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Sample records for argentina brazil mexico

  1. Comparative analysis of the number of scientific papers entered to INIS: the case Mexico versus Brazil-Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis about the scientific papers that input INIS National Center in Mexico has enter to the International Nuclear Information System since 1976 to date is presented. It is emphasize the number of documents as well as the participant institutions and the subject diversity. The result shows that the input of documents on behalf of Mexico is low, if it is compared with the other two Latin American countries, Brazil and Argentina, if we consider the production of technical scientific information in the field of energy sources. For this reason and on the basis of the new tematic approaches of INIS related to the environmental, economic and social aspects of energy, it is pretend to create a formal engagement with the participant institution to perform the gathering of the generated documentation in order to remit it to CIDN for the inclusion in INIS. (Author)

  2. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  3. Homogeneidade e heterogeneidade nos sistemas educacionais: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México Homogeneity and heterogeneity on education systems in Argentine, Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo focaliza a reconfiguração da gestão educacional a partir da nova lógica de regulação social e do novo papel do Estado, à luz da historicidade dos países estudados (Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México, examinando os fatores culturais que interferiram na dinâmica da reforma educacional da década de 90. Aspectos que evidenciam a homogeneidade e a heterogeneidade dessa reforma na região, bem como as especificidades nacionais que intervieram em sua concretização, são destacados. Afirma que a historicidade que caracteriza a realidade educacional tem sofrido, no México, o que poderíamos denominar "ruptura conservadora"; no Chile, "continuidade conservadora"; no Brasil, "renovação conservadora"; e, na Argentina, "ruptura interrompida". Recupera algumas conclusões alcançadas por meio da análise de 186 textos de caráter acadêmico sobre os impactos, nos países estudados, da reforma educacional da década.This study focus on the reconfiguration of educational management in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which was promoted by the new logic of social regulation and the new role attributed to the State, considering each country's own historicity. So, the cultural factors that interfere on the dynamics of the 90' school reform are analyzed. Aspects that show the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these reforms in the region, as well as local specificities that block out the concretization of the reform are underlined. It is shown that the historicity that characterizes the educational reform has taken, in each country, a form that can be called, in Mexico, "conservative rupture"; in Chile, "conservative continuity"; in Brazil, "conservative renovation"; and, in Argentina, "interrupted rupture". Some conclusions about the impact of educational reform in the selected countries are recuperated through the analysis of 186 academic texts on the subject.

  4. Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and the Federative Republic of Brazil for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, signed by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Argentina and Brazil in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 18 July 1991

  5. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  6. Nuclear Power in Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Clivia M. Sotornayor Torres; Wolfgang Rudig

    1983-01-01

    Clivia Sotomayor Torres and Wolfgang Rudig compare nuclear development in the two Latin American countries most likely to develop nuclear weapons: Argentina & Brazil. They pose three main questions.First, was nuclear energy necessary to meet energy needs? Here the answer is a clear no. Both countries have immense undeveloped hydropower resources and used inflated estimates offuture electricity demand in selecting the nuclear option.Second, does either country have the capability to develop nu...

  7. Comparing the Power of Mexico and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pavchenko, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Mexico and Brazil are the two powers, who enjoy significant influence and contribute not only on the regional level, but to a certain extent on the global level as well. Having this common feature, the two centers of power differ dramatically in many aspects, starting from geopolitics, relation towards the super power and finishing with identity perception. The main aim of the research is to compare Mexico and Brazil during 2000 -- 2012, which will allow not only predicting possible developme...

  8. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... investigations on imports of lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico (72 FR 53991 and 53995, September 21, 2007..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  9. Regional safeguards arrangements: The Argentina-Brazil experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material (SCCC) was established by Argentina and Brazil in July 1992. It is a full scope safeguard's system in both countries. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was created to apply the SCCC. The main elements of the SCCC are presented. The main safeguards' procedures are described. A brief discussion of the inspection methodology and its impact for facility operators is performed. The safeguard's implementation from the operator's point of view is commented, taking as example a fuel fabrication plant in Argentina and a uranium enrichment plant in Brazil. (author)

  10. Networks of Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In research on CSR in Brazil and Argentina, we saw a huge disparity in the grass-roots of the theme in each country. The hypothesis, stemming from this article, is that the great success of the CSR movement in Brazil and its relatively weak development in Argentina is due to the presence of a hegemonic dispute - in observed dynamic communication - among some segments of business elites regarding the purpose of CSR, present in the Brazilian case and absent in Argentina. This article intends to discuss the concept of hegemonic dispute - highlighting conflict as a fundamental social relationship in the configuration of network topographies of movements to promote CSR in both countries. Such an understanding is essential for professionals and researchers working in the area of ​​organizational communication.

  11. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the communication received by the Director General from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency to inform him about the official inauguration on 9 December 1992 of the headquarters of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) in Rio de Janeiro

  12. Educación y prensa en el contexto electoral: un estudio comparado Argentina, Brasil y México Education and press in the electoral context: a comparative study Argentina, Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Alvarez Aragón

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta analisar a importância que a imprensa latino-americana outorga à educação e o impacto que tais matériais poderiam ter na população nos momentos eleitorais. Levando em conta a proposta teórica dos cenários de representação política, apresenta-se o que foram as temáticas mais importantes para a imprensa na Argentina, no Brasil e no México, no que diz respeito à educação, nos períodos prévios aos pleitos eleitorais, considerando para isso os distintos níveis de ensino e os diferentes tipos de notas.This article tries to analyse the importance that Latin-American press gives to education issues and the impact such subjects could have on the population during election periods. Based on the theoretical proposal of the scenarios of political representation, the most important subjects within the education area during pre-election periods according to the Argentinean, Brazilian and Mexican press are presented, considering the different levels of education.

  13. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstå...

  14. Comparing stabilization plans of Argentina, Brazil and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano, José Pablo

    2015-01-01

    ​This paper sets out to identify the main differences and simmilarities between the Stabilization Plans of Argentina, Brazil, and Perú, as well as making some remarks on anti-inflationary policies. The author also analyzes the initial success of these programmes in terms of their handling of inflation and its subsequent regression. It concludes that the greatest and most important potential cost of a stabilization programme can be measured in terms of its impact on the economic activity, and ...

  15. The origins of nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Spektor, Matias

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to highlight the major �findings of my latest research on the origins of nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina. Besides archival work and interviews, my findings draw on a “critical oral history” exercise which I ran with Professor Nicholas Wheeler of Birmingham University: a three-day collective interview with the Brazilian and Argentine historical actors who negotiated and implemented nuclear cooperation in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The lo...

  16. Close encounters Brazil and Argentina: Adhemar Gonzaga in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Autran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relations between the cinematography of Argentina and the cinematography of Brazil in the 1930s and 1940s, with the central axis Adhemar Gonzaga’s visit to Buenos Aires in 1934 and the contacts established there. The paper also discusses the tour of Hollywood star Ramón Novarro in South America, one of the motivations of the trip of Gonzaga.

  17. Nuclear rapprochement in Argentina and Brazil: Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Doyle

    1999-10-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1998, the Center for International Security Affairs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Center for Global Security and Cooperation at Science Applications International Corporation hosted the first of a series of work-shops on states that have chosen to roll back their pursuit of nuclear arms. The objective of the workshop series is to conduct a systematic evaluation of the roles played by U.S. nonproliferation policy in cases of nuclear rollback or restraint and to provide recommendations for future nonproliferation efforts based on lessons learned. Key attendees at the workshop included officials and former officials from the foreign ministries of Argentina and Brazil, and current and former officials from the U.S. Department of State, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). Scholars and independent researchers who have examined nuclear policy in Argentina and Brazil also participated. This workshop report includes important background information that helps set the stage for assessing nuclear policies in Argentina and Brazil. It describes national perspectives and areas of consensus and debate among the participants, particularly on the questions of lessons learned and their salience to proliferation challenges in other states. It also summarizes key questions and propositions regarding the roles played in these cases by U.S. nonproliferation policy.

  18. Macroeconomic Adjustment and Structural Change: The Experience of Argentina, Brazil and Chile in 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Katz; Gonzalo Bernat

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to throw light upon the influence macroeconomic policies have on structural change and microeconomic behaviour. We compare the cases of Chile and Brazil, on the one hand, and Argentina on the other, as these countries opted for different macroeconomic policy regimes. Whereas Chile and Brazil adopted an ‘inflation targeting’ regime, Argentina proceeded on the basis of an administrated exchange rate regime. The main conclusion of our research is that both regimes were incapa...

  19. Best practices in defence of competition in Argentina and Brazil: useful aspects for Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Petrecolla, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries with a relatively long expertise in competition policy, such as Argentina and Brazil, may provide a very valuable point of reference for developing countries that have acquired more recently a competition legal and institutional framework. Among the recommendations that can be derived from Argentina and Brazil for other more recent comers to the competition institutional arena are: i) the importance of having a single and independent body in charge of applying the competi...

  20. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  1. 77 FR 67833 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... both the domestic and respondent interested party group responses to its notice of institution (77 FR... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five... investigations on lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  2. Assessment of Market Efficiency in Argentina, Brazil and Chile: an Event Study of Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Domingues Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the relationship between the announcement of mergers and acquisitions, the existence of positive abnormal returns for shares of these firms, and market efficiency in Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Statistically significant Standardized Abnormal Returns were present in the event announcement and the following days in Argentina and Chile and on the event day in Brazil, confirming value creation signaling. Furthermore, the significance of abnormal returns in the event window, namely in the 5 days following the event in Argentina and Chile and the absence of such in Brazil suggests a more efficient market exists in Brazil, in keeping with the semi-strong market efficiency hypothesis. The absence of semi-strong efficient market behavior could prove valuable to investors who could use a window of a few days after the event announcement to accumulate abnormal returns, provided the appropriate research into news of possible mergers or acquisitions has been made.

  3. Aging, care and social policy. Continuities and changes in Argentina and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Concepción ARROYO RUEDA

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to show from a comparative perspective of social policy, the provision of care in old age in Argentina and Mexico. It will also show the experience of the national policy of care in Argentina. In this country we carried out interviews with coordinators, operational personnel and users of the national program of care. The participants identify in the policy a vision of rights and social inclusion of the elderly and effective support for family caregivers. Meanwhile, in the c...

  4. The future of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klappenbach, Hugo; Jacó-Vilela, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    This article analyzes the development of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil, beginning with the emergence of the history of psychology at the beginning of the 20th century. The paper analyzes that such old historical reconstructions were written by the same authors or institutions that were introducing Psychology in the two countries. That is, the older historical productions in the field of psychology were Whig biased. An analysis of the last 30 years of history of psychology is also provided. The article describes institutional developments, including archives, journals, scientific meetings, and teaching of history of psychology in academic settings. Main groups devoted to history of psychology, both in Argentina and Brazil are described. Finally, it offers some thoughts on the future of history of psychology in the 2 countries. A comparative study between Argentina and Brazil allows to understand strengths and weakness related to institutionalization of History of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442033

  5. La diversité des capitalismes latino-américains : les cas de l’Argentine, du Brésil et du Mexique The diversity of Latin-American capitalisms: the case of Argentina, Brazil and Mexico La diversidad de los capitalismos latinoamericanos: el caso de Argentina, Brasil y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Théret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article prolonge des travaux antérieurs sur l’effet de la diversité des configurations institutionnelles sur les trajectoires récentes de développement économique en Argentine, au Brésil et au Mexique. La première partie est consacrée à la caractérisation et aux transformations des coalitions socio-politiques dominantes dans les trois pays. Les deux parties suivantes examinent l’empreinte de ces coalitions socio-politiques dans les trois domaines relativement autonomes que sont les relations de travail, les systèmes monétaire et financier, et la structure organisationnelle de l’État. La conclusion s’attache à montrer que les différences observées dans les degrés d’autonomie de l’État et les forces organisatrices des syndicats et des entrepreneurs définissent différent modèles économiques et formes d’insertion dans l’économie internationale, qui permettent de parler d’une diversité des capitalismes propres à l’Amérique latine.This article analyses the way in which different socio-political configurations have had a significant effect on the economic development of Argentina, Brasil and Mexico. The characteristics of the socio-political coalitions in the three countries are presented, and their imprints on industrial relationships, monetary and financial systems, and the organizational structures of the State are studied. In conclusion, it is suggested that the observed differences in the three countries in the degrees of autonomy of the State, and the organizational forces of the unions and of the entrepreneurs define different economic patterns and forms of insertion in the international economy that allow to speak of a diversity of capitalisms genuine to Latin America.Este articulo prolonga trabajos anteriores sobre el efecto de la diversidad de configuraciones institucionales sobre las trayectorias recientes del desarrollo económico en Argentina, Brasil y México. La primera parte esta

  6. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a "logic of induction" has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical…

  7. Mapping Music Education Research in Brazil and Argentina: The British Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Liane; Martinez, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article we share with our colleagues around the world the British impact on the development of music education and psychology of music research in Brazil and Argentina. Although both countries are pursuing similar research policies, their research areas differ. Brazilian research on music education has had its focus on curriculum…

  8. Annual report - ABACC (accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency) - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual activities report of 1998 of accounting and nuclear materials control Brazil-Argentina agency introduces the next main topics: institutional activities - safeguards agreements implementation and administration; technical activities - planning and evaluation, operation, technical support, information accounting and treatment, technical cooperation, technical capacity invigoration; administrative and financial activities

  9. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45653) and determined on November 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 67833, November 14... 5, 2012 (77 FR 72384). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 16, 2013, and all persons...

  10. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45653) and determined on November 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 67833, November 14... 5, 2012 (77 FR 72384). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 16, 2013, and all persons...

  11. Aging, care and social policy. Continuities and changes in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción ARROYO RUEDA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to show from a comparative perspective of social policy, the provision of care in old age in Argentina and Mexico. It will also show the experience of the national policy of care in Argentina. In this country we carried out interviews with coordinators, operational personnel and users of the national program of care. The participants identify in the policy a vision of rights and social inclusion of the elderly and effective support for family caregivers. Meanwhile, in the case of Mexico, we observe scarce and ambiguous legislation on the subject, which is predominated by the practice of informal care to older people, given mainly by the women in the families. Basic care is outside the aging policy and confined within the «familist model» according to an exalted social assessment of the moral obligation of family care.

  12. The perspective of science and religion in high school biology teachers in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Heslley Machado; Mortimer, Eduardo Fleury; Gibram, Daiana Evilin; Santos, Aladir Horacio dos; Carvalho, Graça Simões

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between science and religion has been marked by historically constructed movements of proximity and conflict. We have investigated how high school biology teachers from three countries with different relationships between State and religion, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, conceive the science-religion relationship. Uruguay has consolidated secularism, Argentina has an official religion and Brazil calls itself secular, but its secularism is only relative. Fifty high school bio...

  13. CPPCC Vice Chairman and CPAPD President Mr.Han Qide Visits Mexico and Argentina via France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations(COMEXI)and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Han Qide,Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)attended the WPC international conference,visited Mexico and Argentina,and transited through

  14. Foreign and Domestic Bank Participation in Emerging Markets: Lessons from Mexico and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gerard Dages; Linda S. Goldberg; Daniel Kinney

    2000-01-01

    The Asian Crisis has highlighted the importance of strong domestic financial systems in overall economic development and stabilization. Less agreement is evident on the role of foreign banks in achieving this goal. We explore this issue by studying bank-specific data on lending by domestically- and foreign-owned banks in Argentina and Mexico. We find that foreign banks generally have had higher loan growth rates than their domestically-owned counterparts, with lower volatility of lending, con...

  15. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  16. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  17. Corporate ethical policies in large corporations in Argentina, Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Domènec; Debeljuh, Patricia; Arruda, M. Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the status of Corporate Ethical Policies (CEP) in large companies in Argentina, Brazil and Spain, with a special emphasis on Corporate Ethics Statements (CES) or documents that define the firm's philosophy, values and norms of conduct. It is based on a survey of the 500 largest companies in these nations. The findings reveal many similarities between these countries. Among other things, it emerges that most companies give consideration to ethics in business and have adopte...

  18. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Junior, Olival Freire; Hurtado, Diego; Moreira, Ildeu C.; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democra...

  19. Low genetic diversity in Wolbachia-Infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sirlei Antunes Morais; Fábio de Almeida; Lincoln Suesdek; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

    2012-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, ...

  20. State regulation of nuclear sector: comparative study of Argentina and Brazil models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents a comparative assessment of the regulation models of the nuclear sector in Argentina - under the responsibility of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), and Brazil - under the responsibility of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), trying to identify which model is more adequate aiming the safe use of nuclear energy. Due to the methodology adopted, the theoretical framework resulted in criteria of analysis that corresponds to the characteristics of the Brazilian regulatory agencies created for other economic sector during the State reform staring in the middle of the nineties. Later, these criteria of analysis were used as comparison patterns between the regulation models of the nuclear sectors of Argentina and Brazil. The comparative assessment showed that the regulatory structure of the nuclear sector in Argentina seems to be more adequate, concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, than the model adopted in Brazil by CNEN, because its incorporates the criteria of functional, institutional and financial independence, competence definitions, technical excellence and transparency, indispensable to the development of its functions with autonomy, ethics, exemption and agility. (author)

  1. Communication dated 3 March 2008 received from the Resident Representatives of Argentina and Brazil to the Agency concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 3 March 2008 from the Resident Representative of Argentina and the Resident Representative of Brazil, containing decisions on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy adopted in a Joint Declaration signed on 22 February 2008 by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil. As requested in the letter, it is herewith circulated as an official document of the Agency

  2. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  3. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume III Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the previous volume in this series, this concluding volume was divided into separately paged sections, one for each of Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico and Peru, each section being complete in itself. For each of the countries dealt with, there was a brief historical introduction, followed by a detailed analysis of its energy sector, a description of the physical and market characteristics, the transportation and infrastructure systems, the legal and regulatory issues pertaining to the petroleum industry, especially as regards investment and environmental requirements, and an analysis of the prevailing political climate. figs., tabs., refs

  4. Trust in the Police: Argentina and Mexico in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sergio Bergman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the relationship between the evaluation of police performance and citizen trust in the police. Using data from similar victimization surveys for the city of Buenos Aires and for Mexico City we test several logistic regression models. We find that the perception of police performance emerges as the most relevant factor in accounting for variation in levels of trust in both cases. These results imply that, even in contexts of high criminality and low institutional trust, the police can do a lot to earn the trust of citizens and engage them in a virtuous cycle, whereby citizens provide information useful to crime prevention thus increasing trust in the police.

  5. Obesity Epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: A Public Health Concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arbex, Alberto K; Rocha, Denise R.T.W.; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called “Ley de Obesidad.” In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but...

  6. China International Friendship Cities Association Delegation Visits Brazil and Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the UNALE (National Union of Legislative Assemblies of Federated States of Brazil) and the State Legislative Assembly of Santa Catarina, the CPAFFC sent a delegation from the China International Friendship Cities Association (CIFCA) to attend the 15th National Conference of State Legislative Assemblies and the Meeting of Chinese and Brazilian Local Governments in Florianopolis, the state capital from May 16 to 21.

  7. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level. PMID:26494521

  8. A Customs Union with Multinational Firms: The Automobile Market in Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Brambilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks empirically into the behavior of multinational firms in international oligopolistic markets with trade balance constraints. I show how a particular form of non-tariff barrier applied at the firm level can lead to an increase in trade flows in the presence of intra-firm strategic trade. In my application, I estimate a model of demand, supply and trade policy in the automobile sector in Argentina and Brazil during 1996-1999. I measure the economic impact of a trade balance cons...

  9. Exploring Career-Life Success and Family Social Support of Successful Women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…

  10. 77 FR 72384 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...-year reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (77 FR... 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E- Filing... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico; Scheduling of Full Five- Year Reviews Concerning...

  11. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents.

  12. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  13. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  14. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of Argentina nuclear development can be summarized into two periods: 'splendour' and 'stand-by'. The former starting in the decade of the 1950s until the late 1970s while the latter period goes from the late 1970s to 2006. The first period (1950-1980) was characterized by a national policy of scientific and technological development; State intervention in the area of industrial production. The military aspects, if any, were marginal in the context of the overall development. During this period, important public scientific technological projects were carried out: the production and sale of experimental reactors, nuclear plants (Atucha I and Embalse), and some projects aimed to developing national industry. The stimulus experienced in the country in this period accompanied the role of nuclear technology worldwide due to the Cold War and the persuasion factor among the main powers. However, during the 1970s and 1980s the whole world started questioning these technologies which ran parallel to the liberalization of the countries economies. The second period (1980s onwards) was characterized by many economic problems and the consequent transitory stop of national nuclear projects; e.g. Argentina transitory stopped its third nuclear plant (at present under construction). At that moment, neoliberal politics were aimed at reducing the role of the State and promoting privatization, separating nuclear projects from governmental control, trying to privatize the nuclear plants, and cutting scientific budgets. Argentina has two nuclear power plants in operation providing 8.6% of the total country's electricity. A third one, 692 MW(e) power reactor PHWR Atucha-2 construction was stopped in the 1990s and re-started in 2007 it is expected to be in commercial operation by 2011). Argentina nuclear power plants utility, NA S.A. is preparing the refurbishment of its CANDU-6 reactor. Argentina Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) has a prototype of its CAREM nuclear power plant

  15. Staged Memories: Spanish Drama and Cinema, Andalusian Identity and Flamenco Music in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Gallardo-Saborido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture, particularly cinema, drama and music, played a key role in order to keep and reinforce the identity of Spanish migrants in Argentina and Mexico during the first part of the 20th century. For decades, these countries had received thousands of migrants from Spain, and by the period following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 a notable colony of them settled in Buenos Aires and Mexico City. At the same time, several artists arrived to these places escaping from the war, political repression or, simply, looking for new work opportunities. For instance, famous singers, actors and flamenco players and dancers (v.g. Miguel de Molina, Angelillo, Niño de Utrera, or Sabicas achieved overwhelming successes in Buenos Aires and Mexico City’s theatres. Even more, they created a parallel Spanish stardom abroad. Hence, this proposal summarizes the contribution of some of these artists and the fusion between theatre and cinema, and typical Andalusian music as flamenco to preserve and evoke the collective memory of such a faraway motherland. Since Andalusia (the Southern region of Spain and its culture acted as a metonymic resource to represent that country during that period, migrants from different regions could recognize a common notion of the Spanish identity in them. In this sense, ‘home’ could be staged, remembered, fictionalized and, obviously, idealized.

  16. State regulation of nuclear sector: comparative study of Argentina and Brazil models; Regulacao estatal do setor nuclear: estudo comparativo dos modelos da Argentina e do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro Filho, Joselio Silveira

    2004-08-01

    This research presents a comparative assessment of the regulation models of the nuclear sector in Argentina - under the responsibility of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), and Brazil - under the responsibility of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), trying to identify which model is more adequate aiming the safe use of nuclear energy. Due to the methodology adopted, the theoretical framework resulted in criteria of analysis that corresponds to the characteristics of the Brazilian regulatory agencies created for other economic sector during the State reform staring in the middle of the nineties. Later, these criteria of analysis were used as comparison patterns between the regulation models of the nuclear sectors of Argentina and Brazil. The comparative assessment showed that the regulatory structure of the nuclear sector in Argentina seems to be more adequate, concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, than the model adopted in Brazil by CNEN, because its incorporates the criteria of functional, institutional and financial independence, competence definitions, technical excellence and transparency, indispensable to the development of its functions with autonomy, ethics, exemption and agility. (author)

  17. More Training, Less Security? Training and the Quality of Life at Work in Argentina, Brazil and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeria Caceres, Maria Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    Conditional multiple correspondence analysis of data from workers in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile found that training was a consequence rather than a cause of promotion. More job training resulted in increased salary and benefits as well as in greater costs such as hours of work and work-related insecurity. (Contains 21 references.) (JOW)

  18. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  19. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community

  20. Brazil and Mexico's manufacturing performance in international perspective, 1970-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Nanno; Sylvie MONTOUT; Perez Lopes, Luis

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the labour productivity performances of Brazil and Mexico in international perspective by comparing them with the United States, one of the international productivity leaders, during the period 1970-99. Brazil and Mexico are compared separately with the USA, in 1985 and 1988 respectively using the International Comparisons of Output and Productivity (ICOP) method. With ICOP, detailed sectoral-specific conversion factors (unit value ratios, UVRs) are estimated to express val...

  1. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the socio-economic, energy and environmental context in which climate change mitigation actions in Argentina shall be inserted. To that end, the dynamic of the Argentine economic development, its influence on the energy system and environmental impacts is summarised. From the environmental standpoint, emphasis shall only be made on the impact of economic development patterns and energy policies on GHG emission. (au) 73 refs.

  2. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has embarked on an ambitious domestic nuclear research and energy program. The venture promises to provide the nation with the infrastructure to play an important role in the nuclear export market in the years ahead. Buenos Aires built its program on a foundation of international support and assistance that overlay an emerging sophisticated industrial and scientific establishment. The foreign contribution sensitized Argentina to opportunities in the global market. This paper reports that Argentina operates two heavy-water/natural uranium reactors, Atucha I and Embalse. Producing, respectively, 320 MW(e) and 600 MW(e), they supply roughly 10 percent of the country's electricity. With a capacity factor of 84 percent, Atucha I is among the best operated plants in the world. Plans call for a third, 745 MW(e) power plant, Atucha II, to go on line in the early 1990s. During this period, construction also may begin on three 300 MW(e) plants, although the country's foreign indebtedness plus cost overruns in earlier construction will place a heavy burden on these plans

  3. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire; Moreira, Ildeu C; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democratic institutions put an end to the race. Thus regional and national interests in addition to the establishment of democracies in Latin America have been responsible for the building of trust between the two countries. Meaningful international initiatives are once again needed in the framework of worldwide cooperation. This cooperation is better developed when democratic regimes are in place.

  4. [Physico-chemical and microbiological evaluation of UHT milk commercialized in three Mercosul countries (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domareski, Jackson Luiz; Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Sato, Rafael Tamostu; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2010-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of UHT milk commercialized in three countries of Mercosul, samples of four different brands were acquired in each city (Foz do Iguaçu-Brazil, Puerto Iguazú-Argentina and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay) and submitted to the following analysis: fat content, titratable acidity, milk ethanol stability (with the following ethanol concentrations: 68, 72, 76 and 80%), total dry extract and no fat dry extract, pH, density and freezing point. Counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms were already done. In the physico-chemical evaluation of UHT milk, a significant number of samples were in disagree with the established patterns for fat content, no fat dry extract, density and freezing point. Except one brand from Brazil, milk samples showed stability to 68% ethanol. pH averages of Brazilian milk were in agree with the patterns and highest values were observed in samples acquired on Paraguay. Observing the microbiological analysis, 37.5%, 62.5% and 12.5% of samples acquired from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively, showed counts above the established patterns for mesophilic microorganisms. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were in disagree with the established patterns in 50%, 50% and 100% of samples from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively. PMID:21614823

  5. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru: Working Paper

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  7. Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA; Sylvia Monica PEREZ-NUÑEZ; Santos LÓPEZ-LEYVA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a) economic performance...

  8. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One article from Argentina where is developed the proceedings before the Federal criminal court of First instance concerning environmental radiological contamination near the Eizeiza centre. A second article from Canada treats the federal court of appeal decision respecting the Mac Clean lake project; two articles from France, judgement of the court of appeal on Caen on the licence to reprocess Australian spent fuel, and judgement of the magistrates court of Limoges concerning dumping of radioactive waste by COGEMA; the last one article from Japan, concerns the judgement of the japanese supreme court confirming the validity of the licence to establish the Monju reactor. (N.C.)

  9. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paula M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  10. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k0-method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  11. Institutionalisation of the cultural heritage protection practices in Brazil and Argentina, and its relations with tourist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bianchi Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the implementation of the national heritage protection policies in Brazil and Argentina, and its relations with the emergence of tourism. It focuses on the similarities and differences in the experiences that were relatively similar with regard to the purposes of the institutionalisation in both countries between 1937 and 1946, a period in which the actions toward this end were consolidated. The institutionalisation of the cultural heritage protection practices in Brazil and Argentina will be analysed in terms of its legal aspects, its nature and the typology of the protected assets, the means of dissemination of these ideas and the relations between heritage and tourism.

  12. Among conflict hypothesis and commercial society. Puerto Quequén (Argentina and the ports of Brazil, 1929-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the Great Depression to the postwar, economic relations between countries experienced a period of accommodation. The global food market suffered heavy alterations, where a number of countries competed for the location of their agricultural surpluses. Changes in international demand, in terms of trade and the restrictions placed on the entry of products for countries participating heavily on the export of commodities, such as Argentina, raised residual markets seeking to locate their agricultural surpluses. This new situation, besides being an incentive of substitution industrialization, mostly addressed in the region by Argentina and Brazil, also weakened the regional dependence on its traditional trading partners, allowing the integration of their economies and strengthening trade association alternatively, generating a stream of exchange centered in wheat consolidate and then survive the war in an integration would follow different paths to the possibility of conflict or interests aimed at promoting discord between Argentina and Brazil. In this paper we measure and evaluate this process from shipping traffic in Puerto Quequén -in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina- between 1929 and 1955

  13. Relationships in international supply chain of a multinational: the case Marfrig in their units in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troczinski Storti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at understanding the characteristics of relationships that occur between companies involved in the supply chain are timely when the growing role of overseas companies. This article aims to understand and compare the presence and alignment of information on criteria analysis cooperation, involvement, trust, communication and coordination in supply chain relationships in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, of a multinational based in Brazil. It was developed an analytical model and, through interviews with members of these chains, it was found results with low presence and misalignment of information, which may prejudice new strategies in the perspective of SCM.

  14. Institutionalisation of the cultural heritage protection practices in Brazil and Argentina, and its relations with tourist activities

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Bianchi Aguiar; Márcia Regina Romeiro Chuva

    2014-01-01

    This article makes a comparative analysis of the implementation of the national heritage protection policies in Brazil and Argentina, and its relations with the emergence of tourism. It focuses on the similarities and differences in the experiences that were relatively similar with regard to the purposes of the institutionalisation in both countries between 1937 and 1946, a period in which the actions toward this end were consolidated. The institutionalisation of the cultural heritage protect...

  15. Demands for media democratisation and the Latin American 'New Left': Government strategies in Argentina and Brazil in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzberger, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of government strategies vis-à-vis dominant media actors in the Latin American context, where the media’s role in democratic politics is increasingly being questioned. It compares the first two Kirchnerist presidencies in Argentina with the first two Workers’ Party-led governments in Brazil. While these governments initially adopted accommodation strategies towards media organisations, political crises subsequently disturbed the fragile coexistence of medi...

  16. 78 FR 63450 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013) (``Notice of... International Trade Administration, Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico,...

  17. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  18. Nuclear development in Chile: A comparative analysis with Argentina and Brazil 1964-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear era in international relations began with the explosion of the atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th in 1945, signaling the end of World War II. At that time the United States was the only country with nuclear power and that exclusivity meant, at least for a few years, that it would become the superpower of the Cold War. This situation continued until the Soviet Union detonated its first nuclear device in 1949. The nuclear race between the two Cold War super powers began, and was later joined by Great Britain, France and China. These five big nuclear powers are the same ones with veto rights in the United Nations Security Council. With the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957, under United Nations auspices, the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes was institutionalized. Many countries received technological support from the powers, beginning nuclear programs for peaceful aims, among them Spain, Finland, Germany, Japan, Argentina and Brazil. The developing countries also started nuclear programs with the incentive that the development of this energy meant progress in science and technology, as well as giving them prestige and power in the international system. While at first, the countries that initiated nuclear energy development programs did so in order to apply it to medicine, industry, and nutrition and to generate electricity, they also built reactors for research and for power. Later, several countries produced nuclear weapons initiating a race for power and containment, keys to the architecture of the Cold War. Meanwhile, some developing countries also started nuclear programs, receiving technical assistance from the super powers, and obeying a nuclear non- proliferation regime but their development was limited, and they were unable to develop nuclear programs that would allow them enough scientific- technological progress to head down the road to development. One of these countries was

  19. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benedetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un diagnóstico ambiental de un sector de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina basado en el arbolado urbano de alineación. El arbolado constituye un componente fundamental de los paisajes artifi ciales ya que contribuye al aumento del confort y al mejoramiento de la calidad del medio. En este sentido, actúa como un factor moderador de las condiciones climáticas, la contaminación y la salud de la población. El municipio de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca tiene como proyecto la realización de inventarios del arbolado en los distintos barrios, para lograr optimizar la relación entre la cantidad de ejemplares arbóreos y la densidad poblacional. Es importante considerar la variedad de ejemplares en función del uso del suelo y de las características ambientales de cada sector. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un diseño metodológico para la elaboración del plano verde de la ciudad.

  20. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Galperin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las bases sobre las que se está desarrollando el proceso de transición hacia la TV digital en Brasil y Argentina, y se discuten las posibilidades que la transición presenta para replantear la estructura de mercado y el modelo de regulación de la TV abierta en los países del Mercosur. La principal hipótesis es que la TV digital abre una oportunidad única para reformar el actual modelo de radiodifusión basado en la concesión de un número reducido de licencias a operadores de tipo generalista. Al multiplicar la capacidad de transmisión y facilitar el desarrollo de servicios interactivos tanto de entretenimiento como educativos y de información, la transición a la TV digital se ofrece como instrumento de política pública para alcanzar objetivos clave en materia de comunicación, como el pluralismo, la apertura del mercado y el achicamiento de la llamada brecha digital.

  1. Impact of over-the-counter restrictions on antibiotic consumption in Brazil and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared Santa-Ana-Tellez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Latin American countries over-the-counter (OTC dispensing of antibiotics is common. In 2010, both Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting consumption of antibiotics only to patients presenting a prescription. The objective of the present study is therefore to evaluate the impact of OTC restrictions (2010 on antibiotics consumption in Brazil and Mexico. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retail quarterly sales data in kilograms of oral and injectable antibiotics between January 2007 and June 2012 for Brazil and Mexico were obtained from IMS Health. The unit of analysis for antibiotics consumption was the defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID according to the WHO ATC classification system. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted using antihypertensives as reference group to account for changes occurring independently of the OTC restrictions directed at antibiotics. To reduce the effect of (a seasonality and (b autocorrelation, dummy variables and Prais-Winsten regression were used respectively. Between 2007 and 2012 total antibiotic usage increased in Brazil (from 5.7 to 8.5 DDD/TID, +49.3% and decreased in Mexico (10.5 to 7.5 DDD/TID, -29.2%. Interrupted time series analysis showed a change in level of consumption of -1.35 DDD/TID (p<0.01 for Brazil and -1.17 DDD/TID (p<0.00 for Mexico. In Brazil the penicillins, sulfonamides and macrolides consumption had a decrease in level after the intervention of 0.64 DDD/TID (p = 0.02, 0.41 (p = 0.02 and 0.47 (p = 0.01 respectively. While in Mexico it was found that only penicillins and sulfonamides had significant changes in level of -0.86 DDD/TID (p<0.00 and -0.17 DDD/TID (p = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: Despite different overall usage patterns of antibiotics in Brazil and Mexico, the effect of the OTC restrictions on antibiotics usage was similar. In Brazil the trend of increased usage of antibiotics was tempered after the OTC restrictions; in

  2. Are Long-Term Inflation Expectations Well Anchored in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel De Pooter; Patrice Robitaille; Ian Walker; Michael Zdinak

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether long-term inflation expectations have become better anchored in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. We do so using survey-based measures as well as financial-market-based measures of long-term inflation expectations, where we construct the market-based measures from daily prices on nominal and inflation-linked bonds. This paper is the first to examine the evidence from Brazil and Mexico, making use of the fact that markets for long-term government debt have become be...

  3. Are Long-Term Inflation Expectations Well Anchored in Brazil, Chile and Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    De Pooter, Michiel; Robitaille, Patrice; Walker, Ian; Zdinak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether long-term inflation expectations have become better anchored in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. We do so using survey-based measures as well as financial market-based measures of long-term inflation expectations, where we construct the market-based measures from daily prices on nominal and inflation-linked bonds. This paper is the first to examine the evidence from Brazil and Mexico, making use of the fact that markets for longterm government debt have become bet...

  4. The deregulation of electric industry in Latin America: the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the electric industry in Latin American countries start in the end of 19. century and it proceed according to three stages. During the first, the service was developed mainly by private sector. The second, started after the second world war and extended up till 1990's (apart from Chile), makes the State the most important agent. The third is in accordance with the present deregulation, which is looking for the return to private the responsibility of the sector. This one means a radical change of the role play by the State in the industry. Certainly, the Pool model has been talked by most of Latin American countries. However, in England, deregulation is looking to install competition over a mature industry in order to gain effectiveness, transparency and to produce a costs decrement. In Latin America, deregulation is looking for attract the foreign investments in order to face up an increasing demand. This doctoral thesis point out this subject. It gives a positive reading concerning the experiences which have been carrying out in Latin America, particularly as far as Chile, Argentina, Colombia and Brazil concern. (author)

  5. Potential of exchange of electric power between the electric systems of Brazil and Argentina; Potencial de intercambio de energia eletrica entre os sistemas eletricos do Brasil e da Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Andre Luiz [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Integration of power generation and transmission systems can provide a better utilization of energy resources and increase systems reliability. Given that Brazilian interconnection with Argentina, which represents the major Brazilian interconnection with neighboring countries, is used basically in winter months or in situations of unfavorable hydrology, this paper aims to demonstrate that power exchange between these two countries can be much higher than currently observed, resulting in greater benefits for producers and consumers of electricity in both countries, and that these benefits can also be obtained through better use of existing and planned interconnections between South American countries. To estimate the potential for power exchange between the electrical systems of Brazil and Argentina, three sets of simulations using the Brazilian Energy Plan (PDE 2010-2019) deck for Newave model, available from EPE, were made. These simulations consider the possibility that: (i) electricity is exported from Brazil to Argentina (II) electricity is imported from Argentina and (III) electricity is exchanged in both directions. The simulation results indicate that, despite rising operational marginal costs, significant amounts of electricity can be exported to Argentina at relatively low prices, depending on hydrological conditions. Moreover, the possibility of electricity imports from Argentina can reduce the operational costs of Brazilian system, as well as minimizing the risk of shortages. This work shows that the interconnections between Brazil and Argentina may be better used to benefit producers and consumers in both countries. Therefore, it is necessary to define an effective contractual and operational model for power trading and electricity transfer between these countries with the objective of promoting stability and mutual trust. Finally, studies to evaluate the potential for electricity exchange between South American countries are specially important

  6. Knowledge-Based Economy in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico: A Comparative Analysis from the Bio-Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barbara MUNGARAY-MOCTEZUMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the necessary institutional characteristics of technology and human capital in Argentina, Costa Rica and Mexico in order to evolve towards a knowledge-based economy, addressing the importance of institutions for their development. In particular, the knowledge-based economy is analyzed from the perspective of bioeconomics. Based on the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI which considers 148 indicators, in the following categories: a economic performance and institutional regime; b education and human resources, c innovation, and d information and communication technologies, we selected 13 indicators. We aim to identify the strengths and opportunities for these countries in order to meet the challenges that arise from the paradoxes of technological progress and globalization. In this sense, bioeconomy is approached as part of the economy. This analysis shows, among other things, that Argentina has greater potential to compete in an economy sustained in the creation and dissemination of knowledge, while Costa Rica has an institutional and regulatory environment that is more conducive to the development of business activities, and Mexico faces significant challenges regarding its institutional structure, economic performance and human resources.

  7. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  8. Trabalho e imigração: uma comparação Brasil-Argentina Work and immiration: a comparative study of Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Saliba Rizek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca discutir um novo padrão migratório da Bolívia para o Brasil e para a Argentina, especialmente vinculado à precarização do trabalho e à inserção desses imigrantes em formas de trabalho precário. Esse padrão & aparentemente novo em relação à integração dos contingentes migrantes ao longo do século XX & vem produzindo consequências que ainda estão por ser mapeadas. Uma delas é a presença de um contingente de bolivianos confinado ao setor de costura, trabalhando e vivendo em oficinas clandestinas, com pouca visibilidade pública, como face de uma precarização mundializada, resultante do assim chamado “custo chinês”. Resultante de um balanço bibliográfico e de uma incursão exploratória na pesquisa de campo tanto em São Paulo como em Buenos Aires, o artigo pretende apontar para aspectos específicos do fenômeno, combinando olhares e perspectivas que cruzam as dimensões migratórias, geracionais e de gênero.The article aims to discuss a new immigration pattern from Bolivia to Brazil and to Argentina, specially related with precarious jobs and precarious labour market. This pattern can be considered as apparently new when compared with the classical forms of immigrants integration in Brazil, during all 20th century. The consequences of recent immigration from Bolivia to Brazil can be seen in São Paulo where these immigrants are confined to the sewing sector and precarious jobs in hidden small factories, where they often live with their families. The article is based on bibliographical informations and an exploratory field research in São Paulo and Buenos Aires about Bolivian immigrant labour, especially in the sewing sector, trying to understand some of its particularities. Specifically, the article treats with the phenomenon of immigration, precarious labour markets, generational and gender relations, as part of a global pattern introduced by the so called “Chinese cost”.

  9. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... (``Commerce'') issued a countervailing duty order on imports of wire rod from Brazil (67 FR 64871). On October..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (67 FR 65944-65947). Following the five-year reviews by..., Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine (73 FR 44218). The Commission is now conducting...

  10. Small manufacturing plants, pollution, and poverty : new evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Robert E.B. Lucas; Wheeler, David

    1998-01-01

    The authors use new data from Brazil and Mexico to analyze relationships linking economic development, the size distribution of manufacturing plants, and exposure to industrial pollution. For lack of data, prior work in this field has been limited largely to water pollution and medium-size plants. This study examines air pollution and encompasses small plants (with 1 to 20 employees) as well as medium-size and large plants. Four main questions are addressed (with answers from plant-level data...

  11. On the Stylized Facts of Nominal Exchange Rates in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Julio-Roman

    2015-01-01

    Together with a set of not commonly reported ones, the most widely known stylized facts of high frequency Nominal Exchange Rates in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru with respect to the US Dollar are studied and interpreted to the light of recent literature in this paper. Among many other results, findings include (i) the tails of ordinary and absolute returns distributions follow inverse power laws, a family of widely occurring empirical regularities which seem to arise from Central ...

  12. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Soledad; Hardy Ellen; Alvarado Gloria; Ezcurra Enrique

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC) in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women shou...

  13. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Soledad; Hardy Ellen; Alvarado Gloria; Ezcurra Enrique

    2003-01-01

    A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policym...

  14. Technology transfer by CDM projects: A comparison of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a companion paper [Dechezlepretre, A., Glachant, M., Meniere, Y., 2008. The Clean Development Mechanism and the international diffusion of technologies: An empirical study, Energy Policy 36, 1273-1283], we gave a general description of technology transfers by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and we analyzed their drivers. In this paper, we use the same data and similar econometric models to explain inter-country differences. We focus on 4 countries gathering about 75% of the CDM projects: Brazil, China, India and Mexico. Sixty eight percent of Mexican projects include an international transfer of technology. The rates are, respectively, 12%, 40% and 59% for India, Brazil and China. Our results show that transfers to Mexico and Brazil are mainly related to the strong involvement of foreign partners and good technological capabilities. Besides a relative advantage with respect to these factors, the higher rate of international transfers in Mexico seems to be due to a sector-composition effect. The involvement of foreign partners is less frequent in India and China, where investment opportunities generated by fast growing economies seem to play a more important role in facilitating international technology transfers through the CDM. International transfers are also related to strong technology capabilities in China. In contrast, the lower rate of international transfer (12%) in India may be due to a better capability to diffuse domestic technologies

  15. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  16. Comparative study of shell choice by the southern endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from Brazil and Argentina Estudio comparativo sobre elección de conchas en el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis de Brasil y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    RENATA BIAGI; ANDREA L MEIRELES; Marcelo A. Scelzo; Fernando L. Mantelatto

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the shell choice pattern of the southern Atlantic endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from two different biogeographic provinces in Brazil and Argentina. Size and shell species preferences were determined for the two most occupied shell types (i.e., Olivancillaria urceus and Buccinanops gradatum) in Caraguatatuba region (Brazil) and in Mar del Plata (Argentina). Shell occupation was analyzed considering the biometric characteristics of shells, the occurren...

  17. Populism and Neopopulism in Latin America: Clientelism, Trade Union Organisation and Electoral Support in Mexico and Argentina in the ‘90s

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchi, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    The state of anomie that has characterised and still characterises most Latin American countries, resulting from the fragmentation of the social fabric, has encouraged the rise of successful personalist leaderships in the ‘90s. This paper aims at investigating how neopopulism developed in Latin America, considering as main actors the two Presidents who have best embodied this ideal: Carlos Salinas de Gortari, (Mexico 1988-1994) and Carlos Menem (Argentina 1989-1999). Neopopulism is based on a...

  18. O Brasil e a ALCA: um estudo a partir da Argentina Brazil and the FTAA: a study from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julieta Cortes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA, lançada por George Bush (pai, e seu novo impulso, dado por Clinton, foram recebidos com muita cautela no Brasil. A partir de 1990, o governo Collor de Mello, diante do esgotamento do modelo de desenvolvimento interno baseado na substituição de importações, pleiteou uma recomposição da política externa adaptada ao novo projeto. Desse modo, iniciou-se a abertura paulatina do mercado interno, acompanhada de um incremento nas importações superior ao das exportações. Nesse contexto, o Brasil propôs a liberalização do comércio internacional em bases recíprocas. No presente trabalho, e tendo como marco de referência o projeto ALCA, identificam-se no Brasil posturas favoráveis e contrárias ao mesmo, que resumem os inúmeros debates em torno da melhor forma de se defender os interesses nacionais brasileiros: privilegiar a ALCA ou o Mercosul?; a negociação via acordos bilaterais ou conjunta com os sócios do Mercosul, via Acordos 4+1?; o recomeço do Mercosul e a concretização de acordos com a União Européia ou a busca de novas parcerias (associações no sistema internacional? Em seguida, consideram-se as posições assumidas pelas administrações de Fernando Collor de Mello, Itamar Franco e Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Por último, analisa-se a atitude assumida pelo governo de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva diante do projeto de integração continental em seus primeiros onze meses de governo (janeiro-dezembro de 2003.Brazil cautiously received former president George Bush's proposal and Clinton's new impulse on FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas. Due to the weakening of an internal development pattern based on import substitution, Collor de Mello's government put forward a recomposition foreign policy according to a new project, since 1990. Hence, a slow opening to the internal market began. This was accompanied by an import increase, which surpassed exports. Framed

  19. Steelplant Technological Development in Latin America: A Comparative Study of the Selection and Upgrading of Technology in Plants in Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Maxwell

    1982-01-01

    The steel industry is a classic symbol of industrialization. It has been taken as such in Latin America and promoted as a "leading sector" carrying with it the flag of national pride and prestige. This paper is based on five detailed case-studies of individual Latin American steel firms, namely: Acindar, in Argentina (the leading private-sector Argentine firm which produces non-flat products), USIMINAS in Brazil (one of the big three Brazilian state steel firms, producing flat products), AHMS...

  20. Brazil-Argentina bilateral cooperation - Protocol 11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection. Visit of CNEA engineers to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities carried out by Techniques of Argentine Organization (CNEA) during visitation to Angra dos Reis (Brazil) are related. Licensing procedures for nuclear installations (reactors), and transport, licensing of personnels for nuclear installations, quality assurance and regulatory inspections were discussed. (M.C.K.)

  1. The Cooperation between the Competition Authorities of the Developing Countries: Why it does not Work? Case Study on Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    BOTTA, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The last fifteen years have recorded a proliferation of multi-jurisdictional competition law cases. Moreover, a number of bilateral agreements have been concluded between different National Competition Authorities (NCAs). However, the degree of bilateral cooperation between the NCAs of different developing countries is still quite limited. The article analyzes these issues taking Brazil and Argentina as case study. These countries have enforced a competition law since 1994 and 1999 respective...

  2. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AS AN EXTERNALITY OF INWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: PANEL DATA FROM ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, COLOMBIA AND SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    MICHELLE L. WASHINGTON; ZANETA CHAPMAN

    2014-01-01

    Many emerging economies seek multiple and diversified means of economic development, including openness to inward foreign direct investment. However, some scholars and protectionists claim this hosting of economic activity on the part of multinational corporations (MNCs) might in fact be detrimental to economic development. This paper seeks to address these concerns by using panel data from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and South Africa to investigate a mediational relationship among inward for...

  3. FUENTES DEL DERECHO, UN ANALISIS ENTRE EL SISTEMA NORMATIVO EN ARGENTINA Y EN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de la Rosa Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la forma en que se crea el derecho proporciona un entendimiento acerca de la forma en que éste surge, evoluciona y se modifica. El abogado debe de conocer cuáles son las fuentes principales y secundarias del derecho al que recurre cuando hace una solicitud al órgano jurisdiccional. Cada país contempla sus diversos y particulares procesos de creación de leyes, el derecho comparado ofrece la posibilidad de visualizar otros sistemas jurídicos para enriquecer nuestro conocimiento de la ciencia del derecho. El presente trabajo presenta un estudio sobre las fuentes del derecho en Argentina al mismo tiempo que hace una breve semblanza con los procesos de creación de leyes en México, resaltando las diferencias entre los mismos.

  4. Datafile: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to modern state and prospects of development of nuclear power in Argentina, the role and tasks of regulating bodies, specific features of fuel cycle, international relations and nuclear safequards. The first NPP was put in operation in 70-s. Technical and economical indices of Atucha-1 NPP were among the best in the world till 1983, the total load factor was equal to 75%. Later on the load factor decreased down to 67% for different reasons. In 1988 the power plant was shutdown. Argentina cooperates with many countries including Brazil, Cuba, Turkey, Nigeria and Algeria. Negotiations about drawing up conditions of including Argentina NPPs into the system of nuclear safeguides are carried on with IAEA

  5. Ensino médio e ensino técnico na América Latina: Brasil, Argentina e Chile Mid level schooling and vocational training in Latin America: Brazil, Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Cunha

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa políticas educacionais em três países latino-americanos (Brasil, Argentina e Chile, nos anos 80 e 90, comparando-as, em cada país, com as das décadas anteriores, assim como entre uns e outros. Como foco de análise, o autor tomou a educação intermediária, definida como a posicionada entre a educação obrigatória e a educação superior. As políticas para esse segmento, em cada país, foram examinadas com referência à persistência e/ou à mudança da dualidade estrutural. A conclusão do autor é a de que Brasil e Argentina elaboraram e implementam políticas tendentes ao reforço da dualidade, ao passo que o Chile anuncia políticas de sua atenuação.This article analyzes educational policy in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Chile during the 80s and 90s, making comparisons within each country in relation to earlier decades, as well as among the countries. With an analytical focus the author takes mid level schooling defined as that which occurs between obligatory schooling and higher education. The policies for this segment in each country, were examined with reference to the persistence and/or change of the structural duality. The author's conclusion is that Brazil and Argentina have developed and implemented policies tending to reinforce this duality, and that Chile has articulated policies to attenuate it.

  6. Expolinear model on soybean growth in Argentina and Brazil Modelo expolinear na cultura da soja cultivada na Argentina e no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elisabet Confalone

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting crop growth and yield with precision are one of the main concerns of the agricultural science. For these purpose mechanistic models of crop growth have been developed and tested worldwide. The feasibility of an expolinear model for crop growth was evaluated on predicting growth modification on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill of determined and undetermined growth cultivars, submitted to water restrictions imposed on different phenological stages. An experiment was carried out in Azul/Argentina and in Viçosa/Brazil during the growing seasons (1997/1998, 1998/1999 and 2002/2003. The expolinear model was adjusted to the dry-matter data obtained from each treatment. The model showed sensibility of Rm (maximum relative growth rate of the culture - g g-1 day-1 to variation in air temperature; of Cm (maximum growth rate of the culture - g m-2 day-1 to solar radiation and of Tb (lost time -day to water stress. Cm values were higher without water restriction presenting, in both countries, a direct correlation with solar radiation. Without water restrictions, Rm values were lower when the average air temperature during the cycle was lower. It was observed that under water stress the culture had a bias to present higher Rm values. Tb was lower in the irrigated treatments than in those with water deficits. The analysis of the outputs clearly shows the feasibility of the expolinear model to explain the differential growth rates of soybean as a consequence of climatic conditions.Prever o crescimento e a produtividade das culturas com precisão é uma das principais preocupações das ciências agrícolas. Com esse propósito, modelos mecanísticos de crescimento de culturas têm sido desenvolvidos e testados. A adequação do modelo expolinear de crescimento de culturas foi avaliada para prever as modificações de crescimento de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill de crescimento determinado e indeterminado, submetidas a déficit hídrico em

  7. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...)] Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey... and tube from Turkey and the antidumping duty orders on certain circular welded pipe and tube from....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted these reviews on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38691)...

  8. 77 FR 2318 - Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...)] Certain Circular Welded Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey... countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded... proceed (76 FR 65748, October 24, 2011). A record of the Commissioners' votes, the Commission's...

  9. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... reviews were such that full reviews pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (78 FR 60316... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain...

  10. 78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... both that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (78 FR 33103, June... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire...

  11. What lessons from the NICs? the industrialisation process of Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea and Singapore.

    OpenAIRE

    Liemt, Gijsbert van

    1985-01-01

    Working paper comparing economic and industrial growth in four newly industrializing countries, Brazil, Korea R, Mexico and Singapore, 1960-1980 - discusses industrialization policy, trade policy, public investment and credit policy; considers the role of entrepreneurs, public enterprises, private enterprises and foreign enterprises; outlines the benefits including employment creation, wage increases and income distribution.

  12. Foundations in injected micro stakes. A economical solution used in the Brazil-Argentina interconnection; Fundacoes em micro-estacas injetadas. Uma solucao economica usada na interligacao Argentina-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Batista Guimaraes Ferreira da; Santos, Sergio Claudio dos; Azevedo, Chysthian Purcino Bernardes; Perona, Roberto Moreira; Menezes, Luciene Oliveira [ABB, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Vilson Renato da [Engelineas Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This document intends to describe the adopted solution for the foundations used mainly in the areas subject to strong floods in the argentine territory in relation to the first Brazil-Argentina interconnection, which is the Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita transmission line(500/525 Kv). The investigated and implanted solution has been the foundation in injected micro stake of the Ischebeck type equipped with titan bars. The characteristics of this foundation type, the technical aspects involved in its installation, the found troubles, the executed tests and their comparisons with the design forecasts are reported in this document.

  13. The control of palaeo-topography in the preservation of shallow gas accumulation: Examples from Brazil, Argentina and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Klein, Antonio H. F.; Green, Andrew N.; Aliotta, Salvador; de Mahiques, Michel M.; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Terra, Laurício C.; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Calliari, Lauro J.; Montoya, Isabel; Ginsberg, Silvia S.; Griep, Gilberto H.

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic anomalies in seismic records have revealed that gas-charged sediments are very common features in the coastal environments around the world. The ubiquitous gassy sediments challenge the effective acoustic mapping of shallow stratigraphy by seismic means, as well as having an important influence on environmental issues related to the coastal zone occupation and management. This paper documents examples of gassy sediments from coastal lagoons, estuaries, rivers, bays and the inner shelf and nearshore environments of Brazil, Argentina and South Africa. Seismic echograms from selected areas show several gas-related anomalies, which present distinctive morphologies for sediment-trapped gas, leaking or free gas discharge into the water column. In several places the gas-charged sediments occur in areas of palaeo-topographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys that developed in the coastal zone due to sea level oscillations during the Quaternary period. This forcing by palaeo-topographic features results in the occurrence of shallow gas being controlled in most coastal sites by the previous environmental scenario, the stratigraphic arrangement of the transgressive infilling elements, and the local hydrodynamic conditions.

  14. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex ( Culex ) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Tatiane MP; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex ( Culex ) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species ( Cx. acharistus , Cx. chidesteri , Cx. dolosus , Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis ) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus . Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex ( Cux. ) species. PMID:24473810

  15. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex ( Culex (Diptera: Culicidae species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laurito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex ( Culex species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species ( Cx. acharistus , Cx. chidesteri , Cx. dolosus , Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus . Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3% was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%. Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex ( Cux. species.

  16. Brazil Background Study for a National Rural Electrification Strategy : Aiming for Universal Access

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    According to data from the 2000 Census, about 27 percent of Brazil's rural population still lacks access to electricity. This represents more than 2.5 million households. In comparison, the same statistic is about 20 percent in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. The figure includes the achievements of the Luz no Campo program, which will complete its first implementation phase with more than 60...

  17. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  18. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  19. Economic and Financial Interactions between Brazil and Mexico: ¿Which Degree of Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Esther Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trade and financial transactions between Brazil and Mexico in order to evaluate the magnitude of their reciprocal integration. Our results suggest that both countries have successfully got inserted into the international economy, which can be observed in their high volumes of trade, in their receiving foreign direct investment and in the size of their capital markets, as well as in the magnitude of their association with the most important countries and financial centers throughout the world. However, even if their bi-na-tional trade and financial integration has notably increased, especially after the Economic Complementation Agreements came into force in 2003 and due to the "translatinization" of Brazilian and Mexican firms, the magnitude of their reciprocal trade and financial transactions remains at very low relative levels, a situation that may significantly change in the framework of a possible strategic agreement of economic integration between these two countries.

  20. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  1. Brecha digital en la transferencia de conocimientos: educación superior en Argentina y Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Bernal Escoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La brecha digital es un concepto que refiere a las desigualdades existentes en el uso de Internet y por extensión, a las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación – TIC –, de unos sectores sociales con respecto a otros. La brecha digital se basa en aspectos de acceso pero también aquellos relacionados con el uso y aplicación de las TIC. Entre otros, podemos mencionar tres tipos de brecha digital: de acceso, basada en la diferencia entre las personas que pueden acceder y las que no a las TIC; de uso, basada en las personas que saben utilizarlas y las que no; y de calidad del uso, basada en las diferencias entre los usuarios. Desde las perspectivas de uso y aplicaciones, las instituciones de educación superior han incorporado las TIC al quehacer académico para la elaboración y presentación de material audiovisual y, más tardíamente, para la comunicación con el alumnado y el planteo de actividades interactivas de formación bajo diferentes modalidades de dictado. Alumnos y docentes, asumen nuevos roles en un entorno donde se requieren capacidades y habilidades específicas para el manejo de la tecnología y la información. Las instituciones de educación superior, como estructuras axiales de la Sociedad de la Información, han realizado la implementación de las TIC con diferentes grados de avance para la transferencia de conocimientos, ya sea a la comunidad académica en particular o a la sociedad en general. El propósito del trabajo es realizar un estudio exploratorio sobre usos y aplicaciones de las TIC en el quehacer académico de instituciones de educación superior de Argentina y México. La metodología consiste en un análisis de indicadores de acceso, uso y aplicación por país, para encuadrar un análisis particular de las condiciones de inserción de las TIC en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, desde diferentes dimensiones de abordaje.

  2. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  3. ABACC'S Experience in Implementing Short Notice Random Inspections (SNRI) Regime at Fuel Fabrication Plants in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of discussions initiated in 2006 among the IAEA, ABACC and the respective states parties, the new inspection scheme was designed to be jointly applied by ABACC and IAEA to the commercial fuel fabrication plants in Brazil and Argentina, to fulfill with the new safeguards evaluation criteria for domestic and international receipts into and shipments from fuel fabrication/conversion facilities with inventories or throughput higher than 2 SQ, in effect since 2007, in compliance with the relevant provisions of the Quadripartite Agreement (INFCIRC/435). Taking into account each plant specific operational and administrative requirements, particular SNRI procedures applicable to each facility were discussed. Several issues were agreed, such as: i) channels of communication between the operator/national authorities and the agencies for E-mailbox operational declarations and notifications to support SNRI; and ii) improvements in the coordination arrangements between the agencies for triggering and carrying out the joint inspections, in order to guarantee that 100% of domestic receipts or shipments are randomly verified by both agencies in a way to avoid duplication of verification efforts and additional burden to the operators and national authorities. Following the field trials completed early in 2008, the new regime started being implemented in the middle of 2008 in both countries. This paper will briefly describe the progress attained since the field trials period of SNRI at the two fuel fabrication plants, the current situation of the coordination of activities within ABACC and among the IAEA, ABACC and the operator/national authorities, and the expected challenges for future. (author)

  4. From rivals to partners; nuclear cooperation process between Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of rapprochement and integration with Brazil is probably the most important event of the Argentine foreign policy in the last quarter of the 20th. century. In the framework of this broad undertaking, the gradual development of a new relationship in the nuclear field has showed special and unprecedented characteristic which have aroused the international interest. This publication relates the origin and the evolution of the growing nuclear cooperation process between the two countries which until then had been rivals. The sensitive matter involved makes unexpected the speed and the success of the transition from an attempt to generate confidence and transparency in the nuclear programs of both countries to a whole complex of mandatory legal instruments and to the creation of an agency of mutual safeguard that has no precedent

  5. Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Lustig

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct t...

  6. Aborto y Parlamento: un estudio sobre Brasil, Uruguay y Argentina Aborto e Parlamento: um estudo sobre Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina Abortion and Parliament: a study on Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Baltar da Rocha

    2009-12-01

    mbito legislativo (tanto nos Senados como nas Câmaras de Deputados, bem como as estratégias das políticas públicas implementadas pelos Executivos, com monitoramento e acompanhamento do movimento de mulheres, visando enfrentar uma gravíssima situação de violação dos direitos humanos. O desrespeito aos direitos, consagrados nas Constituições, atinge as mulheres, em especial as mais vulneráveis, no tocante ao direito à saúde e à equidade. Além disso, foram analisados os avanços e retrocessos observados ao longo do período estudado, bem como a importância de se manter o tema na agenda pública e na mídia, que desempenhou um papel importante, tanto promovendo como deslegitimando o direito ao aborto.This article consists of a comparative study among three countries, namely, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, concerning their legislations and the participation of many different actors regarding the decriminalization and/or legalization of abortion.This topic entered the public agenda of all three countries as part of their processes of democratization, which began in the 1980s. It also involved a number of other interventions, such as action by women's movements and positions taken by physicians' associations and other social actors during the 1990s and the first years of the 21st century. A number of interventions in the legislative sphere were studied (in the countries' senates and chambers of deputies, as well as strategies for public policies implemented by the executive branches, monitored by women's movements as they faced serious violations of human rights. The disrespect of such rights, consolidated in the constitutions of the three countries, especially affects women, who are the most vulnerable regarding rights to health and equality. In addition to inroads and setbacks during the period studied, the author also studied the importance of keeping the topic on the public agenda and in the media during the period mentioned above. The media played an important role

  7. Constraints and changes in the development of science and technology policies in Argentina's University of Buenos Aires and the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Armando

    1999-06-01

    This dissertation is a comparison of the effects of structural adjustment on scientific and technological policies in two of the largest and most important universities of Latin America, UBA and UNAM. In its broadest sense, scientific and technological policies encompass a set of interventions, decisions, and activities of different institutions within a given society aimed to hinder or stimulate the progress of scientific research, and the application of its products to socioeconomic, political, cultural or military objectives. The methodological approach for this dissertation aimed to combine data collected at both the macro and micro levels. First, a profound examination of different bibliographical sources such as books, articles, and documents of different kinds (policy papers, national plans, and working papers), was carried out. Secondly, a series of interviews were conducted with scientists in some of the natural sciences' research centers and institutes, academic administrators and top officials of the S&T government agencies, in Argentina and Mexico, The main goal of these interviews was to understand the institutional dynamics as it was shaped by actors and processes, outside and within the two universities. This study found that the structural adjustment process in Argentina and Mexico has negatively affected the S&T policies in both UBA and UNAM. Local S&T played a original role in the two universities under scrutiny. Investments in science and technology have remained significantly low in Argentina and Mexico. In addition to this, the small amount of scientific personnel, the predominantly public characteristic of S&T funds, and the reduced number of doctoral graduates resulted in low levels of scientific output as compared with the number of publications in international scientific literature. A predominant academic orientation with few contributions to societal needs, either related to the productive sectors or to social problems such as pollution

  8. Tertiary Technical Education and Youth Integration in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jacinto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vocational training versus a traditional university education. This chapter seeks to answer the question of whether ‘tertiary technical education’ has contributed to increasing economic and social opportunity for young people in Latin America, using three case studies from Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. It examines the extent to which tertiary technical education has contributed towards democratising access to education through institutional diversification, expanded enrolment and, at least theoretically, improved access to quality employment. The analysis shows that tertiary technical education has contributed to widening of opportunities by offering an alternative form of education to new generations of young people. Tertiary technical education is more accessible, shorter in duration, has a vocational orientation, and tends to be cheaper than a university education. However, the case studies also reveal that while a tertiary technical education diploma is an asset for young people seeking employment, it nonetheless does not have the same perceived value as a traditional university education. Available data appear to indicate that graduates of tertiary technical education earn less on average than university graduates and face several challenges in the labour market. Furthermore, the studies reveal that despite the presence of highly regarded tertiary technical education institutions in all three countries, these carry less prestige and status than universities.

  9. From Mexico to Brazil, from Ancient China to New Confucianism: Sinological Studies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pihler Ciglič

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general framework of the beginnings and development of sinological studies in geographically, politically and culturally very diverse Latin America, and highlights current issues and trends therein. In the 21st century the fast- growing relationship between China and Latin America is reflected in the accelerated creation of diverse economic-political, academic and educational institutions, publications and in the organization of numerous international conferences and scientific symposia. The study analyses the development of Confucian Studies – first, through reviewing the most important translations and publications of the 20th century in connection with “the intellectual movement” in Latin America, and, second, through an illustrative commentary on the most renowned scientific articles and monographs. The study initially focuses on Mexico, the country with the longest sinological tradition in Latin America, where the Centro de Estudios de Asia y África at El Colegio de México is still regarded to be one of the most prominent Latin American centres for Asian and African Studies. The focus then shifts to Brazil, which seems, of all the countries in Latin America, to have the least well-established tradition in Chinese studies and Confucianism. The central premise of sinological and Confucian studies in these two countries is presented through the prism of major studies of two modern sinologists, Chen Yong (El Colegio de México and André Bueno (Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro.

  10. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Soledad; Hardy, Ellen; Alvarado, Gloria; Ezcurra, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers. PMID:14999339

  11. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.

  12. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Soledad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.

  13. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Soledad; Hardy, Ellen; Alvarado, Gloria; Ezcurra, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC) in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women should be informed about EC, while others viewed it as a method for special situations such as rape and unprotected first sexual intercourse. Concern was expressed that its introduction might be associated with a decrease in condom use, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, and irresponsible or promiscuous sexual behavior among adolescents. The need for EC was clearly perceived by most participants, leading to the conclusion that health authorities have the responsibility of implementing programs for its introduction. Training of health care personnel should include the discussion of reproductive health problems that could be prevented by EC. PMID:14666232

  14. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Soledad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women should be informed about EC, while others viewed it as a method for special situations such as rape and unprotected first sexual intercourse. Concern was expressed that its introduction might be associated with a decrease in condom use, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, and irresponsible or promiscuous sexual behavior among adolescents. The need for EC was clearly perceived by most participants, leading to the conclusion that health authorities have the responsibility of implementing programs for its introduction. Training of health care personnel should include the discussion of reproductive health problems that could be prevented by EC.

  15. Market brief : the natural gas vehicle market in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the natural gas vehicle (NGV) market in Argentina and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Argentina has the most developed NGV market in the world, with more than 1.3 million vehicles running on compressed natural gas (CNG). This number is expected to reach 2 million by 2010, for an overall market share of 25 per cent of all vehicles in Argentina. The NGV conversion and service station equipment market was valued at about $650 million in 2003. The strong domestic industry for Argentina's NGV market is the gateway to Brazil, Columbia, Mexico and Venezuela. The main regulatory body for the distribution of natural gas and the use of natural gas vehicles and equipment is ENARGAS. Canadian products must conform to ENARGAS regulations and codes. Opportunities exist for new cost-effective technologies that improve the safety and efficiency of converted vehicles. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve natural gas vehicle projects. Considerations for market-entry in Argentina were also outlined

  16. Calidad de los sistemas de información de mortalidad por violencias en Argentina y Brasil - 1990-2010 The quality of information systems on violence-related deaths in Argentina and Brazil between 1990 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las muertes por violencias son un problema de salud pública por la magnitud de su impacto social y en los servicios de salud. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tendencia temporal a partir de los sistemas de información oficiales nacionales de mortalidad por violencias en Argentina y Brasil en el periodo 1990-2010. Se elaboraron indicadores de la calidad de la información según sexo, edad y causa de defunción. Los resultados muestran una tendencia temporal a la mejoría de calidad en los sistemas de información. Esta tendencia se repite cuando analizamos las muertes por violencias en particular, con una disminución de los registros por muertes por violencias de intencionalidad ignorada; y un porcentaje alto de muertes por armas de fuego de intencionalidad ignorada en Argentina. El análisis de la calidad de los sistemas de información de mortalidad por violencias permite detectar problemas y orientar acciones para obtener información de mayor calidad a fin de orientar políticas públicas preventivas.Violence-related deaths are a public health issue by virtue of the magnitude of their impact on society and on the health services. A study of the descriptive temporal trend was conducted using the official national information systems of violence-related mortality in Argentina and Brazil for the period from 1990 to 2010. Indicators were created to evaluate information quality by sex, age, and cause of death. The results demonstrate a temporal trend of improvement in the quality of the information systems. This trend is repeated especially when violence-related deaths are analyzed, with a decrease in the number of records for violence-related death of undetermined intent; as well as a high percentage of firearm-related deaths of undetermined intent in Argentina. The analysis of the quality of information systems regarding violence-related deaths makes it possible to detect problems and orient actions in order to obtain better quality

  17. The Politics of Subnational Undemocratic Regime Reproduction in Argentina and Mexico La política de reproducción de los regímenes subnacionales no democráticos en Argentina y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Giraudy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the continued existence of subnational undemocraticregimes in Argentina and Mexico, two countries that have recently experiencednational democratization. The first part of the article offers a conceptualizationof subnational democracy and measures its territorial extension across all subnational units. The second part explores a common, albeit not systematically tested explanation about subnational undemocratic regime continuity, namely, that these regimes persist because they meet national incumbents’ strategic political needs. This claim is tested using statistical analyses to contrast patterns of spending across undemocratic subnational units during the presidencies of Menem (1989-1999, De la Rúa (2000-2001, Duhalde (2002, and Kirchner (2003-2007 in Argentina, and Fox (2000-2006 in Mexico. Contradicting conventional wisdom, the results show that presidents only reproduce a handful of subnational undemocratic regimes, as not all of them can meet presidential needs. In addition, the results reveal that the strategic calculation of presidents regarding this  reproduction is dictated by factors that have been largely overlooked by the literature. Este artículo estudia la existencia de regímenes subnacionales no-democráticos en Argentina y México, dos pa��ses que recientemente han experimentado procesos de democratización a nivel nacional. La primera parte del artículo conceptualiza y define la democracia subnacional y mide su extensión territorial en la totalidad de los distritos subnacionales. La segunda parte explora la validez de una de las explicaciones más habituales en esta área de estudio según la cual los regímenes subnacionales no-democráticos permanecen en el poder debido a que son útiles para satisfacer las necesidades políticas de los funcionarios nacionales. La validez de esta explicación se testea con análisis estadísticos que determinan los patrones de distribución territorial de

  18. New record of the King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Aves, Cathartiformes in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and considerations about its conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa occurs from Mexico to Uruguay, in northern Argentina, and throughout Brazil where it is more frequent in the northern region. The species is rare in Santa Catarina State, with 11 known records. This work reports a recent record of the King Vulture in the Doutor Pedrinho municipality in Santa Catarina State, and contributes to the knowledge about the conservation status and ocurrence of this bird in southern Brazil.

  19. New record of the King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa (Aves, Cathartiformes) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and considerations about its conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato; Adrian Eisen Rupp

    2007-01-01

    The King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa occurs from Mexico to Uruguay, in northern Argentina, and throughout Brazil where it is more frequent in the northern region. The species is rare in Santa Catarina State, with 11 known records. This work reports a recent record of the King Vulture in the Doutor Pedrinho municipality in Santa Catarina State, and contributes to the knowledge about the conservation status and ocurrence of this bird in southern Brazil.

  20. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. PMID:26874326

  1. Sweetener-Ethanol Complex in Brazil, the United States, and Mexico: Do Corn and Sugar Prices Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Andrew; Seale, James L., Jr.; Schmitz, Troy G.

    2003-01-01

    Sugar is a major commodity, produced and traded around the world, but it is no longer the only sweetener. For example, in the United States, roughly 50 percent of the sweetener market is made up of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is also making inroads into Mexico. This is not the case, however, for the European Union and countries such as Brazil, which dominates the world sugar market in almost all aspects (Schmitz, 2002). In the United States, 8 to 10 percent of the U.S. corn crop go...

  2. Ideas, pensamiento y política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, entre los cincuenta y los sesenta Ideas, beliefs and politics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, between the fifties and sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Nercesian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación ideas-pensamiento-política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay en el período que abarca las décadas de 1950 y 1960. En primer lugar, se reconstruyen los principales debates de la CEPAL de los tempranos años cincuenta y su repercusión en los distintos proyectos y alternativas políticas de la época. En segundo lugar, se analiza cómo el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana obligó a revisar esos mismos problemas latinoamericanos, abriendo un nuevo escenario de alternativas políticas para las izquierdas y para las derechas. El estudio propone reubicar "revolución" y "violencia", tópicos muy propios de la década de 1960, en un mapa integral de circulación de ideas que comenzó a conformarse en la coyuntura crítica de los 1950.This paper intends to analyze the relationship between politics, ideas and beliefs in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay during the period 1950-1960. First, we reconstruct the main debates at CEPAL in the early 1950s and their repercussion on the distinct projects and political alternatives at that time. Second, we analyze how the success of the Cuban Revolution made it necessary to revise these same problems in Latin America, opening the door to a new scenario of political alternatives for the left- and right-wing. The study proposes reconsidering the position of "revolution" and "violence", topics that were highly characteristic of the 1960s, on an integral map of ideas that began to take shape in the critical instance of the 1950s.

  3. Impacto dos fatores macro e microeconômicos nas relações comerciais: o caso da Argentina e do Brasil Impact of macro and microeconomic factors in the comercial relations: the case of Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bekerman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa os fatores macro e microeconômicos que impulsionaram as recentes mudanças profundas registradas na relação comercial entre o Brasil e a Argentina, caracterizadas por um déficit argentino crescente. Conclui-se, do ponto de vista macro, que os comportamentos dos níveis de atividade econômica e do tipo de câmbio bilateral não são suficientes para explicar as transformações indicadas. São analisados, então, os fatores microeconômicos vinculados com um aprofundamento dos saldos negativos do intercâmbio bilateral de manufaturas de origem industrial, e uma diminuição dos saldos positivos dos demais itens (produtos primários, manufaturas de origem agropecuária e combustíveis para a Argentina. As conclusões indicam que a evolução da relação comercial bilateral está fortemente vinculda com mudanças na esfera produtiva sofridas por ambas as nações. Isto, longe de sugerir uma situação fechada ou concluída, enfatiza a necessidade de coordenar futuras estratégias regionais para fortalecer um comércio do tipo intraindustrial que consolide a situação competitiva do Mercosul em relação a terceiros mercados.This work analizes the macro and microeconomic factors that led to recent transformations in the trade relations between Argentina and Brazil. The conclusions are that those transformations were strongly linked with the changes in the productive field that took place in each of both countries. But far from being a final situation, this work enphazises the necesity to coordinate futures strategies to strenghen an intraindustrial type of trade that could help to consolidate the competitive position of Mercosur in relation to third markets.

  4. Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru Title: Análisis comparado de las relaciones laborales en la administración pública Latinoamericana: Argentina, Costa Rica, México y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Falivene; José Alberto Bonifacio

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  6. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  7. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 7 December 1991 and signed in Vienna on 13 December 1991

  8. The Institutional Feasibility of National-Local Policy Collaboration: Insights from Brazil and Argentina La viablidad de la colaboración nacional-local en política pública: evidencia de Brasil y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Beck Fenwick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to suggest that municipalities can facilitate the central government’s ability to carry out its desired policy goals. Using three institutional variables that provide internal evidence for each case, I will argue that within some institutional configurations the center may seek uniformity of outcome by trying to circumvent governors and/or regional intermediation and forge a direct relationship with municipalities. Based on research from the area of social protection policy in Brazil and Argentina, I suggest that direct national-local collaboration contributed to the ability of the Brazilian central government to bypass governors and evenly spread non-contributory welfare goods across its territory and alleviate poverty. I argue that such policy collaboration is less likely to be institutionally feasible in a federal system like Argentina’s, where such equivalent collaboration is impeded by the ability of its provinces to directly capture local units of government and undermine national policy outcomes and executive preferences. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer que los municipios puedenfacilitar el logro de las metas de política pública del gobierno central. El argumento central es que dentro de ciertas configuraciones institucionales el gobierno federal buscará resultados más uniformes utilizando como principalherramienta la circunvención de los gobernadores y/o intermediarios regionalespara formar relaciones directas con los gobiernos municipales. Este argumentoestá construido a partir de tres variables institucionales que ponen en evidenciaesta dinámica. Los resultados aqui presentados están basados en trabajo decampo en Brazil y Argentina, especificamente en el tema de protección social. Elartículo sugiere que la colaboración centro-municipios contribuyó de formapositiva para que el gobierno Brasileño pudiera sobrepasar a los gobernadoresde los estados para distribuir de forma casi

  9. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  10. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Fang, E-mail: rongfang98@hotmail.co [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  11. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations. Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Fang [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the Plus Five countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the Basic Four (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries. (author)

  12. Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context. Policy Research Working Paper 4517

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate,…

  13. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  14. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  15. Distributed power production in Mexico and Argentina: what are the new perspectives linked with the institutional reforms of the electric power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the power systems are made from the progressive aggregation of small size local networks. Todays, this structure shows its limitations with an apparent exhausting of the gains linked with the size of production units, with the increasing difficulties to develop new transportation infrastructures, and with a fast performance improvement of the modular production technologies under the effect of the deregulation of the electric sector and of the policies of greenhouse gases abatement. Thus, it is not excluded that the distributed power production systems (i.e. gas and diesel engines, micro-turbines, small gas turbines and combined cycles, fuel cells, technologies using renewable energy sources) will play a more and more important role in the power supply, beside big production facilities. The factors influencing the development of these technologies can greatly change from one country to the other but some common established factors remain such as the search for a better reliability of supplies, the implementation of policies against climatic change or the deregulation of the electrical sector. The influence of these different factors are examined in this document which stresses more particularly on the consequences of the liberalization of network industries by using first, an analysis of the international experience, and then by examining the particular cases of Mexico and Argentina. (J.S.)

  16. Rotas de ingresso, trajetórias e acesso das mulheres ao legislativo: um estudo comparado entre Brasil e Argentina Women's entrance, trajectories and access to the legislative: a comparison between Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Araújo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta alguns resultados da pesquisa Dez anos de cotas no Brasil - avaliando a eficácia do caminho curto para o acesso das mulheres ao legislativo. Um dos itens da pesquisa consistiu na análise da relação entre as trajetórias individuais de deputadas e deputados, isto é, a forma e as razões de ingresso na política, o papel dos partidos políticos como mediadores dessas trajetórias, como esses aspectos se transformam em capitais políticos eleitorais, e como essas trajetórias se relacionam com as chances oferecidas pela inclusão das cotas. A Argentina é tomada como um contraponto positivo ao caso brasileiro, dado o fato de sua experiência ser considerada paradigmática. Entre os resultados apresentados, destacam-se as diferenças entre os tipos de trajetórias e de capital político que são estratégicos, em se tratando das mulheres de cada um dos países. E as novas formas de capital eleitoral que surgem conferem outros sentidos de ingresso na política. Isso parece decorrer, entre outros aspectos, de um segundo momento de institucionalização democrática nesses países.This paper presents some results of the research Ten years of quotas in Brazil - evaluating the effectiveness of the short path to women's access to the legislative. One of the items of the research consisted in the analysis of the relationship between the trajectories of the individuals, the form and the reasons for participating in politics, the role of political parties as mediators of these paths, the way that these aspects are transformed into political capital, and how these trajectories relate to the chances offered by the inclusion of quotas as a specific law. Argentina is taken as a positive counterpoint to the Brazilian case, given the fact that their experience has been considered paradigmatic. Among the results presented, the differences between the types of trajectories and political capital that are strategic, concerning the women

  17. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  18. Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 2. Non-Annex I Countries. Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents Part II of the analysis of the roles that domestic policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector, conducted under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group. Part I focused on Annex I countries and synthesised experiences of four case study countries: Canada, Finland, UK and the US. This paper focuses on non-Annex I countries and is based on four case studies in non-Annex I countries: Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe. As in the previous paper, the water sector is defined as water resources (surface water and groundwater), their use (e.g. irrigation, public water supply, environmental needs) and their governance and management (legal and institutional issues, abstraction permitting, water infrastructure, water policies). Water quality issues are touched upon, as water quality and quantity issues cannot be looked at in isolation, but are not specifically analysed. The paper is based on four developing country case studies developed by local consultants. It is structured around the selected four elements that construct policy frameworks: (1) legislation, (2) institutional arrangements, (3) water management and policies, and (4) information availability and use in decisionmaking. Section 2 briefly examines current and projected future climatic conditions that necessitate adaptation. Section 3 focuses on domestic and international legal issues and informal rules that govern the water sector while Section 4 identifies institutions and key players in the water sector who should also become the key actors in adaptation. Section 5 examines water management approaches and policies and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into the everyday management of water. Section 6 evaluates information needs and existing mechanisms for information sharing and dissemination that would be instrumental for successful adaptation. The paper concludes with a summary of key findings. The comparison with Annex I countries is

  19. Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 2. Non-Annex I Countries. Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, E.; Adams, H.

    2006-10-15

    This paper represents Part II of the analysis of the roles that domestic policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector, conducted under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group. Part I focused on Annex I countries and synthesised experiences of four case study countries: Canada, Finland, UK and the US. This paper focuses on non-Annex I countries and is based on four case studies in non-Annex I countries: Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe. As in the previous paper, the water sector is defined as water resources (surface water and groundwater), their use (e.g. irrigation, public water supply, environmental needs) and their governance and management (legal and institutional issues, abstraction permitting, water infrastructure, water policies). Water quality issues are touched upon, as water quality and quantity issues cannot be looked at in isolation, but are not specifically analysed. The paper is based on four developing country case studies developed by local consultants. It is structured around the selected four elements that construct policy frameworks: (1) legislation, (2) institutional arrangements, (3) water management and policies, and (4) information availability and use in decisionmaking. Section 2 briefly examines current and projected future climatic conditions that necessitate adaptation. Section 3 focuses on domestic and international legal issues and informal rules that govern the water sector while Section 4 identifies institutions and key players in the water sector who should also become the key actors in adaptation. Section 5 examines water management approaches and policies and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into the everyday management of water. Section 6 evaluates information needs and existing mechanisms for information sharing and dissemination that would be instrumental for successful adaptation. The paper concludes with a summary of key findings. The comparison with Annex I countries is

  20. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the key energy data for Mexico: 1 - energy organizations and policy: Ministry of energy (SENER), Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), Ministry of Finances, Ministry of trade and industrial development (SECOFI), national commission for energy savings (CONAE); 2 - companies: federal commission of electricity (CFE), Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido (MICARE - coal), Pemex (petroleum); 3 - energy production: resources, electric power, petroleum, natural gas; 4 - energy consumption; 5 - stakes and perspectives. Some economic and energy indicators are summarized in a series of tables: general indicators, supply indicators (reserves, refining and electric capacity, energy production, foreign trade), demand indicators (consumption trends, end use, energy independence, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions), energy status per year and per energy source. (J.S.)

  1. Comparative study of shell choice by the southern endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from Brazil and Argentina Estudio comparativo sobre elección de conchas en el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis de Brasil y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA BIAGI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the shell choice pattern of the southern Atlantic endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from two different biogeographic provinces in Brazil and Argentina. Size and shell species preferences were determined for the two most occupied shell types (i.e., Olivancillaria urceus and Buccinanops gradatum in Caraguatatuba region (Brazil and in Mar del Plata (Argentina. Shell occupation was analyzed considering the biometric characteristics of shells, the occurrence of shell types, and the preference of the hermit crabs for the most frequently occupied shell species. Samples were taken using otter trawl in the infralittoral area of both regions and the animals captured were measured and weighed. Shells were identified, weighed, measured and their internal volume calculated. Experiments were accomplished in aquaria where the hermit crabs were allocated together with a sufficient number of adequate sized shells. In laboratory, L. loxochelis from Argentina presented no preference for any of the two offered shell species, while the specimens from Brazil significantly preferred B. gradatum shells. It was observed that the relation between shell dimensions and shell weight were the variables that best explained the association between hermit crabs and shells. Considering that Argentinean specimens are larger than the Brazilian ones we may infer that body size is a relevant factor to explain the observed differences found in relation to shell type preferenceEste estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar la forma de elección de conchas de caracoles por el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis proveniente de dos provincias biogeográficas de Brasil y Argentina. Se determinaron las tallas y las preferencias de conchas entre los dos tipos de caracoles más ocupados (Olivancillaria urceus y Buccinanops gradatum en la región de Caraguatatuba (Brazil y en Mar del Plata (Argentina. La composici

  2. Is Decentralization Leading to "Real" Decision-Making Power for Forest-dependent Communities? Case Studies from Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kozak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization of forest governance has been promoted as a way to conserve forests more effectively, while also improving rural and forest-dependent livelihoods. Prior to assessing the consequences of this decentralization trend, there is a need to critically examine the degree to which decentralization of forest management decision making is actually happening. In particular, it is unclear whether communities are securing legal authority and/or decision-making power over the forests on which they depend. This study uses case studies of community forestry in Brazil and Mexico to examine the amount of decision-making power communities and smallholders have received over forest resources. A framework for assessment is developed that identifies criteria of relevance to community members' rights and day-to-day activities. We found that in both countries the government maintains significant control over forest resources through heavy regulation of extraction, but that communities have increasing control over day-to-day forest management decisions. We conclude by posing questions on the appropriate levels of decentralization for optimal outcomes.

  3. Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 (Cladocera: Daphniidae invades Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Kotov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of freshwater biological invasions is difficult to predict. The thermophilic Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 (Cladocera: Daphniidae has successfully invaded a large section of temperate North America from an Old World source, damaging ecosystems and fisheries. The species was later reported introduced into Mexico and Brazil. Here we report D. lumholtzi in Argentina - the most southerly record in the New World for this species. Our genetic analyses establish haplotype identity with North American specimens, consistent with the colonization of South America from North America. The detection dates of the records in South America and the association with the Paraná River, provide evidence that river ways play a role in expansion of D. lumholtzi. The invasion of D. lumholtzi has now reached a similar wide latitudinal span to the distribution in the Old World.

  4. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  5. Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Halsey Neal A; Pinto Jorge; Espinosa-Rosales Francisco; Faure-Fontenla María A.; Silva Edson da; Khan Aamir J.; Webster A.D.B.; Minor Philip; Dunn Glynis; Asturias Edwin; Hussain Hamidah; Pallansch Mark A.; Kew Olen M.; Winkelstein Jerry; Sutter Roland

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of long-term poliovirus excretors in people known to have B-cell immune deficiency disorders. METHODS: An active search for chronic excretors was conducted among 306 persons known to have immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiency in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom, and 40 people with IgA deficiency in the United States. Written informed consent or assent was obtained from the participants or their legal guardians, and the studies were formally...

  6. Pretty, but dangerous! Records of non-native Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in Mexico ¡Bonita pero peligrosa! Registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian MacGregor-Fors

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus is native to South America and has been introduced by the pet market to several countries around the world. In this note, we compiled records for this species in Mexico and report the first sight-recording of this species in the state of Michoacán and several nesting localities within the Metropolitan area of México City. Most records are of individuals escaped or released from captivity. Also, we review the negative effects that this species has had in invaded areas from around the world. Our analysis suggests the possible beginning of an invasion in Mexico that could have dramatic negative ecological and economic effects throughout this biodiverse country.La cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus es nativa de Sudamérica y ha sido introducida a través del comercio de mascotas en diversos países del mundo. En esta nota compilamos los registros de esta especie para México, además de reportarla por primera vez para el estado de Michoacán y diversas localidades de anidación en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. La mayoría de los registros son de individuos que han escapado o han sido liberados intencionalmente del cautiverio. Además, discutimos los efectos que ha tenido esta especie en otros lugares del mundo. Los registros compilados en esta nota sugieren el inicio de un proceso masivo de invasión por parte de la cotorra argentina, el cual podría tener efectos económicos y ecológicos dramáticos en un país biodiverso como México.

  7. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  8. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Country studies on Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents seven national case studies from a coordinated research project on Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development conducted during the 2002-2005 time period. The project was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The case studies were developed by research organizations from Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Slovakia and Thailand. This publication is being issued just prior to the 15th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development for which energy for sustainable development is a major theme. The 15th session of the Commission will focus on policy decisions on practical measures and options to expedite implementation in selected clusters of energy issues. The application the energy indicator, especially their quantification, enables systematic monitoring of progress made towards the implementation of energy-related targets. This publication presents actual examples of how these indicators are developed at the national level, how they can be used to assess national energy systems and how they assist in reviewing the effectiveness of policies undertaken or planned. Energy continues to pose a fundamental dilemma for achieving sustainable development goals - its use is necessary prerequisite for economic growth and social development while energy production and use are associated with adverse impacts on public health and the environment. Win-win situations specific to energy production and use do exist and national governments and institutions, and regional and international bodies have identified and promoted policies, initiatives and measures that encourage energy efficiency, alternative fuels, advanced and cleaner technologies that in one way or another result in foster economic activity with less energy per unit of output, increased access to affordable energy services and reduced environmental pollution

  9. A Very Active Sprite-Producing Storm Observed Over Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J.N.; Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, D.; Bailey, M.; Solorzano, N. N.; R. H. Holzworth; McCarthy, M.P.; Kokorowski, M.; Sao Sabbas, F.; Pinto Jr., O.; Cummer, S. A.; Jaugey, N.; Li, J.; Schuch, N. J.

    2007-01-01

    During the night of 22–23 February 2006, more than 400 middle- atmospheric optical discharges were observed above one large thunderstorm system over northeastern Argentina. These transient luminous events (TLEs) were imaged during the Southern Brazil Sprite Campaign, the first campaign to focus on TLEs over southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and Uruguay. All of the TLEs were imaged from the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory (SSO) near Santa Maria, which is nearly in the center of the...

  10. Research Programme on Scientific and technological Development in Latin America: Working Paper: No. 55: August, 1982: Steelplant Technological Development in Latin America: A Comparative Study of the Selection and Upgrading of Technology in Plants in Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Maxwell

    1982-01-01

    The steel industry is a classic symbol of industrialization. It has been taken as such in Latin America and promoted as a "leading sector" carrying with it the flag of national pride and prestige. This paper is based on five detailed case-studies of individual Latin American steel firms, namely: Acindar, in Argentina (the leading private-sector Argentine firm which produces non-flat products), USIMINAS in Brazil (one of the big three Brazilian state steel firms, producing flat products), AHMS...

  11. Calidad de los sistemas de información de mortalidad por violencias en Argentina y Brasil - 1990-2010 The quality of information systems on violence-related deaths in Argentina and Brazil between 1990 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Alazraqui; Hugo Spinelli; Marina Gabriela Zunino; Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Las muertes por violencias son un problema de salud pública por la magnitud de su impacto social y en los servicios de salud. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tendencia temporal a partir de los sistemas de información oficiales nacionales de mortalidad por violencias en Argentina y Brasil en el periodo 1990-2010. Se elaboraron indicadores de la calidad de la información según sexo, edad y causa de defunción. Los resultados muestran una tendencia temporal a la mejoría de calidad en los sis...

  12. Percepção dos profissionais sobre o tratamento no fim da vida, nas unidades de terapia intensiva da Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai Perceptions about end of life treatment in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Duarte Moritz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as condutas tomadas nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI com os pacientes críticos terminais. MÉTODOS: Os membros do grupo de estudo do final da vida das sociedades Argentina, Brasileira e Uruguaia de Terapia Intensiva elaboraram um questionário no qual constavam avaliações demográficas sobre os participantes, sobre as instituições em que os mesmos trabalhavam e decisões sobre limite de esforço terapêutico (LET. Neste estudo de corte transversal os membros da equipe multiprofissional das sociedades responderam o questionário durante eventos científicos e, via on line. As variáveis foram analisadas através do teste qui-quadrado sendo considerado significativa pABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate end-of-life procedures in intensive care units. METHODS: A questionnaire was prepared by the End-of-Life Study Group of the Argentinean, Brazilian and Uruguayan Intensive Care societies, collecting data on the participants’ demographics, institutions and limit therapeutic effort (LTE decision making process. During this cross sectional study, the societies’ multidisciplinary teams members completed the questionnaire either during scientific meetings or online. The variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test, with a p<0.05 significance level. RESULTS: 420 professionals completed the questionnaire. The Brazilian units had more beds, unrestricted visit was less frequent, their professionals were younger and worked more recently in intensive care units, and more non-medical professionals completed the questionnaire. Three visits daily was the more usual number of visits for the three countries. The most influencing LTE factors were prognosis, co-morbidities, and therapeutic futility. In the three countries, more than 90% of the completers had already made LTE decisions. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasoactive drugs administration, dialysis and parenteral nutrition were the most suspended/refused therapies in the three

  13. Laws on gender violence and their effect on sexism in advertising: a comparative analysis of advertisements from Argentina, Mexico, Spain and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Martín-Llaguno; Marián Navarro-Beltrá

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue valorar, a través de los anuncios publicitarios seleccionados de cuatro países -Argentina, España, Estados Unidos y México- el impacto de las normas sobre violencia de género en la incidencia del sexismo y los sesgos de género en la publicidad. MÉTODOS: Análisis de contenido de 163 anuncios: 69 españoles, 16 mexicanos, 50 argentinos y 28 estadounidenses. Para realizar el análisis se recabaron datos sobre la presencia de cuerpos desvinculados del ...

  14. Electroacoustic Music in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Sigal

    2010-01-01

    Mexico has been an outsider to the electroacoustic music movement. Countries likeArgentina, Cuba and Chile were pioneers in establishing electronic music centers in thecontinent. This texts aim to illustrate briefly the story behind the first initiatives in Mexicoandthe actual situation and characteristics of the institutional electroacoustic music scene.

  15. Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and ...

  16. Rafaela, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Perotti

    2004-01-01

    Brinda información acerca de la provincia de Rafaela, Argentina. Da a conocer el planeamiento estratégico de Rafaela, los temas a resolver con el sector privado, así como las acciones para abordar la relación público-privada.

  17. Argentina; Argentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  18. Final report on SIM.M.P-S6: Differential pressure comparison from 50 Pa to 500 Pa with a liquid column manometer between CENAM (Mexico) and INTI-Fisica y Metrologia (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Jorge; Forastieri, Juan; Zúñiga, Sinuhé

    2011-01-01

    A differential pressure comparison was performed between CENAM (Mexico) and INTI (Argentina) by means of a liquid column manometer. The measuring range was 50 Pa to 500 Pa. CENAM calibrated the transfer standard at the beginning and at the end of the comparison. The transfer standard used was a Dwyer liquid column manometer model Microtector with an accuracy class of 0.013% of the reading. The compared pressure points were (50, 75, 125, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500) Pa. The uncertainty sources to be evaluated included at least the following: (a) uncertainty due to the standard used by the laboratory; (b) uncertainty due to repeatability; (c) uncertainty due to resolution; (d) uncertainty due to hysteresis; (e) uncertainty due to zero drift. The criteria used to compare the results obtained were the normalized error equation (En). The results obtained by the laboratories were compatible according to the criteria |En| <= 1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. Contribuição à herpetologia da Argentina e do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil por William Wright Milstead (Amphibia, Reptilia) Contribution to the herpetology of Argentina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by William Wright Milstead (Amphibia, Reptilia)

    OpenAIRE

    Thales de Lema; Pedro Canísio Braun

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting the list of the specimens and the taxa obtained; there are 73 names of species belonging to 40 genera, of which 32 species and 13 genera are amphibians, and 42 species and 27 genera are reptiles. There are several field notes of Milstead and many data on the snakes studied by Lema with Milstead. The collection was widespread by Milstead to several institutions, but mainly to Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube from Mexico, 74 FR 41681 (August 18, 2009). \\3\\ The Department found that Yieh... (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) (Notice of Initiation). The Department received a notice of... Circumstance Review, 70 FR 71802 (November 30, 2005). This notice also serves as the only reminder to...

  1. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  2. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, C.; Lema, C; DOHMEN, F. GURY; Beltran, F.; NOVARO, L.; S. Russo; Freire, M. C.; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V. A.; D. M. CISTERNA

    2014-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV vari...

  3. La no neutralidad en la evaluacion de la calidad y modelos de evaluacion de la educación superior, casos de: Colombia, Argentina y Brasil Neutrality in quality evaluation and in models of higher education evaluation: the cases of Colombia, Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eleonor Vizcarra Herles

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo en base al análisis documental y de la literatura del área se aborda el tema de la no neutralidad de la evaluación de la calidad, se exploran dimensiones en el concepto de calidad proponiendo un modelo comprensivo, se identifican factores que contribuyen a la no neutralidad del concepto en referencia a las instituciones universitarias. Se enfatiza en que los elementos de referencia considerados valiosos para el evaluador (modelo de referencia comunican características diferenciales a los modelos de evaluación institucional y de programas para educación superior haciendo mención a los casos de Colombia, Argentina y Brasil y se analizan las diversas implicancias en su funcionamiento. Se infiere que contribuyen a la no neutralidad de la evaluación de la calidad: el énfasis conceptual en alguna o algunas dimensiones de la calidad, el propósito que es de interés del evaluador, el cual determina el referente de calidad a utilizar, y las demandas de calidad endógenas y exógenas a la institución, programa o sistema que es objeto de evaluación.This article founded on documental analysis as well as on analysis of the literature in the field, addresses the issue of non-neutrality of quality assessment; it discusses dimensions of the quality concept, identifies factors that contribute to the non-neutrality of quality in reference to universities. It emphasizes that the benchmarks that are considered valuable to the evaluator (reference model, give different characteristics to the institutional and program evaluation models for higher education, making reference to the cases of Colombia, Argentina and Brazil and discusses the different implications of its operation. It is inferred that what contributes to the non-neutrality of quality assessment are: the conceptual emphasis on one or on several quality dimensions, the purpose of the evaluator, which determines the quality benchmarks he uses, and the demands for quality which

  4. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  5. Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Acuña

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona central de la Patagonia, Argentina, se encuentra sometida a explotación petrolera y sus suelos se caracterizan por ser deficientes en nitrógeno. Esto causaría un efecto negativo en los procesos de atenuación natural que se desarrollan en los suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos. El objeto de este estudio fue determinar cual es el efecto de la deficiencia de nitrógeno sobre la biodegradación de los hidrocarburos en un suelo de la Patagonia, Argentina. Se trabajó con tres microcosmos a los que se les realizó tratamientos diferentes. En uno se monitoreo la atenuación natural del sistema, en otro la fertilización con nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K, y en el último la fertilización con P y K. Durante el seguimiento se determinaron mineralización y medición de hidrocarburos, y se realizaron recuentos bacterianos y determinación de nitrato, nitrito y amonio. Los resultados indican que es posible la biodegradación de hidrocarburos en el suelo deficiente de nitrógeno de la Patagonia estudiado en tiempos mas prolongados que en aquellos que se realiza una fertilización con nitrógeno. El nitrógeno necesario para el proceso sería obtenido por los microorganismos del suelo por fijación biológica.

  6. International Remote Monitoring Project Argentina nuclear power station remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote monitoring system, designed to monitor spent fuel transfers from wet to dry storage, was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station at Embalse, Argentina. The system consists of 6 gamma and one neutron radiation sensors. Five gamma sensors utilize RF transmission to communicate with Echelon nodes connected to a Local Operating Network (LON). One gamma and one neutron sensor are hardwired to the LON network. Each sensor Echelon node is bound to a single Datalogger that stores data until it receives an acquisition command to download to the Data Acquisition Software (DASW) database. The data from the Datalogger are transferred and stored in the Data Acquisition Software database, which resides on the IAEA MOS-MUX server. At a pre-determined interval, data from the DASW database are converted into Excel files and transferred to the IAEA database every 24 hours. At an predetermined interval all data are transferred to the distribution server located at the ARN laboratory at Ezeiza, Argentina. Remote access to data from the distribution server will be made from IAEA headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from ABACC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from the IAEA field office in Buenos Aires, from ARN, and from Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  7. The genus Agelaia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil O gênero Agelaia Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Agelaia Lepeletier 1836 belongs to the swarming genera of the Polistinae, with species distributed from Mexico to northern Argentina. Fifteen of the 31 described species are found in Brazil. Four species occur in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, two of them recorded herein for the first time. Redescriptions and a key to these species are provided.Agelaia Lepeletier, 1836 pertence ao grupo de vespas enxemeadoras de Polistinae, com espécies que se distribuem desde o México até o norte da Argentina. No Brasil, são encontradas 15 das 31 espécies descritas. Quatro espécies ocorrem no Rio Grande do Sul, duas das quais aqui registradas pela primeira vez para este Estado. Estas espécies são redescritas e uma chave para sua identificação é fornecida.

  8. Genetics and human rights: Two histories: restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Penchaszadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976-1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program "Reencontro", which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind.

  9. The intelectual exile in Mexico. Notes on the Argentinean experience 1974-1983 El exilio intelectual en México. Notas sobre la experiencia argentina 1974-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casco

    2008-09-01

    of ideas of a group of Argentine intellectuals exiled in Mexico since 1974, in the context of the last wave of Latin American military dictatorships. It sheds light on the conditions for the production of a new intellectual field, in reference to the defeat of the 1960s revolutionary projects and the so-called crisis of Marxism in Europe. It also focuses on the analysis of political and theoretical conditions that allowed for the shift from revolution to democracy as a central tenet of leftist thought. The article highlights the political actions of different exile organizations, as well as the diverse cultural and scientific works that explain this process.  

  1. The Text of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Argentina in Establishing a Research and Isotope Production Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994

  2. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México: 1 - Percepções sobre as pílulas de anticoncepção de emergência

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad Díaz; Ellen Hardy; Gloria Alvarado; Enrique Ezcurra

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC) in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women shou...

  3. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México. 2 - Fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar sua introdução

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad Díaz; Ellen Hardy; Gloria Alvarado; Enrique Ezcurra

    2003-01-01

    A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policym...

  4. Helosis (Balanophoraceae en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fontana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustrated. Developement and ecology are also given. Helosis is also a new generic record for Argentina.

  5. Desenvolvimento sustentável com perspectiva de gênero - Brasil, México e Cuba: mulheres protagonistas no meio rural Sustainable development from a gender perspective - Brazil, Mexico, and Cuba: women as protagonists in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kleba Lisboa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz para o debate as concepções de alguns autores sobre desenvolvimento sustentável e, a partir de uma pesquisa realizada em três países (Brasil, México e Cuba, ressaltamos o protagonismo das mulheres camponesas junto à produção de alimentos e ao manejo de recursos naturais; a força dos movimentos de mulheres camponesas na conquista de direitos; e a decisiva participação das mulheres na definição e propostas de políticas públicas que garantam a equidade de gênero no meio rural. Uma breve análise comparativa nos leva a deduzir que o modelo de desenvolvimento, nos três países, ainda prioriza a figura masculina no espaço agrícola, no que se refere à titularidade da terra, ao acesso à crédito e à aquisição de equipamentos ou outros recursos materiais. Sugere-se que, tanto em Cuba, um país socialista, como no México e Brasil, países capitalistas, os pressupostos das políticas sociais direcionadas para as trabalhadoras rurais devem levar em conta as necessidades básicas das mulheres camponesas para garantir um desenvolvimento mais humano e sustentávelThis article discusses different views about sustainable development, emphasizing - on the basis of a survey conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and Cuba - the role of rural women in food production and natural resource management, the strength of the rural women's movement in the conquest of rights, and the decisive participation of women in defining proposals for public policies that guarantee gender equality in rural areas. A brief comparative analysis leads us to conclude that the development model in the three countries still prioritizes the male figure in relation to land tenure, access to credit and purchase of equipment or other material resources. It is suggested that both in Cuba, a socialist country, and in Mexico and Brazil, capitalist countries, the assumptions of social policies directed to rural female workers should take into account the basic needs

  6. Mortalidad por causas externas en tres ciudades latinoamericanas: Córdoba (Argentina), Campinas (Brasil) y Medellín (Colombia), 1980-2005 Mortalidade por causas externas em três cidades latino-americanas: Córdoba (Argentina), Campinas (Brasil) e Medellín (Colômbia), 1980-2005 Mortality from external causes in three Latin American cities: Córdoba (Argentina), Campinas (Brazil) and Medellín (Colombia), 1980-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Cardona; Enrique Peláez; Tirza Aidar; Bruno Ribotta; María Franci Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Contribuir a los estudios sobre mortalidad por causas violentas en la América Latina a través de la análisis comparativa de los patrones y tendencias reciente de las muertes por causas externas en tres contextos urbanos regionales. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de fuente secundaria, utilizando estadísticas vitales del período 1980 a 2005, de Córdoba (Argentina), Campinas (Brasil), y Medellín (Colombia) en tres períodos entre 1980 y 2005. Destacan los siguientes grupos de causas: homi...

  7. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the applications of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of an Agreement by exchange of letters with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 June 1997 and entered into force on that date

  8. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  9. 78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...''') Review and Correction, 77 FR 45589 (August 1, 2012). \\2\\ Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico, 77 FR...\\ Suspension of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Lemon Juice From Mexico, 72 FR 53995 (September 21, 2007... Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation, 78 FR 38944 (June 28, 2013). On August 1, 2013, the ITC...

  10. A lab in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  11. Radiation vulcanization in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of using in Argentina the radiation process to vulcanize natural latex are analyzed. Experimental studies to define the irradiation conditions have been carried out and the preliminary elaboration of an irradiation device that includes the chemical reactor has been started. (author)

  12. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  13. Rickettsia parkeri in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nava, Santiago; Elshenawy, Yasmin; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Sumner, John W.; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Paddock, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical reports of an eschar-associated rickettsiosis in the Paraná River Delta of Argentina prompted an evaluation of Amblyomma triste ticks in this region. When evaluated by PCR, 17 (7.6%) of 223 questing adult A. triste ticks, collected from 2 sites in the lower Paraná River Delta, contained DNA of Rickettsia parkeri.

  14. Albert Einstein visits Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, A; Gangui, Alejandro; Ortiz, Eduardo L.

    2005-01-01

    This is a detailed, day by day, account of Albert Einstein's activities, both social and scientific, during his 30-day stay in Argentina in 1925, including his lectures on relativity at the various local universities and his visit to the National Academy of Sciences, as follows from his personal Diary of the trip to South-America and other contemporary documents.

  15. La monnaie, la politique et la possibilité d’un mode de développement à nouveau fondé sur le marché intérieur au Brésil et en Argentine Money, politics and the possibility of a development mode based again on the internal market in Brazil and Argentina Moneda, política y la posibilidad de un modo de desarrollo de nuevo volcado al mercado interno en Brasil y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Marques Pereira

    2012-04-01

    progression nécessaire de l’investissement dans le secteur domestique.The question asked in this paper is whether the acceleration of growth through a redistributive demand policy in Argentina and Brazil during the last decade means an emerging development model that would give back to the internal market the main growth impulse function it had before liberalization. The analysis focuses on the government of collective action. The making of expectations is studied as object of a governing system of monetary income promises, tied to the persuasive power of the discourse on the development model. Based on a conception of money as a symbolic, political and economic fact, the expectations are analyzed as a cognitive operation located in history, structured by the three facets of money: (i a symbolic form as a unit of account whose acceptance is based on a development model driving a long-term visibility; (ii an institution demonstrating the political power that guarantees an issuance and exchange regime in which credibility stands medium-term predictability ; (iii a market value of means of payment defining in the short-term the value of the various types of income received or to be received. This analysis shows that the opposed choices of a competitive or appreciated exchange rate in Argentina and Brazil, associated respectively to an accommodating or restrictive monetary regime, reflect the agency of historically specific interest groups, both implying a gridlock in the transition to a new development model because they are still equally submitted to the monetary power of the creditors in the trade-off between taxation and public debt, which impedes changing the financing structure of the economy as well as sufficient increases in the investment in the domestic sector.Este artículo trata de desvendar si el alza del crecimiento por vía de una política redistributiva de demanda en Argentina y Brasil en la última década significa la emergencia de un modo de desarrollo, de

  16. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and Argentina relating to the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994

  17. Agreement of 13 December 1991 between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters concerning an agreement with the Federative Republic of Brazil in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999, and entered into force on that date

  18. Helosis (Balanophoraceae) en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Fontana; Orlando Fabián Popoff

    2006-01-01

    Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz) Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustra...

  19. The text of the instrument concerning the Agency's assistance to Argentina for the establishment of a training reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol of 30 August 1996 suspending the application of safeguards under the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Argentina and the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the Agency's assistance for the establishment of a training reactor project in Argentina, which entered into force on 13 March 1970, in light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the quadripartite safeguards agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA

  20. The text of a safeguards transfer agreement relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a safeguards transfer agreement of 28 August 1996 relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the agreement of 25 July 1969 between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America in light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the quadripartite safeguards agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 13 January 1997

  1. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

  2. 1985 Mexico City, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.1 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Mexico. The damage was concentrated in a 25 square km area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter....

  3. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  4. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Bontemps, C.; Rogel, M. A.; Wiechmann, A.; Mussabekova, A.; Moody, S.; Simon, M F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, G. N.; Lacercat-Didier, L.; Dasilva, C.; Grether, R; Camargo-Ricalde, S. L.; Chen, W.M.; SPRENT, J. I.; Martinez-Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for ...

  5. Fenología del coscoroba (Coscoroba coscoroba) en el sur de Brasil y sus movimientos hacia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia P. Calabuig; Green, Andy J.; Menegheti, Joao O.; Muriel, Roberto; Patiño-Martínez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Phenology of Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) in southern Brazil and their movements to Argentina. – The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae. It has a patchy distribution and is a partial migrant found from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. This study describes the movements of Coscoroba swans banded outside the boundary of and in side the “Estaçao...

  6. Argentina set for privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year

  7. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  8. The Huillin in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Chehebar C.

    1986-01-01

    We recommend re-introduction of huillines in Lanin, Puelo and Los Alerces National Parks, through translocations of animals, so as to minimize the risks involved in the present dependence on Nahuel Huapi and Staten Island (as far as we know) for the conservation of the species in Argentina. Also, we recommend careful monitoring and protection of the Nahuel Huapi population and protection of the Staten Island ecosystems.

  9. Psychology In Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto M. Alonso

    2016-01-01

    A summary on Psychology as science and profession in Argentina is presented. The report includes a historical review on places, criteria and results of psychologists'education, aspects of their professional practices; quantitative data on universities, graduates and students related to sociodemographic variables; characteristics of research activities, publications, legal frameworks and types of institutions where psychologists work. Some distinctive features of Argentine psychology are menti...

  10. Dollarization in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Francois R. Velde; Marcelo Veracierto

    1993-01-01

    Argentina became highly "dollarized" during its hyperinflations of 1989 and early 1990. Although inflation has returned to very low rates, a high degree of dollarization has persisted during the early 1990s, counter to what the currency substitution hypothesis predicts. This paper provides new evidence that explains the continued dollarization of the Argentine economy. ; First, we develop a new measure of dollar currency circulating in foreign countries. This measure improves our ability to a...

  11. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  12. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Nilza Maria Diniz; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Walter Steve Sheppard; Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2003-01-01

    Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1) and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Sampl...

  13. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns......  The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI...

  14. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  15. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from RIAO/OPTILAS 2007 (Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21 26 October 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Niklaus; Frejlich, Jaime

    2008-10-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the 6th Ibero-American Conference on Optics and the 9th Latin-American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (RIAO/OPTILAS'07) that was held in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 October 2007. The RIAO/OPTILAS conferences are held every three years in Latino-American and Iberian countries and focus on senior and young researchers as well as students working in all areas of optics, mainly in these countries, but warmly welcoming participants from all over the world. The RIAO/OPTILAS'07 conference followed the one held in Venezuela in 2004 and precedes the next one already arranged to be held in Peru in 2010. The most active countries in the regions such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Venezuela have registered a large number of participants but other countries in the regions such as Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Portugal and Uruguay have also sent a representative number of participants. About 7% of the registered participants came from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. It was very stimulating to realize that about 44% of the accepted registered participants were students. An international committee was in charge of selecting the best student posters and ten students were awarded with prizes offered by organizations (SPIE, Wiley & Sons) and individuals. There were 7 plenary invited talks given by high quality researchers from Argentina, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico and Ukraine and 12 invited contributions from Brazil, Finland, Italy, Spain, UK and Uruguay. The Book of Abstracts recorded 471 communications divided into 15 different topics with 160 oral communications in three parallel sessions and 311 posters in two special sessions. We are particularly grateful to SPIE, OSA and ICTP who have provided us with important financial support mainly devoted to supporting the participation of students in this conference. We also acknowledge financial and organizational support from Brazilian federal

  16. Atribuição de causalidade ao sucesso e fracasso escolar: um estudo transcultural Brasil-Argentina-México Causal attribution to success and failure in school: a transcultural study Brazil-Argentin-Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo comparou os mecanismos atribuicionais utilizados por alunos brasileiros, argentinos e mexicanos, ao explicarem o sucesso e fracasso escolar. A amostra compôs-se de 1594 estudantes de bom ou mau rendimento escolar, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 20 anos e pertencentes a escolas públicas e particulares de ensino médio, que responderam a um questionário sobre as causas de seu próprio desempenho, do de seus colegas, de alunos de outro tipo de escola e de outras nacionalidades. Os três grupos nacionais adotaram prioritariamente o esforço como causa explicativa do próprio sucesso e fracasso escolar e do de outros alunos, embora tenham ocorrido diferenças entre os padrões atribuicionais, em função da nacionalidade, sexo e tipo de escola. Tais resultados são discutidos com base nos vieses atribuicionais associados à tendência auto-servidora e ao erro fundamental de atribuição e nas peculiaridades culturais que caracterizam os três países.The attributional mechanisms used by Brazilian, Argentinean and Mexican students to explain the academic success and failure were compared. The sample consisted of 1594 high school students of both sexes separated into either high or low achievement groups, attending either public or private institutions. They were asked to indicate the causes of their own performance, of their classmates, of students from a different kind of school and of students from another country. Effort was chosen by the majority of students from the three national groups as an explanation of either success or failure of their own, of other students from the same country and of students from different countries, albeit observed differences in attributional patterns as a function of nationality, sex and type of school. These results are discussed based both on the self-serving attributional bias and the fundamental attribution error theoretical framework, by taking into account the cultural peculiarities of the three countries which participated in the study.

  17. Decline and Recovery of Latin American Manufacturing---Data from Brazil,Mexico and Argentina%拉美制造业的下滑与回归--以巴西、墨西哥和阿根廷为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盈华

    2015-01-01

    In the past 50 years,Latin American manufacturing has declined as a whole:Products value growth decreased and its proportion in GDP descended,contribution to economy growth diminished. The causes includes:domestic manufacture industries did not form the core growth engine,“Dutch Disease”resulted from over-reliance on primary products export cannot be self-healing,manufacturing embed-dedness was poor,and manufacturing productive factors were not adequate because service industries“snatched”. To solve these fundamental problems and achieve manufacturing recovery must break through traditional systems,improve national govern capability and enhance governments intervention,and culti-vate skilled industry workers.%过去半个多世纪拉美制造业整体在走下坡路,产值增长率下降、占GDP的比重下滑,对经济增长的贡献越来越小。除了贸易开放带来的进口商品冲击,更主要是国内制造业并没有形成核心增长动力;初级产品出口创汇却带来“荷兰病”且长期无法自愈;制造业的产业根植性差,以及国内服务业抢夺生产要素对制造业造成“挤出”。拉美要实现制造业回归,非制度突破不可,强有力的政府干预以及培育产业工人是当务之急。

  18. Debt Sustainability, Brazil, and the IMF

    OpenAIRE

    Morris Goldstein

    2003-01-01

    Those who have watched financial crises in emerging economies over the past two years would have noticed two things. First, there has been a high concentration of financial crises in Latin America. Second, debt problems have been at the heart of several recent crises, including the prominent ones in Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, and Uruguay. This paper discusses issues of debt sustainability in emerging economies. After providing in section II a brief account of the hard times that have recently...

  19. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  20. RERTR activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has been an active participant of the RERTR program since 1978. An important milestone of the Argentinean RERTR program was the development and manufacturing at industrial scale of U3O8 dispersed fuel and its subsequent application to the conversion of the RA-3 reactor core to LEU fuel. More recently, our activities were focused on the development of U3Si2 fuel with a density of 4.8 gU/cm3 and the improvement of the manufacturing process of this type of fuel. The program to qualify CNEA as a supplier U3Si2 dispersed fuels is scheduled to finalize by mid 2003. To hasten this program the main research reactor of Argentina, the RA3, raised its power from 5 MW to 8 Mw in October this year. This is an intermediate step in the program to increase RA-3 power to 10 MW Currently, one of the main objectives is to develop and qualify the technology for the production of high-density LEU fuel elements using U-Mo alloy. An original way to produce U-Mo powder (the HMD process) was developed and its being upgraded to plant scale production. Another significant progress was the development of LEU targets for the production of 99Mo, in the form of miniplates prepared with dispersed LEU U-Alx. The shipment to USA of 207 MTR spent fuels containing US origin highly enriched uranium, successfully carried out in the end of 2000, is another remarkable achievement of the Argentinean RERTR program. This activity was carried out in the framework of the United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuels were fabricated in Argentina and used in the RA-3 reactor from 1968 to 1987. The inventory of the shipped HEU spent fuel consisted in 166 standard assemblies and 41 control assemblies. (author)

  1. The nuclear potential for peaceful uses of Brazil. The defense of political participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, since 1979 researching in the nuclear energy field - goes on analyzing some important facts, just like: the beginnings of nuclear energy interests in Brazil and the nuclear energy situation in Brazil nowadays, the partnership between Brazil and France, the partnership between Brazil and Argentina, the AMAZUL; the multi-polar world and the its interests; the nuclear energy utilization potential in the electricity around the world; the differences among Japan and Brazil nuclear power plants after Fukushima tsunami; the advertising drive, the deceive propaganda about the nuclear power plants danger; the prejudice, in general, of all the industrialized countries depending upon nuclear energy, mainly, the prejudice of the nuclear industries. (author)

  2. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  3. Desobediencia civil en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2003-01-01

    Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria di...

  4. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks. PMID:8155472

  5. Activities with Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) responded to the need to redirect resources from weapons production to environmental restoration and waste management by establishing the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to this office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. Now in its eight year, EM's mission has three central facets: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of waste from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental cleanup. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industries meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas

  6. RERTR activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has been involved in the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program since 1978. The most relevant milestones of the program, regarding fuel R and D activities, were the development and manufacturing at industrial scale of U3O8 dispersed fuel assemblies and the conversion of the RA-3 reactor core to LEU fuel. More recently, the activities were focused in the development of high density U3Si2 fuel with a density of 4.8 gU/cm3 and the improvement of the manufacturing process of U3Si2 powder. Currently one of the main objectives is to develop and qualify the technology for the production of high-density LEU fuel elements using U-Mo alloy. Several alternative ways to obtain U-Mo powder are under development with the aim of evaluating plant scale production and costs. To boost this program the main research reactor of Argentina, the RA-3, will be upgraded to 10 MW early in 2001 and the hot cells at the Ezeiza Atomic Center are fully operational after important investments. Significant progresses were also carried out in the development of LEU targets for the production of Mo99. Experimental work has demonstrated the feasibility of the manufacturing and radiochemical processing of miniplate targets prepared with dispersed UAlx, maintaining the geometry and the alkaline processing of the HEU targets used so far. (author)

  7. Evade, Corrupt, or Confront? Organized Crime and the State in Brazil and Mexico ¿Evadir, corromper o confrontar? El crimen organizado y el Estado en Brasil y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Taylor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Government and organized criminal groups co-exist in uneasy equilibrium. Criminal groups adjust their behavior as a function of their own goals and resources in relation to inter-group cooperation and conflict, dynamic markets, and public policies; governments adjust their behavior according to shifting perceptions of the benefits offered, threats posed, and strategies adopted by criminal groups. When governments attempt to control or repress their activities, criminal groups employ various tools and instruments that might be grouped into three categories: evasion, corruption, and confrontation. The paper draws on recent cases from Brazil and Mexico with respect to tactical and strategic choices by governments and criminal groups, seeking to address three broad questions. What factors disrupt the state-criminal group equilibrium? Under what circumstances do disruptions produce significant levels of violence (as opposed to evasion or corruption? What are the implications for the quality of democracy as criminal groups violently confront the state? El crimen organizado y el gobierno coexisten en un equilibrio sumamente delicado. En función de sus recursos y objetivos, los grupos criminales ajustan su comportamiento en base a las dinámicas del mercado, las políticas públicas y el grado de cooperación o conflicto con otros grupos delictivos. El gobierno, por su parte, actúa de acuerdo al cambio en la percepción de amenazas, beneficios y estrategias adoptadas por el crimen organizado. De tal forma, cuando el gobierno intenta controlar o reprimir actividades ilícitas, los grupos criminales emplean diversos mecanismos que pueden catalogarse en las siguientes categorías: evasión, corrupción y confrontación. El artículo se basa en las tácticas y estrategias adoptadas por el gobierno y los grupos criminales durante casos recientes en Brasil y México, a fin de responder las siguientes tres preguntas ¿Qué factores interrumpen el equilibrio

  8. Teoría y práctica de las reformas en los sistemas de salud: los casos de Brasil y México Theory and practice in health systems reform in Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Abrantes Pêgo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone reflexionar sobre el lugar que la comunidad de los especialistas en salud pública está ocupando en las reformas contemporáneas de los sistemas de salud. Discutimos la cuestión a partir de los casos de Brasil y de México porque, en ambos países, un grupo de especialistas en salud pública proyectó su participación más allá del ámbito técnico-científico y logró influir en el conflicto en torno a la reorientación de las políticas de salud de sus países. Una de sus acciones consistió en elaborar un marco cognoscitivo en el cual se alimentan proyectos técnico-asistenciales de reforma entendidos como propuestas políticas con contenido técnico. Nuestro propósito es demonstrar que estos profesionales logran influir en el debate nacional en el momento en que la discusión técnico-científica rebasa el ámbito de los especialistas para instalarse en el palco del debate socio-político. En nuestra opinión, esto sucede porque el conocimiento técnico-científico producido por esos grupos fue postulado, independendiente de su valor intrínseco, como plataforma ideológica alternativa, capaz de dar sustento a un proyecto técnico-asistencial de referencia que, convertido en proyecto político, sirvió para aglutinar a determinados sectores sociales.This study focuses on the role of public health experts in the contemporary health sector reform process. The authors discuss the issue based on the case of Brazil and Mexico, where a group of public health specialists have oriented their participation to influence the conflict concerning health policy reform in the respective countries. One approach has been to develop a new cognitive framework for technical health sector reform projects viewed as policy proposals with technical content. The purpose is to demonstrate how these specialists have managed to influence the national debate over health sector reform when the technical and scientific discussion leaves the

  9. Natural enemies of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius: Anacardiaceae) from Argentina: their possible use for biological control in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (BP) (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) is a perennial tree native to Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The plant was introduced into the USA prior to 1900. Originally grown as an ornamental, BP is now considered a state noxious plant in Hawaii and Florida, where it i...

  10. Natural enemies of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) from Argentina: their possible use for biological control in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (BP) (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) is a perennial tree native to Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The plant was introduced into the USA before 1900. Originally grown as an ornamental, BP is now considered a noxious plant in Hawaii and Florida, where it is ranked...

  11. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa. PMID:21437375

  12. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  13. Operating practical experience at Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experiences of Atucha-1 and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants were discussed in this work. The technical and economic aspects, such as reliability, availability, personnel training, operating costs, prices and market, which exercise influence upon Argentina nuclear energy policy, mainly on the power electric generation by nuclear power plants were considered. Finally the current status of the nucleoelectric sector in Argentina and forecasting were analysed

  14. Human Papillomavirus infection in men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA Infección por Virus de Papiloma Humano en hombres de Brasil, México y EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess Human Papillomavirus (HPV type distribution among men ages 18 years and older recruited from three different countries utilizing a common protocol for sampling HPV detection, and to evaluate whether HPV detection differs by age and country. MATERIAL AD METHODS: The study protocol includes a pre-enrollment run-in visit, a baseline (enrollment visit, and nine additional visits after enrollment scheduled six months apart. For this analysis, the first 1160 men who completed both the run-in and baseline visit were included. To maximize sampling and prevent fraying of applicators, three different applicators were utilized to sample the external genitalia of participants among different anatomic sites. These samples were later combined to form a single sample for the detection of HPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for amplification of a fragment of the HPV L1 gene. RESULTS: Among 1160 men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States (U.S., overall HPV prevalence was 65.2%; with 12.0% oncogenic types only, 20.7% non-oncogenic types only, 17.8% both oncogenic and non-oncogenic, and 14.7% unclassified infections. Multiple HPV types were detected in 25.7% of study participants. HPV prevalence was higher in Brazil (72.3% than in the U.S. (61.3% and Mexico (61.9%. HPV 16 (6.5%, 51 (6.5%, and 59 (5.3% were the most commonly detected oncogenic infections, and HPV 84 (7.7%, 62 (7.3%, and 6 (6.6% were the most commonly detected non-oncogenic infections. Overall HPV prevalence was not associated with age. However, significant associations with age were observed when specific categories of oncogenic, non-oncogenic, and unclassified HPV infections were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Studies of HPV type distribution among a broad age range of men from multiple countries is needed to fill the information gap internationally with respect to our knowledge of HPV infection in men.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la distribución tipo específica de infección por

  15. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  16. Egade, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  17. A reconstructed reduction sequence for curved bifacial stone tools from the eastern La Plata Basin, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Riris, Philip; Romanowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    A distinctive regional lithic industry is found in the eastern La Plata basin, known as the Altoparanaense culture in northeastern Argentina, and the Humaitá tradition in southern Brazil. These archaeological cultures are recognised on the basis of large bifacial tools. The earliest deposits are dated to the ninth millennium BP, and elements of these industries continue to be produced into the post-contact period (8640±95 to 310±50 cal BP). One of the most characteristic features ...

  18. Movements of a juvenile Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) tracked by satellite telemetry in central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Urios, Vicente; Donat-Torres, María Pilar; Bechard, Mark; Ferrer, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A juvenile Crowned Eagle was tagged at its nest with a satellite transmitter. The Crowned Eagle (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) is one of the most unknown raptor species from the American continent. Their current distribution ranges from central Brazil to central Argentina, with a total population of 350 1500 individuals across this large area, being thus largely fragmented. Results: During the three years of tracking the bird concentrated its movements in a range spanning ...

  19. Continuités et ruptures dans l’accumulation et la régulation en Amérique latine dans les années 2000 : le cas de l’Argentine, du Brésil et du Chili Continuities and breakdowns in accumulation and regulation during the 2000s: the case of Argentina, Brazil and Chile Continuidades y rupturas en la acumulación y la regulación en América Latina durante los años 2000 : el caso de Argentina, Brasil y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Luis Miotti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé les traits marquants permettant de caractériser l’évolution globale des économies latino-américaines, ce travail examine les principales transformations intervenues au niveau des formes institutionnelles et des régimes d’accumulation en Argentine, Brésil et Chili pendant les années 2000. Dans le sillage d’un nouveau cycle de croissance associé à une évolution favorable des termes de l’échange et au boom des exportations vers la Chine, l’analyse des cas permet d’identifier une grande diversité de trajectoires nationales. En Argentine, les transformations les plus marquées suite à la crise de 2001 se situent au niveau de la déconnexion croissante de l’économie à l’égard de la finance internationale et de la participation croissante de l’État dans la régulation d’ensemble. En ce qui concerne le Brésil, le processus de financiarisation de l’économie amorcé dans les années 1990 a conféré un rôle décisif au régime monétaire dans le mode de régulation bien que l’État renforce sa présence au sein des formes institutionnelles dans les années 2000. Le Chili, pour sa part, connaît, dans le cadre d’un mode de régulation stabilisé, un affaiblissement du dynamisme de l’activité économique, mettant en évidence les limites de l’accumulation extensive.Même si les sources de vulnérabilité diffèrent selon les pays, tous les trois sont sensibles à un éventuel retournement des prix des exportations primaires. En même temps, les trois pays analysés partagent le risque de subir les effets de « maladie hollandaise » pénalisant la diversification productive et l’emploi.This paper reviews the main features and transformations of the institutional forms and accumulation regimes during the 2000s in three Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil and Chile. All of them have benefited from terms of trade gains and from an export boom following China s economic

  20. Capturing latecomer advantages in the adoption of biofuels: The case of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Argentina came late to the biofuels revolution, a series of measures taken recently at federal and provincial government level have created new opportunities. New federal laws on biofuels promotion have sparked an investment boom. The main activity has been in the biodiesel sector-partly because diesel is the dominant fuel sector in Argentina, and partly because the country had already engineered a soy revolution over the past 15 years, becoming the world's largest exporter of soy oil and soy meal. Biodiesel allows this revolution to be extended-from soy as foodstuff to soy as fuelstock. The biodiesel revolution now underway promises to extend Argentina's latecomer advantages by combining greater scale and lower costs with introduced technical innovations such as genetically modified crops and no-till farming. In this way, Argentina can be seen to be demonstrating the superiority of biofuel production in countries of the South over the conditions obtaining in countries of the North-including superior resources availability, superior energetics and lower costs. Whereas Brazil has demonstrated its superiority in sugarcane-based ethanol, Argentina is about to demonstrate its superiority in soy-based biodiesel

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 4 field isolates from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legisa, D; Gonzalez, F; De Stefano, G; Pereda, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-03-01

    Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted viral disease of ruminant species, which represents a major barrier to the international trade of animals and their products. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has a genome composed of ten linear segments of dsRNA, which code for at least ten different viral proteins. In South America, serological evidence for the presence of BTV has been found in Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries where BTV has been isolated. In Brazil, only one BTV isolate, serotype 12, has been reported, whereas in Argentina five BTV serotype 4 isolates have been obtained from cattle without clinical signs. Three of these five isolates were isolated during 1999-2001, whereas two of them were obtained as part of the present work. This study describes sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of segment (Seg)-2, Seg-3, Seg-6, Seg-7 and Seg-10 of the first Argentinian field isolates of BTV. The analysis of Seg-2 and Seg-6 resulted in a single cluster of Argentinian sequences into the serotype 4 clade. In addition, the Argentinian sequences grouped within the nucleotype A clade, along with reference strains. The analysis of Seg-3, Seg-7 and Seg-10 showed that the Argentinian isolates grouped into the western topotype, indicating that the circulating virus had an African/European origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentinian sequences present a South American genetic identity, suggesting an independent lineage evolution. PMID:23152367

  2. Desobediencia civil en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria directa de la voluntad popular y una autocomprensión del carácter democrático de la sociedad civil. La justificación de la desobediencia se basaba en una cuestión de derechos. Todos los manifestantes afirmaban que tenían derecho a desobedecer porque la desobediencia, en ciertas circunstancias, era un derecho humano. ¿Pero puede ser la desobediencia civil, en un Estado de derecho, un auténtico derecho? ¿En qué circunstancias, en el contexto legal y fuera de los derechos habituales de resistencia como huelga, manifestación, etcétera, se puede desobedecer una norma legal? Abstract: The recent economic crisis in Argentina led to the loss of identity of the country’s political institutions. The measure of the suspension of freedom and of the guarantee of individual rights provoked a generalized civil disobedience which led thousands of people to peacefully demonstrate their repudiation of Fernando de la Rúa’s government. This spontaneous, unorganized and voluntary action by the citizens served, among other things, to form a direct primary self-determination of the will of the people and a self-understanding of the democratic character of civil society. The justification of the disobedience was based on a question of rights. All the demonstrators asserted that they had the right to disobey because disobedience, in certain circumstances, was a human right. However, can civil disobedience, in a constitutional state, be an authentic right

  3. Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Mexico: three clinical cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barrera-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human lagochilascariasis (HL is a parasite produced by Lagochilascaris minor Leiper 1909 that also can be found in cats and dogs. HL is considered an emerging zoonosis in the Americas, spreading from Mexico to Argentina, and the Caribbean Islands. The present paper describes three HL cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico, recorded in the last decade. It describes the characteristics of the lesions and discusses the route of transmission in humans and particularly in the observed patients.

  4. Occupational health in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A F

    2000-07-01

    Argentina is within the denominated "new industrialised countries", with the characteristic of having high contrasts in the urban population, based on service and industry, and in the rural population, based on agriculture and cattle, still the main sources of wealth in the country. The process of globalisation and the need to compete hard in international markets have provoked high unemployment and the transfer of workers from a formal market to an informal one. Legislation on occupational health is old and it is in the process of being updated. The system of prevention, assistance and compensation for accidents at work and for occupational illnesses has changed from being optative for employers, to the compulsory hiring of private insurance companies. The Government keeps the role of supervisor of the system. There are enough professionals in occupational health, hygiene and safety but not occupational nurses. The teaching is given by many universities and professional associations, some of which have an active profile in the occupational health of the country. PMID:10963410

  5. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  6. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  7. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    William Marciel de Souza; Alex Martins Machado; Geonildo Rodrigo Disner; Everton Boff; Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues Machado; Michelly de Padua; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies ...

  8. Fiscal management in federal democracies : Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dillinger, William; Webb, Steven B.

    1999-01-01

    In shifting to decentralized public finances, a country's central government faces certain fiscal management problems. First, during and soon after the transition, unless it reduces pending or increases its own tax resources, the central government tends to have higher deficits as it shifts fiscal resources to sub-national governments through transfers, revenue sharing, or delegation of tax bases. Reducing spending is hard, not only because cuts are always hard, but because sub-national gover...

  9. Stopping three big inflations (Argentina, Brazil, and Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiguel, Miguel A.; Nissan Liviatan

    1992-01-01

    Much existing literature fails to recognize that high inflation (annual rates in three digits) is a distinctly different phenomenon from moderate inflation and hyperinflation. The failure to understand the specific features of the inflation process in the chronic high inflation economies has many times led to a wrong diagnosis of the underlying reasons for changes in inflation in those economies, and the policies needed to stabilize prices in those countries. This lack of understanding extend...

  10. Mexico - PROGRESA

    OpenAIRE

    IFPRI

    2002-01-01

    For many of the world's poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food Policy Research Institute's in-depth evaluation of Mexico's PROGRESA (Programa de Educación, Salud y Alimentación) indicates that antipoverty programs that combine education, health, and nutrition interventions in one package can be quite successful in improvi...

  11. Protocol to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the Agreement of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol of 16 October 1998 suspending the application of safeguards under the Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC/237) of 26 February 1976 between the Agency, Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 21 October 1999

  12. El bosque del escarpe occidental del rio Parana (Argentina: composicion floristica y estructura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darién E Prado

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available El borde occidental de la llanura aluvial del río Paraná en Argentina presenta un pronunciado escarpe que no es superado por las crecientes. Su vegetación en un bosque subtropical semideciduo de linaje paranaense-amazónico, dominado por Holocalyx balansae, Ficus luschnathiana, Patagonula americana, Gleditsia amorphoides y otras. Se analizaron seis stands de este bosque empleando el método de los cuadrantes de Cottam y Curtis. Los resultados del relevamiento se exponen aquí, suministrando frecuencia, densidad y dominancia relativas, el valor de importancia de cada especie, junto con la descripción estructural del bosque. Se discute su composición florística comparada con la de bosques semejantes em otras áreas de Argentina y Brasil.The western limit of the alluvial plains of the river Parana in Argentina presents a pronounced scarp, above the level of floodings. The vegetation, a semideciduos subtropical forest of Amazonian origin, was analyzed using the point-centred quarter method. The parameters relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and importance value index for each species are provided, together with a brief structural description. The floristic composition is compared with similar forests elsewhere in Argentina and Brazil.

  13. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Blumer, L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O.A.; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  14. New host records for Anenterotrematidae, Lecithodendriidae and Urotrematidae trematodes in bats from Argentina, with redescription of Anenterotrema liliputianum Nuevos registros de trematodos Anenterotrematidae, Lecitodendriidae y Urotrematidae en murciélagos de Argentina y redescripción de Anenterotrema liliputianum

    OpenAIRE

    Lía I. Lunaschi; Juliana Notarnicola

    2010-01-01

    Anenterotrema liliputianum (Travassos, 1928) (Anenterotrematidae) is redescribed based on the type specimens fromMolossus molossus (Pallas) and Phyllostomus elongatus (Geoffroy) from Brazil, and also on new specimens collected from the Dwarf Dog-faced Bat, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister) (Molossidae) in Argentina. In addition, we report the finding of Gymnoacetabulum talaveraensis (Lunaschi, 2002), Ochoterenatrema labda Caballero, 1943 (Lecithodendriidae), and Urotrema scabridum Braum, 1900...

  15. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union Gmbh Hanau (Federal Republic Of Germany) for Co-Operation in The Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994

  16. Radioactive waste management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided on the major nuclear facilities operating in Argentina and data are given on radioactive wastes arising from these operations. The respective legal framework and the nuclear activities, including research and development, are outlined. The programme for the management of the different categories of radioactive wastes is described. Main milestones for establishing geological repositories for intermediate level and high level waste are highlighted. (author)

  17. Public information activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a presentation involving a description of the main guidelines and conditions under which nuclear activities have been performed in Argentina, both concerning the autonomous development for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and with regard to the way in which the community was informed of the attained levels. The particulars of each approach are shown as to delineate historical evolution as a function of the various stages of technological development. (author)

  18. Home Financing Institutions in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Cristini; Ramiro Moya

    2004-01-01

    (Available only in Spanish) This work analyses the case of the deepening of mortgage lending in Argentina in the 1990s and compares it with the failure of the 1980s. It shows that macroeconomic stability determines the development of the market and that a rapid takeoff can be achieved with the appropriate legal and market institutions (competition between banks and dollar contracts). The real price of property, and unemployment influence the performance of the market, which expands at the rat...

  19. The text of the agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with a contract concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reactor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for co-operation in the field of fabrication of fuel elements for peaceful nuclear activities has been suspended

  20. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  1. Políticas productivas y competitividad industrial: El caso de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bekerman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, on the one hand, to analyze the increase of productive asymmetries between Argentina and Brazil that have been evidencing during the last two decades, and are currently reveled in the structural trade deficit of industrial products that affects Argentina in the bilateral relationship. On the other hand, it intends to contribute to understanding the roots of these asymmetries based on the differences in the public policies implemented by both countries during the period extending from the implementation of the Mercosur, in the early 1990s, until 2008. The focus is set on the technological pattern of industrial production and trade structures, considering a non neutral impact over the long term development.

  2. Determinantes da estrutura de capital das companhias abertas no Brasil, México e Chile no período 2001-2006 Determinants of the capital structure of publicly-traded companies in Brazil, Mexico and Chile in the period 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dias Bastos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga os determinantes da estrutura de capital, utilizando a técnica de painel de dados estático, para uma amostra de 297 empresas, de diversos setores, pertencentes ao Brasil, México e Chile, no período entre 2001 e 2006, a fim de determinar a importância relativa dos fatores específicos da empresa. A partir de seis indicadores de nível de endividamento (contábil total e de curto e longo prazo, total a valor de mercado e financeiros onerosos de curto e longo prazo, foi evidenciado que os fatores específicos da firma: liquidez corrente, rentabilidade, market to book value e tamanho apresentaram os resultados mais significantes para a estrutura de capital das empresas dos três países. Dentre as quatro correntes teóricas analisadas (Trade off, Assimetria de informações, Pecking order e Agência, a teoria do Pecking order parece ser aquela que melhor explica os resultados obtidos para o Brasil e México. Para o Chile, além do Pecking order, a teoria do Trade off exerce forte influência sobre a estrutura de capital.The present study investigates the determinants of the capital structure, using the technique of static panel data, for a sample of 297 companies from several sectors in Brazil, Mexico and Chile, between 2001 and 2006, in order to determine the relative importance of the specific factors of the firm. Starting from six indicators of leverage ratio (total book-debt ratio, short-term and long-term book-debt ratio, total market-debt ratio and short-term and long-term financial-debt ratio, it was evidenced that the specific factors of the firm: current liquidity, profitability, market to book value and size presented the most significant results for the capital structure of the companies from the three countries. Among the four theoretical currents analyzed (Trade off, Asymmetry of information, Pecking order and Agency, the theory of Pecking order seems to be the one that best explains the results obtained

  3. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  4. Mida õpetab Argentina finantskriis? / Karsten Staehr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staehr, Karsten, 1962-

    2002-01-01

    Norra majandusanalüütik kirjeldab Argentina majanduspoliitikat, analüüsib tehtud vigu ning hoiatab avatud majandusega Eestit võimalike tulevaste välisshokkide eest. Diagramm: SKP kasv ja üleüldine riigieelarve tasakaal 1991-2001 Argentinas

  5. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  6. Mexico: prospects for democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Yvonne D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze why Mexico has failed to democratize and offer recommendations for U.S. policy towards Mexico. The thesis examines the impact of three casual variables on the level of democracy in Mexico: civilian control of the military, the fairness of Mexico's political party system, and U.S. foreign policy towards Mexico. NA U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author

  7. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  8. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  9. Argentina en el siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Eugenio Nanni; Adriana Fátima Panico

    2010-01-01

    En un trabajo anterior (“Interpretando la crisis”), analizamos la crisis económico-financiera de 2008-2009 y sus similitudes con otras crisis ocurridas durante el siglo XX en Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido. En este trabajo nos proponemos analizar e interpretar la situación en Argentina, y otros países latinoamericanos. Para el análisis utilizamos las series del producto bruto, calculamos tasas de crecimiento e inflación y realizamos una breve comparación con otros países latinoamericanos. Ut...

  10. Argentina en el sistema internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Tini, María Natalia

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo apunta a analizar cuál es el lugar "real" que ocupa la Argentina en el Sistema Internacional, en contraste, con el lugar "ideal" en que lo ha ido posicionando nuestra dirigencia en los últimos 10 años. Para ello, es esencial realizar un breve repaso de la política exterior llevada a cabo por las administraciones Menem y De La Rúa, como sustento empírico de dicho análisis. La hipótesis plantea que para proyectar una adecuada política exterior es necesario formular un ...

  11. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  12. Consumo de drogas y violencia laboral en mujeres que trabajan, un estudio multicéntrico: México, Perú, Brasil Consumo de drogas e violencia laboral em mulheres que trabalham, um estudo multicêntrico: México, Peru, Brasil Drug consumption and occupational violence in working women, a multicenter study: Mexico, Peru, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Alonso Castillo

    2006-04-01

    identify the presence of occupational violence and its relation with drugs consumption; 4 identify differences and similarities in drugs consumption and occupational violence among women from three communities in Mexico (Monterrey, Peru (Lima and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. A multicenter, descriptive, correlational and comparative study was carried out, with a sample of 903 women. The results show that 11% of the participants in Mexico consume alcohol, 53% in Peru and 45% in Brazil. The consumption of illicit drugs corresponded to 5% in Mexico and 6% in Peru. The presence of occupational violence was found in 16% of the Mexican participants, 24% of the Peruvians and 39% of the Brazilians.

  13. Alcances y potencialidades de la Atención Primaria de la Salud en Argentina Scope and potential of Primary Healthcare in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Stolkiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo forma parte del "Estudio multicéntrico en APS: modelos asistenciales, integración al sistema de salud e intersectorialidad en contextos urbanos en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay". Su objetivo es contextuar, describir y analizar el estado actual de la estrategia de APS en Argentina y sus potencialidades para transformar un sistema de salud fragmentado y segmentado. La metodología de producción de datos consistió en revisión bibliográfica, estudio documental de campo, entrevistas a informantes clave y un taller de debate con actores del sistema. Las dimensiones de análisis de los datos fueron: (1 capacidad de conducción de la APS, (2 financiamiento de la APS, (3 recursos para APS, (4 integralidad y continuidad, (5 articulación intersectorial y relaciones de la APS con actores sociales y políticos. La segmentación del sistema y la gobernanza son categorías analíticas transversales a todas las dimensiones a estudiar. El articulo comienza con una introducción teórica sobre los alcances de las definiciones actuales de APS, luego se caracteriza el contexto social, económico, político y epidemiológico de las políticas de salud en Argentina. Finalmente realiza un análisis de la APS en función de las dimensiones propuestas.This paper is part of the "Southern cone countries multicentric study of primary healthcare: healthcare models, health system integration and intersectoral relations in urban contexts in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay". Its scope is to contextualize, describe and analyze the current state of the PHC strategy in Argentina and its potential for transforming the fragmented and segmented health system. The data-gathering methodology was review of the literature, study of documents, interviews with key informants and workshop discussions with stakeholders of the system. The dimensions of the data analysis were: (1 stewardship capability; (2 PHC financing; (3 provision, human resources and

  14. First record of the subfamily Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae from Argentina Primer registro de la subfamilia Proctolabinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Acrididae para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution records for the first time the subfamily Proctolabinae from Argentina. This subfamily contains 29 genera and 209 species restricted to the Neotropics with only one genus, Eucephalacris Descamps, reaching south as far as Mato Grosso in Brazil and northern Paraguay. Specimens belonging to Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos were collected in Misiones province. The presence of this species registered herein raises to eleven the number of Acrididae subfamilies known to occur in the country, and highlights the importance of conducting surveys of Acridoidea and Orthoptera in general, in diverse regions of Argentina. Brief diagnoses and illustrations of the characters that allowed the identification of the genus and species are also given in this contribution.Esta contribución registra por primera vez la subfamilia Proctolabinae para la Argentina. La subfamilia Proctolabinae contiene 29 géneros y 209 especies restringidas a la región Neotropical, con sólo uno de sus géneros, Eucephalacris Descamps, que llega al sur hasta Mato Grosso en Brasil y el norte de Paraguay. Ejemplares pertenecientes a Eucephalacris borellii (Giglio-Tos fueron colectados en el departamento de Guaraní, provincia de Misiones. La presencia de Eucephalacris borellii, registrada en este trabajo, eleva a once el número de subfamilias de Acrididae presentes en la Argentina, y destaca la necesidad de realizar relevamientos sobre la diversidad de Acridoidea y de Orthoptera en general, en diversas regiones de nuestro país. También se brindan en esta contribución una breve diagnosis e ilustraciones de los caracteres que permiten la identificación del género y de la especie.

  15. Mexico: a model for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J E

    1986-03-01

    In Mexico, a 40 year period of political stability and economic advancement, hailed for its high rates of growth in income per capita, rapid urbanization, and impressive gains in indicators of health and education, seemed to come to a halt in the early 1980s. Since the early 1970s, fertility has declined sharply in chronological association with a new population policy and the implementation of a national family planning program. If in 1940 there was no apparent reason for the Mexican state to have much interest in limiting fertility, such was no longer the case by 1970. The General Law of Population that had been passed in 1947 was laced with the expansionist ideology that dominated demographic issues for more that a century; its pro-natalism had been reinforced by health regulations prohibiting the sale and use of contraceptives and by a penal code that made abortion a crime. Between 1970 and 1981 the total fertility rate fell by about 39%. Since 1975, change in contraceptive practice accounts for the bulk of the measured fertility decline. Between 1976 and 1982 there was a 66% increase in contraceptive prevalence. The government's involvement in family planning activities helped to: 1) develop an effective contraceptive distribution system; 2) circulate extensive information, education, and communication publicizing fertility and images of the small family; and 3) mobilize health practitioners in public institutions to counsel and persuade their clients to accept and practice contraception. The emerging debate over population policy in Brazil may well prefigure debates in other Latin American countries; the recent democratization in Brazil is the vocalization of a demand from women's groups and the left for government provided family planning services. Overall, Mexico's willingness to take the long view tackle the birth rate issue head on is likely to remain an exception in Latin America. PMID:12340888

  16. Sistema de salud de Argentina The health system of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belló

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS, que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll

  17. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  18. New Mexico Golf Courses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of golf courses in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from...

  19. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  20. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  1. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  2. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  3. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Mexico presents econometric investigation of the cyclical determinants of remittances to Mexico. The aggregate U.S. business cycle is not necessarily relevant for remittances. Remittances to Mexico do show a significant relationship with employment conditions in certain regions of the United States. Employment conditions in the U.S. construction sector seem to be especially important as well as remittances for certain regions of Mexico with high rates of emigrati...

  4. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper is a wide-ranging survey of the conditions for, and obstacles to, the growth in Mexico. It frames the issue of Mexico’s growth record, and presents the paper’s prior assumptions and approach. It highlights the main observations and conclusions emerging from the survey of growth conditions in Mexico. It also presents an overview of remittances in Mexico, motivated by their recent increase and possible macroeconomic implications.

  5. Argentina: entre o Mercosul e a Alca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura mostrar que a Argentina não está numa encruzilhada na sua política externa, tendo que escolher entre Mercosul ou Alca. Ao contrário, a Argentina vê o Mercosul como um caminho que leva à Alca, afirmando uma posição que se tornou possível depois da confluência de outros fatores, como a posição brasileira frente a Alca e o modelo de integração regional proposta para o Mercosul.This article seeks to show that Argentina is not in crossroads in your foreign policy, having to choose between Mercosur and FTAA. In contrast, Argentina sees Mercosur as a way that leads to FTAA, affirming a position that become possible after a confluence of others factors, as the Brazilian position front Alca and the model of regional integration proposal for Mercosur.

  6. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  7. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  8. Argentina en el MERCOSUR (2007-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, María Elisa

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan los principales aportes de Argentina en el MERCOSUR, bajo el primer gobierno de Cristina Fernández de Kirchner teniendo en cuenta que el gobierno de la Argentina hizo del bloque regional uno de los ejes principales de su política exterior. Como resultado, en los últimos años han aparecido indicadores de resurgimiento del MERCOSUR, a pesar de lo cual aún persisten algunos conflictos.

  9. Argentina: toward energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina has one operating nuclear power plant, the 367 MWe Atucha I supplied by Kraftwerk Union. The second plant, at Rio Tercero, is a standard 600 MWe CANDU, expected to be in service in 1981. Contractors are Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. for the nuclear steam supply, and Italimpianti for the balance of the plant. Bids are being considered for a third plant, Atucha II. Argentina is moving gradually towards developing a nuclear industry based on its own uranium and manpower resources. (LL)

  10. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  11. Development of solar energy education IASEE-Argentina, Arquisur and Alfa-built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three educational experiences are presented in this paper on the development of national and regional networks to incorporate renewable energy in curricular programmes. IASEE-Argentina, established in 1990 as the National Section of IASEE, the International Association for Solar Energy Education, was designated in 1993 as the Education Working Group of ASADES, the Argentine Association of Solar Energy. It holds annual meetings to coincide with the ASADES conference. Arquisur is a regional network established by Architectural Faculties of State Universities within the Mercosur Region, covering Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, to promote exchange and development between the 19 faculties involved. A Working Group set up by Arquisur with members from four countries developed the programme for short post-graduate courses on bioclimatic design and rational energy use in buildings, which has been given in Argentina and Uruguay. Alfa-Built, a project supported by the European Union for promoting academic exchange in the field of energy efficient building is also introduced. This paper presents the development and initial results of these educational experiences. (author)

  12. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  13. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  14. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia;

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are...... been demonstrated in several studies, but the atmospheric impact of soybean cultivation has not been tested in situ. Some of the models for climate impact (N2O emissions etc) are based on in vitro studies, while field data are scarce. The situation, which is outside the control of the EU, has not been...... environmental sustainability. This is exemplified by soy, whose cultivation undermines the climate benefit claimed for soy-based biodiesel. This paper concludes that to certify soy monocultures as sustainable would exacerbate existing climatic and environmental problems....

  15. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Fernández Zambón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad industrial, de cualquier época, tiene una gran importancia para el hombre, pues al igual que el resto de los procesos económicos, es el reflejo del accionar cotidiano de la sociedad sobre el espacio. Considerando esto, el presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar al patrimonio industrial como recurso para organizar rutas turísticas que permitan en algunos casos recuperar espacios industriales abandonados o usar establecimientos industriales en funcionamiento pero que pueden incorporarse a este tipo de desarrollo turístico. La creación de rutas turísticas puede permitir la reactivación de las economías locales, por constituirse en definitiva en una nueva actividad económica. Para lograr esto es necesario articular el sector público y el privado. De esta forma es posible, a través de la creación de rutas turísticas del patrimonio industrial, generar un desarrollo turístico local sustentable.

  16. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  17. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.)

  18. Cyberbullying: un análisis comparativo en estudiantes de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México, Perú y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Río-Pérez, J. (Jorge) del; Bringué, X. (Xavier); Sádaba, Ch. (Charo); González, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the issue of cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. The focus is on the examination of the extent of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México, Peru, Venezuela tweens and adolescents’ experiences of cyberbullying. A survey study of 21.000 students from 10 to 18 years. In this paper, “cyberbullying” refers to bullying via electronic communication tools: mobile phone/video/picture/text message, Internet/gaming/instant messaging.

  19. Evaluación de los efectos de la remoción de medidas para-arancelarias sobre las exportaciones argentinas de productos textiles

    OpenAIRE

    León, Sonia M.; Roitman, Mauricio E.; Carlos A. Romero.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a quantification of price differentials not explained by tariff policy and the assessment of efficiency costs burned on different economic agents involved in textile products trade between Argentina (exporter) and Brazil (domestic producer). Simulations are carried out to show the effects of the distortion of price differentials, considered like non tariff barriers or a set of them and others obstacle to trade. From the removal of non tariff barriers results that consumers a...

  20. Tropicalismos y europeísmos en el fútbol. La narración de la diferencia entre Brasil y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Alabarces, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the use of the stereotypes in the football narratives of national identity in Argentina and Brazil, starting from a previous work made by the Brazilian anthropologist Simoni Lahud Guedes. I will try to explain, through a bibliographical review and the use of several sources —from sociology and anthropology, to history— the way in which the difference between both countries was narrated, using tropicalism and europeism as stereotypes. These stereotypes (produced by a colon...

  1. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Laboratory-Confirmed Autochthonous Cases of Zika Virus Disease in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Corona, Maria Eugenia; De la Garza Barroso, Ana Lucía; Rodriguez Martínez, Jose Cruz; Luna Guzmán, Norma Irene; Ruiz Matus, Cuitláhuac; Díaz Quiñonez, José Alberto; Lopez Martinez, Irma; Kuri Morales, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2014, autochthonous circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was detected (Easter Island, Chile). In May 2015, Brazil confirmed autochthonous ­­transmission and in October of that year Colombia reported their first  cases. Now more than 52 countries have reported cases, including Mexico. To deal with this contingency in Mexico, several surveillance systems, in addition to systems for vector-borne diseases were strengthened with the participation of all health insti...

  2. Mitochondrial discrimination of stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae: Meliponini) from Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Koling, Diego Fagundes; Moretto, Geraldo

    2010-01-01

    The stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula is a meliponini bee naturally distributed from Argentina to Mexico. Morphologically, based on the mesepisternum color, it is separated into T. angustula angustula and T. angustula fiebrigi subspecies. The objective of this study was to characterize the restriction site variation in the mitochondrial DNA of each subspecies. Samples of worker bees were collected from two regions of Santa Catarina state, known as having a natural distribution of each subs...

  3. Karyology of the Atlantic forest rodent Juliomys (Cricetidae): A new karyotype from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Paresque; Alexandre Uarth Christoff; Valéria Fagundes

    2009-01-01

    Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patte...

  4. Environmental assessment of imported organic products - focusing on orange juice from Brazil and soybeans from China

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2011-01-01

    The import of organic products to Denmark has seen a four to five fold increase during the last seven years, due to a growing demand for organic products. Globally, the market for organic food and drinks has also more than doubled during the same period. The global organic agricultural land has concurrently expanded from 26 to 35 million hectares, mostly due to major conversions in Argentina, China, India, Australia, USA and Brazil. While Europe and North America still makes up th...

  5. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  6. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Oliveira; Jacobs, Fernando; Ritter, Rafael; Dias, Rafael Antunes

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  7. Organic beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.; Vandame, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t).

  8. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper considers the “informal sector†in Mexico. In Mexico and many other countries, the informal sector represents a large share of total employment. The paper reviews the literature on informality, with special focus on findings for Mexico, and develops a theoretical model that highlights the importance of externalities and the distortion associated with the informal sector. The analysis provides insight into the kinds of policy measures that might sustainably reduce...

  9. Organic Beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador; Gänz, Peter; Vandame, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t). Two condit...

  10. The nuclear research centre at Bariloche, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear research centre at Bariloche (CAB) is one of the four centres under the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA). The research programme of CAB addresses various issues like nuclear reactor development, nuclear fuel and fuel cycle, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, and waste management. There is also a basic nuclear science component. The human resource development in the areas of physics and nuclear engineering is done in an associated Balseiro Institute which has undergraduate and graduate programmes as well as doctoral and postdoctoral research. The Centre interacts well with the society and provides services in the nuclear area. It has a close interaction with the nuclear sector of Argentina as also with many international organisations. Regulatory control over the Centre is carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina. (author)

  11. C and O isotopic composition of late cretaceous-paleocene carbonate sequences in Argentina and Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many basins where the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition has been investigated, important environmental changes have been observed. Only in few places in South America this transition was recorded by carbonates to allow for a C, O isotope investigation, important sensors for climatic changes. Among these localities, it deserves mentioning the Pernambuco-Paraiba a coastal basin, NE Brazil, the Yacoraite and Neuquen basins, Argentina, and Navidad, Algarrobo and Magellan basins, Chile. Some C and O isotope data for K-T transition carbonates are available for the Pernambuco-Paraiba coastal basin. In this basin, Ferreira et al. (1996) observed an important incursion of δ13C from +2%oPDB to -5.5%oPDB at the K-T transition in limestones, as usually observed worldwide (e.g. Magaritz,1989) accompanied by an increase in δ18O (-6 to -3%oPDB) to 1%oPDB, suggesting an important cooling at the K-T transition. Ashrof and Stinnesbeck (1989) recognized a major climatic change in the K-T transition in north-eastern Brazil, a tropical to subtropical climate predominated during the Maastrichtian, whereas subtropical to temperate one prevailed during the Danian. Hsu and Wissert (1980) proposed, based on O isotopes, that during Late Maastrichtian, temperatures in South Atlantic ranged from 18 to 25oC, culminating with cooling immediately before the K-T transition. Huber et al. (1995) proposed a gradual cooling to values as low as 10oC, in the Late Maastrichtian, in the southern high latitudes. We examine here the behavior of C and O isotopes and chemistry (Si, Mg/Ca, Sr, Fe and Mn) in the Yacoraite Fm. (Maimara and Cabra Corral localities, NW Argentina) and in the Magellanes Province, southern Chile. One of the scopes of this study is to contrast the C and O isotope patterns from southern South America with those in NE Brazil (au)

  12. Competition Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Estrada Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    The CFC faces significant challenges from cartel activity, prevailing regulatory restrictions on competition, and exclusionary practices undertaken by some of the most powerful corporations in Mexico.

  13. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas S. Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.O registro osteológico de dinossauros no Mesozóico brasileiro está restrito a rochas triássicas do Rio Grande do Sul e estratos cretáceos de várias partes do país. Isto inclui 21 espécies nominais, sendo duas referidas como nomina dubia, e 19 consensualmente classificadas como dinossauros. Oito táxons supraespecíficos adicionais baseados em material fragmentado e diversas pegadas são conhecidos no Brasil. De fato, a maior parte dos espécimes é composta de dentes isolados e vértebras. Apesar do aumento em trabalhos de campo na última

  14. Export-Led Growth and Geographic Distribution of the Poultry Meat Industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    This paper includes an examination of the sustainability of recent high growth in the poultry meat industry in Brazil. In addition, an assessment is made of the impact of increased production of poultry meat products on the development of local industries. Comparative studies of leading companies in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil reveal competitive advantages in the low costs of feedstuff and labor as well as disadvantages in the scale of business and management efficiency in the Brazi...

  15. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  16. First baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients from the brazilian borders with Argentina and Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Neri C Machado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the triple border Brazil/Paraguay/Argentina there is easy mobility from one city to another for economic and tourism activities. This constant and fast population mobility is mainly to visit Iguazu Falls, in the Iguazu River, on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná and the Argentina. As the incidence of tuberculosis is high in this setting, our study aimed to establish a first baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study included 120 patients from 10 cities in southwestern Paraná, Brazil with pulmonary symptoms, from July 2009 to July 2011. Information about sex, age, clinical features and address was collected by reviewing the national tuberculosis notification database. Of these, 96 (80% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and 22 (22.9% were drug resistant (20, 20.8% INH mono-resistant and 2, 2.1% multidrug-resistant. All isolates were subjected to genotyping by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. The distribution of the isolates analyzed by spoligotyping revealed 30 distinct patterns. The four mainly detected clades were Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM, ill-defined T, Haarlem (H and S. The MIRU-VNTR showed 85 distinct patterns. Spoligotyping combined to MIRU-VNTR allowed 90 distinct patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that there is significant molecular diversity in circulating M. tuberculosis, with predominance of the LAM and T clades in cities of southwestern Paraná, Brazil, bordering Argentina and Paraguay.

  17. Radioactive waste management strategy in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an outline is given concerning the treatment, conditioning, characterization, storage, transport and final disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the fuel cycle, radioisotopes production plant, research centers, etc. The overall strategy of the Argentina program is to plan, develop and implement the technology and provide the facilities for the permanent isolation of commercially generated wastes, with the aim that this waste not compromise the health and safety of the general public. To implement all these activities, CNEA has established in 1986 a Radioactive Waste Management Program. This long term project is aimed at meeting all the requirements for the radioactive waste management of Argentina

  18. El desarrollo nuclear de Argentina y Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanar, Silvia; Romegialli, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    En el Cono Sur Latinoamericano, Brasil y Argentina han concluido en materia de energía atómica una serie de acuerdos bilaterales, con jerarquía de tratados vinculatorios, que aseguran el uso exclusivamente pacífico de la energía nuclear. En los años 90 se profundiza el fortalecimiento de la confianza mutua, los gobiernos de Carlos Menem, en Argentina, Collor de Melho, Itamar Franco y Fernando H. Cardoso, en Brasil, siguen los lineamientos de las grandes potencias y en particular de Estados Un...

  19. Migration trends in Argentina: immigration and exile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Osvaldo ESTEBAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the development of a typology of migration flows, the paper reviews the most important trends in the history of Argentina: the massive European immigration, internal migrations, and immigration from neighbouring countries. The paper then discuss the current process of emigration from Argentina, and the return of old immigrants. The paper assess the economic factors involved through an analysis of unemployment, poverty and income distribution indicators in recent years. Finally, the paper examines the possibility of diminishing the recent emigration trend due to economic reasons.

  20. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  1. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico. PMID:27224209

  2. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (serpentes: pseudoboini in Paraguay and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. Scott Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes of the pseudoboine genera Clelia, which is probably polyphyletic, and Boiruna are distributed from southern Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay northwards into central México. Six members occur in Paraguay and Argentina: B. maculata, Clelia bicolor, C. clelia, C. plumbea, C. quimi, and C. rustica. Historically, there has been taxonomic confusion among the larger species (B. maculata, C. clelia, C. plumbea, and C. rustica and between the small species (C. bicolor and C. quimi. All of the species except C. rustica have distinct ontogenetic color changes. Species can be distinguished on the bases of size, color, hemipenial spines, and loreal, supralabial, and ventral scale counts. Much of the morphological evolutionary differentiation in Boiruna and Clelia seems to have taken place in the snout region, as evidenced by the differing proportions of the scales of the loreal region. Boiruna maculata has the widest ecological amplitude. It is broadly distributed in most vegetation types north of the 38th parallel in central Argentina, being absent only from the deltaic sediments of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina and the broad valleys and rolling hills of eastern Paraguay. Clelia bicolor is most common in the Paraguay and Paraná river valleys, with a few records from the Andean foothills in northern Argentina. Clelia clelia is distributed along the Río Paraguay and the lower Paraná, and is also found throughout much of eastern Paraguay. Clelia plumbea is apparently parapatric with C. clelia along the Río Paraná in southeastern Paraguay and Misiones Province, Argentina. The ranges of C. quimi to the east and C. bicolor in the west about in this same region without apparent overlap. There are no vouchered records of Clelia rustica from Paraguay. In Argentina, it is a species of temperate climates; north of the 30th parallel, it occurs in the Andean foothills and the wet forests of Misiones Province. Southwards, it is widely distributed

  3. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  4. Argentina - Women Weaving Equitable Gender Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political, and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18 percent and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58 percent in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living the poverty line and impacting in a disproportionate manner the most vulnerable and poverty stricken fami...

  5. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  7. 1974 amnesty for migrants in Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Marmora L

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper commenting on migration policy trends and 1974 legislation (Decree 087-74) comprising an amnesty for irregular migrants in Argentina - discusses migrant workers' legal status and impact on the labour market, and considers their geographic distribution, demographic aspects, nationality, illiteracy, labour force participation, occupational structure, etc. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  8. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Paula; Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy.

  9. China Looks to Argentina to Grow Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ It might sound perverse for a Chinese company to go halfway round the globe to grow soya and other crops on unproductive land in a dry corner of Argentina. Yet that is what Beidahuang Group, a state-owned farm company based in the north-eastern Chinese province of Heilongjiang, is doing in the Pa-tagonian province of Rio Negro.

  10. Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Coronavirus Infection in Pigs, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Maria A.; Cappuccio, Javier; Piñeyro, Pablo; Basso, Walter; Moré, Gastón; Kienast, Mariana; Schonfeld, Sergio; Cáncer, José L.; Arauz, Sandra; Pintos, María E.; Nanni, Mariana; Machuca, Mariana; Hirano, Norio; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of vomiting, wasting, and encephalomyelitis syndrome in piglets in Argentina, caused by porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis coronavirus (PHE-CoV) infection. Diagnosis was made by epidemiologic factors, pathologic features, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription–PCR, and genomic sequencing. This study documents PHE-CoV infection in South America.

  11. The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Brysk, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition of 1994 out-of-print Stanford University Press study of human rights protest, social change, and democratization in Argentina.  A symbolic politics analysis of the truth commission, trials, and policy reform in Latin America's most sweeping transition of the 1980's.

  12. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México. 2 - Fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar sua introdução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.Foram identificados fatores que poderiam facilitar ou dificultar a introdução da anticoncepção de emergência (AE no Brasil, Chile e México. Foram levantadas informações sobre o contexto sócio-cultural, político e legal bem como sobre as características dos serviços da saúde reprodutiva. As opiniões de potenciais usuários e possíveis provedores foram obtidas por meio de grupos de discussão, e as das autoridades e outras pessoas influentes por intermédio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. Os obstáculos incluíram: percepção da AE como abortiva; oposição da Igreja Católica; pouco reconhecimento dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos; pouca educação sexual; e falta de sensibilidade frente às questões de gênero. Os facilitadores foram: percepção da AE como um método que

  13. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: 1 - Perceptions of emergency oral contraceptives Aceitabilidade da anticoncepção de emergência no Brasil, Chile e México: 1 - Percepções sobre as pílulas de anticoncepção de emergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Díaz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study on the acceptability of emergency contraception (EC in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Opinions of potential users and possible providers were obtained through discussion groups and those of authorities and policy-makers through semi-structured interviews. Most participants had a positive opinion of EC, based on the view that it can help reduce unplanned pregnancy, adolescent pregnancy, and unsafe abortion. Several interviewees felt that all women should be informed about EC, while others viewed it as a method for special situations such as rape and unprotected first sexual intercourse. Concern was expressed that its introduction might be associated with a decrease in condom use, increase in sexually transmitted diseases, and irresponsible or promiscuous sexual behavior among adolescents. The need for EC was clearly perceived by most participants, leading to the conclusion that health authorities have the responsibility of implementing programs for its introduction. Training of health care personnel should include the discussion of reproductive health problems that could be prevented by EC.Apresentam-se opiniões de potenciais usuárias e possíveis provedores de anticoncepção de emergência (AE no Brasil, Chile e México. As opiniões foram obtidas em grupos de discussão, e a opinião de autoridades e outras pessoas influentes por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. A maioria teve uma opinião positiva sobre a AE, que poderia contribuir para reduzir gravidez não planejadas, o aborto provocado e a gravidez entre adolescentes. Alguns consideraram que todas as mulheres deveriam saber sobre a AE, enquanto outros pensaram que era um método para situações especiais, tais como estupro e uma primeira relação sexual desprotegida. As preocupações foram de que sua introdução poderia estar associada à diminuição do uso do condom, aumento das doenças de transmissão sexual e comportamento sexual

  14. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-01-01

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state. PMID:27395747

  15. Nuclear energy regulation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority was established as an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina by Act known as the Nuclear Activity National Act, and is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. This report details functions and competence of the regulatory body in order to preserve its own independent criterion regarding every aspect of radiological and nuclear safety, and the global strategy of the regulatory system, which are concentrated in the following basics aspects: issue of the corresponding standards; execution of regulatory inspections and audits to verify the compliance with granted licenses and authorisations; independent execution of analyses and studies for the licensing process of nuclear installations; development of technical and scientific aspects associated to radiological and nuclear safety; training of personnel involved in radiological and nuclear safety, either belonging to the Regulatory Body or those working in installations, which perform practices under control. The regulatory control activities are carried out with independence of technical opinions and decisions; administrative autarchy; legal capacity to act in the field of public and private rights, and qualified personnel. The regulatory system complies with the concept of safety culture and its development, and the commitment to nuclear power plants' safety is made clear in design or operation concepts giving priority to safety over economic rentability of the installations. The compliance with Maintenance Programs, In-service Inspection Programs and good operation practices are also part of the commitment. This paper describes the organisational structure of the regulatory body, its human resources, personnel qualification and training, and the necessary financial resources. The regulatory body issues and establishes the standards, which regulate and

  16. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

  17. Census Snapshot: New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in New Mexico. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in New Mexico. In many ways, the more than 6,000 same-sex couples living in New Mexico are similar to married couple...

  18. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes external shocks and business cycle fluctuations in Mexico. The paper examines the relative importance of U.S. demand shocks—and other foreign disturbances—in explaining Mexican output fluctuations. It identifies the dynamic response of Mexico’s output to those shocks. The paper investigates which U.S. variables are most relevant to explaining business cycles in Mexico. It analyses potential spillovers and channels of transmission underlying the linkag...

  19. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reserve adequacy in Mexico. Reserve adequacy has been of renewed interest, as the authorities have introduced a new rules-based mechanism of U.S. dollar sales to reduce the rate of reserve accumulation. The paper examines the recent experience with Mexico’s fiscal management tools in light of the need for further consolidation. It reviews evidence on the cyclical behavior of fiscal policy in Mexico, finding that it has generally been procyclical since the...

  20. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes reforms to Mexico’s fiscal framework. Mexico’s resilient economic performance would be consolidated by increasing fiscal policy buffers and preparing for challenges associated with long-term budget pressures. In the short term, reducing public debt levels can create space to implement countercyclical fiscal policies and reduce exposure to high financing and hedging costs, which would protect Mexico’s credit rating at times of distress. The paper highl...

  1. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  2. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar María Esther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.

  3. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  4. A integração Brasil-Argentina no final dos anos 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gomes Saraiva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explica a situação das relações entre Brasil e Argentina no final dos anos 90. Orienta-se para o destaque dos quatro campos mais relevantes deste processo de integração, que são o econômico, onde esta está mais presente; a área de política externa e segurança, que, nos anos 90, apresentou divergências; o âmbito campo científico com suas limitações; e o campo da cooperação energética. Como referência, utiliza em alguns momentos uma perspectiva histórica para contextualizar o período em questão.The article approaches the situation of Brazil-Argentina relations at the end of the 90's. It focuses on the four major fields of the process of integration, which are the economic one, where integration is stronger; the foreign policy and security one, which in the 90's presented disagreements; the scientific one and its limitations; and the field of energetic cooperation. It also utilizes a historical perspective as background for a better understanding of the period.

  5. International Seminar on Nuclear policy in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 25 and April 26, 2013 was held in Buenos Aires the International Seminar 'Nuclear Politics in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives', organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), the National University of San Martin (UNSAM) and University of San Andres (UdeSA). With the main objective of creating an area for reflection and discussion on the state of the global nuclear policy, its impact on the region and in our country, and raised as an area of interaction between the academic and those working in the sector policies. The seminar consisted of six thematic panels, in addition to the opening session, in which academics and researchers exposed renowned in dialogue with officials and professionals of the nuclear sector. In this seminar were presented some papers of the following topics: historical approaches to nuclear policy in emerging contexts; nuclear policy and civil society; discussion and perspectives on proliferation and non-proliferation, security in the post-Fukushima: discussion and perspectives; Argentina-Brazil: from competition to cooperation, present and prospects for the nuclear industry.

  6. Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal E Carbajo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

  7. 1973 Veracruz, Mexico Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — South of Veracruz, southeastern Mexico. Damage: Severe. The earthquake caused heavy damage in the states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Thousands were left...

  8. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  9. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  10. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  11. Occupational health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico. PMID:12028953

  12. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    On 1 July 2001, a far-reaching free trade agreement between the EFTA States and Mexico entered into force. ”Doing Business in Mexico” provides targeted assistance to Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) that wish to tap the potential of Mexico as both an export destination and investment location. This comprehensive guide contains information and advice on market research, market entry, and investment in this fascinating country. Part I introduces the reader to this fascinating ...

  13. Privatization in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Alberto; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Mexico redefined the role of the state in its economy through an ambitious program to liberalize trade, promote efficiency and reduce the size and scope of the state-owned sector. In Mexico, privatization led to a significant improvement in firm performance, as profitability increased 24 percentage points and converged to levels similar to those of private firms. From this increase, at most 5 percent can be attributed to higher prices and 31 percent to transfers from w...

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the global crisis and potential growth in Mexico. The paper uses two methodologies to assess to what extent the global crisis is likely to weigh on Mexico’s growth potential. The first approach is sectoral, examining the historical relationship between financial stress and growth in manufacturing industries. The second approach uses a growth-accounting framework to take a closer look at likely developments in the factors that drive potential growth. The p...

  15. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Mexico’s growth process in trend and cyclical factors, with implications for policy decisions, is discussed. Mexico’s trade integration has been important for growth. But the high export growth experienced has been followed by a more muted performance. Reforms to improve productivity are important to sustain export dynamism. Fiscal credibility, underpinned by prudent fiscal management and a strong fiscal framework, permitted a countercyclical fiscal response during the global crisis. Howe...

  16. REDD+ i Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leithoff Christensen, Anneliese; Bondo Vester, Rasmus; Q. Madsen, Camilla Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Mexico joined the REDD+ program (Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) in 2010, and has since worked on the design of a national strategy to be implemented in the country. Through ACF's theoretical perspective, we analyze advocacy coalitions and belief systems of the actors in the subsystem in the design of Mexico's REDD+ national strategy. All coalitions in the subsystem share a deep core belief that REDD+ as vision has the potential to tackle deforestation problems. ...

  17. Poverty alleviation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Santiago

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of poverty in Mexico. Its four objectives are to : i) present evidence; ii) analyze economic determinants; iii) discuss policy options; and iv) assess existing poverty programs. The author begins by giving a very brief discussion of recent economic events, as these set the stage for poverty programs in the 1990's. The paper goes on to discuss the concept of poverty measurement. The author presents evidence of the extent of poverty in Mexico. He aims at...

  18. La celebración del año internacional de la mujer en Argentina (1975: acciones y conflitos The celebration of the international women's year in Argentina (1975: actions and conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Giordano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia las repercusiones del Año Internacional de la Mujer (1975 en Argentina, cuya actividad central fue la Conferencia reunida en México DF entre el 19 de junio y el 2 de julio. En ese momento, Argentina atravesaba una coyuntura de fuerte conflictividad política situada entre dos férreas dictaduras (1966-1973 y 1976-1983. La convocatoria de la ONU dio a las mujeres mayor visibilidad como sujetos sociales con demandas propias. Es un tema poco visibilizado en la historiografía, que aquí se aborda considerando la invocación de los derechos de las mujeres como consigna política en disputa. El análisis permite evidenciar los límites y la reticencia del Estado y de algunas mujeres y grupos de mujeres para abarcar esas demandas.This article studies the impact of the International Women's Year (1975 in Argentina. Its main activity was an International Conference which took place in Mexico City between June, 19 and July, 2. At that moment, Argentina was going though a time of strong political conflict, a time embedded between two fierce dictatorships (1966-1973 y 1976-1983. It is a topic which has not been so much visible in historiographical studies and that this article considers together with the invocation of women's rights as a disputable political cause. The invitation addressed by the UN made women more visible as individuals with their own demands. The analysis of this topic helps evidence the limits and unwillingness of the State and of some women and women's groups to embrace those demands.

  19. The Determinants of Sovereign Bond Spreads: Theory and Facts From Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the macroeconomic determinants of sovereign bond spreads in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and discusses the economic policies underlying the divergent fortunes experienced by these countries over 1993-2001. Those determinants, n

  20. Stevia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Russia, Israel, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina. ... that taking stevioside does not reduce blood pressure. Diabetes. Evidence on how stevia might affect blood sugar ...

  1. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second issue of Volume 3, with articles that examine higher education and/or action research projects in Argentina, Brazil, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, and other contexts.

  2. O Brasil e a ALCA: um estudo a partir da Argentina Brazil and the FTAA: a study from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    María Julieta Cortes

    2004-01-01

    A proposta da Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA), lançada por George Bush (pai), e seu novo impulso, dado por Clinton, foram recebidos com muita cautela no Brasil. A partir de 1990, o governo Collor de Mello, diante do esgotamento do modelo de desenvolvimento interno baseado na substituição de importações, pleiteou uma recomposição da política externa adaptada ao novo projeto. Desse modo, iniciou-se a abertura paulatina do mercado interno, acompanhada de um incremento nas importações ...

  3. Communication of 28 February 1997 received from the resident representative of Brazil to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the 'Joint Declaration on the Transport of Radioactive Waste' of the Governments of the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Republic of Chile and the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, issued to the press on 17 January 1997. The document was received by the Director General of the IAEA on 4 March 1997 from the Resident Representative of the Federative Republic of Brazil on behalf of his Government and the Governments of the other three countries involved

  4. Spent fuel management of NPPs in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two Nuclear Power Plants in operation in Argentina: 'Atucha I' (unique PHWR design) in operation since 1974, and 'Embalse' (typical Candu reactor) which started operation in 1984. Both NPPs are operated by 'Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A' which is responsible for the management and interim storage of spent fuel till the end of the operative life of the plants. A third NPP, 'Atucha II' is under construction, with a similar design of Atucha I. The legislative framework establishes that after final shutdown of a NPP the spent fuel will be transferred to the 'National Atomic Energy Commission', which is also responsible for the decommissioning of the Plants. In Atucha I, the spent fuel is stored underwater, until another option is implemented meanwhile in Embalse the spent fuel is stored during six years in pools and then it is moved to a dry storage. A decision about the fuel cycle back-end strategy will be taken before year 2030. (authors)

  5. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author)

  6. Presence of Pleurotus ostreatus in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Bernardo Ernesto; Petersen, Ronald; Rajchenberg, Mario; Albertó, Edgardo

    2002-06-01

    Specimens belonging to the genus Pleurotus were collected growing on fallen trunks of Araucaria araucana, a native tree with a poorly known mycoflora, which grows in Patagonia, Argentina. Fruitbodies were produced in culture on sawdust from an isolated strain. Interspecific pairing tests performed between mating types of Pleurotus from Patagonia and tester strains of P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus showed the Patagonia strain to be 100% compatible with P. ostreatus and incompatible with P. pulmonarius. Dikaryons obtained on sawdust were fertile, since they were able to produce fruitbodies and viable spores. This is the first documented record of P. ostreatus from Argentina and the first gilled fungus found growing on Araucaria araucana. PMID:12828514

  7. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Román Carlos Ríos; Franklin Galvão; Gustavo Ribas Curcio

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m). In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angusti...

  8. Memories of the armed struggle in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Margarita Pasquali

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and develops some of the edges on working of the guerrilla that emerge in the memories of the former militants of the armed organizations in Argentina. Beginig from this journey we will have access to the registration that one has presently on it, which will allows us to establish part of the subjective environment of the moment, the main characters consideration of the activism and their significance in the general context of the militancy.

  9. Radioactive waste packaging and transport in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is aimed at summarising the activities related to the transport of radioactive materials carried out in Argentina and, especially, with regard to the transport of radioactive wastes. In particular, the legislation applicable within the national territory is described. Additionally, figures are provided on the features and amounts of transported radioactive materials, including radioactive wastes, concerning both the nuclear fuel cycle and activities related to their industrial and medical applications. (Author)

  10. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Eduardo N Zerba; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector M.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance rat...

  11. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  12. Stronger Municipalities for Stronger Cities in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rémy Prud'homme; Hervé Huntzinger; Pierre Kopp

    2004-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have been devoted to the twin issues of economic development and of decentralization in Argentina. Many papers have tried to understand the complex system of intergovernmental relations. Most of them, however, have focussed on the role of provinces, and neglected the problems raised by municipalities. This paper tries to bridge this gap, and to suggest that stronger municipalities could contribute to produce stronger cities that would in turn foster economi...

  13. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-01-01

    Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...

  14. The "Private School Advantage" in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Fischman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.

  15. Informal Jobs and Trade Liberalisation in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Rojas, G.; Acosta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid trade liberalisation can exert profound effects on labour markets. Domestic firms, to sustain competitiveness for survival, could react through cutting labour benefits to achieve cost reductions. Alternatively, trade liberalisation may alter the industry composition of firms changing the aggregate formality rates. This paper studies the relationship between trade liberalisation and informality in Argentina. Using manufacturing industry-level data for 1992-2003, the results confirm the h...

  16. Lo público y lo privado: las aseguradoras y la atención médica en Mexico Public and private: insurance companies and medical care in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamez

    1995-12-01

    cuanto a los ramos de seguros encontramos que el rubro enfermedades y accidentes pasó de representar el 8.84% en 1984 a 19.08% en 1991. Esta situación expresa que el proceso de privatización de la atención médica en México tiene como uno de sus principales componentes la industria aseguradora, lo que se manifiesta a través del apoyo que el Estado ha brindado a la expansión de los grandes complejos médico industriales del país. Esto, ubicado en un contexto de continuidad del. modelo neoliberal, conducirá a una profundización de la inequidad y la desigualdad social en México.During the late 70's and early 80's in Mexico, as in the rest of Latin-America, sanitary policies were directed to support the growth of the private sector of health care at the expense of the public sector. This work analyzes the evolution of the health insurance market as a part of the privatization process of health care. The analysis based on economic data, provides the political profile behind the privatization process as well as the changes in the relations between the State and the health sector. The central hypothesis is that the State promotes and supports the growth of the private market of medical care via a series of legal, fiscal and market procedures. It also discusses the State roll in the legal changes related to the national insurance activity. A comparative analysis is made about the evolution of the insurance industry in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico during the period 1986-1992, with a particular enfasis in the last country. One of the principal results is that the Premium/GNP and Premium/per capita, display a general growth in the 4 countries. This growth is faster for Mexico for each one because the privatization process ocurred only during the most recent years. For the 1984-1991 period in Mexico the direct premium as percentage of the GNP raised from 0.86% to 1.32%. If one focussed only in the insurance for health and accidents branches the rice goes form 8

  17. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  18. Licensing new uranium production projects in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the decision to complete construction and begin operation of the Atucha II Plant, Argentina's nuclear reactor fuel requirements will increase in the mid-term from 120 tU/year to 220 tU/year. Current market conditions justify reactivation of indigenous production of uranium concentrates that could progressively replace imports. Consequently, CNEA presented to the Mendoza Province and national (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) licensing authorities a proposal for reactivation of the San Rafael Mining-Milling Complex. The main step in the licensing process is the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This includes both assessment of the engineering for remediation of waste generated during previous production activities, and of environmental management of future production activities. The EIA was carried out by the National Technological University. The Cerro Solo Project, Chubut Province, which is currently at the pre-feasibility stage, is being considered for initiation of the feasibility study and development-production stage. Under present market conditions, the estimated project production cost has become competitive, and the resources of the project could be sufficient to supply the long-term needs of Argentina's nuclear power plants. Taking into account the increasing interest in environmental issues, and stricter environmental regulations, the main challenges to re-activation of uranium production in Argentina are: improvement of interaction with local communities; training of skilled personnel in waste management; and developing cost estimates and plans for mine-mill closure. (author)

  19. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  20. The politics of cyborgs in Mexico and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Elizabeth Ginway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cyborg body in contemporary Mexican science fiction, contrasting it with its depiction in other countries of Latin America. Beginning in the 1990s, Mexican science fiction authors write stories about implants and neo-cyborgs, anticipating Alex Rivera’s portrait of “cybraceros” in his 2008 film Sleep Dealer by nearly a decade. The defiant cyborgs of Mexico are distinct from those of the Southern Cone, where they relate most often to torture and unresolved political issues from the period of re-democratization, and from those of Brazil, where they are related to issues of race and urbanization.  While in Mexico and Brazil the cyborg is often used as a critique of neoliberal policies and the privatization of public industries, the insistence on the embodiment of cyborgs in Mexico is often tied to labor and border issues, problematizing the idea of cyborg-mestizaje or hybridity.  Heriberto Yepez questions concepts of hybridity that diminish the inherent sense of difference and struggle through a discourse of conciliation. The Mexican cyborg figure that insists on the importance of its body time and again demonstrates its resistance to facile notions of political and cybernetic hybridity

  1. The office furniture market in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe

    2001-01-01

    The value of the office furniture market in Latin America is estimated to be about one third of the European one. Brazil is by far the largest office furniture producer and consumer in the area, followed by Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela and Colombia. This report analyses trends in office furniture production and consumption in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). It also covers office furniture i...

  2. Getting realabout inequality : evidence from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Goni, Edwin; Lopez, Humberto; Serven, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Consumption baskets vary across households and inflation rates vary across goods. As a result, standard consumer price index (CPI) inflation may provide a misleading measure of the inflation actually faced by poor households, more so the more unequal the distribution of aggregate consumption across households. Likewise, changes in observed nominal consumption inequality may be very different from those in true inequality, that is, that measured using household-specific CPIs. The authors explo...

  3. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  6. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  7. Overview of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an outline of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina. It discusses the nuclear activities and electricity production in Argentina, evolution of the activities in fuel engineering, fuel fabrication, fuel performance at Embalse nuclear power plant and spent fuel storage options.

  8. Laboratory Surveillance of Dengue in Argentina, 1995–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Gabriela; Paz, Maria Valeria; Rangeon, Griselda; Ranaivoarisoa, Marie Y.; Verzeri, Nora; Roginski, Sandra; Baroni, Pablo; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    Local transmission of dengue fever virus in Argentina is increased by the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue outbreaks in neighboring countries. From 1995 to 2001, a laboratory-based active surveillance program detected 922 dengue cases. Indigenous transmission involving dengue-1 and -2 serotypes was confirmed only in subtropical areas in northern Argentina.

  9. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  10. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage...

  11. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  12. HSIP Hospitals in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Hospitals in New Mexico The term "hospital" ... means an institution which- (1) is primarily engaged in providing, by or under the supervision of physicians, to...

  13. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  14. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  15. Disciplinando la sociedad a través de la ciudad: El origen del urbanismo en Argentina y Brasil (1894-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Outtes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo observa la génesis de un discurso sobre urbanismo en Brasil y Argentina entre 1894 y 1945, utilizando las ideas de Foucault de disciplina y su concepto de "bio-poder". Se discute el patrón demográfico de las grandes ciudades en ambos países desde 1890 en adelante. Los planes propuestos para las mismas ciudades en los años ´20 y sus representaciones urbanas, son analizados así como las ideas de reforma social, el papel de la higiene para el urbanismo, y la relación entre el taylorismo y la ciudad. Se analiza el uso del urbanismo como un elemento de construcción nacional y las ideas de eugenesia para el urbanismo. Su implementación constituyó una forma de crear una cultura industrial, disciplinando la sociedad a través de la ciudad, aunque el proletariado industrial nunca llegó a ser mayoría en la población de Brasil o ArgentinaThis paper looks at the genesis of a discourse on urbanism in Brazil and Argentina between 1894 and 1945 using the ideas of Foucault on discipline and his concept of bio-power. Demographic pattern of the major cities in both countries from 1890 onwards is discussed. Plans proposed for the same cities in the 1920s and to urban representations, such as ideas about social reform, the role of hygiene in urbanism, and the relationship of ideas on Taylorism and the city are also discussed. The paper also analyzes the use of planning as an element of nation building and ideas defining eugenics in city planning. The implementation of city urbanism was a way of creating an industrial culture, disciplining society through the city, although the industrial proletariat never made up the majority of the population in Brazil or Argentina

  16. Cadenas productivas y disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina Productive chains and food availability in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Giai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 2009 se conformó en la Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietistas el Grupo de Estudio sobre Soberanía Alimentaria, constituido por un grupo de Licenciados en Nutrición con interés en el tema. Como primer objetivo, el Grupo se propuso estudiar tres temas: "el Derecho a la Alimentación", "la Producción y Disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina" y "la Canasta Básica de Alimentos". En el presente artículo se expone un resumen de los avances en el segundo tema mencionado.In April 2009, was formed in the Argentina Association of Dieticians and Nutritionists Dietitians the Study Group on Food Sovereignty, established by a group of graduates in nutrition with interest in the subject. As a first objective, the Group was to examine three issues: "The Right to Food", "Production and Availability of food in Argentina" and "Basic Food Basket." This article is a summary of progress on the second topic mentioned.

  17. Humboldt's works on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Leitner

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish and English. Humboldt wrote about Mexico from the perspective of a scientific explorer and naturalist. His works include his diaries, the Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, the Tablas géograficas, the Vues des Cordillères and a geographic atlas. Concerning the scientific aspect, the lack of a section on Mexico in the Relation historique is not a real deficit, since this can be found in the Essai. But only the diaries and letters from the journey, both published by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Research Centre, Berlin, can be considered an adequate substitute.The following will show the origin of Humboldt's writings on Mexico, offer historical and bibliographical facts and present the publications "Beiträge zur Alexander von Humboldt-Forschung", as well as Humboldt’s handwritten estate as far as they are available to us.

  18. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  19. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  20. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the sources of Mexico’s economic growth since the 1960s, and compares various decompositions of historical growth into trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflation process is assessed. The paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative productivity growth rates. The paper also describes the significant steps Mexico has taken to strengthen the structure of its public debt in recent years, both in terms ...

  1. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Mexico is an open economy with strong real and financial links to the rest of the world with risks of spillovers from global turbulence. Recent gains in market share in the U.S. manufacturing market are owed to improved relative unit labor costs and reemergence of a location advantage. Mexico’s current fiscal framework requires measures to offset the emerging challenges of a decline in oil revenues and the projected increase in health- and pensions-related spending. The sustained increase o...

  2. Firearms in New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, S. Z.; Gallaher, M M; Baron, R C; Watson, M E; Sewell, C M

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of firearm ownership and storage practices in New Mexico, we did a random-digit-dialing survey of New Mexico residents in October 1991. Of 200 households surveyed, 79 (40%) had 1 or more firearms in the home. Rural households were more likely than urban households to have firearms (44% versus 30%), and households with annual incomes of greater than $25,000 were more likely to have a firearm than households with incomes of $25,000 or less (41% versus 33%). Household...

  3. Ränne ja autobiograafia. Rändest ja väljarändaja kohanemisest Argentinas 1920. ja 1930. aastatel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivar Jürgenson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 16,000 people left Estonia during 1924–1938. Among the new destinations, the most important ones were South American countries, especially Argentina and Brazil. At the time, Argentina was an attractive destination for immigrants. In the first half of the 20th century, Argentina surpassed the majority of European countries with regard to the income per capita, health care and education. The first larger group of Estonians (30–50 people arrived in Argentina in 1924. In each following year, the number of Estonian immigrants fluctuated between 40 and 60, so that by 1930, about 300–350 Estonians lived in Argentina, mostly in the capitalBuenos Aires.The current article examines, on one hand, the relationship between (externalenvironmental conditions of migration and (internal personal migration related decisions. On the other hand, the micro level of migration is analysed through a biographical narrative, particularly focusing on the impact of personal migration and the adaptation story on the retrospective autobiography. The micro level of migration is observed mainly on the basis of an autobiographical novel by Raimund Põdder. His earlier written travelogue, and the letters and surveys of other Estonian settlers in Argentinaoffer opportunities for substantial comparisons. Text examples from the writings of R. Põdder, presented in this article, are inclined to give evidence of a typical voluntary labour migrant: young, unmarried man, whose first phases of adaptation pass without obstacles. However, some background information allows the conclusion thatthe orientation phase of the adaptation was not without conflicting moments which could leave a nostalgic stamp on the retrospective analysis of his personal life.

  4. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  5. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN ARGENTINA: BACKGROUND AND QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism study and keeps on failing to provide data that allows for learning about the working conditions and the professional profile of the Argentinean journalists.

  6. Las ciencias del mar en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, J.C.; Podestá, G.; Zingone, A.; Wiebe, W. J.; Myers, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    La situación de las ciencias del mar en la Argentina se puede caracterizar como una de ‘excelencia en aislamiento’. El tema dominante de las discusiones mantenidas por el comité que preparó este informe fue la virtual inexistencia de coordinación entre programas de investigación, equipo para realizar tareas de campo y personal científico y de apoyo en las instituciones. La coordinación que existe ocurre gracias a enormes esfuerzos individuales y a relaciones personales. Si bien en muchos luga...

  7. Una nueva saponina de Ilex argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Athayde, Margareth L.; Gustavo C. Giberti; Guillaume, Dominique

    1995-01-01

    Ilex argentina Lillo es una de las especies que ha sido mencionada como substituto de la yerba mate verdadera (Ilex yaraguariensis St. Hil.). La principal saponina de las hojas fue aislada y su estructura química elucidada a través de métodos espectroscópicos como el éster 28-β-D-glucopiranósido del ácido 3-O-α-L-arabinopiranosil-20(S)-19α, 24-dihidroxiursólico.

  8. Los vaivenes de la democracia Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Un conjunto de acontecimientos políticos, de signos adversos y propicios, recorrió el siglo XX en Argentina. Esa experiencia nos ha enseñado, con su historia repetida de fracasos (desobediencia de los militares al poder civil, proscripciones políticas, fraude electoral), que la legitimidad de la democracia requiere tanto de instituciones estables como de la conformidad de la sociedad con las reglas de la sucesión pacífica del poder, exigencias que otorgan validez al régimen ...

  9. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  10. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  11. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Reigosa; Anabele Stefânia Gomes; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Fabian Borghetti

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a so...

  12. Angiostrongylus costaricensis: first record of its occurrence in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and a review of its geographic distribution Angiostrongylus costaricensis: primeiro relato de sua ocorrência no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e revisão de sua distribuição geográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Patrus M. Pena; José de Souza Andrade Filho; Samuel Curvelo de Assis

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a parasitic disease caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a metastrongylid nematode with wide geographic distribution, occurring from the United States to Argentina. In Brazil, the disease has been reported from the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Federal District of Brasilia and Minas Gerais. We report here a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 9-year-old girl, from Itatiba, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, submitted to...

  13. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  14. New Mexico's Challenge 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert M.; And Others

    This report presents a comprehensive strategy developed by the New Mexico Education Technology Planning Committee to maximize resources in educational technology to achieve the long-range goals adopted for education in the state. Four basic strategies are recommended: (1) to forge relationships between schools and businesses, and partnerships…

  15. The Art of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of books for grades K and up which explores the folklore, poetry, fiction, and art of Mexico, and focuses on the Mayans and Aztecs and Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Also suggests various research, reading, drama, music, social studies, physical education, and art activities and lists related videos and Internet…

  16. Mexico Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This note presents an overview of Mexico's forthcoming reform agenda-from the World Bank's vantage point. It distills the main messages in the policy notes that make up this compendium. The purpose is not to provide definitive answers to the many policy questions likely to occupy the New Mexican administration, or to provide a comprehensive account of progress to date and policy recommenda...

  17. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Castro, Jorge E.; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E.; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar F.; Uicab, Justo E. Sulú

    2009-01-01

    The detection of Rickettsia akari in 2 human patients increased the diversity of rickettsioses affecting the public health in the southeast of Mexico. Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health.

  18. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country's nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country's economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U3O8 (100 thousand pounds). Brazil's state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U3O8 (600 million pounds U3O8) in reserves

  19. Derechos humanos y sexualidad en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un panorama de la situación de los derechos que tienen que ver con la sexualidad, en la Argentina contemporánea. Basándose principalmente en la legislación positiva, se presenta en primer lugar una síntesis del sistema legal y político, resumiendo a continuación el proceso de inclusión de los derechos sexuales, sobre todo desde 1983, cuando se recuperó la democracia. Las temáticas abordadas son: igualdad civil y conyugalidad, orientación sexual e identidad de género, reproducción, aborto, violencia de género y violencia sexual, VIH/sida, y explotación y trabajo sexual. El artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre las principales deudas pendientes.This paper presents an overview of the situation concerning the rights related to sexuality in contemporary Argentina. Based specially on the positive legislation, it is primarily presented a synthesis of the legal and political system. Next, the paper summarizes the process of inclusion of the sexual rights, mainly since 1983, when democracy has been recovered. The following issues are addressed: civil equality and conjugality; sexual orientation and gender identity; reproduction; abortion; gender a sexual violence; HIV/Aids; and exploitation and sexual work. The paper ends with a consideration about the still remaining doubts.

  20. Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares (CAREM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM (Central ARgentina de Elementos Modulares) is an Argentine project to develop, design and construct an innovative, simple and small nuclear power plant (NPP). This plant has an indirect cycle reactor with distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the design and contribute to a high safety level. Some of the high-level design characteristics of the plant are: an integrated primary cooling system; self-pressurized primary system and safety systems relying on passive features. CAREM is a CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica) project, which has been jointly developed with INVAP, an Argentine company. The CAREM concept was first presented in March 1984, in Lima, Peru, during the IAEA's conference on small and medium sized reactors. Chronologically CAREM was one of the first of the present new generation of reactor designs. The first step of this project is the construction of the prototype of about 27 MW(e) (CAREM-25). This project allows Argentina to sustain activities in nuclear power plant design, assuring the availability of updated technology in the mid-term. The design basis is supported by the cumulative experience acquired in research reactor design, construction and operation and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) operation, as well as development of advanced design solutions. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) recognized CAREM as an international near term deployment (INTD) reactor

  1. Validation of the PASAT in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, Sandra; Eizaguirre, Maria Barbara; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Yastremis, Cecilia; Garcea, Orlando; Salgado, Pablo; Cáceres, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is one of the most used neuropsychological tests to assess information processing speed and working memory in brain injured patients. This study was carried out with the purpose of obtaining normative data for the PASAT-3″ in a healthy Argentinean population, which would result in a reference control population. The PASAT-3″ was administered in a sample of 296 healthy voluntary subjects, born and living in Argentina. The age range went from 20 to 70 years-old. The level of education was 0 to 13 or more years of schooling. The sample obtained a mean of 44.60 (SD = 10.72) in the PASAT-3″. It was found that the score obtained in the PASAT-3″ was related to the age and the level of instruction of the participants. Their performance diminished as age increased and, conversely, it increased as the level of instruction was higher. Normative data was obtained for a Latin American population from Argentina. Percentile distributions obtained by decades of age and different levels of education should be considered as useful reference values for clinicians and investigators when applying the PASAT-3″ to assess cognitive function in different pathologies. PMID:26980661

  2. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort

  3. Yugoslav teachers in Argentina 1939-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Banović Milesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present reports of Yugoslav teachers who held classes to immigrants in Argentina 1939-1944, organized by the government of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Teachers’ reports to Yugoslav Embassy in Buenos Aires testify of Kingdom of Yugoslavia efforts to oppose assimilation and promote and strengthen “Yugoslav national unity”. The reports also describe general social circumstances of Yugoslav immigrants, show various details from their everyday life and contain valuable data on numerous political, economic, social and cultural problems of this diaspora in Argentina and their relationship with motherland. We believe that archive materials presented in this paper opens numerous questions which could be topics of separate researches. Some of them could be the following: To which extent the teachers’ reports represented the actual situation and to which they were shaped to match policy and expectations of Kingdom of Yugoslavia? What was the actual influence of teachers to spreading the “national unity” among immigrants? Have their work left trace in Yugoslav diaspora and in which way? Beside all of the open issues, it is certain that teachers’ reports contain valuable data on immigrants’ everyday life, curriculum, schooling conditions, relationship with motherland, etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet portala "Pojmovnik srpske kulture"

  4. Spent Fuel Management of NPPs in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two Nuclear Power Plants in operation in Argentina: “Atucha I” (unique PHWR design) in operation since 1974, and “Embalse” (typical CANDU reactor) which started operation in 1984. Both NPPs are operated by “Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A” which is responsible for the management and interim storage of spent fuel till the end of the operative life of the plants. A third NPP, “Atucha II” is under construction, with a similar design of Atucha I. The legislative framework establishes that after final shutdown of a NPP the spent fuel will be transferred to the “National Atomic Energy Commission”, which is also responsible for the decommissioning of the Plants. In Atucha I, the spent fuel is stored underwater, until another option is implemented meanwhile in Embalse the spent fuel is stored during six years in pools and then it is moved to a dry storage. A decision about the fuel cycle back-end strategy will be taken before year 2030. (author)

  5. [Dengue vaccines. A reality for Argentina?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo W; Salomón, Oscar D

    2016-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks have occurred yearly in Argentina since 1998. A number of candidate vaccines have been tested in endemic countries. The most advanced one was licensed in three countries of Latin America for children over 9 years of age. In the present article the benefits and drawbacks of these vaccines as well as the challenges for the implementation of a vaccination strategy in Argentina are discussed. Furthermore, a risk stratification strategy with new criteria and a multidisciplinary vision is suggested as a possible path for the assessment of the pertinence of a vaccination program in areas showing the highest risk of dengue transmission and/or for people at the greatest risk of developing severe dengue. It is also suggested that the definition regarding the status of endemicity should take into account the local realities. Finally, this paper proposes a broad discussion on the evidences, the expected impact and instrumental aspects that would be involved in the incorporation of a dengue vaccine, marketed or in development, into the national immunization program, and especially which subpopulation should be targeted for the immunization strategy to be cost-effective. PMID:27028058

  6. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  7. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedades y las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos que entienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí.Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas e ideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre las prácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.Palabras Clave: movimientos sociales, rebelión popular, Argentina, Anarquismo, movimientos autónomos_____________________ABSTRACT:This article discusses the autonomous social movements that arose after the economic crisis and subsequent popular rebellion in Argentina in December of 2001. The autonomous movements in Argentina, as so many movements around the world today, are movements based on creating new social relationships and communities now, while simultaneously creating new societies and relationships in and for the future. They are movements with a different conception of time and place. They are movements that see the individual and the collective as linked to one another.There is a great deal in common with the experience in Argentina and anarchist practices and ideas. That does not make

  8. Overview and perspectives for Open Access development in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and perspectives for development of the Open Access movement in Argentina, within the global and regional (Latin American context. It outlines the evolution and current state of initiatives around the two main approaches to Open Access, the golden and green roads. The main Open Access policies and support of OA movement by governments in Latin American region, and particularly in Argentina, are highlighted, while recent studies on publishing practices and authors’ positions regarding Open Access are presented. The paper concludes that the prospects for development of OA in Argentina, both through golden and green roads are favorable, with their strengths and shortcomings

  9. Ocular Gnathostomiasis in Brazil: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cláudia M; Chaves, Claudio; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Belfort, Rubens; Burnier, Miguel N

    2016-04-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by nematode larvae ingestion of 15 known species of the genus Gnathostoma (one of the Gnathostomatidae family members). This parasite uses freshwater fish as a host and can infect - through the consumption of raw fish or their viscera - other animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, and humans. This parasitic disease, with humans acting as hosts, has been known since 1945 (India), and ocular complications have been known since 2004 (intravitreal; also described in India). Latin American countries, especially Mexico and Peru, have reported cases of the disease since 1970. The first dermatological case was reported in Brazil in 2009 (the individual had acquired the disease in Peru). This article describes the first reported ophthalmic case of the disease in Brazil and refers to a male patient, 30 years old, living in the municipality of Juruá, Amazonas State. The disease evolved within 30 days through a fistulized tumor in the inner corner of the lower eyelid. Following excision, the anatomical and histopathological examination revealed the presence of a different parasite species from other previously known genera. PMID:27239465

  10. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  11. Sociologia, peronismo e esquerda na Argentina Sociology, peronism and left in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos R. Etulain

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho discute, o papel do peronismo e os problemas político-ideológicos que ele coloca para a esquerda Argentina. Busca, também, apresentar os principais elementos para uma análise da esquerda frente ao fenômeno do peronismo. Palavras-chave: Peronismo. Esquerda. Trabalhadores. Movimentos sociais. Classes sociais. Capitalismo. Política. This paper presents the role of Peronism and the ideological political problems to be confronted by the Argentinian leftists...

  12. Novelties in Casearia (Flacourtiaceae for Argentina NOVEDADES EN CASEARIA (FLACOURTIACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Casearia obliqua Spreng. (Flacourtiaceae is recorded for the first time to Argentina, based on
    specimens collected beside Iguazú river, in Misiones province. The taxon is here described
    and illustrated. The presence of Casearia gossypiosperma Briq. in Misiones, a tree mentioned
    in 1936 for that province, is here documented by mean herbarium material. A key for identifying
    the argentinean species is included
    Se cita por primera vez para la flora de Argentina, Casearia obliqua Spreng. (Flacourtiaceae,
    sobre la base de ejemplares recolectados junto al río Iguazú, en la provincia de Misiones. Este
    taxón es descripto e ilustrado. Se certifica mediante material de herbario la presencia en
    Misiones de Casearia gossypiosperma Briq., especie arbórea que fue mencionada para dicha
    provincia en 1936. Se incluye una clave para determinar las especies de Casearia de
    Argentina.

  13. Revision of the Applicability of the NGA's in South America, Chile - Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Lara, F., Sr.; Ledezma, C., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In South America, larger magnitude seismic events originate in the subduction zone between the Nazca and Continental plates, as opposed to crustal events. Crustal seismic events are important in areas very close to active fault lines; however, seismic hazard analyses incorporate crust events related to a maximum distance from the site under study. In order to use crustal events as part of a seismic hazard analysis, it is necessary to use the attenuation relationships which represent the seismic behavior of the site under study. Unfortunately, in South America the amount of compiled crustal event historical data is not yet sufficient to generate a firm regional attenuation relationship. In the absence of attenuation relationships for crustal earthquakes in the region, the conventional approach is to use attenuation relationships from other regions which have a large amount of compiled data and which have similar seismic conditions to the site under study. This practice permits the development of seismic hazard analysis work with a certain margin of accuracy. In South America, in the engineering practice, new generation attenuation relationships (NGA-W) are used among other alternatives in order to incorporate the effect of crustal events in a seismic hazard analysis. In 2014, the NGA-W Version 2 (NGA-W2) was presented with a database containing information from Taiwan, Turkey, Iran, USA, Mexico, Japan, and Alaska. This paper examines whether it is acceptable to utilize the NGA-W2 in seismic hazard analysis in South America. A comparison between response spectrums of the seismic risk prepared in accordance with NGA-W2 and actual response spectrums of crustal events from Argentina is developed in order to support the examination. The seismic data were gathered from equipment installed in the cities of Santiago, Chile and Mendoza, Argentina.

  14. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed

  15. Overview in Argentina on spent/disused radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes approaches and practices for management of radioactive waste and spent/disused radioactive sources in Argentina. Information on spent sources inventory, their characteristics, available storage and disposal capacities for radioactive waste is provided. (author)

  16. Regulatory requirements for the management of radioactive wastes in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activity started in Argentina in the early fifties and since then all the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have been developed including nucleo electricity production. In 1994 the organization in charge of the regulatory control of nuclear activities, now the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), became independent from the organizations related with nuclear promotion (mainly National Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA). Concerning regulatory activities, the regulatory system applied by ARN in Argentina is based on the IAEA's and ICRP's recommendations, adapted to the needs of the country and its own experience gained through more than thirty years of regulatory activities. Besides, specialists from the regulatory organization from Argentina contributed to the development of the recommendations of such organizations. In order to contribute to the understanding of the application of the nuclear regulatory system in Argentina, an overview of the legal and regulatory framework is provided. (author)

  17. The participation of Argentina in the CTBT verification regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina is among the countries involved in the CTBT with seismic, radionuclide and infra sound stations. In May 1998, a Provisional Agreement was signed between the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Executive Secretary of the Provisional technical Secretariat to allow technicians and equipment of the CTBTO to start the harmonization and upgrade of the monitoring stations located in Argentina. It started, through Instituto de Prevencion Sismica (INPRES), participating with the group of Scientific experts at the Conference of Disarmament. Concerning radionuclide monitoring and infra sound technologies Argentina participates with its stations managed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Participation of Argentina in the CTBT is considered as an excellent opportunity for interchanging information and experiences among Argentine experts and experts from other countries

  18. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  19. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and

  20. Argentina's regulatory body: its communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. It must also advise the Executive on issues under its purview. The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to establish, develop and enforce a regulatory system applicable to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. Two of the goals of this regulatory system are to provide an appropriate standard of protection for individuals against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to maintain a reasonable degree of radiological and nuclear safety in the nuclear activities performed in Argentina. The responsibility of the radiation protection community in performing the tasks to accomplish this goals is twofold. On one hand, it must ensure a high technical quality in performing these functions. It must also provide information on its activities which has to be accurate, comprehensive and understandable. The way a society understands the concept of 'risk' needs to be kept in mind. Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Cultural theory refers to theories of risk perception that focus on culture, rather than individual psychology as an explanation for differences in risk judgments. It is widely agreed that trust is a key factor in influencing people's perceptions of risk. It is understood there are two main ways trust may impact in risk perceptions: an activity is perceived as more risky if the people or agencies managing it are perceived as untrustworthy; and information presented by trusted sources is given more credibility than information from untrusted sources. One of the primary purposes of ARN's Communication Program is to provide a means whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities may communicate more readily with each other and the public and

  1. U.S.-Mexico energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that while Mexico's petrochemical industry has grown rapidly, it now faces shortages both in investment funds and in supplies of basic petrochemicals due to a financial crisis in the 1980s. Mexico has undertaken a series of policy reforms aimed at encouraging foreign and private investment, but these efforts have generally failed to entice U.S. investment in Mexico. U.S. petrochemical companies have cited unfavorable market conditions, insufficient basic petrochemical capacity in Mexico, concern about the reversibility of Mexican reforms, inadequate Mexican protection of intellectual property rights, and lack of investment protection for U.S. businesses as impediments to investment in Mexico. Cooperation between the two nations in overcoming these obstacles could help U.S. petrochemical companies maintain their positions in a competitive global market, while at the same time provide Mexico with much needed capital investment and technological expertise

  2. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  3. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  4. A perspective from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mario Henry Rodríguez-

    2008-04-01

    As Binder et al. describe in their article in this issue of the Journal, most of the work of National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs) falls into the category of public goods. This is certainly true for the National Institute of Public Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP)) of Mexico. Our mission is to contribute to social equity by improving public health in Mexico and Latin America, through the generation of knowledge, innovation in health systems, and public health training. At INSP, we believe that public health is a collective responsibility and that the state has a primary role in promoting and protecting the population's health. Binder et al. have performed a service by drawing attention to the importance of NPHIs and the challenges associated with funding public goods functions. PMID:18368016

  5. ALARA development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980's, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field

  6. A integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina: tecnologia nuclear e Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Maria de Oliveira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho focaliza o complexo processo de integração bilateral Brasil-Argentina, iniciado formalmente na década de 80, desdobrado em sua dupla abrangência: a cooperação pacífica da tecnologia nuclear; b constituição de um mercado comum. A evolução desse processo conduziu-se através de ciclos fundamentais: primeira etapa, antecedentes de aproximação; segunda etapa, os decisivos instrumentos da ampla integração; terceira etapa, solidificação de duas bases, uma de nível tecnológico nuclear, pactuando um sistema sui generis de salvaguardas e a vigência do Tratado de Tlatelolco (emendado, e, outra, de nível econômico pelo Tratado de Assunção, instituindo o Mercosul.The present work focuses on the complex bilateral integration process involving Brazil and Argentina that began formally during the 80's, and displayed in its double scope: a pacific cooperation on nuclear technology; b constitution of a common market. This process evolution took place in three fundamental circles: the first one, approximation antecedents; the second one, decisive instruments for a large integration; and the third one, the solidification of two basis, one at the nuclear technological level, joining the two countries in the sui generis back up system and the operation of the Tlatelolco Treaty, the other, at the economic level instituting the Mercosur by the Asunción Treaty.

  7. Microcystis aeruginos strain [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR producer, from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rosso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the toxicological and phylogenetic characterization of a native Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa strain (named CAAT 2005-3 isolated from a water body of Buenos Aires province, Argentine. Methods: A M. aeruginosa strain was isolated from the drainage canal of the sewage treatment in the town of Pila, Buenos Aires province, Argentina and acclimated to laboratory conditions. The amplification of cpcBA-IGS Phcocyanin (PC, intergenic spacer and flanking regions was carried out in order to build a phylogenetic tree. An exactive/orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany was used for the LC/ESI-HRMS microcystins analysis. The number of cell/mL and [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR production obtained as a function of time was modelled using the Gompertz equation. Results: The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence clustered with others M. aeruginosa sequences obtained from NCBI. The first Argentinian strain of M. aeruginosa (CAAT 2005-3 growing under culture conditions maintains the typical colonial architecture of M. aeruginosa with profuse mucilage. M. aeruginosa CAAT 2005-3 expresses a toxin variant, that was identified by LC-HRMS/Orbitrapas as [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR ([M+H]+=1 037.8 m/z. Conclusions: [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR has been also detected in M. aeruginosa samples from Canada, Brazil and Argentina. This work provides the basis for technological development and production of analytical standards of toxins present in our region.

  8. Crescimento e inflação na Argentina nos governos Kirchner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Salama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 2003, a taxa de crescimento do PIB foi mais elevada na Argentina do que no Brasil, e a distribuição da renda, menos desigual. Diminuiu a pobreza. Aumentou o emprego - incluindo o setor industrial - e os empregos informais, assalariados ou não, perdem sua importância relativa. A balança comercial é fortemente superavitária, a taxa de endividamento não excessivamente elevada. A inflação real tem nível elevado, muito mais forte do que aquela anunciada pelo governo e reduz o poder aquisitivo entre as categorias mais pobres. O apreciamento recente da taxa de câmbio efetiva, o peso crescente das commodities nas exportações, das quais depende o financiamento das subvenções concedidas particularmente aos setores com forte consumo de energia, os subsídios insuficientes destinados às indústrias intensivas envolvidas com pesquisa podem transformar o círculo virtuoso de hoje num círculo vicioso amanhã.Since 2003, the growth rate of the GDP has been higher in Argentina than in Brazil. Income distribution is less unequal. Poverty has decreased. Employment is growing - including in the industrial sector -; informal jobs, whether salaried or not, are loosing ground; while the balance of trade shows a trade surplus and the debt ratio is not overly right. Real inflation is hight, far higher than announced by the government, and it curtails any rise in buying power, particularly among the poorest. The recent rise ineffective exchange rates, the rise in the share of raw materials in exports, the fact that these are needed for subsidies paid mainly to energy consuming sectors, the shortage of subsidies to research intensives industries could to morrow turn what is currently a virtuous circle into a vicious circle.

  9. The Pliocene and Pleistocene of Pampean region (Argentina): systematic aspects on taphonomy and bio stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canids in South America were first recorded in the Vorohuean (Middle Pliocene) at southeast marine cliff of Pampean region. These records were assigned to Dusicyon cultridens. D. gymnocercus has it oldest record in the Ensenadan (Early to Middle Pleistocene) of the Pampean Region (Argentina) and Tarija (Bolivia). Remains of this species are frequents in the Bonaerian and Lujanian (Middle to Late Pleistocene) of the Buenos Aires and Entre Rios provinces. Outside Argentina D. gymnocercus was recorded in the Lujanian of Brazil and Uruguay. Two new records of Dusicyon from Punta San Andres (Buenos Aires province) are presented here. The first one (MLP 07-V-2-1) comes from Arroyo Seco Formation(Bonaerian, Middle Pleistocene) and is assigned here to D. gymnocercus. MLP 07-V-2-1 constitutes the first record of this species at Arroyo Seco Formation. The other one (MLP 07-V-2-2) was exhumed from a paleocave excavated in San Andres Formationsediments (Sanandresian, Late Pliocene) and filled with sanandresian sediments. Also, rodent remains (Ctenomys chapadmalalensis and cavids) were collected inside of the paleocave. Although, the study carried out prevents the assignation of MLP 07-V-2-2 to any of the Dusicyon species, this remain shows some affinity with D. gymnocercus. If this is confirmed in the future MLP 07-V-2-2 could be the oldest record of D. gymnocercus. In addition we discuss some litoestratigraphic and bioestratigraphic aspects of Punta San Andres and taphonomic implications related with the paleocave were MLP 07-V-2-2 was founded.(author)

  10. Microcystis aeruginos strain [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR producer, from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorena Rosso; Daro Andrinolo; Daniela Sedan; Maria Kolman; Josep Caixach; Cintia Flores; Juan Manuel Oteiza; Graciela Salerno; Ricardo Echenique; Leda Giannuzzi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To show the toxicological and phylogenetic characterization of a native Microcystisaeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) strain (named CAAT 2005-3) isolated from a water body of Buenos Aires province, Argentine.Methods:the town of Pila, Buenos Aires province, Argentina and acclimated to laboratory conditions. The amplification of cpcBA-IGS Phcocyanin (PC, intergenic spacer and flanking regions) was carried out in order to build a phylogenetic tree. An exactive/orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany) was used for the LC/ESI-HRMS microcystins analysis. The number of cell/mL and [D-Leu1] Mcyst-LR production obtained as a function of time was modelled using the Gompertz equation.Results:A M. aeruginosa strain was isolated from the drainage canal of the sewage treatment in sequences obtained from NCBI. The first Argentinian strain of M. aeruginosa (CAAT 2005-3) growing under culture conditions maintains the typical colonial architecture of M. aeruginosa with profuse mucilage. M. aeruginosa CAAT 2005-3 expresses a toxin variant, that was identified by LC-HRMS/Orbitrapas as [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR ([M+H]+=1037.8 m/z). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence clustered with others M. aeruginosa Conclusions: [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR has been also detected in M. aeruginosa samples from Canada, Brazil and Argentina. This work provides the basis for technological development and production of analytical standards of toxins present in our region.

  11. Determination the atmospheric fallout in the Argentina Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose to study the radioactive precipitation present in the Argentina Republic, due to the rehearsal the nuclear weapons in the atmosphere carried out in the past, you implement the environmental sampling outside of the area gives influence the nuclear facilities the Argentina during the years 1996 and 1997. The concentrations were determined Cs 137 and Sr 90 in samples air, radioactive material (rain water), milk, diet standard average and in several foods

  12. Making sense of immigration policy : Argentina, 1870-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to disentangle the different forces shaping Argentine immigration policy from 1870 to 1930. Although immigration restrictions increased over time Argentina remained relatively open to mass migration until the 1930s in contrast with the United States. The quantitative evidence presented here suggests that there were economic reasons to restrict immigration prior to the 1930s, namely rising inequality and a declining demand for workers. Labour in Argentina would have be...

  13. Tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios universitarios en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Agazzi; Natalia Tchouldjian

    2011-01-01

    El presente estudio es una investigación descriptiva que pretende conocer las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en las bibliotecas universitarias argentinas, abordando el tema desde la perspectiva de las competencias laborales y el actual perfil del bibliotecario universitario. Mediante la utilización de un cuestionario enviado a las direcciones de e-mail de bibliotecas universitarias argentinas se compilaron datos sobre las tareas que realizan los bibliotecarios en esas instituciones. A...

  14. Reflexiones para una historia del documental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guarini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Documentary cinema has had, in Argentina, an uncertain destination, in some periods it was protagonist, and in others almost disappeared.In this last decade it reached levels of interesting production and quality. It is already a common place to associate this growth to the social situation of crisis since 2001 that overflew in “filmed events”. However, in Argentina documentary possesses a long history that includes fundamental names for its construction.

  15. CROSSROADS BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICIES AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES MAINTENANCE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Hecht

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Process of language shift is explained by many researchers since linguistic and anthropological perspectives. This area focuses on the correlations between social processes and changes in systems of use of a language. This article aims to address these issues. In particular, we analyze the links between educational-linguistic policy and the maintenance of the languages spoken in Argentina. In doing so, we explore this field taking into account the linguistic and educational policies implemented about indigenous languages in Argentina.

  16. Mexico and the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) is a treaty that prohibits all the nuclear explosions by anybody and in any place, either on the terrestrial surface, in the atmosphere, under the sea or underground. From the adoption of this Treaty by the United Nations, Mexico has had interest for its entrance in vigor, as integral part to assure the international peace. For this reason, our country signed the Treaty since it was open in September 24, 1996 and three years later ratified it, due to Mexico is part of the group of necessary countries for their entrance in vigor. During 13 years, the country has been committed and helped to the installation of monitoring stations, actions that allow the strengthening of the International System of Surveillance. The purpose of this work is to divulge the Treaty,its technologies and benefits; and also to diffuse the works realized by Mexico regarding the radionuclides monitoring station and noble gases both certified ones for the CTBT. Besides the radionuclides technology, Mexico has taken charge of the installation and operation of the seismic stations and hydro-acoustics that have been certified too. The radionuclides station Rn-44 located in Guerrero Negro, BCS has two technologies, an automated sampler of suspended particles in air brand Cinderella/ARAME and a noble gases system Sauna used for the particles detection of radioactive material gamma emitting and Xenon radioisotopes product of nuclear assays. Both technologies are transmitting data in real time to the International Center of Data. These technologies are shown in this work. (Author)

  17. Idle Youth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael; Gutierrez Fierros, Carlos; Vargas M., J. Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The present study combines data from Mexico's employment surveys (Encuesta Nacional de Empleo and Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo) with the country's official statistics on murder rates to create a state-level panel data set covering the period 1995 to 2013. Including most of the common controls identified by the literature, the results show that the rate of male youth ages 19 to 2...

  18. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of Mexico’s energy reform on hydrocarbons production. These reforms aim to increase oil and gas production by eliminating the state oil company’s (PEMEX) monopoly on exploration and production of hydrocarbons, while retaining the prime directive that these resources are the property of the Mexican nation. This paper focuses on the nature of reforms and what problems these reforms are addressing. It presents illustrative production scenarios f...

  19. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses the potential financial vulnerabilities of the corporate sector in Mexico. It provides an overview of salient features of the Mexican corporate sector. The paper also presents the formal stress tests that estimate the potential effects of some macroeconomic and financial shocks, such as a sharp depreciation of the exchange rate, a sustained increase in interest rates, a slowdown in demand, and a prolonged international market closure on the corporate sector.

  20. Mexico's Fiscal Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 21, no.6, 1987. Refereed Journal Article Mexico's current crisis has its origins in a number of structural conditions that developed in the 1970s. This paper examines one of these structural impediments, the country's fiscal disequilibrium. An empirical analysis of the country's tax structure indicates that there is ample scope for major tax reforms geared to introducing more responsiveness into the country's tax collection system. Given t...

  1. Mexico environmental services project

    OpenAIRE

    Comisión Nacional Forestal (CONAFOR)

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The Mexico Environmental Services Project aims to improve water quality, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration from areas with globally significant biodiversity. Eight pilot sites will be chosen to overlap with existing high-priority biodiversity conservation areas. The project objectives will be met through "(i) strengthening the capacity of CONAFOR, INE, community associations, and NGOs to increase flexibility and improve efficiency of existing service provision to ...

  2. Inequality in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Prát, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    This thesis project has the aim of analysing the development of inequality in Mexico, income redistribution, and future possibilities of investment into the educational system. Human capital is one of the determinants of economic growth. Although human capital includes health, education, and social capital, the major focus of this diploma thesis is on education. Education becomes a suitability criterion for employment in all sectors of industry. Everyone is rewarded for exercising the knowled...

  3. Doing Business in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the scope and manner of regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Quantitative indicators on business regulations and their enforcement have been created for 12 cities and states, which can now be compared with Mexico City, and to 154 countries around the world. The indicators cover four "Doing Business" topics: starting a business, registering property, getting credit and enforcing contracts. The 12 cities and states are: Aguascalientes,...

  4. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  5. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species. PMID:26214613

  6. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Results of the ninth exercise of intercomparison in services of personal dosimetry in Argentina Republic in the year of 2011; Resultados del noveno ejercicio de intercomparacion de servicios de dosimetria personal realizado en la Republica Argentina en el ano 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrufino, G.A.; Discacciatti, P.A.; Lopez, F.O., E-mail: gferrufino@am.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aies (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ninth intercomparison exercise personal dosimetry services, conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in 2011. The exercise was designed to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing personal dosimetry services in Argentina , for X-rays and gamma radiation fields . This exercise was organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority with the Ministry of Health of the Nation and the Regional Reference Laboratory Centre for Dosimetry of the National Atomic Energy Commission . The irradiations were carried out in full accordance with ISO 4037-3 . Participates all private companies in Argentina serving all personal dosimetry laboratories and agencies, provincial and national. Furthermore, the Laboratories from Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay also participate. The performance of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it meets the criteria established in the IRAM- ISO 14146 , which states: 'It is recognized that at most, one-tenth of dosimeters irradiated to exceed the limits'. Of all of the laboratories that participated , 68% reported their results within the acceptance criteria above. The primary objective of this intercomparison exercise is to provide an objective tool to evaluate the ability of personnel dosimetry services. (author)

  8. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  9. Argentina neodesarrollista : Debates sobre el modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Féliz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    En este libro desarrollamos estudios diversos sobre la economía argentina; las políticas públicas y la estructura social; el proyecto de desarrollo en el país y la región; y la dinámica del capitalismo a escala global. En todos los casos, el objetivo de los textos es analítico y pedagógico a la vez. Pretenden aportar a la comprensión de los diversos problemas, presentando elementos de una propuesta superadora partiendo de la crítica de la economía dominante y desde una lectura que se nutra de...

  10. NUEVAS CITAS DE ASCLEPIADACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Cáceres Moral

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies no mencionadas anteriormente de la Argentina son tratadas e ilustradas: Oxypetalum molle Hook. et Arn. y Oxypetalum ineanum Fourn. Oxypetalum appendieulatum Mart. et Zucc., Oxypetalum confusum Malme, Oxypetalum jörgensenii Meyer, Oxypetalum microphyllum Hook. et Arn., Oxypetalum pannosum Decaisne, Oxypetalum stipatum Malme, Funastrum flavum (Decaisne Malme y Blepharodon lineare (Decaisne Decaisne se registran por primera vez para la flora de Corrientes ..

  11. Adequacy features of Nucleoelectrica Argentina Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) ATUCHA I (357 Mw, SIEMENS) and EMBALSE (648 Mw, CANDU), both of PHWR type, were owned and operated until August 94 by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). Until that date, CNEA, the national agency for nuclear R and D, concentrated three activities or roles: Research, Nuclear Regulations and NPP Operation. Since August 1994 NPP's are owned and operated by a state electrical company (Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A.) the nuclear utility supplying 15% of the national electrical generation demand. NASA is going to be privatized according to a recent national law regulating nuclear activities. The transition from a research agency to a commercial company requires the introduction of changes in the management of activities. Mention of these changes is limited to those relating to Safety

  12. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  13. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  14. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  15. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas (222Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a-1.(Bq.m-3)-1, which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m-3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  16. Gill parasites of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Pisces; Curimatidae; Prochilodontinae) in the Middle Paraná System (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemes, Silvina Beatriz; Gervasoni, Silvia Hebe

    2013-01-01

    We studied gill parasites of Prochilodus lineatus in the San Javier River, which is connected to the Middle Paraná System (Santa Fe, Argentina). In 25 specimens, the parasite prevalence in branchial organs was 92% and the average intensity was 8.3 parasites/infested fish. The parasite community showed no dominance of any taxon, but the family Dactylogyridae represented 60% of the community. We found a significant association between Tereancistrum curimba and Dactylogyridae specimens. The prevalence of the parasites T. toksonum and T. curimba was higher than what has been recorded in the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil, demonstrating that the geographic distribution of parasites belonging to Tereancistrum genus is thus expandeing. PMID:24473894

  17. Religião e lutas identitárias por cidadania e justiça: Brasil e Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanildo A. Burity

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the recent developments in the Latin American context is surely the growing public impact of identity claims and disputes, which are connected to demands for citizenship rights and justice or for political representation. The cultural dimension of this process is, inextricably, linked with the political one, both in a symbolic and a political sense. This article explores one of the particular instances of the process: the public emergence of religions and its relation to endogenous changes to Latin American societies and to the effects of global flows on the dynamics of the former. The analysis, which is part of a broader comparative study under way will focus on the fi eld of Christianity in Brazil and Argentina.

  18. The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea, an invader in Argentina La planaria terrestre azul Caenoplana coerulea, un invasor en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisandro Héctor Luis-Negrete; Francisco Brusa; Leigh Winsor

    2011-01-01

    The blue land planarian Caenoplana coerulea is reported from Argentina (Buenos Aires province). We found C. coerulea in the east central region of Argentina in anthropic environments. The specimens that we found have the characteristic of the species found in others regions; that is, a bluish dorsal surface with a yellow mid-dorsal stripe and eyes forming a single row around the anterior tip, clustered laterally. This is the first record of this species from the Neotropical Region, and togeth...

  19. Burden of disease resulting from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Caravanos, Jack; Carrelli, Jonathan; Dowling, Russell; Pavilonis, Brian; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Though lead contaminated waste sites have been widely researched in many high-income countries, their prevalence and associated health outcomes have not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Using the well-established health metric disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and an exposure assessment method developed by Chatham-Stephens et al., we estimated the burden of disease resulting from exposure to lead at toxic waste sites in three Latin American count...

  20. Collaborative Economy in Tourism in Latin America: the case of Argentina, Colombia, Chile and Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev; Velázquez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses how fundamentally different rationales and structures underpin the collaborative phenomena in four different Latin American countries arguing that for centuries a range of economic, sociopolitical and cultural practices have been intimately linked to what Western societies ...