, C

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convocó a participar en mesas de trabajo a licenciados en nutrición y médicos especialistas en nutrición en un congreso realizado en el 2011. Se tomó como base científica el Primer Consenso Argentino de Nutrición en Cirugía Bariátrica y las “Guías alimentarias para la Población Argentina normal”. De esta forma se adapta la misma a la población argentina con cirugía bariátrica sumada a la experiencia de los profesionales. Resultado: Como resultado se obtuvo un gráfica alimentaria en forma de óvalo, adaptación de la gráfica de las “Guías alimentarias para la población argentina”, 12 mensajes o recomendaciones dirigidas a individuos con CB, una sugerencia de menú que responde a un valor calórico promedio de 1.273 calorías diarias, 145 g de carbohidratos, 76 g de proteínas y 43,2 g de grasas; 45,5% de calorías proveniente de los carbohidratos, 24% de calorías proveniente de las proteínas y 30,5 % de calorías proveniente de las grasas, 1.160 mg de calcio.

  6. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedadesy las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos queentienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí. Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas eideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre lasprácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.

  7. 77 FR 28570 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of... period of review (POR) of honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of.../exporters of honey from Argentina during the POR.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Preliminary Results for a detailed history...

  8. 77 FR 39257 - Honey From Argentina and China Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order on Honey From Argentina and the Antidumping Duty Orders on Honey from Argentina and China AGENCY...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...

  9. Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2013-12-01

    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness, a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.

  10. Mechanisms of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: the pathway to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Cory A; Sowers, Levi P; Dlouhy, Brian J; Richerson, George B

    2014-05-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy, with an estimated 35% lifetime risk in this patient population. There is a surprising lack of awareness among patients and physicians of this increased risk of sudden death: in a recent survey, only 33% of Canadian paediatricians who treated patients with epilepsy knew the term SUDEP. Controversy prevails over whether cardiac arrhythmia or respiratory arrest is more important as the primary cause of death. Effective preventive strategies in high-risk patients will rely on definition of the mechanisms that lead from seizures to death. Here, we summarize evidence for the mechanisms that cause cardiac, respiratory and arousal abnormalities during the ictal and postictal period. We highlight potential cellular mechanisms underlying these abnormalities, such as a defect in the serotonergic system, ictal adenosine release, and changes in autonomic output. We discuss genetic mutations that cause Dravet and long QT syndromes, both of which are linked with increased risk of sudden death. We then highlight possible preventive interventions that are likely to decrease SUDEP incidence, including respiratory monitoring in epilepsy monitoring units and overnight supervision. Finally, we discuss treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, that might be personalized to a specific genetic or pathological defect.

  11. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  12. Unexpected Convergent Evolution of Nasal Domes between Pleistocene Bovids and Cretaceous Hadrosaur Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D; Faith, J Tyler; Jenkins, Kirsten E; Peppe, Daniel J; Plummer, Thomas W; Jacobs, Zenobia L; Li, Bo; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Price, Gilbert; Feng, Yue-Xing; Tryon, Christian A

    2016-02-22

    The fossil record provides tangible, historical evidence for the mode and operation of evolution across deep time. Striking patterns of convergence are some of the strongest examples of these operations, whereby, over time, similar environmental and/or behavioral pressures precipitate similarity in form and function between disparately related taxa. Here we present fossil evidence for an unexpected convergence between gregarious plant-eating mammals and dinosaurs. Recent excavations of Late Pleistocene deposits on Rusinga Island, Kenya, have uncovered a catastrophic assemblage of the wildebeest-like bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion. Previously known from fragmentary material, these new specimens reveal large, hollow, osseous nasal crests: a craniofacial novelty for mammals that is remarkably comparable to the nasal crests of lambeosaurine hadrosaur dinosaurs. Using adult and juvenile material from this assemblage, as well as computed tomographic imaging, we investigate this convergence from morphological, developmental, functional, and paleoenvironmental perspectives. Our detailed analyses reveal broad parallels between R. atopocranion and basal Lambeosaurinae, suggesting that osseous nasal crests may require a highly specific combination of ontogeny, evolution, and environmental pressures in order to develop.

  13. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  14. Unexpected δ-Phase Formation in Additive-Manufactured Ni-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idell, Y.; Levine, L. E.; Allen, A. J.; Zhang, F.; Campbell, C. E.; Olson, G. B.; Gong, J.; Snyder, D. R.; Deutchman, H. Z.

    2016-03-01

    An as-built and solutionized Ni-based superalloy built by additive manufacturing through a direct metal laser sintering technique is characterized to understand the microstructural differences as compared to the as-wrought alloy. Initially, each layer undergoes rapid solidification as it is melted by the laser; however, as the part is built, the underlying layers experience a variety of heating and cooling cycles that produce significant microsegregation of niobium which allows for the formation of the deleterious δ-phase. The as-built microstructure was characterized through Vickers hardness, optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron back-scattering diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray microLaue diffraction. The isothermal formation and growth of the δ-phase were characterized using synchrotron-based in situ small angle and wide angle x-ray scattering experiments. These experimental results are compared with multicomponent diffusion simulations that predict the phase fraction and composition. The high residual stresses and unexpected formation of the δ-phase will require further annealing treatments to be designed so as to remove these deficiencies and obtain an optimized microstructure.

  15. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P < 0.01). Information was more frequently recorded regarding circumstances of death and body position/location than clinical epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  16. Unexpected large room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Porous Cu{sub 2}O films have been fabricated on porous anodic alumina substrates using DC-reactive magnetron sputtering with pure Cu targets, and unexpectedly large room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the films. The maximum saturation magnetic moment along the out-of-plane direction was as high as 94 emu/cm{sup 3}. Photoluminescence spectra show that the ferromagnetism originates with oxygen vacancies. The ferromagnetism could be adjusted by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies through annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. These observations suggest that the origin of the ferromagnetism is due to coupling between oxygen vacancies with local magnetic moments in the porous Cu{sub 2}O films, which can occur either directly through exchange interactions between oxygen vacancies, or through the mediation of conduction electrons. Such a ferromagnet without the presence of any ferromagnetic dopant may find applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Porous Cu{sub 2}O films were deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates. • Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in porous Cu{sub 2}O films. • Ferromagnetism of Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited different magnetic signals with the field. • The saturation magnetization is 94 emu/cm{sup 3} with an out-of-plane.

  17. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  18. New hepatitis B virus of cranes that has an unexpected broad host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, Alexej; Hohenberg, Heinz; Kalinina, Tatyana; Schneider, Carola; Cova, Lucyna; Krone, Oliver; Frölich, Kai; Will, Hans; Sirma, Hüseyin

    2003-02-01

    All hepadnaviruses known so far have a very limited host range, restricted to their natural hosts and a few closely related species. This is thought to be due mainly to sequence divergence in the large envelope protein and species-specific differences in host components essential for virus propagation. Here we report an infection of cranes with a novel hepadnavirus, designated CHBV, that has an unexpectedly broad host range and is only distantly evolutionarily related to avihepadnaviruses of related hosts. Direct DNA sequencing of amplified CHBV DNA as well a sequencing of cloned viral genomes revealed that CHBV is most closely related to, although distinct from, Ross' goose hepatitis B virus (RGHBV) and slightly less closely related to duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). Phylogenetically, cranes are very distant from geese and ducks and are most closely related to herons and storks. Naturally occurring hepadnaviruses in the last two species are highly divergent in sequence from RGHBV and DHBV and do not infect ducks or do so only marginally. In contrast, CHBV from crane sera and recombinant CHBV produced from LMH cells infected primary duck hepatocytes almost as efficiently as DHBV did. This is the first report of a rather broad host range of an avihepadnavirus. Our data imply either usage of similar or identical entry pathways and receptors by DHBV and CHBV, unusual host and virus adaptation mechanisms, or divergent evolution of the host genomes and cellular components required for virus propagation.

  19. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj;

    2015-01-01

    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...... by subduction-zone fluids and/or melts. The increasing contributions from the pyroxene-rich source in the southern Payenia basalts are correlated with an increasing Fe-enrichment, which caused the olivines to have lower forsterite contents at a given Ni content. Al-in-olivine crystallization temperatures...

  20. The Beagle Channel Dispute between Argentina and Chile: An Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    Superba, are crustaceans with a maximum length of 6 cm. They are found in swarms in the upper 200 meters of water and are a high source of protein...Sudan 160 I0 .1,* Rhodc-ia 92 6Nigeria 91 6 North Africa I 158 8 Libya 694 60 Algeria 223 19 Morocco 213 18 Tunisia 29 3 South America I 069 8 Brazil...Italy 16. Algeria 882 2.2 USSR 17. Taiwan 737 1.9 USA 18. Kuwait 664 1.7 USSR 19. Argentina 642 1.6 FR Germany 20. Brazil 641 1.6 United Kingdom 21

  1. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  2. Unexpected novelty and familiarity orienting responses in lateral parietal cortex during recognition judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Konkel, Alex; Dobbins, Ian G

    2013-05-01

    The role of lateral parietal cortex during recognition memory is heavily debated. We examined parietal activation during an Explicit Memory Cueing recognition paradigm that biases participants towards expecting novel or familiar stimuli on a trial-by-trial basis using anticipatory cues ("Likely Old", "Likely New"), compared to trials with neutral cues ("????"). Three qualitatively distinct patterns were observed in the left lateral parietal cortex. An unexpected novelty response occurred in left anterior intraparietal cortex (IPS)/post-central gyrus (PoCG) in which greater activation was observed for new vs. old materials following the "Likely Old" cue, but not following the "Likely New" cue. In contrast, anterior angular gyrus demonstrated an unexpected familiarity response with greater activation for old vs. new materials following the "Likely New" cue, but not the "Likely Old" cue. Thus these two regions demonstrated increased responses that were selective for either new or old materials respectively, but only when they were unexpected. In contrast, a mid IPS area demonstrated greater response for whichever class of memoranda was unanticipated given the cue condition (an unexpected memory response). Analogous response patterns in regions outside of parietal cortex, and the results of a resting state connectivity analysis, suggested these three response patterns were associated with visuo-spatial orienting following unexpected novelty, source monitoring operations following unexpected familiarity, and general executive control processes following violated expectations. These findings support a Memory Orienting Model of the left lateral parietal cortex in which the region is linked to the investigation of unexpected novelty or familiarity in the environment.

  3. A new species of Habranthus (Amaryllidaceae from Argentina Una nueva especie de Habranthus (Amaryllidaceae de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roitman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Habranthus is described and illustrated. H. correntinus is found in wet grasslands of northeastern Argentina. The new species resembles Habranthus tubispathus in size, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of bulblets, narrow dark green leaves, narrow pinkish tepals with darker bases, the longer style with larger style arms, and the presence of leaves at anthesis. A key to identify the species of the genus from Corrientes is provided.Se describe e ilustra H. correntinus, especie que crece en pastizales húmedos en el noreste de Argentina. Esta nueva especie se parece en tamaño a Habranthus tubispathus pero puede distinguirse facilmente por la precencia de bulbillos, hojas más angostas de color verde oscuro, los tépalos rosados con la base oscura, el estilo mas largo al gual que las ramas estigmáticas y la presencia de hojas durante la antesis. Se brinda una clave para identificar las especies del género provenientes de la provincia de Corrientes.

  4. Odonata from Iberá Wetlands (Corrientes, Argentina: preliminary inventory and biodiversity Odonata de los Esteros del Iberá (Corrientes, Argentina: inventario preliminar y biodiversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary inventory of the Odonata from Iberá Wetlands and their area of influence (Corrientes, Argentina is presented. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in seven localities. Seventy five species grouped in 33 genera and seven families were registered, from which three genera and 10 species are new records for the country. The localities belonging to the Iberá Wetland system show low endemicity and a high faunistic relationship with the Paraná basin.Se presenta un inventario preliminar de los Odonata de los Esteros del Iberá, así como su área de influencia (Corrientes, Argentina. Distintos tipos de ambientes fueron muestreados en siete localidades. Se registraron setenta y cinco especies agrupadas en 33 géneros y siete familias, de las cuales tres géneros y 10 especies son nuevos registros para el país. Las localidades que pertenecen al sistema de Esteros del Iberá, muestran bajos niveles de endemismo y una similitud faunística elevada con la cuenca del Paraná.

  5. [Coccidioidomycosis in Argentina, 1892-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteros, C E; Toranzo, A; Ibarra-Camou, B; David, V; Carrizo, S G; Santillán-Iturres, A; Serrano, J; Fernández, N; Capece, P; Gorostiaga, J; Chacón, Y A; Tonelli, R; Boscaro, G; Abiega, C; Mendieta, S; Fernández, C; Fernández, A; Vitale, R; Santos, P; Pizarro, M R; López-Joffre, M C; Lee, W; Mazza, M; Posse, G; Tiraboschi, I N; Negroni, R; Davel, G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.

  6. y comienzos de 1971 en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo De Amézola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone presentar, en base al análisis de fuentes periodísticas, el brusco cambio en el clima de ideas que se produce en Argentina a partir de la decadencia de la dictadura de Juan Carlos Onganía, luego de la insurrección popular que estalló en Córdoba en 1969 (“Cordobazo”. Estos sucesos y el acceso al poder de gobiernos de izquierda militares (en Perú y en Bolivia o civiles (en Chile parecían augurar un avance irresistible de estas ideas en América Latina. El trabajo centra su atención en los partidos políticos argentinos en relación a un doble problema: sus posicionamientos ante las posibilidades de salida política que proponen las distintas facciones militares y la influencia que el nuevo clima de ideas ejerce sobre sus ideas y argumentaciones tradicionales.

  7. Iodine-129 in animal thyroids from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I concentrations in animal thyroids coming from several regions of Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The measured {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios, ranging from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, are significantly lower than those typical for areas in the northern hemisphere (10{sup -10}-10{sup -7}). The {sup 129}I concentrations show a clear dependence with latitude and season, which can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible {sup 129}I sources and regional precipitation rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first determination of {sup 129}I in thyroids from the southern hemisphere via AMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotopic ratios measured are lower than those found in areas of the northern hemisphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two samples represent {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios similar to pre-anthropogenic values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data show a clear dependence with latitude and season, related with deposition pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a strong decorrelation between {sup 129}I and iodine sources.

  8. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  9. Genetic Influences on Preterm Birth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Paul C.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Comas, Belén; Gili, Juan; Crumley, Suzanne; Bream, Elise N.A.; Byers, Heather M.; Piester, Travis; Schaefer, Amanda; Christine, Paul J.; Lawrence, Amy; Schaa, Kendra L.; Kelsey, Keegan J.P.; Berends, Susan K.; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Camelo, Jorge López; Saleme, Cesar; Day, Lori J.; England, Sarah K.; Marazita, Mary L.; Dagle, John M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate genetic etiologies of preterm birth (PTB) in Argentina through evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes and population genetic admixture. Study Design Genotyping was performed in 389 families. Maternal, paternal, and fetal effects were studied separately. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced in 50 males and 50 females. Y-chromosome anthropological markers were evaluated in 50 males. Results Fetal association with PTB was found in the progesterone receptor (PGR, rs1942836; p= 0.004). Maternal association with PTB was found in small conductance calcium activated potassium channel isoform 3 (KCNN3, rs883319; p= 0.01). Gestational age associated with PTB in PGR rs1942836 at 32 –36 weeks (p= 0.0004). MtDNA sequencing determined 88 individuals had Amerindian consistent haplogroups. Two individuals had Amerindian Y-chromosome consistent haplotypes. Conclusions This study replicates single locus fetal associations with PTB in PGR, maternal association in KCNN3, and demonstrates possible effects for divergent racial admixture on PTB. PMID:23018797

  10. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  11. el sistema de salud en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Abramovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the new disparities and inequities which emerged from the health reforms in Argentina form the 1990´s, it appears the need to guarantee the health as a right. As a consequence, an important judicial activism begins to unfold in order to achieve greater guarantees in matters of health. Here, judicial activism refers to the strategic use of the law courts by organizations dedicated to the struggle of public interest and to the use of the law courts by private individuals to channel the complaints against the State or against health service providing companies. At present, both the Supreme National Court of Justice and the lower courts have dealt with an important number of cases related to the right to health. In the cases selected in this article, we analyze the type of conflict and the judicial answer, together with the possible effects of certain court decisions about the rules that govern the health system as finally conformed

  12. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  13. Discussion of oil pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Oil pollution in Argentina, at the port of Comodora Rivadavia showed signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked ''tideline'' of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the intertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recreational area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil.

  14. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province. We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and together with Bipalium kewense are the only 2 species of exotic terrestrial planarians so far recorded in Argentina.La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea se registra para el centro este de Argentina (provincia de Buenos Aires, en ambientes antropizados. Los ejemplares encontrados presentan las características de la especie registrada en otras regiones, con una superficie dorsal azulada y una hilera medio dorsal amarilla, y ojos formando una hilera alrededor del extremo anterior, agrupados lateralmente. Es la primera vez que se cita dicha especie en la Región Neotropical, y junto a Bipalium kewense son las únicas planarias terrestres exóticas registradas en Argentina.

  15. Effects of Muscle Fatigue, Creep, and Musculoskeletal Pain on Neuromuscular Responses to Unexpected Perturbation of the Trunk: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Lardon, Arnaud; Boivin, Frédéric; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2017-01-01

    erector spinae reflex latency in patients with chronic LBP in comparison with healthy controls following an unexpected trunk perturbation. Conclusion: The literature provides some evidence with regard to trunk adaptions in a context of spinal instability. However, most of the evidence was inconclusive due to a high methodological heterogeneity between the studies. PMID:28101013

  16. [Tuberculosis transmission in the triple border region: Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, José Ueleres; Herrero, Maria Belén; Cuellar, Célia Martinez de

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in South America, but numerous control strategies have proven ineffective in settings with intense transmission. This study aimed to determine whether the triple border region between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay is an area of high tuberculosis transmission. An ecological study was conducted with incidence data and population estimates for the three countries. Mean incidence rates were calculated for 2001 to 2007. Spatial analysis techniques identified high-incidence areas in the region using maps with Bayesian smoothing of rates and spatial averages. During the target period, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, had the highest incidence, followed by Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, and Puerto Iguazú in Argentina. The analysis showed a spatial cluster of municipalities with high tuberculosis risk in the triple border region. Tuberculosis in the tri-border area shows increasing or stable incidence rates and municipalities with incidence rates above the State average. The area has high tuberculosis incidence and therefore heavy transmission of the disease.

  17. Prevalence of refractive errors in Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria M Snchez; Claudio P Juarez; Rafael Iribarren; Santiago G Latino; Victor E Torres; Ana L Gramajo; Mara N Artal; Mara B Yadarola; Patricia R Garay; Jos D Luna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Refractive errors are among the most frequent reasons for demand of eye-care services. Publications on refractive errors prevalence in our country are few. This study has the purpose to assess the prevalence of refractive errors in an adult population of Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina. Methods: The Villa Maria Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the city of Villa Maria, Córdoba, Argentina from May 2008 to November 2009. Subject’s aged 40+ received a demographic interview and complete ophthalmological exam. Visual acuity was obtained with an ETDRS chart. Cycloplegic auto refraction was performed. The spherical equivalent was highly correlated between right and left eyes, so only data of right eyes are presented. Myopia and hyperopia were defined with a ±0.50 diopters (D) criterion and astigmatism >1 D. Results: This study included 646 subjects, aged 40 to 90 (mean age: 59.6±10.3 years old). Four hundred and sixty two (71.5%) were females. The mean spherical equivalent was +0.714±2.41 D (range, −22.00 to+8.25 D) and the power of the cylinder was, on average, −0.869±0.91 D (range, 0 to −6.50 D). In this sample, 61.6% subjects were hyperopic, and 13.5% were myopic. Myopia prevalence was lower in men (9.8% versus 14.9%) but this difference among genders was not statistically signiifcant. There were 141 subjects (21.8%) with anisometropia greater than 1 D, and 168 subjects (26.0%) with astigmatism greater than 1 D. Conclusions: The present study shows the prevalence of cycloplegic refractive errors in an adult population of Argentina. The prevalence of hyperopia was high, while myopia prevalence was very low.

  18. Municipal waste management and groundwater contamination processes in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Emilio Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Coronel Moldes, Argentina, waste management practices consist in municipal waste being tipped directly onto an area of sand dunes at the municipal waste disposal site (MWDS. Moreover, untreated liquid waste from septic tanks and latrines from urban areas are discharged in the same place. This co-disposal waste management is very common in many regions of Argentina and its impact on the groundwater of Coronel Moldes has not been evaluated. The study area is located in the vicinity of a MWDS in a flatlands environment that is typical of Argentina. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts on groundwater quality of current waste management practices in order to consider the requirement for new guidelines for sustainable groundwater management. Three groundwater monitoring wells were installed up-, across- and down-gradient of the MWDS. The principal aquifer is formed by sandy silt sediments (loess. Groundwater levels in the area of the MWDS are between 5.6 m and 7.8 m. The Vulnerability index indicates that groundwater in this area has a high vulnerability. Groundwater in the vicinity of the MWDS shows elevated electrical conductivity, high concentrations of Cl-, Na+, and HCO3- ions, COD, BOD5 and aerobic bacteria and less dissolved oxygen than the background values indicating the presence of organic matter. Municipal waste management represents a significant omission in current groundwater protection policy at Coronel Moldes. Strict supervision of solid and liquid municipal waste disposal needs to be instigated in order to ensure that the groundwater remains free of contamination and to allow a sustainable environmental management.

  19. Las microfinanzas en Argentina: teorías y experiencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Bekerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intenta introducir la temática del estado actual de las microfinanzas en Argentina. Para ello se combina el abordaje teórico con el práctico. El análisis teórico gira en torno a los conflictos entre sustentabilidad e impacto social, por un lado y sustentabilidad y escala por el otro, conceptos que se definen en el texto. El análisis empírico, por su parte, consta de una descripción de la situación de las microfinanzas en Argentina basada en los datos disponibles, más un estudio de campo. Este último, realizado a los efectos de comprender el impacto de los conflictos mencionados en la estructura de microfinanzas particular de Argentina.

  20. Biotechnology in Argentina: New products, new multilateral challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M. Donadio Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 20 years ago, a public-private alliance has transformed Argentina into a remarkable global actor in developing biotechnological products for food and renewable energies. This strategic alliance resulted in the boosting of scientific knowledge, the extension of the production boundary, the expansion of international trade and the creation of the conditions for an integral development. Furthermore, given the characteristics of biotechnology as a new phenomenon, wto has become the field within where a number of disputes take place, disputes which not only controvert trade issues, but also the State’s limits to design and apply public policies on the matter at issue. As a consequence, the present article seeks to, on the one hand, describe how Argentina built its public policy on Biotechnology and, on the other hand, analyze the challenges that Argentina faces within the multilateral trade system

  1. Tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios universitarios en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Agazzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es una investigación descriptiva que pretende conocer las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en las bibliotecas universitarias argentinas, abordando el tema desde la perspectiva de las competencias laborales y el actual perfil del bibliotecario universitario. Mediante la utilización de un cuestionario enviado a las direcciones de e-mail de bibliotecas universitarias argentinas se compilaron datos sobre las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en esas instituciones. A través de este proceso también se compilaron datos relacionados con las tareas de comunicación vía e-mail por parte de las bibliotecas universitarias argentinas.

  2. Networks of Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In research on CSR in Brazil and Argentina, we saw a huge disparity in the grass-roots of the theme in each country. The hypothesis, stemming from this article, is that the great success of the CSR movement in Brazil and its relatively weak development in Argentina is due to the presence of a hegemonic dispute - in observed dynamic communication - among some segments of business elites regarding the purpose of CSR, present in the Brazilian case and absent in Argentina. This article intends to discuss the concept of hegemonic dispute - highlighting conflict as a fundamental social relationship in the configuration of network topographies of movements to promote CSR in both countries. Such an understanding is essential for professionals and researchers working in the area of ​​organizational communication.

  3. Time-resolved EPR identifies unexpected electron transfer in cryptochrome**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskup, Till; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Krapf, Sebastian; Koslowski, Thorsten; Schleicher, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tuning photoinduced electron transfer: Subtle differences in local sequence and conformation can produce diversity and specificity in electron transfer (ET) in proteins, despite high structural conservation of redox partners. For individual ET steps, distance is not necessarily the decisive parameter; orientation and solvent accessibility of ET partners, and therefore, stabilization of charge-separated states contribute substantially. PMID:22086606

  4. Epidemiology of chronic disease related to arsenic in Argentina: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardach, Ariel Esteban, E-mail: abardach@iecs.org.ar [Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciapponi, Agustin; Soto, Natalie; Chaparro, Martin R.; Calderon, Maria [Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Briatore, Agustina [Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cadoppi, Norma; Tassara, Roberto [Foro Estratégico para el Desarrollo Nacional (Argentina); Litter, Marta I. [National Atomic Energy Commission, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Four million people in Argentina are exposed to arsenic contamination from drinking waters of several center-northern provinces. A systematic review to examine the geographical distribution of arsenic-related diseases in Argentina was conducted, searching electronic databases and gray literature up to November 2013. Key informants were also contacted. Of the 430 references identified, 47 (mostly cross-sectional and ecological designs) referred to arsenic concentration in water and its relationship with the incidence and mortality of cancer, dermatological diseases and genetic disorders. A high percentage of the water samples had arsenic concentrations above the WHO threshold value of 10 μg/L, especially in the province of Buenos Aires. The median prevalence of arsenicosis was 2.6% in exposed areas. The proportion of skin cancer in patients with arsenicosis reached 88% in case-series from the Buenos Aires province. We found higher incidence rate ratios per 100 μg/L increment in inorganic arsenic concentration for colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and skin cancer, for both genders. Liver and skin cancer mortality risk ratios were higher in regions with medium/high concentrations than in those with low concentrations. The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer associated to arsenic exposure in the province of Buenos Aires ranged from 2.5 to 5.2. In the north of this province, high levels of arsenic in drinking water were reported; however, removal interventions were scarcely documented. Arsenic contamination in Argentina is associated with an increased risk of serious chronic diseases, including cancer, showing the need for adequate and timely actions. - Highlights: • Arsenic content in Argentina was associated with increased risk of chronic diseases. • The median arsenicosis prevalence was 2.6% in exposed areas. • The relative risk of mortality by skin cancer was 2.5 to 5.2 in affected areas. • The median percentage of water samples above the cut

  5. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Tadin, Duje; Schauder, Kimberly B; Cascio, Carissa J

    2013-05-08

    Atypical perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented. In addition, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that an excitatory/inhibitory neurochemical imbalance might underlie ASD. Here we investigated putative behavioral consequences of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in the context of visual motion perception. As stimulus size increases, typical observers exhibit marked impairments in perceiving motion of high-contrast stimuli. This result, termed "spatial suppression," is believed to reflect inhibitory motion-processing mechanisms. Motion processing is also affected by gain control, an inhibitory mechanism that underlies saturation of neural responses at high contrast. Motivated by these behavioral correlates of inhibitory function, we investigated motion perception in human children with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (n = 26). At high contrast, both groups exhibited similar impairments in motion perception with increasing stimulus size, revealing no apparent differences in spatial suppression. However, there was a substantial enhancement of motion perception in ASD: children with ASD exhibited a consistent twofold improvement in perceiving motion. Hypothesizing that this enhancement might indicate abnormal weakening of response gain control, we repeated our measurements at low contrast, where the effects of gain control should be negligible. At low contrast, we indeed found no group differences in motion discrimination thresholds. These low-contrast results, however, revealed weaker spatial suppression in ASD, suggesting the possibility that gain control abnormalities in ASD might have masked spatial suppression differences at high contrast. Overall, we report a pattern of motion perception abnormalities in ASD that includes substantial enhancements at high contrast and is consistent with an underlying excitatory/inhibitory imbalance.

  6. Brasil, Argentina e América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE trabalho discute alguns aspectos da evolução econômica recente do Brasil, da Argentina e de outros países da América do Sul. Tendências econômicas e intelectuais perigosas, tais como a "globalização", o chamado Consenso de Washington, a dolarização e as negociações da Alca (Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, perderam ímpeto e a América do Sul está se movendo gradualmente na direção de um posicionamento mais independente na condução das suas política econômicas e internacionais. As mudanças foram muito mais significativas na Argentina do que no Brasil e isso se tornou fonte de alguma tensão entre os dois principais países sul-americanos. Não obstante, uma aliança estratégica entre Argentina e Brasil continua sendo a pedra angular da integração da América do Sul.THIS PAPER discusses some aspects of the recent economic evolution of Brazil, Argentina and other South American countries. Dangerous economic and intellectual trends, such as "globalization", the so-called Washington Consensus, dollarization, and FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, have lost momentum and South America is moving gradually towards a more independent stance in the conduct of its economic and foreign policies. Changes have been much more significant in Argentina than in Brazil and this has become a source of some tension between the two major South American countries. Nevertheless, a strategic alliance between Argentina and Brazil remains the corner stone of South American integration.

  7. Unexpected semiconducting properties in few-layer arsenene

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z Y; Xue, D S; Si, M S; Zhang, G P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate few-layer arsenene similar to phosphorene, which are derived from the or- thorhombic bulk arsenic but are thermally stable, semiconducting and of high carrier mobility. Although its monolayer is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, which is dominated by the mutual competition between the intarlayer bond parameters R1 and R2, the indirect-direct bandgap tran- sition is proposed from the analysis of wavefunction. Once any more layer is added, multilayer arsenene are always direct bandgap semiconductors with bandgap in the order of 1 eV. Even more remarkable is that the intrinsic carrier mobility can reach as high as several thousand square cen- timeters per volt-second. All these make few-layer arsenene intriguing for devices applications in semiconducting industry.

  8. Colovesical fistula: unexpected complication 7 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Hafez, Ashraf T

    2013-11-01

    Augmentation enterocystoplasty has been extensively used to attain high-capacity low-pressure urinary reservoirs in patients with neuropathic bladder, exstrophy-epispadias complex, valve bladder syndrome, and contracted bladder. Enterovesical fistula might occur as an early complication after enterocystoplasty. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy, who presented with chronic watery diarrhea 7 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. A colovesical fistula was diagnosed. We discuss the clinical presentation, management plan, and operative findings.

  9. [Issues regarding the legal regulation of drugs in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignone, Inés M

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the main functions and attributions of the National Administration of Medicines, Food and Medical Technology (Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica, ANMAT) of Argentina in the control and supervision of pharmaceutical products. The four properties that a medicine must full-fill (efficacy, safety, quality and accessibility) are described, and the role of ANMAT with regard to each one is specified. Criteria employed in the classification of pharmaceutical products marketed in Argentina with the regulatory agency permission are specified, and a reference to pharmaceutical products not registered before the Agency is also included.

  10. Las relaciones entre Argentina y Rusia: continuidades y cambios

    OpenAIRE

    López, Rodolfo; Lippi, María Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Las relaciones entre la República Argentina y Rusia datan de fines del siglo XIX, desarrollando en los primeros años intensas relaciones económicas y humanas, como consecuencia del proceso migratorio de miles de ciudadanos rusos que vinieron a la Argentina. Pero las relaciones diplomáticas se interrumpieron entre 1917 con la revolución Bolchevique, para reanudarse recién en el año 1946. Durante la Guerra Fría la Unión de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas (URSS) no manifestaron mayor interé...

  11. The other immigration to Argentina: the case of Adolf Eichmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cwik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal”(2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lumen, 1999 tuvo bastantes problemas para integrarse en la sociedad argentina y por ende, fracasó. Adolf Eichmann nacido en 1906 en Solingen/Alemania personificó un caractér típico de la sociedad en la posguerra austriaca-alemana, lo que hizo que fracasara en su vida laboral varias veces durante los veintes y los inicios de los treinta del siglo XX.Palabras Clave: Adolf Eichmann;  Holocausto; Tráfico Ilegal de Migrantes; Inmigración en Argentina; Peronismo; Tribunales Internacionales. La otra inmigración a Argentina: El caso de Adolf EichmannAbstractAdolf Eichmann arrived to Argentina along with other 500 runaway Nazis thorugh a smuggling network between 1945 and 1955. This network was the result of the interest shown by the The Republic of Argentina, the Red Cross, Caritas and the Vatican in one hand; in the other, the criminals of war. Eichmann, the face of Hanna Arendt’s t “Banality of Evil” had numerous troubles to integrate to argentinian society, failing as a result.Adolf Eichmann, born in 1906 in Solingen, Germany, personified a typical Austrian-german postwar character, a fact that conduced to his laboral failure in the twentys and early thirties of the twentieth century.Keywords:Adolf Eichmann; Holocaust; Nazi Criminals; Trafficking of migrants; Post War Period; Immigration to Argentina; Peronism; Mossad; International Tribunal. 

  12. The other immigration to Argentina: the case of Adolf Eichmann

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Cwik

    2014-01-01

    Adolf Eichmann llegó a la Argentina como otros 500 Nazis forajidos a través de una red de traficantes ilegales de migrantes entre 1945 y 1955. Esta red fue el resuldado del interés de la República de Argentina, la Cruz Roja, la Caritas y el Vaticano por un lado y por el otro los delincuentes. Eichmann la cara de la ‘banalidad del mal’, como Hannah Arendt escribió en su libro “Eichmann en Jerusalén: un estudio sobre la banalidad del mal”(2ª. edición, traducción de Carlos Ribalta, Barcelona, Lu...

  13. La presencia de las mujeres piemontesas en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración italiana en América, y particularmente en Argentina, cuenta con una bibliografía sumamente amplia y rica. Mucho menores, por el contrario, son los aportes referidos a estudios de género sobre el tema. Y menores aún aquellos circunscritos específicamente a la inmigración femenina regional. Desde esta perspectiva nace una asociación de género que otorga presencia a las mujeres piemontesas de la Argentina.

  14. Two new species of Psectrascelis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. FLORES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies del género Psectrascelis Solier (Pimeliinae: Nycteliini del oeste de Argentina, P. argentina sp. nov. a gran altitud en la Precordillera de San Juan y P. telteca sp. nov. en la llanura de Mendoza, y se las incluye en la clave mas reciente del género. Se proveen datos sobre la distribución y el hábitat, así como fotografías de los adultos y pronotos y dibujos de los genitalia masculinos.

  15. The Limits to Dollarization in Ecuador: Lessons from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Vernengo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper draws lessons from the failed Argentine experience with convertibility to highlight the dangers of dollarization in Ecuador. Argentina’s currency peg to the US dollar was successful in reducing inflation but given the overvalued real exchange rate, created burgeoning twin deficits and a chronic dependency on foreign capital. Ecuador too suffers from chronic current account imbalance. In contrast to Argentina, Ecuador seems to be relying on remittance income to close its external financing gap. Though perhaps this model is less unstable than that of relying on foreign capital it is no more sustainable. The paper closes with a realistic critique of thisdevelopment strategy.

  16. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  17. Driving performance changes of middle-aged experienced taxi drivers due to distraction tasks during unexpected situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Kim, Boseong; Min, Ung-Chan; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of distraction taskssuch as sending a text message with a cellphone and searching navigation with car navigation system-on the driving performance of 29 highly experienced taxi drivers in their 50s. All participants were instructed to drive using a driving simulator for 2 min. while maintaining a constant distance from the vehicle in front and a constant speed. Participants drove without any distractions for the first minute. For an additional minute, they performed Driving Only or performed a task while driving (Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation). An unexpected situation, in which the participant had to stop abruptly due to a sudden stop of the preceding vehicle, occurred during this period. Driving performance during the unexpected situation was evaluated by car control variables, medial-lateral coefficient of variation and brake time, and by motion variables such as the jerk-cost function. Compared to Driving Only, jerk-cost function, medial-lateral coefficient of variation, and brake time increased during Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation.

  18. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level.

  19. Unexpected interactions between gold and N-morpholino-sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frederick Stappen; Engelbrekt, Christian; Elliot, Samuel Gilbert

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) has a high surface area and excellent conductivity. It is an ideal supporting material for the electrocatalysis, e.g. in fuel cell applications. NPG is traditionally produced by etching a gold/silver alloy. This method has significant drawbacks, such as the introduction...... of polynuclear Au complexes as previously reported where Au nuclei are bridged by C=N functionalities in small organic molecules 2. This adds up to a complicated reaction mechanism involving some interesting Au 3+/1+  complexes, deprotonation and oxidation of MES and the formation of molecules that show UV...

  20. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho Bottero, María N; Tarragona, Evelina L; Nava, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This work was performed to detect Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina. Free-living ticks were collected and determined as Amblyomma tigrinum, Amblyomma neumanni and Amblyomma tonelliae. Rickettsia infection was determined by polymerase chain reactions which amplify fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. A high frequency (35/44, 79.5%) of Candidatus "Rickettsia andeanae" was observed in A. tigrinum ticks, and Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" was found in three out of 14 nymphs of A. neumanni. All 14 Amblyomma tonelliae ticks were negative for rikettsiae. The infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks aggressive for humans reveals the potential risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens of people inhabiting rural areas of northwestern Argentina.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors in Argentina: prevalence of infection, genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, María Belén; Blanco, Sebastián; Carrizo, Horacio; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Gallego, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HBV infection based on detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA by NAT in 70,102 blood donors in Argentina (Córdoba province) and shows the viral genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) in this population. Forty-two donors were confirmed positive for HBV infection (0.06 %), and four had OBI. Genotype F was the most prevalent (71.4 %), followed by A (14.3 %), C (7.1 %) and D (7.1 %). This is the first report of the prevalence of confirmed HBV infection and the high frequency of occult HBV infection in a blood bank in Argentina.

  2. Adaptation and validation of the MODIFIED CHECKLIST FOR AUTISM IN TODDLER for urban Argentina ́s population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Andrea Manzone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Early detection leads to early intervention and improvement of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD prognosis. Argentina didn’t count with standardized ASD screening tools to be used among its professionals. Therefore the reliability and validity of the Argentinean version of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddler (M-CHAT was tested. To do so, a sample of children from the general population (n = 420 was compared with a high risk sample of ASD children (n = 140. The M-CHAT version for Argentina showed satisfactory values of test-retest reliability, agreement between parents and Cronbach’s alpha. Results showed a positive predictive value= 0.9, negative predictive value= 0.95, sensitivity=0.97 and specificity=0.82. These values increased when a followup interview of M-CHAT was included. 

  3. Human papillomavirus type-16 variants in Quechua aboriginals from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Sichero, Laura; Mbayed, Viviana; Villa, Luisa Lina; Gronda, Jorge; Campos, Rodolfo; Teyssié, Angélica

    2003-04-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer death in Quechua indians from Jujuy (northwestern Argentina). To determine the prevalence of HPV-16 variants, 106 HPV-16 positive cervical samples were studied, including 33 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 28 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 9 invasive cervical cancer (ICC), and 36 samples from women with normal colposcopy and cytology. HPV genome variability was examined in the L1 and E6 genes by PCR-hybridization. In a subset of 20 samples, a LCR fragment was also analyzed by PCR-sequencing. Most variants belonged to the European branch with subtle differences that depended on the viral gene fragment studied. Only about 10% of the specimens had non-European variants, including eight Asian-American, two Asian, and one North-American-1. E6 gene analysis revealed that 43% of the samples were identical to HPV-16 prototype, while 57% corresponded to variants. Interestingly, the majority (87%) of normal smears had HPV-16 prototype, whereas variants were detected mainly in SIL and ICC. LCR sequencing yielded 80% of variants, including 69% of European, 19% Asian-American, and 12% Asian. We identified a new variant, the Argentine Quechua-51 (AQ-51), similar to B-14 plus two additional changes: G7842-->A and A7837-->C; phylogenetic inference allocated it in the Asian-American branch. The high proportion of European variants may reflect Spanish colonial influence on these native Inca descendants. The predominance of HPV-16 variants in pathologic samples when compared to normal controls could have implications for the natural history of cervical lesions.

  4. Empleo y salarios en argentina en el periodo de la Post-Convertibilidad

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    Nilson Javier Ibagón Martín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Articulo analiza los procesos de precarización laboral que se han dado en Argentina a la largo de los últimos 25 años, haciendo  especial énfasis en el llamado periodo de “post-convertibilidad” o “dólar alto”. En este sentido, se estudia para dicho periodo, la existencia de una serie de continuidades económicas y sociales  heredadas de la década del noventa, las cuales, ponen de manifiesto una serie de estrategias y políticas empleadas por parte de los sectores económicos dominantes, que les han permitido en buena parte, por un lado, transferir a las trabajadores los costos de las crisis económicas, y por otro, frenar el acceso de estos últimos a una             redistribución de la riqueza en tiempos de bonanza y crecimiento.Palabras clave: Empleo; Salarios bajos; Política Monetaria; Desindustrialización; Política Industrial. Employment and wages in argentina in the period of Post-ConvertibilityAbstract Article analyzes the processes of labor precariousness that have occurred in Argentina during the last 25 years, with particular emphasis in the period of “post-convertibility” or “high dollar”. In this direction, the existence of a number of inherited continuities of the nineties is studied. These legacies reveal a series of strategies and policies used by the dominant economic sectors, that have allowed them, on the one hand, transfer the costs of the economic crisis on workers, and secondly, curb the access of this group to a redistribution of wealth in good times and growth.Keywords: Employment; Low Wage; Monetary Policy; Deindustrialization; Industrial Policy.

  5. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina

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    Olga V Suárez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+ results and two individuals with ELISA (-. Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests

  6. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  7. When dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in Gibraltar macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Martin, Robert D; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Krũtzen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of Morocco and Algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on Gibraltar. For many decades, the Gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from North Africa. Moreover, because of complete isolation, Gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences of dispersal in cercopithecines in situ. Predictions of genetic consequences due to male-biased dispersal in cercopithecines will be different for autosomal and maternally inherited genetic markers, such as the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. We used a panel of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and part of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region to estimate genetic structure between five social groups in Gibraltar. Surprisingly, for autosomal markers, both classical summary statistics and an individual-based method using a Bayesian framework detected significant genetic structure between social groups in Gibraltar, despite much closer proximity than wild Algerian and Moroccan populations. Mitochondrial data support this finding, as a very substantial portion of the total genetic variation (70.2%) was found between social groups. Using two Bayesian approaches, we likewise identified not only a small number of male first-generation immigrants (albeit less than expected for cercopithecines) but also unexpectedly a few females. We hypothesize that the culling of males that are more likely to disperse might slow down genetic homogenization among neighbouring groups, but may also and more perversely produce selection on certain behavioural traits. This may have important repercussions for conservation, as it could lead to evolutionary changes that are not due to inbreeding or genetic drift.

  8. Unexpected radiation laryngeal necrosis after carbon ion therapy using conventional dose fractionation for laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Osamu; Nagano, Fumiko; Terashima, Kazuki; Jin, Dongcun; Mima, Masayuki; Oda, Naoharu; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makiko; Ito, Kazuyuki; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Okimoto, Tomoaki

    2015-11-01

    Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapy that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to organs at risk. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. A 73-year-old man with glottic squamous cell carcinoma, T3N0M0, refused laryngectomy and received carbon ion therapy of 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 35 fractions. Three months after the therapy, the patient had an upper airway inflammation, and then laryngeal edema and pain occurred. Five months after the therapy, the airway stenosis was severe and computed tomography showed lack of the left arytenoid cartilage and exacerbation of laryngeal necrosis. Despite the treatment, 5 and a half months after the therapy, the laryngeal edema and necrosis had become even worse and the surrounding mucosa was edematous and pale. Six months after the therapy, pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy and reconstruction with free jejunal autograft were performed. The surgical specimen pathologically showed massive necrosis and no residual tumor. Three years after the carbon ion therapy, he is alive without recurrence. The first reported laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma case treated with carbon ion therapy resulted in an unexpected radiation laryngeal necrosis. Tissue damage caused by carbon ion therapy may be difficult to repair even for radioresistant cartilage; therefore, hollow organs reinforced by cartilage, such as the larynx, may be vulnerable to carbon ion therapy. Caution should be exercised when treating tumors in or adjacent to such organs with carbon ion therapy.

  9. fuego en Argentina, 1980-2012

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    Hugo Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el impacto de las armas de fuego en la mortalidad entre los años 1980-2012 en Argentina. Para ello se realiza un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de la tendencia temporal, a través de las siguientes variables: sexo, grupos de edad, intencionalidad y jurisdicción. Los datos fueron obtenidos en la Dirección de Estadísticas e Información en Salud del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. Se encontraron 87.671 muertes por armas de fuego. Los varones representaron el 85,7% y su tasa más alta fue para el año 2002 con 21,2 muertes por 100.000 habitantes. El grupo de edad que concentró la mayor cantidad de muertes por armas de fuego fue el de 20 a 29 años (25,6%. Las tasas ajustadas más altas corresponden a los años 2000-2002 con valores entre 10,0 y 11,6 muertes por cada 100.000 habitantes, período que coincide con la crisis económicoinstitucional que atravesó el país. La provincia de Buenos Aires fue el lugar de residencia del 49,1% de las muertes. En la discusión se abordan dimensiones político-económicas e ideológico-culturales en la relación entre armas, violencias, ciencia y sociedad.

  10. Nuptial nectary structure of Bignoniaceae from Argentina

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    Guillermo L. Rivera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rivera, G. L. 2000. Estructura de nectarios nupciales en Bignoniaceae de Argentina.Darwiniana 38(3-4: 227-239.Se investigaron las características de los nectarios florales en 37 especies de Bignoniaceae. Se encontróun nectario nupcial asociado al eje floral en todas las especies, pudiéndose distinguir dos tipos principalesde acuerdo a su grado de desarrollo y funcionalidad: 1 vestigial y no secretor y 2 bien desarrollado ysecretor. El primero es característico de las especies de Clytostoma mientras que el segundo está presenteen el resto de las especies estudiadas. Dos variedades del tipo secretor pueden discernirse de acuerdo a suposición y forma: 1 anular, encontrado en Adenocalymma, Amphilophium, Anemopaegma, Arrabidaea,Dolichandra, Eccremocarpus, Macfadyena, Melloa, Pithecoctenium, Tabebuia, y Tecoma y 2 cilíndrico,presente en Argylia, Cuspidaria, Jacaranda, Mansoa, Parabignonia, Pyrostegia, y Tynnanthus.Anatómicamente se distinguen dos tejidos: 1 una epidermis monoestratificada, cubierta por una cutículay con un número variable de estomas y 2 un tejido secretor compuesto por células parenquimáticasdispuestas en forma compacta. Tanto el tamaño del nectario como la relación nectario/ovario fueusualmente más grande en lianas (Bignoniaceae que en árboles (Tecomeae. El tipo de nectario fueinvariable entre las especies de un mismo género, pero no así entre los géneros de una misma tribu. Lascaracterísticas de los nectarios analizados en este estudio como la vascularización, la presencia detricomas y el tipo de nectario fueron constantes en las especies analizadas, adquiriendo por lo tanto unimportante valor taxonómico

  11. en el desierto del Monte, Argentina

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    C.M. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa proporcionan múltiples bienes y servicios. Actualmente, sufren una fuerte retracción debido a un uso histórico extractivistay se hace necesario promover la conservación y el manejo sostenible de los bosques como sistema. El objetivo del trabajo es sintetizarel conocimiento disponible acerca de las interacciones mutualistas y antagonistas entre mamíferos, frutos y semillas de P. flexuosa, comparandocon estudios realizados en otras especies de Prosopis de Argentina. Se considera a dos grupos de consumidores oportunistas de frutos: almacenadoresen cúmulos dispersos y frugívoros. Los roedores pequeños (como Eligmodontia typus y Microcavia australis son dispersores de semillasporque depredan pocas semillas y almacenan el resto en cúmulos sobre la superficie del suelo. Mamíferos frugívoros oportunistas silvestres (Dolichotispatagonum, Lepus europaeus, Lycalopex griseus, Lama guanicoe, etc. y domésticos (burro, caballo, vaca son dispersores endozoocóricosy proporcionan beneficios como el traslado de grandes cantidades de semillas, la eliminación de estructuras que mantienen la dormición y la desinfecciónde semillas atacadas por insectos. Sin embargo, la endozoocoria tiene costos sobre la viabilidad y la capacidad germinativa de las semillas.Ante un panorama de continuos cambios en el uso de la tierra y de cambio climático global, el conocimiento acerca del espectro diverso de animalesque proporcionan el beneficio de dispersión de semillas aporta bases científicas para considerar que la biodiversidad asociada a los bosques debeincluirse en la gestión y conservación de los mismos.

  12. An Unexpected Green and Facile Synthesis of 2,6-Diaryl-4-styrylpyridines via Multi-component Reactions in Microwave-assisted Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Feng; ZHANG Ge; ZHOU Dianxiang; MA Ning; ZHANG Yajie; CHEN Rongshun; TU Shujiang

    2009-01-01

    An unexpected green and facile synthesis of 2,6-diaryl-4-styryipyridines was realized via microwave-assisted multi-component reactions of 3-arylacrylaldehyde oximes,l-arylethanones and ammonium acetate in solvent-free conditions.This protocol has the prominent advantages of environmental-friendliness,short reaction time,high yields,low cost,easy operation as well as broad scope of applicability.

  13. Predictions of the Pt(8)Ti phase in unexpected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard H; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus L W

    2010-05-19

    The binary A(8)B phase (prototype Pt(8)Ti) has been experimentally observed in 11 systems. A high-throughput search over all the binary transition intermetallics, however, reveals 59 occurrences of the A(8)B phase: Au(8)Zn(dagger), Cd(8)Sc(dagger), Cu(8)Ni(dagger), Cu(8)Zn(dagger), Hg(8)La, Ir(8)Os(dagger), Ir(8)Re, Ir(8)Ru(dagger), Ir(8)Tc, Ir(8)W(dagger), Nb(8)Os(dagger), Nb(8)Rh(dagger), Nb(8)Ru(dagger), Nb(8)Ta(dagger), Ni(8)Fe, Ni(8)Mo(dagger)*, Ni(8)Nb(dagger)*, Ni(8)Ta*, Ni(8)V*, Ni(8)W, Pd(8)Al(dagger), Pd(8)Fe, Pd(8)Hf, Pd(8)Mn, Pd(8)Mo*, Pd(8)Nb, Pd(8)Sc, Pd(8)Ta, Pd(8)Ti, Pd(8)V*, Pd(8)W*, Pd(8)Zn, Pd(8)Zr, Pt(8)Al(dagger), Pt(8)Cr*, Pt(8)Hf, Pt(8)Mn, Pt(8)Mo, Pt(8)Nb, Pt(8)Rh(dagger), Pt(8)Sc, Pt(8)Ta, Pt(8)Ti*, Pt(8)V*, Pt(8)W, Pt(8)Zr*, Rh(8)Mo, Rh(8)W, Ta(8)Pd, Ta(8)Pt, Ta(8)Rh, V(8)Cr(dagger), V(8)Fe(dagger), V(8)Ir(dagger), V(8)Ni(dagger), V(8)Pd, V(8)Pt, V(8)Rh, and V(8)Ru(dagger) ((dagger) = metastable, * = experimentally observed). This is surprising for the wealth of new occurrences that are predicted, especially in well-characterized systems (e.g., Cu-Zn). By verifying all experimental results while offering additional predictions, our study serves as a striking demonstration of the power of the high-throughput approach. The practicality of the method is demonstrated in the Rh-W system. A cluster-expansion-based Monte Carlo model reveals a relatively high order-disorder transition temperature.

  14. Controlling large malpractice claims: the unexpected impact of damage caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronfein, W P; Kinney, E D

    1991-01-01

    Indiana's comprehensive malpractice reforms, inaugurated in 1975, include a cap on damages, a mandated medical review before trial, and a state insurance fund to pay claims equal to or greater than $100,000. We have found that the amount of compensation going to claimants with such large malpractice claims in Indiana is, on average, substantially higher than in Michigan and Ohio. Indiana's mean claim severity between 1977 and 1988 was $404,832, while the means for Michigan and Ohio were $290,022 and $303,220, respectively, with the difference between these three means being highly significant. Although data on claim and claimant characteristics reveal considerable interstate variation, the results of regression analyses show that Indiana claim payment amounts are higher than Michigan or Ohio payments, independent of the effect of factors such as sex, age, severity of injury, allegations of negligence, and year of settlement.

  15. An unexpected reversal: the "demise" of international adoption in Brazil

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    Claudia Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90s, there was a dramatic fall in intercountry adoptions of Brazilian children - from over 2000 per annum at the beginning of the decade, to under 400 at decade's close. In this paper, on the basis of archival material, we will attempt to outline possible reasons for this drop, considering hypotheses linked to the international market of adoptable children, legal restrictions on intercountry adoption imposed by the Brazilian government, and, finally, scandals in the mass media which stigmatize local intermediaries and officials involved in this activity. We conclude that inflamed public opinion and scandals in the media, although highly influential, are not necessarily the most adequate ingredients for a sensible policy on adoption.

  16. Infant and adult pupil dilation in response to unexpected sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Nicole; Buttelmann, David; Schieler, Andy; Widmann, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Surprisingly occurring sounds outside the focus of attention can involuntarily capture attention. This study focuses on the impact of deviant sounds on the pupil size as a marker of auditory involuntary attention in infants. We presented an oddball paradigm including four types of deviant sounds within a sequence of repeated standard sounds to 14-month-old infants and to adults. Environmental and noise deviant sounds elicited a strong pupil dilation response (PDR) in both age groups. In contrast, moderate frequency deviants elicited a significant PDR in adults only. Moreover, a principal component analysis revealed two components underlying the PDR. Component scores differ, depending on deviant types, between age groups. Results indicate age effects of parasympathetic inhibition and sympathetic activation of the pupil size caused by deviant sounds with a high arousing potential. Results demonstrate that the PDR is a sensitive tool for the investigation of involuntary attention to sounds in preverbal children.

  17. A Case of Unexpected Symptomatic Vasospasm after Clipping Surgery for an Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Kameda, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao

    2016-03-01

    Delayed symptomatic vasospasm after clipping surgery for unruptured aneurysm is rarely reported. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic vasospasm 11 days after clipping surgery for an unruptured aneurysm. We could not predict the existence of vasospasm until ischemic symptoms developed. We retrospectively found mild vasospasm in the computed tomography angiogram taken 8 days after the operation. The patient complained of a prolonged unexpected headache 1 week after the operation. We should recognize prolonged unexpected headache as a warning sign of vasospasm.

  18. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L. P.; Barnes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. PMID:25904660

  19. An Unexpected Complication of Hip Arthroplasty: Knee Dislocation

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    Serdar Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients with hip fracture have been seen with osteoporosis associated with osteoarthritis. Although knee dislocation is related to high-energy trauma, low-grade injuries can also lead to knee dislocation which is defined as “ultra-low velocity dislocation.” The case reported here is of an 82-year-old patient who presented with a left intertrochanteric hip fracture. Partial arthroplasty was planned because of osteoporosis. In the course of surgery, degenerative arthritic knee was dislocated during the hip reduction maneuver with the application of long traction. The neurovascular examination was intact, but the knee was grossly unstable and was dislocated even in a brace; thus a hinged knee prosthesis was applied nine days after surgery. The patient was mobilized with crutches after the knee prosthesis but exercise tolerance was diminished. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that overtraction must be avoided during the hip reduction maneuver in patients with advanced osteoarthritic knee.

  20. Beyond Corroboration: Strengthening Model Validation by Looking for Unexpected Patterns.

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    Guillaume Chérel

    Full Text Available Models of emergent phenomena are designed to provide an explanation to global-scale phenomena from local-scale processes. Model validation is commonly done by verifying that the model is able to reproduce the patterns to be explained. We argue that robust validation must not only be based on corroboration, but also on attempting to falsify the model, i.e. making sure that the model behaves soundly for any reasonable input and parameter values. We propose an open-ended evolutionary method based on Novelty Search to look for the diverse patterns a model can produce. The Pattern Space Exploration method was tested on a model of collective motion and compared to three common a priori sampling experiment designs. The method successfully discovered all known qualitatively different kinds of collective motion, and performed much better than the a priori sampling methods. The method was then applied to a case study of city system dynamics to explore the model's predicted values of city hierarchisation and population growth. This case study showed that the method can provide insights on potential predictive scenarios as well as falsifiers of the model when the simulated dynamics are highly unrealistic.

  1. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-11-20

    In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the excavate flagellate Euglena gracilis. Its gene complement is reduced as compared with the well-studied sister groups Diplonemea and Kinetoplastea. We have identified seven protein-coding genes: Three subunits of respiratory complex I (nad1, nad4, and nad5), one subunit of complex III (cob), and three subunits of complex IV (cox1, cox2, and a highly divergent cox3). Moreover, fragments of ribosomal RNA genes have also been identified. Genes encoding subunits of complex V, ribosomal proteins and tRNAs were missing, and are likely located in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial genomes of diplonemids and kinetoplastids possess the most complex RNA processing machineries known, including trans-splicing and editing of the uridine insertion/deletion type, respectively, our transcriptomic data suggest their total absence in E. gracilis. This finding supports a scenario in which the complex mitochondrial processing machineries of both sister groups evolved relatively late in evolution from a streamlined genome and transcriptome of their common predecessor.

  2. Las ignimbritas del complejo volcánico Coranzuli (Puna Argentina-Andes Centrales

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    Martí, J.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coranzulí is a large Upper Miocene volcanic complex located on a NE-SW and NW-SE regional faults intersection, at 66º 15' W 23º S, in the Northwest of Argentina in Jujuy province. It corresponds to one of four large volcanic complexes which represent the end of Transversal Volcanic Chaines in La Puna Argentina in the Central Andes. The volcanic activity was characterized by at least four separate ignimbrite eruptions which produced four different ignimbrite sheets. These are well welded, very crystal-rich, lithie poor ignimbrites and have a moderate to high pumice content. The total volume of the Coranzuli ignimbrites exeededs 650 Km3. Preliminary data indicate that the eruption oeeurred from a homogeneous magmatic chamber without zoning. The emplacement characteristics of the ignimbrites and the lack of basal or interbedded plinian fall deposits suggest that the eruptions developed quickly to massive proportions.El Coranzuli es uno de los grandes complejos volcánicos que representan el remate final de las Cadenas Volcánicas Transversales de la Puna Argentina, en los Andes Centrales. Se trata de un complejo volcánico del Mioceno superior situado a los 66º 15' W 23º S en el NW de Argentina en la provincia de Jujuy, en la intersección entre dos fallas regionales de dirección NE-SW y NW-SE, respectivamente. La actividad eruptiva se caracterizó por la existencia de, al menos, cuatro erupciones ignimbríticas que produjeron cuatro diferentes mantos ignimbríticos. Se trata de ignimbritas bien soldadas, muy ricas en cristales, pobre en fragmentos líticos y que presentan un contenido en fragmentos pumíticos de moderado a alto. El volumen total que representan estas ignimbritas supera los 650 km3. Los datos preliminares indican que el magma juvenil deriva de una cámara magmática homogénea no zonada. Las características de emplazamiento de estas ignimbritas, así como la falta de depósitos plinianos de caída en la base o

  3. Unexpected Swelling of Stiff DNA in a Polydisperse Crowded Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongsuk; Toan, Ngo Minh; Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D

    2015-09-02

    We investigate the conformations of DNA-like stiff chains, characterized by contour length (L) and persistence length (lp), in a variety of crowded environments containing monodisperse soft spherical (SS) and spherocylindrical (SC) particles, a mixture of SS and SC, and a milieu mimicking the composition of proteins in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. The stiff chain, whose size modestly increases in SS crowders up to ϕ ≈ 0.1, is considerably more compact at low volume fractions (ϕ ≤ 0.2) in monodisperse SC particles than in a medium containing SS particles. A 1:1 mixture of SS and SC crowders induces greater chain compaction than the pure SS or SC crowders at the same ϕ, with the effect being highly nonadditive. We also discover a counterintuitive result that the polydisperse crowding environment, mimicking the composition of a cell lysate, swells the DNA-like polymer, which is in stark contrast to the size reduction of flexible polymers in the same milieu. Trapping of the stiff chain in a fluctuating tube-like environment created by large-sized crowders explains the dramatic increase in size and persistence length of the stiff chain. In the polydisperse medium, mimicking the cellular environment, the size of the DNA (or related RNA) is determined by L/lp. At low L/lp, the size of the polymer is unaffected, whereas there is a dramatic swelling at an intermediate value of L/lp. We use these results to provide insights into recent experiments on crowding effects on RNA and also make testable predictions.

  4. Unexpectedly low seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in South Africa

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    K. Kistiah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infection of warm-blooded vertebrates caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic diseases of humans, infecting approximately one-third of the world’s population. In persons with advanced HIV, toxoplasmosis represents a major opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Approximately two-thirds of all people living with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. In areas such as this, toxoplasmosis could theoretically pose a huge threat. There is little known about T. gondii prevalence in humans in Africa. Geographically, prevalences vary widely on this continent, as observed in other parts of the world. There is limited historical information about the disease in South Africa. More knowledge is needed at a regional level about the risk of toxoplasmosis, diagnostic issues, and measures to reduce the risk to susceptible persons. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in selected populations, namely HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, and a more general sample biased towards pregnant women, was therefore investigated and found to be 9.8% (37/376, 12.8% (48/376 and 6.4% (32/497 respectively. Compared with historical data from South Africa, the prevalence has decreased substantially; however, the incidence of clinical disease is unknown, despite the very high burden of HIV and AIDS cases (5.9 million and 0.7 million, respectively in 2009. This study provided information relating to the diagnosis and current seroprevalence of T. gondii in South Africa. Many questions still remain to be answered however, to fully understand the impact of this parasite on the country’s population.

  5. Palmer Amaranth Identification and Documentation of Herbicide Resistance in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthuspalmeri S. Wats.) has greatly disrupted agricultural practices in the US with its rapid growth and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. This weed species is now suspected in Argentina. To document whether the suspected plant populations are indeed Palmer amaranth, mo...

  6. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Depression among Cardiology Residents in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Silvina V.; Diez, Juan Cruz Lopez; Arazi, Hernan Cohen; Linetzky, Bruno; Guinjoan, Salvador; Grancelli, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because medical residency is a stressful time for training physicians, placing residents at increased risk for psychological distress, the authors studied the prevalence of burnout, perceived stress, and depression in cardiology residents in Argentina and examined the association between sociodemographic characteristics and these…

  7. Phenomenal Justice : State Violence, Emotion, and the Law in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, E.

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography is about the trials for crimes against humanity in Argentina, which belong to complex social processes dealing with the human rights crimes that were committed during the last dictatorship that ruled from 1976-1983. In academic debates the term ‘transitional justice’ is often used t

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Ximena; Ambroggi, Marta; Cordova, Ezequiel; Brown, Tim; Poggi, Susana; Drobniewski, Francis

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains at a hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and mutations related to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, we conducted a prospective case-control study. Our findings reinforce the value of incorporating already standardized molecular methods for rapidly detecting resistance.

  9. A study on the reconstruction of Los Acantilados Beach, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, A.; Burger, B.; Hartog, W.M.; De Rijke, Q.C.

    2004-01-01

    The city of Mar del Plata is situated some 400 km South of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The city has two main incomes, namely industry and tourism. In summer, beaches of this Atlantic Ocean faced destination are packed with typical Argentine beach tents, which can be rented, and people fr

  10. Notas sobre fanerógamas de la flora argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Crovetto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se informa la existencia en Argentina de ocho especies de pastos marinos no catalogados. Ellos son Bromus inermis, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum, Melia azedarach, Anethum graueolens, Costus pilgeri, Desmodium arechaualetae  e Ipomoea morongii. Se menciona también el cultivo de Gymnopogon biflorus y Heteropterys angustifolia.

  11. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Castagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the history, reality and perspectives in Argentina of an activity that is an opportunity for producers and entrepreneurs interested in it. Due to its characteristics, horticulture generates and dynamizes employment with great importance for regional economies. The proportion between vegetables and fruit produced and commercialized in Argentina is 63 and 34% respectively. Horticultural products for exportation largely are garlic, onion and beans. Concerning the most commercialized vegetables in Argentina, potato, tomato, onion, squash, lettuce, pepper, marrow and sweet potato stand out, whereas orange, tangerine, apple, banana, lemon, pear, grape and grapefruit may be highlighted among fruit. At present, the main challenge of the Argentinian horticultural sector is given not only by the possibilities of productive diversification and the expansion of the productive area but also of the technological level optimization, the application of quality norms and the agro-industry growth.

  12. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Argentina: An attack scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent Escherichia coli epidemic in Germany gave a lesson at an international level. There is no time to solve food security problems when an epidemic is on the way. The epidemic in Germany exposed the fissures in the control systems of the Federal Risk Evaluation Institute of this country, as well as showing the incompetency of health authorities, who had great difficulty in resolving the situation. To summarize, the possibility of prevention was confused with the utopian idea of non-occurrence. It was not less important the public’s recognition and the “awakening” of health ministers in the European Union as regards the proven fact that pathogenic and even lethal microorganisms may be present in the food we eat. Argentina has the highest incidence of hemolytic uremic syndrome in the world, and the next epidemic is likely not to occur in Germany, but in any other country, such as Argentina. In order to avoid complicity, we do not wish to remain silent about the situation in Argentina. Therefore, this is the writer’s motive for writing this article, which describes the scientific advances and the ethical pitfalls related to a disease transmitted by food, particularly hemolytic uremic syndrome, in Argentina.

  13. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  14. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-04-13

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.

  15. Egg parasitoid of Saccharosydne subandina (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Neuquen, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharosydne subandina Remes Lenicov & Rossi Batiz is a recently described planthopper from Argentina which is known to feed on garlic, rye, and pampas grass (de Remes-Lenicov & Rossi-Batiz 2010). During a trip to Neuquén Province in February 2007, we noticed a heavy infestation of pampas grass, Co...

  16. First record of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CÉDOLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez de la Argentina a Typhlodromus (Anthoseius transvaalensis Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae sobre Capsicum annuum L. y Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae en la localidad de Concordia, Entre Ríos. Se proporcionan datos morfométricos de los ejemplares argentinos.

  17. Molecular characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Rivera, Alejandro; Benintende, Graciela; Cozzi, Jorge; Baizabal-Aguirre, Victor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo

    2004-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis INTA 7-3, INTA 51-3, INTA Mo9-5 and INTA Mo14-4 strains were obtained from Argentina and characterized by determination of serotype, toxicity, plasmid composition, insecticidal gene content ( cry and vip ) and the cloning of the single- vip3A gene of the INTA Mo9-5 strain. The serotype analysis identified the serovars tohokuensis and darmstadiensis for the INTA 51-3 and INTA Mo14-4 strains, respectively, whereas the INTA Mo9-5 strain was classified as "autoagglutinated". In contrast to the plasmid patterns of INTA 7-3, INTA 51-3 and INTA Mo9-5 (which were similar to B. thuringiensis HD-1 strain), strain INTA Mo14-4 showed a unique plasmid array. PCR analysis of the four strains revealed the presence of cry genes and vip3A genes. Interestingly, it was found that B. thuringiensis 4Q7 strain, which is a plasmid cured strain, contained vip3A genes indicating the presence of these insecticidal genes in the chromosome. Bioassays towards various lepidopteran species revealed that B. thuringiensis INTA Mo9-5 and INTA 7-3 strains were highly active. In particular, the mean LC(50) obtained against A. gemmatalis larvae with the INTA Mo9-5 and INTA 7-3 strains were 7 (5.7-8.6) and 6.7 (5.6-8.0) ppm, respectively. The INTA Mo14-4 strain was non-toxic and strain INTA 51-3 showed only a weak larvicidal activity.

  18. Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person’s past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness, a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior. PMID:24363542

  19. Unexpected inhibition of peptidoglycan LD-transpeptidase from Enterococcus faecium by the beta-lactam imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Rusconi, Filippo; Fourgeaud, Martine; Dubost, Lionel; Moumi, Angèle Nguekam; Delfosse, Vanessa; Mayer, Claudine; Gutmann, Laurent; Rice, Louis B; Arthur, Michel

    2007-10-19

    The beta-lactam antibiotics mimic the D-alanyl(4)-D-alanine(5) extremity of peptidoglycan precursors and act as "suicide" substrates of the DD-transpeptidases that catalyze the last cross-linking step of peptidoglycan synthesis. We have previously shown that bypass of the dd-transpeptidases by the LD-transpeptidase of Enterococcus faecium (Ldt(fm)) leads to high level resistance to ampicillin. Ldt(fm) is specific for the L-lysyl(3)-D-alanine(4) bond of peptidoglycan precursors containing a tetrapeptide stem lacking D-alanine(5). This specificity was proposed to account for resistance, because the substrate of Ldt(fm) does not mimic beta-lactams in contrast to the D-alanyl(4)-D-alanine(5) extremity of pentapeptide stems used by the DD-transpeptidases. Here, we unexpectedly show that imipenem, a beta-lactam of the carbapenem class, totally inhibited Ldt(fm) at a low drug concentration that was sufficient to inhibit growth of the bacteria. Peptidoglycan cross-linking was also inhibited, indicating that Ldt(fm) is the in vivo target of imipenem. Stoichiometric and covalent modification of Ldt(fm) by imipenem was detected by mass spectrometry. The modification was mapped into the trypsin fragment of Ldt(fm) containing the catalytic Cys residue, and the Cys to Ala substitution prevented imipenem binding. The mass increment matched the mass of imipenem, indicating that inactivation of Ldt(fm) is likely to involve rupture of the beta-lactam ring and acylation of the catalytic Cys residue. Thus, the spectrum of activity of beta-lactams is not restricted to transpeptidases of the DD-specificity, as previously thought. Combination therapy with imipenem and ampicillin could therefore be active against E. faecium strains having the dual capacity to manufacture peptidoglycan with transpeptidases of the LD- and DD-specificities.

  20. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

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    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  1. An unexpected signature of Lorenz-Mie scattering observed in flowcytometric experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Deurloo, K.E.I.; Noordmans, H.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Maeda, M.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed analysis of elastic light scattering by spheresin FlowCytometers shows unexpected Lorenz-Miescattering patterns. The complete scattering matrix S ofspheres was measured. Two parameter scatterplots withx- and y- coordinates determined by the S11 + Sij andS11 - Sij values were obtained. Sampl

  2. Electromyographic and Neuromuscular Force Patterns Associated with Unexpectedly Loaded Rapid Limb Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Charles; Simmons, Roger W.

    Bi-articular, unidirectional arm movements were studied to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) and neuromuscular force patterns that occur when a limb is unexpectedly perturbed. A series of training trials were continued with a control load spring attached to the apparatus until a pre-specified criterion for learning was attained. The limb was…

  3. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  4. Fear of the unexpected: hippocampus mediates novelty-induced return of extinguished fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate an important role for the hippocampus in the recovery of fear memory after extinction. For example, hippocampal inactivation prevents the renewal of fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) when it is presented outside the extinction context. Renewal of extinguished responding is accompanied by associative novelty (an unexpected occurrence of a familiar CS in a familiar place), the detection of which may require the hippocampus. We therefore examined whether the hippocampus also mediates the recovery of extinguished fear caused by other unexpected events, including presenting a familiar CS in a novel context or presenting a novel cue with the CS in a familiar context (e.g., external disinhibition). Rats underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction using an auditory CS and freezing behavior served as the index of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, conditioned freezing to the extinguished CS was renewed in a novel context and this was eliminated by intra-hippocampal infusions of the GABAA agonist, muscimol, prior to the test. In Experiment 2, muscimol inactivation of the hippocampus reduced the external disinhibition of conditioned freezing that occurred when a novel white noise accompanied the extinguished tone CS. Collectively, these results suggest that the hippocampus mediates the return of fear when extinguished CSs are unexpected, or when unexpected stimuli accompany CS presentation. Ultimately, a violation of expectations about when, where, and with what other stimuli an extinguished CS will occur may form the basis of spontaneous recovery, renewal, and external disinhibition.

  5. Two Cases of Unexpected Martyrdom : Priscillian of Avila and Socrates of Athens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, L.

    2015-01-01

    The cases of Priscillian and Socrates show unexpected parallels, that suggest that the dynamics of martyrdom were active in the case of Priscillian. This is all the more remarkable for the reason, that neither Priscillian himself nor his opponents could have envisaged the fatal end of his career.

  6. Three Perspectives of Facilitated Communication: Unexpected Literacy, Clever Hans, or Enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topics in Language Disorders, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The validity of facilitated communication's effects are viewed from three perspectives, labeled as the plausible perspective, which is unexpected literacy; the skeptical perspective, which claims that social-communicative variables unintentionally influence intervention outcomes; and the enigmatic perspective, which neither rejects outright the…

  7. Interlimb communication following unexpected changes in treadmill velocity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Sinkjær, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    applied to the ipsilateral leg (iKnee) during the late stance phase of human gait (Stevenson et al. 2013). This interlimb reflex likely acts to slow the forward progression of the body in order to maintain dynamic stability following the perturbations. We examined this hypothesis by unexpectedly...

  8. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... HOUSE, WASHINGTON, August 26, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27672 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-12 of August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  9. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, September 3, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27673 Filed 10-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-14 of September 3, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  10. The own and social effects of an unexpected income shock: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, P.J.; Kooreman, P.; Soetevent, A.R.; Kapteyn, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the Dutch Postcode Lottery a postal code (19 households on average) is randomly selected weekly, and prizes - consisting of cash and a new BMW - are awarded to lottery participants living in that postal code. On average, this generates a temporary, unexpected income shock equal to about eight mon

  11. Challenging Ideals of Reciprocity in Undergraduate Teaching: The Unexpected Benefits of Unpredictable Cross-Cultural Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Laura A.; Bilous, Rebecca H.; James, Sarah W.; Trau, Adam M.; Suchet-Pearson, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Geographers are increasingly grappling with the theoretical and practical implications of integrating an ethics of reciprocity into undergraduate learning and teaching. This paper draws on the unexpected experiences of a third-year human geography research methods fieldtrip to examine the process of balancing undergraduate student learning and…

  12. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates.

  13. First trial postural reactions to unexpected balance disturbances: a comparison with the acoustic startle reaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Allum, J.H.J.; Valls-Sole, J.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Unexpected support-surface movements delivered during stance elicit "first trial" postural reactions, which are larger and cause greater instability compared with habituated responses. The nature of this first trial reaction remains unknown. We hypothesized that first trial postural reactions consis

  14. Recent and chronic exposure of wild ducks to lead in human-modified wetlands in Santa Fe Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Uhart, Marcela

    2009-07-01

    Poisoning of waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a worldwide problem in areas that are subject to hunting. No studies have assessed exposure of waterbirds to this heavy metal in Argentina, in spite of intense hunting activity, and the fact that only lead ammunition is commercially available. The objective of this study was to evaluate duck exposure to lead by examining gizzard and bone samples collected from 30 wild ducks, 16 Rosy-billed Pochard (Netta peposaca), and 14 Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), provided by hunters in northern Santa Fe Province, Argentina, in July 2007. Radiographs, followed by dissection of the gizzards, showed that 31% of the Rosy-billed Pochards and 29% of the Fulvous Whistling-Ducks had ingested lead pellets (between one and four per animal). Lead in bone was found at concentrations associated with detrimental health effects. In spite of the small number of samples in this project, these results indicate high levels of lead exposure (both recent and chronic) in these species. This is the first report of a problem in Argentina that could represent a threat to the health and conservation of native aquatic species, their predators, and the wetlands they inhabit.

  15. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité Masciocchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus is a social vespid native to the Holarctic region. The first detection of this species in Argentina is here reported. Workers were captured close to San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina during February 2010, while sampling for another successful invader, the German wasp or Yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fabricius. Both these wasp species are very similar morphologically and share a number of common habits. Also, some identification features and biological characters are here explained.

  16. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Santa Fe province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vittar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende aportar una lista faunística actualizada de las subfamilias, tribus, géneros y especies de hormigas de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Si bien estos listados tienen poca duración temporal, contribuyen en gran medida a incrementar el conocimiento de un taxón determinado, despertando interés y brindando una herramienta fundamental para el desarrollo de estudios posteriores. Como resultado, nueve registros son nuevos para la Argentina y dos géneros y 18 citas de especies nuevas para la provincia de Santa Fe.The present paper provides an updated faunistic list of the subfamilies, tribes, genera and species of ants of Santa Fe province, Argentina. To a great extent, these listings contribute to increase the knowledge of a specific taxa, awaking interest, and offering a fundamental tool for the development of subsequent studies. As a result, nine species are cited as new for Argentina, and two genera and 18 species are cited for Santa Fe province for the first time.

  17. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina) New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana E. Freire; Bayón, Néstor D.; Daniel A. Giuliano; Luis Ariza Espinar; Sáenz, Alcides A.; Claudia Monti; Gustavo Delucchi

    2011-01-01

    Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae), Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae), Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae), Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu I...

  18. su evaluación en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Matos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos con la intervención basada en Análisis Comportamental Aplicado (ACA o manejo de contingencias, en 9 niños (8 varones y 1 mujer de 2 a 5 años con Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo (TGD. Este tratamiento basado en métodos desarrollados por Lovaas y colaboradores (1981 fue implementado en una institución argentina especializada. Se evaluaron las siguientes áreas: comprensión del lenguaje, funciones del comportamiento, nivel de desarrollo mental y grado de autismo. Tres terapeutas administraron las siguientes pruebas: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Dunn & Dunn, 1981, Vineland Adaptative Behavior Scale (Sparrow, Balla & Cicchetti, 1984, Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1993, la Batería de Evaluación Kaufman para Niños (K.ABC de Kaufman y Kaufman (1997 y The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS de Schopler, Reichler, DeVellis y Daly (1988. Los resultados fueron evaluados por una psicóloga que no había participado de la administración. Se utilizó un diseño intra-sujeto antes-después (inicio de la intervención y entre nueve y doce meses después sin grupo control. Los datos se analizaron con Análisis de Variancia (ANOVA de medidas repetidas. Siete participantes obtuvieron cambios positivos significativos en las cuatro áreas estudiadas: uno en tres áreas y uno en dos. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en funcionalidad del comportamiento (p < .004 y en dos de sus subdominios: autovalimiento (p < .006 y habilidades motrices (p < .001. También se observaron diferencias significativas en los otros dos subdominios: comunicación (p < .01 y socialización (p < .01. Las diferencias en lenguaje receptivo, funcionamiento intelectual y nivel de autismo también resultaron significativas: (p < .01, (p < .02 y (p < .04 respectivamente.

  19. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  20. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  1. An investigation of the unexpectedly high fertility of secular, native-born Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Barbara S

    2016-07-01

    Secular, native-born Jews in Israel enjoy the socio-economic status of many affluent populations living in other democratic countries, but have above-replacement period and cohort fertility. This study revealed a constellation of interrelated factors which together characterize the socio-economic, cultural, and political environment of this fertility behaviour and set it apart from that of other advanced societies. The factors are: a combination of state and family support for childbearing; a dual emphasis on the social importance of women's employment and fertility; policies that support working mothers within a conservative welfare regime; a family system in which parents provide significant financial and caregiving aid to their adult children; relatively egalitarian gender-role attitudes and household behaviour; the continuing importance of familist ideology and of marriage as a social institution; the role of Jewish nationalism and collective behaviour in a religious society characterized by ethno-national conflict; and a discourse which defines women as the biological reproducers of the nation. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2016.1195913.

  2. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    Full Text Available Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities--the arthropods--here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group--parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae--at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50-70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature.

  3. Unexpected high genetic diversity at the extreme northern geographic limit of Taurulus bubalis (Euphrasen, 1786.

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    Vítor C Almada

    Full Text Available The longspined bullhead (Taurulus bubalis, Euphrasen 1786 belongs to the family Cottidae and is a rocky shore species that inhabits the intertidal zones of the Eastern Atlantic since Iceland, southward to Portugal and also the North Sea and Baltic, northward to the Gulf of Finland, with some occurrences in the northern Mediterranean coasts eastward to the Gulf of Genoa. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial and nuclear markers in populations throughout most of its distributional range in west Europe. We found that T. bubalis has a relatively shallow genealogy with some differentiation between Atlantic and North Sea. Genetic diversity was homogeneous across all populations studied. The possibility of a glacial refugium near the North Sea is discussed. In many, but not all, marine temperate organisms, patterns of diversity are similar across the species range. If this phenomenon proves to be most common in cold adapted species, it may reflect the availability of glacial refugia not far from their present-day northern limits.

  4. Unexpectedly high genetic variation in large unisexual clumps of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Philipp, Marianne; Retuerto, Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Honckenya peploides is a subdioecious dune plant that reproduces both sexually and by clonal growth. In northwest Spain this species was found to exhibit an extreme spatial segregation of the sexes, and our objective was to investigate genetic variation in unisexual clumps. Genetic variation was ...

  5. Unexpected climatological behavior of MLT gravity wave momentum flux in the lee of the Southern Andes hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7°S, 67.7°W), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  6. Phlebotominae of epidemiological importance in cutaneous leishmaniasis in northwestern Argentina: risk maps and ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, M; Salomón, O; Guerra, R; De Grosso, M Lizarralde; Fuenzalida, A

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, 58.2% out of the 8126 Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) incident cases accumulated from 1954 to 2006 were reported in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy. The aim of this study was to develop an exploratory risk map and a potential distribution map of the vector, in order to offer recommendations for CL prevention. A total of 12 079 Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) belonging to the species Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto), Lu. migonei (França), Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes), Lu. shannoni (Dyar), Lu. quinquefer (Dyar) and Brumptomyia spp. (França & Parrot) were captured. Potential distribution models were created for two species, Lu. neivai (incriminated vector of Leishmania braziliensis) and Lu. migonei, associated with domestic animals in Argentina and that in turn could be involved as a link between zoonotic transmission cycles and anthropozoonotic. The Maximum Entropy Modeling System (MaxEnt) was used. The Jackknife test was performed, and the 'rainfall of the driest month' was the variable that best generalized the models. Accuracy was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) and validated by the Cohen's kappa index. This approximation provides a new analytical resource of high potential for the prevention of the disease, in order to allocate resources properly and to develop the most suitable strategies for action.

  7. Modeling potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus) reservoir, in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Verónica; Glass, Gregory; Shields, Timothy; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2011-09-01

    We constructed a model to predict the potential distribution of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the reservoir of Andes virus (Genus: Hantavirus), in Argentina. We developed an extensive database of occurrence records from published studies and our own surveys and compared two methods to model the probability of O. longicaudatus presence; logistic regression and MaxEnt algorithm. The environmental variables used were tree, grass and bare soil cover from MODIS imagery and, altitude and 19 bioclimatic variables from WorldClim database. The models performances were evaluated and compared both by threshold dependent and independent measures. The best models included tree and grass cover, mean diurnal temperature range, and precipitation of the warmest and coldest seasons. The potential distribution maps for O. longicaudatus predicted the highest occurrence probabilities along the Andes range, from 32°S and narrowing southwards. They also predicted high probabilities for the south-central area of Argentina, reaching the Atlantic coast. The Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome cases coincided with mean occurrence probabilities of 95 and 77% for logistic and MaxEnt models, respectively. HPS transmission zones in Argentine Patagonia matched the areas with the highest probability of presence. Therefore, colilargos presence probability may provide an approximate risk of transmission and act as an early tool to guide control and prevention plans.

  8. Review of the regulations for the use of stainless steels for orthopedic implants in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Bernardo; Rivera, Graciela; Boeri, Roberto [INTEMA, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Mar del Plata - CONICET Juan B.Justo 4302, B7608FDQ, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Motivated by the relatively high rate of failure of orthopedic implants in Argentina, the authors review the current normative regulating the use of stainless steels in the fabrication of these metallic parts in the country, and compare it with the regulations currently in use in other countries. The analysis shows that several standards in effect in the country do not comply with broadly recognized international standards. This situation is aggravated by a recent revision of the normative that failed to improve the quality standards to reach levels similar to those applied in developed countries or even in MERCOSUR associates. The national organization in charge of implant certification in Argentina, complying with the law, accepts the applicability of IRAM standards to certify stainless steels implants. In the opinion of the authors, the current practice used to certify implants does not guarantee the structural stability and biocompatibility of the devices, increasing the risk of failure in service, and escalating the cost of the public health care system.

  9. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health.

  10. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINAE IN PUERTO IGUAZU-MISIONES, ARGENTINA-BRAZIL-PARAGUAY BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Santini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The first Argentinian autochthonous human case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was confirmed in Posadas (Misiones in 2006. Since then, the disease has increased its incidence and geographical distribution. In the 2006-2012 period, 107 human cases were detected (11 deaths. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected in peridomiciles in Puerto Iguazú urban area in 2010; some of these findings were associated with households where cases of canine VL had already been reported. The objective of this study was to ascertain the abundance and spatial distribution of Lu. longipalpis in Puerto Iguazú City, on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border. Lu. longipalpis proved to be exclusively urban and was found in 31% of the households sampled (n = 53, 67% of which belonged to areas of low abundance, 20% to areas of moderate abundance and 13% to areas of high abundance. Nyssomyia whitmani was the only species found both in urban and peri-urban environments, and Migonemyia migonei was registered only on the outskirts of the city. Due to the fact that Puerto Iguazú is considered to be at moderate risk at the moment, it is necessary to intensify human and canine case controls, as well as take integrated prevention and control measures regarding the environment, vectors and reservoirs on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border area.

  11. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICA L ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequencyof metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationshipwithphysical activityin Chilean immigrants living inRío Gallegos, SantaCruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165womenand 149men were interviewed in RioGallegos in2010,with healthy status in medical records(2000.Anthropometry,blood pressurecontrol,blood testto measureglucose,triglycerides andHDL cholesterol weredetermined.Metabolic syndromewasestablished bycriteria of theNCEPATPIII.Themetabolic syndromehad anoverall prevalenceof 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34.Metabolicsyndromeprevalence was larger in women(32.1%than in men(25.5%.The prevalence ofits componentswere:abdominalobesity56%,low levels ofHDL cholesterol 48.3%, highlevels of triglycerides68.1%,hypertension46.1%and high levels of glucose 72.5%.Inadequate physical activitywas 66.2% (95%CI:60.1 to 71.5.Immigrantshadmorelikelihoodof metabolic syndromeliving in Río Gallegos for 15 yearsormore(β:5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73,p=0.000and withinadequate physical activity(β:3.36,95%CI:1.57to7.21,p=0.002.The prevalenceof metabolic syndrome inChileanimmigrantsliving in RíoGallegosis higherthan that reportedin Argentina andChile.

  12. Nematodes (Mermithidae parasitizing grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae in the Pampean region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rusconi

    Full Text Available Abstract This work provides the results of a survey of entomonematodes parasites of grasshoppers in grasslands of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Nymphs of Staurorhectus longicornis Giglio-Tos, Laplatacris dispar Rhen, 1939, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 and Metaleptea brevicornis (L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae were collected. Mermithidae was the only family registered with seven species: Agamermis decaudata Cobb, Steiner and Christie, 1923, Amphimermis bonaerensis Miralles and Camino, 1983, Amphimermis dichroplusi Camino and Lange, 1997, Amphimermis ronderosi Camino and Lange, 1997, Hexamermis coclhearius Stock and Camino, 1992, Hexamermis ovistriata Stock and Camino, 1992, and Longimermis acridophila Camino and Stock, 1989. The values of parasitism ranged between 1-12%, and intensity not overcome the number of 5.0 nematodes per larva. The nematodes observed showed specificity, not registering the same species of parasite in more than one host species. The Pampean region constituted an area with high diversity of mermithids where new species could be consider as bioregulator agents of this troublesome insect pests in agricultural areas of Argentina.

  13. An operative dengue risk stratification system in Argentina based on geospatial technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Porcasi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on an agreement between the Ministry of Health and the National Space Activities Commission in Argentina, an integrated informatics platform for dengue risk using geospatial technology for the surveillance and prediction of risk areas for dengue fever has been designed. The task was focused on developing stratification based on environmental (historical and current, viral, social and entomological situation for >3,000 cities as part of a system. The platform, developed with open-source software with pattern design, following the European Space Agency standards for space informatics, delivers two products: a national risk map consisting of point vectors for each city/town/locality and an approximate 50 m resolution urban risk map modelling the risk inside selected high-risk cities. The operative system, architecture and tools used in the development are described, including a detailed list of end users’ requirements. Additionally, an algorithm based on bibliography and landscape epidemiology concepts is presented and discussed. The system, in operation since September 2011, is capable of continuously improving the algorithms producing improved risk stratifications without a complete set of inputs. The platform was specifically developed for surveillance of dengue fever as this disease has reemerged in Argentina but the aim is to widen the scope to include also other relevant vector-borne diseases such as chagas, malaria and leishmaniasis as well as other countries belonging to south region of Latin America.

  14. Presence of pesticides in surface water from four sub-basins in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia C; Bárbaro, Sebastián; Portocarrero, Rocío; Jaime, Sebastián; Costa, José L

    2014-07-01

    Argentina has 31 million hectares given over to agriculture comprising 2.2% of the world's total area under cultivation (Stock Exchange of Rosario, Argentina). Despite the intensity of this agricultural activity, data on pesticide pollution in surface water are rather scarce. In this sense, the aim of this work is to determine the presence of pesticides in surface water of four agricultural sub-basins of Argentine. An environmental monitoring was carried out to determine the impact of twenty-nine pesticides used in agricultural activities on the surface water quality of agricultural areas within the San Vicente, Azul, Buenos Aires southeast and Mista stream sub-basins. The samples were analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using OASIS HLB 60 mg cartridges and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MSMS) that provided good analytical quality parameters. The southeast of Buenos Aires was the site with the highest frequency of pesticides detection, followed by Azul and San Vicente microbasins. The most detected pesticides, considering all surface water samples, were atrazine, tebuconazole and diethyltoluamide with maximum concentration levels of 1.4, 0.035, and 0.701 μg L(-1), respectively. The results obtained for all basins studied show the presence of residual pesticides in surface waters according the different agricultural activities developed.

  15. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  16. Prospects of approach and characterization of Mar del Plata peri-urban, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America in general, and in Argentina in particular, city growth without prior planning results in the formation of highly complex peri-urban areas. The urban-rural analysis based on the traditional model of country-city dichotomy is not enough to explain the processes that occur in these cities. On the basis of prior studies conducted in the peri- urban of Mar del Plata, Argentina, this paper aims to : a characterize the peri-urban by studying its functions throughout history, b propose a rereading for its further analysis through the complex systems theoretical-methodological approach, and c describe the main areas that account for its special heterogeneity and complexity. From an integral viewpoint, and taking the physical, sociocultural, productive, urban- residential and digester subsystems into account, the analysis of the peri-urban allowed to define areas with differential characteristics. Such areas admit higher disintegration in more detailed scales, making it easy to understand their operation and their problems. In conclusion, the complex systems approach results appropriate to promote the development of management strategies in areas as heterogeneous as the peri-urban.

  17. With everything exposed: cruelty in post-abortion care in Rosario, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Cynthia; Chiarotti, Susana

    2004-11-01

    At the suggestion of a social worker who witnessed abusive post-abortion care at a public hospital in Rosario, Argentina, two human rights NGOs collaborated to investigate women's experiences seeking treatment for abortion complications at area public hospitals. During the year-long enquiry, more than 300 women took part. Role play was successfully used to surmount women's initial reluctance to reveal pervasive discriminatory and humiliating mistreatment. Thirty-one women later gave personal testimonies about their experiences, which were contained in the report of the research and later dramatised in a public meeting and video. The report, Con Todo al Aire (With Everything Exposed), was disseminated widely, including to the media, and a formal complaint was made to the local Ombudsman, who called for high-level action to resolve the problems. Initial denial by some health professionals that there was a serious problem was replaced by critical self-assessment within the provincial government, hospitals and medical and nursing schools, who made commitments to reform hospital practices and the medical school curriculum. Women participants also gained an understanding of their right to appropriate and humane health care. The findings from Rosario are not isolated. They are now being shored with activists and researchers in other provinces of Argentina and other countries.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of domestic and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Marta V; Lauricella, Marta A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Lanati, Leonardo; Marcet, Paula L; Levin, Mariano J; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2008-11-01

    Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi populations and parasite transmission dynamics have been well documented throughout the Americas, but few studies have been conducted in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, one of the most highly endemic areas for Chagas disease, caused by T. cruzi. In this study, we assessed the distribution of T. cruzi lineages (identified by PCR strategies) in Triatoma infestans, domestic dogs, cats, humans and sylvatic mammals from two neighbouring rural areas with different histories of transmission and vector control in northern Argentina. Lineage II predominated amongst the 99 isolates characterised and lineage I amongst the six isolates obtained from sylvatic mammals. T. cruzi lineage IIe predominated in domestic habitats; it was found in 87% of 54 isolates from Tr. infestans, in 82% of 33 isolates from dogs, and in the four cats found infected. Domestic and sylvatic cycles overlapped in the study area in the late 1980s, when intense domestic transmission occurred, and still overlap marginally. The introduction of T. cruzi from sylvatic into domestic habitats is likely to occur very rarely in the current epidemiological context. The household distribution of T. cruzi lineages showed that Tr. infestans, dogs and cats from a given house compound shared the same parasite lineage in most cases. Based on molecular evidence, this result lends further support to the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts of T. cruzi. We believe that in Argentina, this is the first time that lineage IIc has been isolated from naturally infected domestic dogs and Tr. infestans.

  19. Review of the regulations for the use of stainless steels for orthopedic implants in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Bernardo; Rivera, Graciela; Boeri, Roberto

    2007-11-01

    Motivated by the relatively high rate of failure of orthopedic implants in Argentina, the authors review the current normative regulating the use of stainless steels in the fabrication of these metallic parts in the country, and compare it with the regulations currently in use in other countries. The analysis shows that several standards in effect in the country do not comply with broadly recognized international standards. This situation is aggravated by a recent revision of the normative that failed to improve the quality standards to reach levels similar to those applied in developed countries or even in MERCOSUR associates. The national organization in charge of implant certification in Argentina, complying with the law, accepts the applicability of IRAM standards to certify stainless steels implants. In the opinion of the authors, the current practice used to certify implants does not guarantee the structural stability and biocompatibility of the devices, increasing the risk of failure in service, and escalating the cost of the public health care system.

  20. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle in Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, F; Lovera, V; Larroza, M; Raffo, F; Cabrera, R

    2011-06-10

    In the winter of 2008, cattle on a farm in the province of Neuquen, Argentina died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with Triclabendazole (TCBZ). In the spring of 2009, a preliminary efficacy test revealed good performance using nitroxynil, whereas TCBZ efficacy was only 18% by egg counts of Fasciola eggs in the faeces. Resistance to Fasciola hepatica to TCBZ has never been reported in South America, so in January of 2010 a controlled trial was conducted to confirm and to define the degree of resistance in this herd. In a clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored on Days 14 and 21 and serum enzymes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) on Days 0 and 21 in 36 calves treated with TCBZ or with closantel. The results showed a reduction of 100% in fluke egg output at Days 14 and 21 for closantel. The mean epg in the TCBZ-treated groups did not decrease. Because of the fact that in this study TCBZ treatment in cattle had no effect, even at double the recommended dose, it is highly indicative that resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ is present on this farm. The GGT and GOT levels decreased in the closantel-treated group as a result of the treatment at 21 days after dosing. To evaluate the importance of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in Argentina, a study on more farms from endemic areas is needed.