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Sample records for argatroban injection solution

  1. Reversible Crystallization of Argatroban after Subcutaneous Application in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Argatroban is a thrombin inhibitor used as anticoagulant in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. It is usually administered as an intravenous bolus followed by infusion. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetics after subcutaneous administration is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of two different formulations of argatroban in pigs after subcutaneous administration. Antithrombotic activity in plasma was determined by ecarin chromogenic assay. To visualize the formation of crystals, argatroban was administered to rats into the subcutaneous tissue exposed after removing the skin, and the injection site was photographed at different times. After subcutaneous administration of a sorbitol/ethanol formulation of argatroban in pigs was observed a slow absorption phase was followed by long-lasting levels of this inhibitor. Cmax and AUC(0-24 showed dose-dependent increases, while elimination half-life and tmax value did not change significantly with dose. In contrast, saline-dissolved argatroban showed a faster absorption phase followed by a shorter elimination half-life. Argatroban dissolved in sorbitol/ethanol leads to long-lasting plasma levels due to the formation and permanent dissolution of a crystalline depot at the injection place. This represents a simple way to deliver argatroban continuously over an extended period which can be beneficial for prophylaxis or treatment of chronic coagulations disorders.

  2. Challenging Argatroban Management of a Child on Extracorporeal Support and Subsequent Heart Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Gregory J; Jefferis Kirk, Christa; Falconer, Amy; Dickey, Renee; Albers, Erin L; McMullan, David Michael

    2016-06-01

    A 6-year-old child developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia while on extracorporeal life support. Hours after a difficult transition from heparin to argatroban for anticoagulation therapy, the child underwent heart transplantation. Intraoperative management was plagued with circuit thrombus formation while on cardiopulmonary bypass and subsequent massive hemorrhage after bypass. We review the child's anticoagulation management, clinical challenges encountered, and review current literature related to the use of argatroban in pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:26721808

  3. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  4. [Stabilization of physostigmine salicylate injection solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trose, D; Slowig, P

    1985-02-01

    Aimed at the centralized manufacture of physostigmin salicylate injection solutions, the efficacy of different stabilizators has been studied under conditions of the thermic load. As for physostigmin sodium pyrosulphite is no antioxidant but a discolouration-protective agent. A decrease of the physostigmin content is not avoided. During the tests ascorbic acid proved to be the most efficient stabilizator, because its application resulted in the most favourable rates of storage stability and usability and at the same time in a pH stabilization to the optimum range of 3 necessary for the physostigmin keeping quality. An additionally stabilizing effect is obtained by a 5 min carbon dioxide gasing of the solutions. Moreover, ascorbic acid is as viewed in physiological perspective the most harmless one. A servicable stabilizing procedure for generation of 0.1% physostigmin salicylate injection solutions has been developed on this basis. These solutions had repeatedly and successfully been applied an antidote to intoxications with atropine syndrome, especially to intoxications with tricyclic anti-depressives and phenothiazines. PMID:3923501

  5. Technological development of injectable cisplatin solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a cisplatin formulation at 1mg/mL concentration by setting the solution preparation procedure for parenteral administration, with good physical, chemical, biological and microbiological stability. two formulation variants of cisplatin: one solution with and the other without acetate buffer. Both were followed in terms of physical and chemical stability for 3 months. The formulations used raw material from IMPEX SA company, which has 99.74 % power as certified by the manufacturer analysis. Three batches of 10mg cistoplatin at pilot scale in amber 10 R vials, 3 batches of 50 mg cisplatin in amber 50 H vials and the dose was 1mg/ml. Excipients were used to give isotony and stability to the formulation with 0.1 N chlorhydric acid and injection water for vehicle. The high performance liquid chromatography allowed evaluating the stability to determine the expiry date of the drug. The biological and microbiological methods determined lack of pyrogens and sterility respectively

  6. 21 CFR 522.1870 - Praziquantel injectable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Praziquantel injectable solution. 522.1870 Section... § 522.1870 Praziquantel injectable solution. (a) Specification. Each milliliter contains 56.8 milligrams of praziquantel. (b) Sponsors. See 000859 and 059130 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  7. Catheter-directed Thrombolysis with Argatroban and tPA for Massive Iliac and Femoropopliteal Vein Thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Mohsen, E-mail: seyedmohsensharifi@yahoo.com [Arizona Cardiovascular Consultants (United States); Bay, Curt [A. T. Still University (United States); Nowroozi, Sasan; Bentz, Suzanne; Valeros, Gayle; Memari, Sara [Arizona Cardiovascular Consultants (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is a highly effective approach in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There are no data on the primary use of CDT with argatroban and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients without heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined administration of argatroban and tPA during CDT for massive DVT in patients without HIT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with massive symptomatic iliac and femoropopliteal DVT underwent CDT with tPA and argatroban within 28 {+-} 6 h of presentation. The dose of tPA was 0.75-1 mg/h through the infusion port and that of argatroban at 0.3-1 {mu}g/kg/min through the side port of the sheath. The patients were evaluated for the efficacy and safety of CDT and recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) at a mean follow-up of 22 months. Results: There was no bleeding or iatrogenic pulmonary embolism with the CDT regimen we used. Grade III lysis (complete resolution of thrombus on venography) was achieved in 30 patients (91 %). In 3 patients with additional inferior vena cava filter thrombosis, further thrombectomy of the filter was required. No patient developed recurrent VTE. Conclusion: Concomitant administration of argatroban and tPA is a highly safe and effective regimen for CDT for massive DVT.

  8. Catheter-directed Thrombolysis with Argatroban and tPA for Massive Iliac and Femoropopliteal Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is a highly effective approach in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). There are no data on the primary use of CDT with argatroban and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients without heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined administration of argatroban and tPA during CDT for massive DVT in patients without HIT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with massive symptomatic iliac and femoropopliteal DVT underwent CDT with tPA and argatroban within 28 ± 6 h of presentation. The dose of tPA was 0.75–1 mg/h through the infusion port and that of argatroban at 0.3–1 μg/kg/min through the side port of the sheath. The patients were evaluated for the efficacy and safety of CDT and recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) at a mean follow-up of 22 months. Results: There was no bleeding or iatrogenic pulmonary embolism with the CDT regimen we used. Grade III lysis (complete resolution of thrombus on venography) was achieved in 30 patients (91 %). In 3 patients with additional inferior vena cava filter thrombosis, further thrombectomy of the filter was required. No patient developed recurrent VTE. Conclusion: Concomitant administration of argatroban and tPA is a highly safe and effective regimen for CDT for massive DVT

  9. Fast, Approximate Solutions for 1D Multicomponent Gas Injection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Wang, Yun; Ermakov, Pavel;

    2001-01-01

    geometry of key tie lines. It has previously been proven that for systems with an arbitrary number of components, the key tie lines can be approximated quite accurately by a sequence of intersecting tie lines. As a result, analytical solutions can be constructed efficiently for problems with constant...... initial and injection compositions (Riemann problems). For fully self-sharpening systems, in which all key tie lines are connected by shocks, the analytical solutions obtained are rigorously accurate, while for systems in which some key tie lines are connected by spreading waves, the analytical solutions...

  10. Argatroban versus aspirin plus clopidogrel in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: a pilot, randomised, open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-chan LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of argatroban versus aspirin plus clopidogrel in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Methods Seventy five patients with acute ischemic stroke within 48h of symptom onset were randomly divided into two groups: argatroban group (argatroban was used for 7 days according to the instructions, followed by aspirin 100mg per day plus clopidogrel 75mg per day until discharge, n=35, and combination antiplatelet group (300mg of clopidogrel for the first day, then 75mg daily plus aspirin 100mg daily until discharge, n=40. Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP classification was assessed in patients before treatment. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS was used for rating neurological deficit score of patients, and Barthel index for rating activities of daily life (ADL, and modified Rankin scale for handicap score. NIHSS was assessed one week after enrollment, while ADL and mRS assessment were recorded 3 months after onset. Brain imaging, liver and kidney function, blood routine tests and blood coagulation capacity of the patients were measured before and one week after enrollment to observe changes in hemorrhage and biochemical indicators. Drugs-related adverse events were recorded during treatment. All patients received TOAST analysis before leaving hospital. Results 1. In both groups, NIHSS was reduced after oneweek treatment, compared with that before treatment, while ADL was improved at three-month follow-up, compared with those at admission. The results showed statistically significant difference (P0.05 was found between two groups. The transient ischemic attacks (TIA disappeared in both groups. Brain imaging showed that in three patients the lesion advanced to infarction in argatroban group (total 6 patients, and two patients in the combined antiplatelet group (total 5 patients suffered from the same change. 2. The brain imaging and measuring of relevant laboratory indicators

  11. The rheological injectability of N-succinyl-chitosan solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Allan; Kwon, Hyock Ju; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl

    2016-10-20

    The viscosity of a set of N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) solutions was characterized near the 0.2Pas rheological injectability limit. This is believed to be the first such report in the open literature. Viscosity was characterized at physiological pH and ionic strength as a function of NSC degree of substitution, NSC concentration, temperature, and shear rate. NSC was synthesized via Yamaguci's method and characterized using H-NMR, membrane osmometry, TGA and isothermal vacuum drying. NSC synthesis results were shown to fit a reproducible log-linear correlation and both optimum drying temperature and thermal decomposition temperature were found to be a function of NSC degree of substitution. Viscosity results were explained using Katchalsky's full model for polyampholyte ionization combined with a charge induced excluded volume model proposed by Higgs. The model predicted a polyelectrolyte/polyampholyte transition which agreed well with experimental data. For minimally injectable formulations a maximum in primary amine concentration is expected at 32sub% amine NSC. PMID:27474658

  12. [Complications of injections of hypoosmotic solutes in an underage patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjoar, M-D; Lepage, C; Hivelin, M; Lantieri, L

    2009-04-01

    Liposuction represents the standard surgical treatment of localized fat excess. Some non-plastic-surgery-board-certified practitioners are likely to offer non-invasive alternatives treatments. We report the clinical case of a 14-year-old female patient who followed a Lipectomy treatment. The Lipectomy technique consists in a hypodermic injection of hypotonic solutions in order to obtain an adipocytes lysis by osmotic shock. No PubMed referenced scientific publication is related to the efficacy or the tolerance of this technique. Postoperative evolution was marked by a polymicrobial subcutaneous abscess that needed two surgical evacuations and 10 days of overnight stay in our department. Through this clinical case, we evoke the possible dangers linked to the application of a non-evaluated medical technique and the necessity of establishing an official validation agency related to innovative techniques in aesthetic medicine and surgery. PMID:19195752

  13. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  14. Results of a consensus meeting on the use of argatroban in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requiring antithrombotic therapy - a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatri, Adriano; Armstrong, Anna-Elina; Greinacher, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    , and for patients undergoing renal replacement therapies) are summarized in this consensus statement. Because of the strong correlation between argatroban dosing requirements and scores used to characterize the severity of illness (APACHE; SAPS, SOFA) suitable dosing nomograms are given. This consensus...

  15. Injection safety valve solutions for CO2 WAG cycle wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike the offshore production industry, there are presently no regulations that dictate the use of subsurface safety valves in land completions. However, due to the increase in the number of fields moving toward CO2 injection as a means of tertiary recovery and the potential for injury or environmental damage, many producers have decided to install subsurface safety valves in their CO2 injection wells. This paper addresses why these wells need to be protected, discuss the parameters that must be considered in the selection of a tubing retrievable safety system and cover the unique features of the following types of safety valves. Surface controlled; Flapper check; Fixed choke-velocity; Variable orifice-velocity; and Pressure differential operated

  16. Rate of Post-traumatic Endophthalmitis with or without Injection of Balanced Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Rafati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In a study complementing a previous multicenter randomized clinical trial on prophylactic injection of intraocular antibiotics during primary repair of penetrating eye injuries (PEIs, we sought to determine whether needle entrance and injection of balanced salt solution (BSS, per se, could increase the rate of acute post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis (APBE. Methods: Patients randomized to the BSS injection arm (n=167 of the Traumatic Endophthalmitis Trial, and eligible patients who had refused enrollment and received no intraocular injections during primary repair (n=111 were compared for the development of APBE. Results: APBE occurred in 8 of 167 (4.8% eyes in the BSS group and in 5 of 111 (4.5% eyes in the non-injection group (P=0.91. Retained intraocular foreign bodies were present in 46 eyes including 25 (15% eyes in the BSS injection group and 21 (18.9% eyes in the non-injection group (P=0.38. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant difference between BSS injected and non-injected eyes in terms of APBE (P=0.69. However, the presence of intraocular foreign bodies was strongly associated with the risk of endophthalmitis (P<0.001, OR=14.1, 95% CI: 4.1-48.5. Conclusion: Needle entrance and intraocular injection of BSS during primary repair of PEIs does not increase the risk of APBE.

  17. Development of a stable solution of 5-aminolaevulinic acid for intracutaneous injection in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, A W; Grouls, R J E; Ackerman, E W; Wijdeven, W J A

    2002-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) as a photosensitiser is a new treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas. Until now ALA has been used topically as a cream. As this administration route leads sometimes to insufficient penetration in the skin, an intracutaneously injectable solution of ALA was developed. The influence of pH, concentration and temperature on the degradation of ALA in aqueous solution was investigated in order to optimise the formulation of the injection. In 0.1% ALA solutions with pH values between 4 and 8 a pH dependency of ALA degradation was shown, comprising fast decomposition at pH values higher than 7, whereas at a pH value of 6 or lower the solutions remained within the range of 90-110% of the initial concentration for at least 128 days. An increase of degradation rate with increasing concentrations became evident which is consistent with the supposed second-order degradation kinetics. After accelerated stability research at 63 degrees C and 85 degrees C a shelf life of 281 days for a 0.1% ALA solution pH 5 was calculated from an Arrhenius plot. A 2% ALA solution was proven to be isotonic. From our results a 0.1-2% ALA solution with pH 5 and an appropriate amount of sodium chloride to obtain isotonicity is recommended as an injectable solution. PMID:12181635

  18. Engineered Injection and Extraction for Enhanced In-situ Remediation of Sorbing Solutes in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, B. D.; Neupauer, R. M.; Piscopo, A. N.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater remediation is becoming increasingly more important as the world's population grows and the necessity of access to clean drinking water persists. The majority of current groundwater treatment methods involve pumping the contaminated groundwater out of the soil and treating it above ground. Sorbed contaminants are difficult to remediate using this conventional pump-and-treat method, and often produce poor treatment results because sorbed contaminants are difficult to extract from the aquifer; therefore in-situ remediation research is of particular importance. One type of in-situ groundwater remediation involves a treatment solution of varying composition being injected into the polluted aquifer to react with the contaminant and degrade it to an acceptable byproduct. Increasing the amount of spreading between the contaminant and the treatment solution promotes an increase in contact area and more desired reactions. It has been previously determined that sequential injection and extraction using four wells for in-situ remediation can enhance the spreading of an aqueous contaminant and treatment solution and increase degradation through more reactions. In this work, we focus on sorbing contaminants and investigate the effectiveness of the injection and extraction methods on varying degrees of contaminant sorption. Tests were conducted in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil media, and with instantaneous and kinetic reaction. It was determined that engineered injection and extraction methods previously developed for aqueous contaminants also enhance in-situ remediation of sorbing solutes.

  19. Application of hydrogen injection and oxidation to low temperature solution-processed oxide semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Miyakawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed oxide semiconductors are promising candidates for the low cost, large scale fabrication of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs. In this work, a method using hydrogen injection and oxidation (HIO that allows the low temperature solution processing of oxide semiconductors was demonstrated. We found that this method significantly decreases the concentration of residual species while improving the film densification. Additionally, enhanced TFT performance was confirmed following the use of processing temperatures as low as 300 °C. The proposed process is potentially applicable to the fabrication of a wide variety of solution-processed oxide semiconductors.

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

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    Michael Russell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia following accidental intravenous injection of an oil-steroid solution in a body builder is presented. Chest roentography at the time of presentation showed diffuse bilateral opacities, and computed tomography revealed predominantly peripheral ground-glass opacifications. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved over 48 h and imaging of the chest was unremarkable one week later. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of this rare but potentially life-threatening complication of intravenous oil injection are discussed.

  1. A tunnel shape defect on maxillary bone after accidental injection of formocresol instead of anesthetic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Bilal; Demirkol, Mehmet; Mustafa, Rawand; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Accidental injection or leakages of various chemical disinfectants used during root canal preparation into adjacent tissues have been shown to have deleterious effects on surrounding tissue. Formocresol (FC) is an effective intracanal disinfectant used in endodontic procedures. However, it is known to have harmful effects into adjacent tissues. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case in which a 28-year-old male patient developed gingival and bone necrosis after the accidental injection of FC instead of local anesthetic solution for tooth extraction and to review cases in the literature where complications have occurred due to the use of FC. PMID:25148635

  2. Analytical solution of geological carbon sequestration under constant pressure injection into a horizontal radial reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, R.; Liou, T.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is believed to be an economically feasible technology to mitigate global warming by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2), the major component of greenhouse gases, from the atmosphere and injecting it into deep geological formations.Several mechanisms can help trap CO2 in the pore space of a geological reservoir, stratigraphic and structural trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, and geochemical trapping.Besides these trapping mechanisms, another important issue that deserves careful attention is the risk of CO2 leakage. The common ';constant injection rate' scenario may induce high pressure buildup that will endanger the mechanical integrity as well as the sealing capability of the cap rock. Instead of injecting CO2 at a constant mass rate, CO2 can be injected into the reservoir by fixing the pressure (usually the bottom-hole pressure) in the injection borehole. By doing so, the inevitable pressure buildup associated with the constant injection scheme can be completely eliminated in the constant pressure injection scheme. In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for CO2 injection with constant pressure was developed. For simplicity, structural and geochemical trapping mechanisms were not considered. Therefore, a horizontal reservoir with infinite radial extent was considered. Prior to injection, the reservoir is fully saturated with the formation brine. It is assumed that CO2 does not mix with brine such that a sharp interface is formed once CO2 invades the brine-saturated pores. Because of the density difference between CO2 and brine, CO2 resides above the interface. Additional assumptions were also made when building up the brine and CO2 mass balance equations: (1) both of the fluids and the geological formations are incompressible, (2) capillary pressure is neglected, (3)there is no fluid flow in the vertical direction, and the horizontal flow satisfies the Darcy's law.In order to solve for the height of brine-CO2 interface, the two

  3. The Riemann Solution for the Injection of Steam and Nitrogen in a Porous Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, W; Marchesin, D.; Bruining, J.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the model for the flow of nitrogen, vapor, and water in a porous medium, neglecting compressibility, heat conductivity, and capillary effects. Our choice of injection conditions is determined by the application to clean up polluted sites. We study all mathematical structures, such as rarefaction, shock waves, and their bifurcations; we also develop a systematic method to find fundamental solutions for thermal compositional flows in porous media. In addition, we unexpectedly find a ra...

  4. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  5. In-use stability of enrofloxacin solution for injection in multi-dose containers

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    Šandor Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-use stability study in this paper was designed as far as possible to simulate the practical usage of multi-dose containers products in veterinary practice and to establish the influence of storage conditions on drug's quality. According to literature data, shelf-live of enrofloxacin solutions for injection tested in this study is 28 days after opening. In-use (open container stability testing of enrofloxacin injection solutions was studied during a period of 112 days, and the physical-chemical parameters and microbiological contamination were assessed. A spectrophotometric method was validated for the quantification of enrofloxacin. The validation method yielded good results and included the selectivity, linearity, intra-assay precision (1.26% RSD, inter-assay precision (1.52% RSD, limit of detection (0.18 μg/mL, limit of quantification (0.54 μg/mL and accuracy. The results of spectrophotometric analyses were presented as the mean drug concentration of enrofloxacin vs. time of sampling. The findings of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were in accordance with the producers' specifications and no extreme changes during prescribed storage occurred. The study was extended from the drug's proposed shelf-life after opening for the next 84 days and in that period no significant changes were recorded.

  6. Irreversible and reversible reactive chromatography: analytical solutions and moment analysis for rectangular pulse injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Sameena; Qamar, Shamsul; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    This work is concerned with the analysis of models for linear reactive chromatography describing irreversible A→B and reversible A↔B reactions. In contrast to previously published results rectangular reactant pulses are injected into initially empty or pre-equilibrated columns assuming both Dirichlet and Danckwerts boundary conditions. The models consist of two partial differential equations, accounting for convection, longitudinal dispersion and first order chemical reactions. Due to the effect of involved mechanisms on solute transport, analytical and numerical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand, design and optimize chromatographic reactors. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations analytically for linear adsorption isotherms. Statistical temporal moments are derived from solutions in the Laplace domain. Analytical results are compared with numerical predictions generated using a high-resolution finite volume scheme for two sets of boundary conditions. Several case studies are carried out to analyze reactive liquid chromatographic processes for a wide range of mass transfer and reaction kinetics. Good agreements in the results validate the correctness of the analytical solutions and accuracy of the proposed numerical algorithm. PMID:25670415

  7. Effect of injection pressure on heat release rate and emissions in CI engine using orange skin powder diesel solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of injection pressure on the combustion process and exhaust emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Orange Skin Powder Diesel Solution (OSPDS). Earlier investigation by the authors revealed that 30% OSPDS was optimum for better performance and emissions. In the present investigation the injection pressure was varied with 30% OSPDS and the combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were compared with those of diesel fuel. The different injection pressures studied were 215 bar, 235 bar and 255 bar. The results showed that the cylinder pressure with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar fuel injection pressure, was higher than that of diesel fuel as well as at other injection pressures. Similarly, the ignition delay was longer and with shorter combustion duration with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar injection pressure. The brake thermal efficiency was better at 235 bar than that of other fuel injection pressures with OSPDS and lower than that of diesel fuel. The NOx emission with 30% OSPDS was higher at 235 bar. The hydrocarbon and CO emissions were lower with 30% OSPDS at 235 bar. The smoke emission with 30% OSPDS was marginally lower at 235 bar and marginally higher at 215 bar than for diesel fuel. The combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine operating on the test fuels at 235 bar injection pressure were better than other injection pressures

  8. Production of an injectable sup(197m)Hg solution with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injectable solutions of sup(197m)Hg were prepared by a (p,n) reaction on a gold target in a medical compact cyclotron. The recovery of sup(197m)Hg from the gold target as well as the problems of manipulating carrier-free radioactive mercury are described. The reaction threshold is 6 MeV and the gold target of 400 μm thickness is formed from four 'pure' gold foils with a surface of 24 cm2 and a thickness of 100 μm. The gold foils are laminated, covered with a 12 μm thick Al foil and fixed onto a copper target holder. The irradiation is performed for 1 to 2 hours with a 15 μA proton beam current. During this time target itselft is cooled with a helium stream and the copper target support is cooled from behind with a stream of compressed air. (T.I.)

  9. Studies on the Injectable Solution of Colistin Sulfate and Its Pharmacokinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xi-long; LIN Bin; ZHANG Chun-ping

    2003-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to compose an injectable solution of colistin sulfate containing local anaesthesia, antioxidant and other additions. Results showed that the novel preparation was stable either to heat or to light. The term of validity of the preparation was 2 years at room temperature.The preparation containing 25.0 mg ml-1 colistin sulfate showed no local tissue irritation, but the concentration of 50. 0 mg ml-1 colistin sulfate showed obvious local tissue irritation. Result of acute toxicity test showed that the LD50 of intramuscular injection in mice was 38. 72 mg kg-1 , and oral LD50 was 431.39 mg kg-1. The evidence of neurotoxicity was observed in mice in the acute toxicity test. A dose of 10.0 mg kg-1 b.w. or 15:0 mg kg-1 b.w. was administered intramuscularly to piglet once daily for 5 days. No changes were detected in the piglet body except for the slight epithelial tissue's granular degenerations in the kidney and liver at the dose of the 10. 0 mg kg-1. While at the dose of 15.0 mg kg-1 , the obvious neurotoxicity was observed at 4 - 5 days. The epithelial tissues in the kidney and liver showed moderate granular degenerations, especially in the tubuli renales cells. Blood cell's morphosis indexes were normal. With relation to liver's function, the indexes went beyond the normal scope. But with relation to kidney's function, the indexes showed mostly normal.When the preparation was separately administered into muscle(i. m. ) in piglets with the dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1 b. w, whose Cmax were 3.73±0. 28 and 6. 40±0. 18 μg ml-1; Tmax were 32±1.5 and 34±1.8min;t1/2β were 256±14 min and 264±29 min, respectively. t1/2β was 251±13 min for the injection given into aural vein(i. v. ) with the dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 b.w.. Samples of the experimentally determined plasma concentration of colistin sulfate generated two-exponential model with first-order absorption. The mean absolute bioavailability coefficient of 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1 b. w. (i

  10. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pschenitzka, Florian [Cambrios Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Mathai, Mathew [Plextronics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Torke, Terri [Cambrios Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaled's HIL material instead of Plextronics. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer

  11. The Clinical Effectiveness of Intralesional Injection of 2% Zinc Sulfate Solution in the Treatment of Common Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam-elden Mohamed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate solution in the treatment of common warts. Patients and Methods. One hundred and twenty patients (78 females and 42 males aged 5–55 years with 225 common warts participated in this prospective monocentric randomized study. All lesions were treated with intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate. Results. From 225 warts injected, 135 warts (60% cured from the first session, 51 warts (22.67% cured from the second session, and 12 warts (5.33% cured from the third session. There is no significant relation between improvement and patient’s ages, duration, or number of warts (P<0.05. All patients complained from pain during injection, and all treated lesions showed redness, tenderness, and swelling in the first 3 days after injection. Late complications were postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in 90 patients (75%, scaring in 9 patients (7.5%, and ulceration in 3 patients (2.5%. Recurrence occurred in 3 lesions (1.33%. Conclusion. The clinical data indicate that intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate is an effective maneuver in the treatment of common warts; however, its associated complications limit its use.

  12. Visualization of diffusion of the drug solution during aluminum potassium tannic acid injection therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Miwa, Mitsuharu

    2013-06-01

    Sclerotherapy with aluminum potassium tannic acid (ALTA), which was approved in Japan for the treatment of internal hemorrhoids in July 2004 (Takano et al., Int J Colorectal Dis 21:44-51, 2006), has been widely accepted because of its effectiveness and low invasiveness. More than 200,000 patients have received ALTA injection therapy. ALTA is injected directly into 4 points of an internal hemorrhoid (4-step injection) to induce sclerosis and remission of the hemorrhoids, and consequently, resolution of symptoms such as prolapse and bleeding. The precision of the 4-step injection is considered to be a crucial determinant of the success of this therapy and the risk of complications. However, sufficient evidence has not yet been obtained concerning the diffusion and distribution of the injected drug. A pilot study visualized the real-time diffusion/distribution of the drug solution following the 4-step injection, using the ICG (indocyanine green) fluorescence technique, and an infrared camera (Photodynamic EYE; PDE, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.). PMID:23229838

  13. The Role of an Impurity in Ceftriaxone Sodium Preparation for Injection in Determining Compatibility with Calcium-Containing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Mio; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakai, Yuka; Uchida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection is known to form insoluble microparticles with calcium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of an impurity in the ceftriaxone sodium preparation on this incompatibility. Firstly, using HPLC, two impurities were identified in the ceftriaxone sodium solution. The major impurity (impurity 1) was identified as tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-dione by LC/MS. Secondly, the role played by this impurity in the incompatibility with calcium was examined. Using seven different ceftriaxone preparations for injection, the effect of adding impurity 1 to mixed solutions of ceftriaxone sodium and calcium chloride on the appearance of insoluble microparticles, was examined using a light obscuration particle counter. Although incompatibility was not completely suppressed by the addition of impurity 1, the number of insoluble microparticles formed with calcium chloride solution was decreased in proportion to the concentration of impurity 1, and the concentration of calcium ion decreased as the concentration of added impurity 1 increased. These results show that impurity 1 plays a concentration-dependent role in incompatibility between ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection and calcium-containing solutions. PMID:26936047

  14. Acute Respiratory Distress following Intravenous Injection of an Oil-Steroid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Russell; Aric Storck; Martha Ainslie

    2011-01-01

    Several case reports have described acute lung injury and respiratory distress following the intravascular injection of oil. Although biochemical and mechanical theories explaining the pathological mechanism of pulmonary oil embolism have been proposed, the phenomenon is not completely understood. This report describes a case of acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia involving a 21-year-old bodybuilder who self-administered an injection of anabolic steroids suspended in oil. The ensuing bri...

  15. Fungistatic capacity of sera from guinea pigs injected with various iron solutions: differences between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Rhizopus oryzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, R.L.; Artis, W M

    1982-01-01

    The fungistatic capacity and serum ion levels (SI) of guinea pigs given subcutaneous injections of various iron solutions were examined. The administration of 2.0 ml of 0.1 M ferric ammonium sulfate, ferric sulfate, or ferric chloride subcutaneously had no significant effect on the SI 3 h after administration, whereas ferric ammonium citrate, ferric citrate, or ferrous sulfate elevated the SI to 50 to 140 times that necessary to saturate the unbound transferrin in normal sera. The sera from 1...

  16. Performance of Needle-Free Injection of Organic Fiber Solutions for Tissue Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muh-Rong; Chen, Min; Hu, Chih-Yuan

    This paper investigates the characteristics of endoscopic needle-free injection and the performance of tissue elevation by an endoscopic needle-free injection system. We choose the stomach of six-months-old pig as the test material, with HPMC and MC as the working fluid. The parameters include the mass flow rate, average power of injection, and the height of tissue elevation, and the evolution of tissue elevation. According to the experiment data, the performance of HPMC is much better than MC, because of the difference of their molecular structure. Longer duration of tissue elevation of the submucosal layer is maintained under the pressure of 90bar and the concentration of HPMC at 0.5%. The tissue elevation is 10.6mm suitable for medical surgery with the higher injection pressure under the same concentration of the working fluid because of the increased injection power. Analysis on the evolution of tissue elevation found that duration time is more than 60 minute under higher concentration of HPMC. The duration of tissue elevation is longer for higher concentration of the working fluid because the higher viscosity under high concentration would result in the elongation of the elevation time. A clear separation of the mucosal layer from the muscle layer is achieved by injecting HPMC in the samples with formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections stained with H&E. Results of the experiments would provide the data base for endoscopic surgery in order to assure a successful operation.

  17. The effects of steam injection on the electrical conductivity of an unconsolidated sand saturated with a salt solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial and temporal variation of electrical conductivity in saturated sands during steam injection has been measured and modeled. Experiments consisted of introducing steam into one end of a tube filled with sand saturated with a slightly saline solution. A steam condensation front formed, separating the mixed-phase steam zone from the liquid zone. Measurements of electrical conductivity were made at 10 locations along the tube using a four-electrode technique. Results show that conductivity starts at a constant value, decreases before the steam front arrives and then, immediately prior to the steam front arrival, goes through a maximum before dropping by a factor of about 25. These variations can be explained by first, a dilution of the interstitial solution causing the initial drop in conductivity; second, an increase in temperature of the solution immediately prior to the arrival of the steam front causing the conductivity maximum; and finally, the large drop in conductivity due to the combined effects of a decrease in saturation and dilution of the residual liquid in the two-phase zone. Mathematical solutions of a set of differential equations that take into consideration all of these effects are presented. These solutions reproduce the significant features of the conductivity data. This study suggests that the measurement of changes in the subsurface conductivity field during steam injection operations may indicate the location of ionic concentration, temperature, and steam saturation fields. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  19. Surface coatings based on polysilsesquioxanes: solution-processible smooth hole-injection layers for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel; Lechmann, Maria C; Noh, Seunguk; Berger, Rüdiger; Lee, Changhee; Gutmann, Jochen S; Theato, Patrick

    2009-07-16

    Optoelectronic devices usually consist of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) as one electrode. Interfacial engineering between the TCO electrode and the overlying organic layers is an important method for tuning device performance. We introduce poly(methylsilsesquioxane)-poly(N,N-di-4-methylphenylamino styrene) (PMSSQ-PTPA) as a potential hole-injection layer forming material. Spin-coating and thermally induced crosslinking resulted in an effective planarization of the anode interface. HOMO level (-5.6 eV) and hole mobility (1 × 10(-6)  cm(2)  · Vs(-1) ) of the film on ITO substrates were measured by cyclovoltammetry and time-of-flight measurement demonstrating the hole injection capability of the layer. Adhesion and stability for further multilayer built-up could be demonstrated. Contact angle measurements and tape tests after several solvent treatments proved the outstanding film stability. PMID:21638376

  20. Facts and solutions. Comparison of injection and other waste processing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of options to process wastes from natural gas and petroleum exploration activities. Also attention is paid to the environmental effects. In a separate report insight is given into the attitudes, opinions and perceptions on the possibility to store wastes from the exploration activities in the deep underground, e.g. by means of injection. The insight is based on interviews with experts in the petroleum and natural gas exploration industry and results of a workshop

  1. Stabilization of Periodic Solutions in a Thedered Satellite System by Damping Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens

    to affect the orbit parameters. An approximation of the periodic solutions of the closed loop system is found as a series expansion in the parameter plane spanned by the controller gain and the bias term. The stability of the solutions is investigated using linear Floquet analysis of the variational...... presents a control design for stabilizing these periodic solutions. The design consists of a control law for stabilising the open-loo equibrilibrium and a bias term which forces the system trajectory away from the equilibrium. The tether needs to be positioned away from open-loop equilibrium for the tether...... equation and the region of stable periodic solutions in the parameter plane is found....

  2. Perturbation solutions for a micropolar fluid flow in a semi-infinite expanding or contracting pipe with large injection or suction through porous wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xinhui; Yuan, Lili; Cao, Limei; Zheng, Liancun; Shen, Yanan; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We investigate an unsteady incompressible laminar micropolar flow in a semi-infinite porous pipe with large injection or suction through a deforming pipe wall. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing partial differential are transformed into a coupled nonlinear singular boundary value problem. For large injection, the asymptotic solutions are constructed using the Lighthill method, which eliminates singularity of solution in the high order derivative. For large suction, a series expansion matching method is used. Analytical solutions are validated against the numerical solutions obtained by Bvp4c.

  3. Influence of polymeric electron injection layers on the electrical properties of solution-processed multilayered polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Kurami, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we fabricated multilayered polymer-based light-emitting diodes (pLEDs) with various solution-processed electron-injection layers (EILs), and investigated the influence of the EILs on the electrical properties of pLEDs in indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-(1,4-phenylene((4-sec-butylphenyl)amino)-1,4-phenylene))] (TFB) (HTL)/poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-1,4-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) (EML)/EIL/Al structures. We have used the quaternized ammonium π-conjugated polyelectrolyte derivative (poly[(9,9-di(3,3‧-N,N‧-trimethylammonium)propylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-phenylene)]diiodide salt) (PF-PDTA), a mixture of PF-PDTA and CS2CO3, and the aliphatic-amine-based polymer poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as solution-processed EILs, and compared them with LiF as a solvent-free EIL. The EILs enhanced the electron injection and improve the pLED performance. High external quantum efficiencies of nearly 4% were obtained in the pLEDs with the combination of a multilayered structure fabricated by a transfer printing technique and EILs of a PF-PDTA:CS2CO3 mixture and PEI. On the other hand, the device with PF-PDTA exhibited lower efficiency, higher driving voltage, and larger leakage current at lower voltage. The migration of ionic charges was suggested from the abnormal dielectric behaviors, and serious damage on the electrode material occurred when both an acid hole-injection layer (PEDOT:PSS) and PF-PDTA were used. On the other hand, the pLEDs with ultrathin PEI showed high performance and stable device operation in terms of the influence of ionic charges.

  4. Stabilization of periodic solutions in a tethered satellite system by damping injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    A spacecraft with electrodynamic tether orbiting the Earth will be subject to a periodic forcing term induced by the variation of the magnetic field along the orbit. The periodic forcing term leads to a family of unstable periodic solutions for a tether carrying a constant current. This paper...

  5. Detection of pyrogens and bacteria in solutions of 81m-krypton injected to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are the results of the detection of pyrogens in 28 solutions of 81m-krypton: the rabbit pyrogen tests are always negative, whereas only 11 limulus amebocyte lysate, L.A.L., tests are interpretable. Among 92 samples, 9 have presented bacteria usually saprophytes. The reasons of the failure of some L.A.L. are debated with regard to the rabbit test

  6. Detection of pyrogens and bacteria in solutions of 81m-krypton injected to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croize, J.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Gaudy, M.; Comet, M. (C.H.R.U. Grenoble (France)); Godart, J.; Boutet, J. (Institut des Sciences nucleaires, Grenoble (France))

    1982-01-01

    These are the results of the detection of pyrogens in 28 solutions of 81m-krypton: the rabbit pyrogen tests are always negative, whereas only 11 limulus amebocyte lysate, L.A.L., tests are interpretable. Among 92 samples, 9 have presented bacteria usually saprophytes. The reasons of the failure of some L.A.L. are debated with regard to the rabbit test.

  7. Effect of warming anaesthetic solutions on pain during dental injection. A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Aravena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effectiveness of anesthesia warming control pain feeling during the administration of anesthesia in maxillary infiltration technique nerve block. Methods: A double-blind clinical trial study was designed. Fifty-six volunteers students (mean age 23.1±2.71 years of Universidad Austral de Chile Dental School (Valdivia, Chile were participated. They were given 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1: 100,000 epinephrine (Alphacaine®; Nova DFL - Brazil by two punctions at buccal vestibule of lateral incisor. In a hemi-arch a warm anesthesia of 42ºC (107.6°F was administered; and after one week in to contralateral side a room temperature (21ºC; 69.8°F was administered. In both times with a standard speed. The level of intensity pain perceived during injection was registered and compared by visual analog scale (VAS of 100mm (Wilcoxon test p

  8. Prolonged naproxen joint residence time after intra-articular injection of lipophilic solutions comprising a naproxen glycolamide ester prodrug in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Lu, Yi; Agårdh, Li;

    2013-01-01

    time. Two oils, medium-chain triglycerides and castor oil, differing with respect to viscosity were tested. After intra-articular administration of oil prodrug solutions, a significant increase in the time to maximum naproxen serum concentration from around 40 to 245min, an increase in the MRTj from......Intra-articular injection of oil solutions of lipophilic prodrugs that rapidly degrade to their parent compound in synovial fluid may constitute a feasible approach to increase the joint residence time of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this in vivo study, oil solutions of the N......,N-diethyl glycolamide ester prodrug of naproxen (16mg/ml) were injected into the rat knee joint by dosing 6μl formulation per 100g body weight. The sustained release properties were compared to those of intra-articularly injected aqueous and oil solutions of naproxen by monitoring the naproxen serum concentrations over...

  9. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  10. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  11. Controlling charge injection properties in polymer field-effect transistors by incorporation of solution processed molybdenum trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dang Xuan; Xu, Yong; Wei, Huai-xin; Liu, Chuan; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-08-21

    A simply and facilely synthesized MoO3 solution was developed to fabricate charge injection layers for improving the charge-injection properties in p-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). By dissolving MoO3 powder in ammonium (NH3) solvent under an air atmosphere, an intermediate ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) precursor is made stable, transparent and spin-coated to form the MoO3 interfacial layers, the thickness and morphology of which can be well-controlled. When the MoO3 layer was applied to OFETs with a cost-effective molybdenum (Mo) electrode, the field-effect mobility (μFET) was significantly improved to 0.17 or 1.85 cm(2) V(-1)s(-1) for polymer semiconductors, regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or 3,6-bis-(5bromo-thiophen-2-yl)-N,N'-bis(2-octyl-1-dodecyl)-1,4-dioxo-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DPPT-TT), respectively. Device analysis indicates that the MoO3-deposited Mo contact exhibits a contact resistance RC of 1.2 MΩ cm comparable to that in a device with the noble Au electrode. Kelvin-probe measurements show that the work function of the Mo electrode did not exhibit a dependence on the thickness of MoO3 film. Instead, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy results show that a doping effect is probably induced by casting the MoO3 layer on the P3HT semiconductor, which leads to the improved hole injection. PMID:26179975

  12. Emissive Polyelectrolytes As Interlayer for Color Tuning and Electron Injection in Solution-Processed Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekoglu, Serpil; Petzoldt, Martin; Stolz, Sebastian; Bunz, Uwe H F; Lemmer, Uli; Hamburger, Manuel; Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo

    2016-03-23

    Herein we present a solution-processed hybrid device architecture combining organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) in a bilayer architecture. The LEC interlayer promotes the charge injection from an air-stable Ag cathode as well as permits the color tuning of the device emission. To this end, we used an alcohol-soluble anionic polyfluorene derivative, the properties of which were investigated by absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy as well as by cyclic voltammetry. The bilayer device exhibited operating voltages ∼6 V and a color tuning of the emission spectrum dependent on the LEC interlayer thickness. The hybrid devices presented a color emission ranging from the yellow (x = 0.39, y = 0.47) toward the green region (x = 0.29, y = 0.4) of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. PMID:26928477

  13. Improving the stability of organic light-emitting devices using a solution-processed hole-injecting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of organic light-emitting devices with a spin-coated film of 4,4',4''-tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as hole-injection layer (HIL) was investigated. The lifetime of this device is increased to 40 900 h (with an initial luminance of 100 cd/m2), which is 2.7 times as large as that of the control device with a vacuum-deposited film of m-MTDATA as HIL. A significant feature with this method is that the performance and the operational stability of the device with spin-coated HIL are little attenuated by the rough substrate coated by the indium-tin oxide film. The surface morphology of the solution-processed m-MTDATA thin film is quite even and uniform, and it acts as a smoothing layer in the device, which leads to the stability enhancement of the device.

  14. Approximate semianalytical solution for tracer injection tests in a confined aquifer with a radially converging flow field and finite volume of tracer and chase fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approximate analytical solution describing the movement of a conservative tracer of finite volume in a radially converging flow field is proposed. The solution is divided into two phases: injection and transport. During the injection phase, an injection of chase fluid immediately following the tracer is allowed. Hydrodynamic dispersion effects are assumed to be negligible during this phase. The geometry of the tracer plume is determined by a particle-tracking technique. During the plume transport phase, the tracer plume is approximated by a series of contiguous pulses. An approximate analytical solution for each pulse has been derived through linearization of the transport equation. The approximate solution has been verified by comparison with numerical solutions. The distribution of tracer in space and time is obtained by summing the contributions from all the pulses. Four geometrical parameters governing the geometry of the tracer plume immediately after injection are presented and discussed. The solution shows that the geometry of the initial tracer plume has an effect of the breakthrough curves. The volume of tracer and chase fluid has to be taken into account in tracer test design and data analysis. Limitations of the proposed solution are also discussed

  15. Use of Ambient Contamination and Stream Tracer Injections to Assess Solute Transport in an Urbanizing Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.; Packman, A. I.; Welty, C.; Kilham, S. S.

    2002-05-01

    set to interpret the longitudinal dispersion and hyporheic storage parameters of Valley Creek. This work illustrates how anthropogenic perturbations can be used to advantage to interpret process-based physical characteristics of an urbanizing watershed. Additional conservative and reactive tracer injection experiments, sediment nutrient uptake experiments and measurements of community metabolism are being conducted on smaller reaches immediately downstream of active development projects. Data from this ongoing monitoring will be used to determine the impact of development on the hyporheic characteristics and nutrient dynamics of Valley Creek.

  16. [Plasma level studies in volunteers after intramuscular injection of various doses of etofenamate in an oily solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, B; Bock, E; Kamp, R; Dell, H D

    1990-03-01

    Plasma level Studies on Volunteers after Intramuscular Application of Different Doses of Etofenamate in Oily Solution. After i.m. injections of etofenamate (active substance of Rheumon i.m.) in oily solution to 12 volunteers, courses of plasma levels of etofenamate, flufenamic acid and fenamate (sum of etofenamate and flufenamic acid) were measured by HPTLC. Maximum levels of etofenamate, flufenamic acid and fenamate, as well as areas under the plasma level time curve (AUC) after 250, 500 and 1000 mg etofenamate respectively are proportional to dose. Maxima of fenamate plasma levels are reached after 6.3, 6.2 and 5.4 h respectively, half maximal levels are present already after 2 h. The mean residence time is 21.8, 18.8 and 15.7 h. These values obtained from different doses are not statistically different from each other. Pharmacokinetics are therefore linear and dose independent. The courses of fenamate levels can be described by a two compartment model. The elimination half lives after 250, 500 and 1000 mg are 2.1, 2.3 and 1.9 h, the invasion half-lives (dominant half-life) 8.8, 7.8 and 6.8 h. Terminal half-lives are 50.3, 63.7 and 35.4 h. Since plasma levels have decreased to 2% of the maximum level after one terminal half-life, they have no practical importance for the duration of activity or for accumulation. No sex related differences are found for dose dependent and independent parameters. From the data it can be derived that after i.m. injection of etofenamate in oily solution a prolongation of the dominant half-life occurs by a factor of 4-5 (as compared to oral data) which is caused by prolonged liberation from the oily depot. This long lasting liberation of etofenamate leads to a prolonged residence time after a fast increase, at the same time avoiding unnecessary high peak levels. Therefore it is guaranteed that even after i.m. administration of 1000 mg etofenamate in oily solution plasma levels of fenamate do not exceed those after 300 mg given orally

  17. Ixekizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ixekizumab solution before injecting it. Check that the expiration date has not passed and that the liquid ... fever, sweats, or chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath, warm, red, or painful skin or sores on ...

  18. Secukinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secukinumab solution before injecting it. Check that the expiration date has not passed and that the liquid ... fever, sweats, or chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath, warm, red, or painful skin or sores on ...

  19. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-07-15

    A number of (semi-)analytical solutions are available to drawdown analysis and leakage estimation of shallow aquifer-aquitard systems. These solutions assume that the systems are laterally infinite. When a large-scale pumping from (or injection into) an aquifer-aquitard system of lower specific storativity occurs, induced pressure perturbation (or hydraulic head drawdown/rise) may reach the lateral boundary of the aquifer. We developed semi-analytical solutions to address the induced pressure perturbation and vertical leakage in a 'laterally bounded' system consisting of an aquifer and an overlying/underlying aquitard. A one-dimensional radial flow equation for the aquifer was coupled with a one-dimensional vertical flow equation for the aquitard, with a no-flow condition imposed on the outer radial boundary. Analytical solutions were obtained for (1) the Laplace-transform hydraulic head drawdown/rise in the aquifer and in the aquitard, (2) the Laplace-transform rate and volume of leakage through the aquifer-aquitard interface integrated up to an arbitrary radial distance, (3) the transformed total leakage rate and volume for the entire interface, and (4) the transformed horizontal flux at any radius. The total leakage rate and volume depend only on the hydrogeologic properties and thicknesses of the aquifer and aquitard, as well as the duration of pumping or injection. It was proven that the total leakage rate and volume are independent of the aquifer's radial extent and wellbore radius. The derived analytical solutions for bounded systems are the generalized solutions of infinite systems. Laplace-transform solutions were numerically inverted to obtain the hydraulic head drawdown/rise, leakage rate, leakage volume, and horizontal flux for given hydrogeologic and geometric conditions of the aquifer-aquitard system, as well as injection/pumping scenarios. Application to a large-scale injection-and-storage problem in a bounded system was demonstrated.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  1. Comparing (semi-) analytic solutions used to model the impact of deep carbon injection on the displacement and pressurization of the resident brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Kraemer, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into deep saline formations is seen as one possible technology for mitigating carbon emissions from utilities. The safety of the sequestered carbon dioxide is the focus of many studies with leakage through faults or abandoned wells as some of the main failure mechanisms. The focus of this study is on the displacement of resident brine and the resulting changes in pressure due to the injection of large volumes of super-critical phase carbon dioxide into the subsurface. The movement of brine becomes important if it travels vertically and reaches an existing or potential underground source of drinking water where an increase in salt content may threaten the viability of the drinking water source. Vertical displacement of brine may occur slowly through confining layers, or more rapidly through faults and abandoned wells. This presentation compares several (semi-) analytic solutions to determine their applicability to the problem of brine pressurization and displacement. The goal is to find ranges of formation parameters (e.g., formation seal conductivity, distance to lateral boundary, … ) for which simplifying assumption are justifiable Each simplification in the conceptual model (e.g., neglecting the lateral boundary turns a bounded domain into an infinite one) leads to a simpler (semi-) analytic solution. The process involves a solution hierarchy from the most complex solution down to the basic Theis solution. A software tool-kit implementing several (semi-) analytic solutions was developed for this study to facilitate the comparison of the solutions.

  2. Generalized solution for 1-D non-Newtonian flow in a porous domain due to an instantaneous mass injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V.

    2011-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in porous media is of considerable interest in hydrology, chemical and petroleum engineering, and biofluid mechanics. We consider an infinite porous domain of plane (d=1), cylindrical (d=2) or semi-spherical geometry (d=3), having uniform permeability k and porosity Φ, initially at uniform pressure and saturated by a weakly compressible non-Newtonian fluid, and analyze the dynamics of the pressure variation generated within the domain by an instantaneous mass injection m0 in its origin. The fluid is described by a rheological power-law model of given consistency index H and flow behavior index n; the flow law is a modified Darcy's law depending on H, Φ, n. Coupling flow law and mass balance equations yields the nonlinear partial differential equation governing the pressure field; an analytical solution is derived in space r and time t as a function of a self-similar variable η=r/tβ(n). We revisit and expand the work in previous papers by providing a dimensionless general formulation and solution to the problem for d=1,2,3. When a shear-thinning fluid (nmass and lower porosity. When pressure is considered, it is seen that an increase in d from 1 to 3 brings about an order of magnitude reduction. An increase in compressibility implies a significant decrease in pressure, especially at early times. To reflect the uncertainty inherent in values of the problem parameters, we then consider selected properties of fluid (flow behavior index n) and porous domain (permeability k, porosity Φ, and medium compressibility cp) as independent random variables with uniform probability distribution. The influence of the uncertain parameters on front position and pressure field is investigated via a Global Sensitivity Analysis, evaluating the associated Sobol' indices with the Polynomial Chaos Expansion technique. The analysis reveals that compressibility and flow behavior index are the most influential variables affecting the front position; when

  3. Flow injection and sequential injection: The optimal solutions for executing appropriate on-line separation and preconcentration schemes for detection of trace-level concentrations of metals in complex matrices by ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    and strictly controlled conditions. Various separation/preconcentration procedures are feasible, such as liquid-liquid extraction encompassing back-extraction into an aqueous solution, (co)precipitation with collection in knotted reactors, adsorption on columns packed with hydrophophilic or......, or because the analyte material, in addition to suitable separations, needs to be subjected to preconcentration. Such pretreatments schemes are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all unit operations can be effected on-line and under enclosed...... accept organic solvents as these adversely will impair its performance. In the lecture, selected examples of separation/preconcentration FI/SI-procedures for the determination of trace levels of metals will be presented, particular emphasis being placed on the use of the novel “lab-on-valve” (LOV...

  4. Numerical Modeling of In-situ Reaction Barrier by Injection of Ca(OH)2 Solution for CO2 Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Ito, T.

    2008-12-01

    Containment of CO2 in the storage reservoir is a very important issue. We present here an in-situ reaction barrier method to reduce the medium permeability along potential leakage paths of a deep CO2 storage reservoir in a saline formation. An aqueous solution will be injected into the fractures and rocks through injection wells. The solution will have a low viscosity and will not impact formation permeability as long as the solution is left as it is, but when the solution encounters dissolved CO2, precipitation will occur due to chemical reaction. As a result, the permeability will be reduced by filling the pores and fractures in the rocks with the precipitates. This concept has been successfully demonstrated previously through a laboratory experiment using Ca(OH)2 solution. The reduction of permeability in the laboratory experiment has been reproduced by reactive transport modeling using TOUGHREACT. The concept of the in-situ reaction barrier has been applied to a 2-D caprock-aquifer system under field physical and chemical conditions using the modeling tool. Calcite precipitation, permeability reduction, and CO2 leakage mitigation was achieved in the numerical experiment. This concept may be also applicable to prevent the leakage through abandoned wells, to mitigate well cement degradation, and to enhance CO2 mineral trapping.

  5. Instability of Wind Turbine Converters during Current Injection to Low Voltage Grid Faults and PLL Frequency Based Stability Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2014-01-01

    during current injection to very low (close to zero) voltage faults, has been omitted, i.e., failed to be noticed in the previous wind power studies and grid code revisions. In this paper, the instability of grid side converters of wind turbines defined as loss of synchronism (LOS), where the wind...

  6. One-Dimensional Modelling of Polymer Flood Performance. Analytical and Graphical Solutions Modélisation de l'efficacité du déplacement unidimensionnel par injection de polymères. Solutions analytiques et graphiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grattoni C. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A graphical method for simulating linear polymer flooding is proposed. The method is based upon the analytical solution of Darcy's law and continuity equation which describe the two-phase, one-dimensional, incompressible flow of oil and polymer solution through the reservoir rock. Continuous polymer injection and polymer slug injection are considered. Several physical mechanisms determining microscopic displacement efficiency are taken into account: resistance factor, residual resistance factor, retention composed by adsorption and mechanical entrapment, and inaccessible pore volume. Other properties are not considered: mixing and dispersion, shear and thermal degradation. This analytical-graphical model closely reproduces linear laboratory oil displacement experiments. Consequently, it can be used by the Field Engineer to rapidly estimate the additional oil recoverable by a linear polymer flood. On propose dans cet article une méthode graphique de simulation de l'injection de polymères dans le cas unidimensionnel. Cette méthode est basée sur la solution analytique de la loi de Darcy et de l'équation de continuité qui décrivent l'écoulement diphasique incompressible unidimen-sionnel d'huile et d'une solution de polymères à travers la roche réservoir. On examine l'injection continue et l'injection de bouchons de polymères. On prend en compte plusieurs mécanismes physiques qui déterminent l'efficacité du déplacement microscopique : facteur de ré-sistance, facteur de résistance résiduel, rétention due à l'adsorption et au piégeage mécanique et, enfin, volume des pores inacessibles. On ne tient pas compte des autres propriétés : mélange et dispersion, dégradation mécanique et thermique. Ce modèle analytique et graphique reproduit très directement les expériences de laboratoire de déplacement d'huile en milieu unidimensionnel. II peut donc être utilisé par l'ingénieur de chantier pour une estimation rapide de l

  7. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  8. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. PMID:27474315

  9. Numerical simulation of solute transport instantaneously injected in a single rock fracture system: Inclusion of a nonlinear sorption term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nonlinear Freundlich sorption isotherm on the transport of sorptive solute in a system of fracture and porous matrix was investigated through numerical simulation. To solve a set of partial differential equations of solute transport with nonlinear term, use of the Laplace transform Galerkin (LTG) technique was investigated. It was shown that the LTG method could be applied successfully to solve quasi-linearized transport equation. Sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinear sorption in porous matrix with order less than 1 increased the skewness of the breakthrough curve. The fitting of experimental effluent data using a transport model with nonlinear isotherms was also conducted

  10. The optimum composition of pH-sensitive acceptor solution for membrane separation in flow injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, van der, P.

    1983-01-01

    Gas diffusion membranes are frequently used to transfer volatile protolytes from a donor to an acceptor solution. This transfer is attended by a change in [H+] or [OH− and an absorbance change of the acid-base indicator present. Conditions determining the linearity and the sensitivity of the calibration graphs are discussed.

  11. Versatile Flow-Injection Amperometric Ion Detector Based on an Interface between Two Immiscible Electrolyte Solutions: Numerical and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deryabina, Maria; Hansen, Steen H.; Jensen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes a flexible thin layer electrochemical flow cell for ultrasensitive amperometric detection at a supported interface between immiscible electrolyte solutions. Nanomolar detection limits were demonstrated using the cell design, and 3D finite element simulations allowed a ...... electrochemical flow cell detector with a large surface to volume ratio....

  12. Study on the method and instrument for rapid determination of uranium, plutonium and neptunium in spent fuel reprocessing solution by flow injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the principle of flow injection analysis (FIA), a special instrument for measuring uranium, plutonium and neptunium is developed; three rapid analytical methods for measuring uranium, plutonium and neptunium are established respectively. The sensitivity of these methods is -1 μg/ml, the precision is better than 4%. It takes about 25 min to measure the concentration of plutonium or neptunium one time, and 40 s to measure the concentration of uranium at a time. The instrument is composed of the work box connected with radioactive solution and the control box connected with non-radioactive solution to facilitate safety; carrier solution and color reagent are pumped into by a synchronous single plunger pump, thus eliminating pulsation of the baseline; two alternative flow routes are used for measuring plutonium (or neptunium) and uranium respectively. A low pressure chromatographic column is installed in the flow route of determining plutonium or neptunium to monitor enrichment of plutonium or neptunium and to separate other interference elements. In the flow route of determining uranium, a three-way mixer is installed for adding buffer solution and masking agent. Arizona's (III) acts as color reagent for determining uranium, plutonium, and neptunium. The described instrument and method have been used in the analysis of practical samples

  13. Cataracts in patients injected with a solution of radium 224, colloidal platinum, and the red dye eosin (Peteosthor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 218 patients in the Spiess series injected with 224Ra as juveniles from 1943 to about 1952, 91 have died leaving 127 alive. Of these, 47 have been examined in detail with a slitlamp by an ophthalmologist and 25 were found to have some kind of lens opacity. In 14 out of the 25 the cataracts appeared morphologically similar to age-related cataracts. In 11 patients there was a bilateral posterior subcapsular cataract. In eight this was a bilateral dense round plaque with a clear subcapsular zone of about 0.5-0.6 mm. This clear zone corresponds to newly deposited lens fibres during the period of about 40 years from treatment to examination. By June 1984, 12 of the 218 were reported to have had cataract as cause of decreased visual acuity. The present study found 32 patients (25 examined recently and seven others) with cataract confirmed with a slitlamp by August 1988. Three additionally reported cataracts could not be updated. (author)

  14. Experimental Study of Selective Catalytic Reduction System On CI Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Ethanol Blend for NOx Reduction with Injection of Urea Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Praveen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exhaust emission control from internal combustion engines have become one of the most important challenges. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx are one of the major hazardous pollutants that come out from diesel engines. There are various techniques existing for NOx control but each techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages. Technologies available for NOx reductions either increase other polluting gas emission or increase fuel consumption. The objective of this paper is to determine the maximum reduction of NOx emissions by varying concentration of urea solution with reduction catalyst. An aqueous solution of urea was injected in engine exhaust pipe for reducing NOx emissions in single cylinder light duty stationery DI diesel engine fuelled with diesel and diesel- (10% ethanol blend. A concentration of urea solution varying from 30 to 35% by weight with constant flow rates and tested with fitting Titanium dioxide (TiO2 coated catalyst which controls by products of ammonia and water vapour. Results indicated that a maximum of 70 % of NOx reduction was achieved an engine fuelled with diesel-ethanol blend and constant flow rate of 0.75 lit/hr with an urea concentration of 35% and 66% NOx of reduced with neat diesel using Titanium dioxide catalyst in Selective Catalytic Reduction system.

  15. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  16. Reduction of skeletal accumulation of radioactivity by co-injection of DTPA in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solutions containing free 90Y3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy is nowadays being performed with radiolabeled DOTA-conjugated peptides, such as [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide (also known as OctreoTher[reg ] or 90Y-DOTATOC). The incorporation of 90Y3+ is typically ≥99%, however, since a total patient dose can be as high as 26 GBq or 700 mCi the amount of free 90Y3+ (=non-DOTA-incorporated) can be substantial. Free 90Y3+ accumulates in bone with undesired radiation of bone marrow as a consequence. 90Y-DTPA is excreted rapidly via the kidneys. Incorporation of free 90Y3+ into 90Y-DTPA might prevent this fraction from being accumulated into bone, therefore we have investigated: the biodistribution in rats of 90YCl3, [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide, and 90Y-DTPA; possibilities to complex 10% of free 90Y3+ in a [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide containing solution into 90Y-DTPA prior to intravenous injection; and effects of 10% free 90Y3+ in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solution, in the presence and in the absence of excess DTPA, on the biodistribution of in rats. The following results are presented: 90YCl3 showed high skeletal uptake (i.e., 1% ID (injected dose) per gram femur, with main localization in the epiphyseal plates) and a 24 h total body retention of 74% ID; 90Y-DTPA had rapid renal clearance, and 24 h total body retention of 90Y3+ in [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide solution could rapidly be incorporated into 90Y-DTPA at room temperature; and accumulation of 90Y3+ in femur, blood, and liver was related to the amount of free 90Y3+, whereas these accumulations could be prevented by the addition of DTPA. In conclusion, the addition of excess DTPA to [90Y-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide with incomplete 90Y-incorporation is recommended

  17. Endoscopic mucosal incision by diode laser for early cancer treatment in the alimentary tract: effect of submucosal indocyanine green solution injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Nakamura, Naoko; Tajiri, Hisao; Miura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    Mucosal incision technique by diode laser ablation was studied to ensure the operation of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which is gold standard method for early gastric cancer with little/no risk of lymphnode metastasis. Our method was designed to facilitate grasping a large lesion by hitching the snaring wire on the incised mucosal groove around the lesion. We employed local submucosal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution. ICG solution was used to prevent direct laser light penetration to the muscularis propriae owing to strong absorption of 805nm light (absorption coefficent at 805 nm is about 200cm-1). We used diode laser radiation with an output of 25W by contact (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 kg/cm2) and non-contact irradiation methods. In the preliminary experiment with resected porcine stomach, muscularis propriae was intact by the 60s non-contact irradiation or the 8s contact irradiation with contact pressure of 1kg/cm2. In the endoscopic experiment we used 3 dogs. Using conical contact probe, we successfully demonstrated 3cm diameter circular incision with sharp groove in 10 minutes. We could place the snaring wire on the incised groove. Histology of the endoscopically incised canine stomach revealed that the submucosal layer welled up to 6mm in thickness and the bottom of the incision groove reached 1.9mm at deepest below the mucosal muscle. The thickness of the coagulation layer around the incised groove was up to 1.8mm. No damage was seen a the muscularis propriae. We demonstrate easy as well as sure snaring by using our laser incision technique. We think our technique may be available to enhance the efficacy of EMR for early gastric cancer including the lesion over 2cm in diameter.

  18. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxacillin injection is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called ... It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  19. Evaluation of flow injection-solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of major elements in brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zhenli; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Belshaw, Nicholas Stanley; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-08-01

    A new method for the determination of major metal elements in high salinity brines was developed by solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) with flow injection analysis (FIA). The matrix interferences of major cations and anions in brines have been evaluated. It was found that high concentration of Na(+) and K(+) could interfere each other, K(+) at a concentration of 400mgL(-1) enhanced the signal intensity of Na(+) more than 20%. The effect of the anions was observed and it was noted that the signal intensity of both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were suppressed significantly when the SO4(2-) reached 100mgL(-1). It was demonstrated that some low molecular weight organic substances such as formic acid, glycerol and ascorbic acid could eliminate interference of SO4(2-) even with volume percentages of 0.5%. Under the optimized condition, the proposed FIA-SCGD can determine K, Na, Ca and Mg with the limits of detection of 0.49 (K), 0.14 (Na), 11 (Ca) and 5.5 (Mg) ngmL(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 5 salt lake samples and compared with those obtained with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The advantages of small size, low energy consumption, good stability and repeatability indicated that the SCGD is promising for the determination of major ions in brine samples. PMID:27216688

  20. Preparation of Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanopowder Synthesized by Droplet Injection of Solution Precursor in a DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Ando, Yasutaka; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2013-08-01

    Carbon-doped titanium dioxide nanopowder has received much attention because of its higher photocatalytic performance, which is practically activated not only by UV, but also by visible light irradiation. In the present study, C-TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by droplet injection of solution precursor in a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system, resulting in higher photocatalytic performance even under visible light irradiation. In-flight C-TiO2 nanoparticles reacted with the high concentration of carbon in plasma flow and were then deposited on the surfaces of two quartz tubes in the upstream and downstream regions of this system. The collected C-TiO2 nanopowder contained anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 and TiC, the contents of which depended on the location of the powder collection, the temperature, and the duration of plasma treatment. Highly functional C-TiO2 nanopowder collected in the downstream region exhibited a higher degradation rate of methylene blue than that of single-phase anatase TiO2, even under visible light irradiation, in spite of being TiC.

  1. Electron microscope study on the relationship between macrophages of the alevolar space and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells on mice after injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution into the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwa,Kiichi

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alveolar macrophages and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was studied with the electron microscope after injection of squid-ink solution into the trachea of the mouse. At 20 hours after injection of squid-ink solution slight degeneration was evident in alveolar macrophages with sepia-melanin particles being phagocytized with partial digestion by lysosmes. Furthermore, hardly any changes were seen in mitochondria and inclusion bodies of the spheroid alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast, at one week after injection of squid-ink solution, almost all alveolar macrophages were degenerated with destruction of the ectoplasm in which the ingested sepia-melanin particles were digested by lysosomes into fine particles, and the mitochondria of spheroid alveolar epithelial cells were degenerated and the inclusion bodies were hardly formed. At three weeks after injection of squid-ink solution, alveolar macrophages as well as speroid alveolar epithelial cells showed almost complete recovery of functional structure. As the phagocyte in the alveolar space, neutrophile leucocytes were also observed in addition to the so-called alveolar macrophage.

  2. COMBUSTION HEAT RELEASE RATE ANALYSIS OF C.I. ENGINE WITH SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF DEE-H2O SOLUTION - A VIBRATIONAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANA MURTHY; R. RAJESWARA REDDY

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the combustion propensity of single cylinder direct injection engine fueled with palm kernel methyl ester (PKME), which is non- edible oil and a secondary co-injection of saturated Diethyl ether (DEE) with water. DEE along with water is fumigated through a high pressure nozzle fitted to the inlet manifold of the engine and the flow rate of the secondary injection was electronically controlled. DEE is known to improve the cold starting problem in engines when used in strai...

  3. Comparison between intralesional injection of zinc sulfate 2 % solution and intralesional meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of acute old world dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Saeedeh; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Mohebbi, Azadeh; Mohammadi, Saman; Pardakhty, Abbas; Eybpoosh, Sana; Heshmatkhah, Amireh; Vares, Behrooz; Saryazdi, Simin; Fekri, Ali Reza; Mohebbi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    Zinc sulfate (ZS) has been used for the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in both forms of in vivo and in vitro recently. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intralesional injection of ZS 2 % solution with intralesional glucantime in the treatment of acute CL. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 80 cases with acute old world dry type CL were enrolled in the study. The treatment protocol in the first group consisted of intralesional injection of ZS 2 % vials once a week for 10 weeks or sooner in case of complete resolution of the lesions. In the second group, intralesional glucantime once a week for 10 weeks or sooner in case of complete resolution of the lesions were used. In both groups cryotherapy was performed once every other week for 10 weeks. In ZS versus second group, partial and complete clinical response was observed with fewer injections although this difference was not statistically significant. In addition, we found that the trend of treatment in second group was faster but again it was not significant [partial treatment: hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95 % CI 0.7-2.9; complete treatment: HR 1.3, 95 % CI 0.6-2.8]. The results of this study showed that the intralesional injection of ZS 2 % solution was as effective as glucantime on the healing of the acute old world dry type CL. PMID:27605813

  4. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teduglutide injection is used to treat short bowel syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levofloxacin injection is used to treat infections such as pneumonia; chronic bronchitis; and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a ...

  6. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  7. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Ziprasidone is in a class of medications called ... alcoholic beverages while you are receiving ziprasidone injection. Alcohol can make the side effects from ziprasidone injection ...

  8. Leucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to treat people who ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or ... has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used ...

  10. Denosumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... months. When denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures from cancer that has spread to the ...

  11. Sumatriptan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain, and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause pain, nausea, and other symptoms ... or upper arm. Do not inject sumatriptan through clothing. Never inject sumatriptan into a vein or muscle. ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain ... tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone ...

  13. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ferumoxytol injection, ...

  14. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appears damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and ...

  15. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only ...

  16. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  17. Modification of the mean near-wall velocity profile of a high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer with the injection of drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-08-01

    The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the

  18. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    at the injection site was influenced by the needle length and the injected volume. Several imaging analysis tools were optimized for the characterization, and these tools were implemented also on subcutaneous injections in rats, visualized by low dose μCT, and used for characterization of the morphology in mouse...

  19. Foundations in injected micro stakes. A economical solution used in the Brazil-Argentina interconnection; Fundacoes em micro-estacas injetadas. Uma solucao economica usada na interligacao Argentina-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Batista Guimaraes Ferreira da; Santos, Sergio Claudio dos; Azevedo, Chysthian Purcino Bernardes; Perona, Roberto Moreira; Menezes, Luciene Oliveira [ABB, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Vilson Renato da [Engelineas Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This document intends to describe the adopted solution for the foundations used mainly in the areas subject to strong floods in the argentine territory in relation to the first Brazil-Argentina interconnection, which is the Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita transmission line(500/525 Kv). The investigated and implanted solution has been the foundation in injected micro stake of the Ischebeck type equipped with titan bars. The characteristics of this foundation type, the technical aspects involved in its installation, the found troubles, the executed tests and their comparisons with the design forecasts are reported in this document.

  20. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  1. The RHIC Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. They describe their solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999

  2. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  3. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega® Sustenna, Invega® Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega® Sustenna) is also used ...

  4. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques...

  5. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of the pain. For some, it can last weeks or months. Alternative Names Cortisone shot - hip; Hip injection; Intra-articular steroid ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  6. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  7. Management of patient with hepatocellular carcinomas by in situ injection of iodine-131 labelled lipiodol solution (Lipiocis) in the Biophysics and Timone APHM University Hospital Central Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to determine what are the prognosis factors in term of global expectation of life at patient receiving a treatment by Lipiocis, to estimate the tolerance at this treatment in order to choose patient which will be the best candidates to this treatment and to define more precisely the criteria of patient inclusion and follow-up. A study including 35 patient having received one or several Lipiocis injections between May 2003 and May 2007 has been carried out. The results of this study are given. Lipiocis seems to be a well tolerated treatment which has proved its efficiency. (O.M.)

  8. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure, seizures, difficulty swallowing, a high level of fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) in your blood, or a medical condition that may affect you receiving an injection in your arm or buttocks. Tell your doctor ...

  9. Nafcillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  10. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  11. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  12. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  13. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Aripiprazole injection (Abilify) is used to treat episodes ... street drugs or have overused prescription medication or alcohol or has or has ever had diabetes, obsessive ...

  14. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  15. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone), testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl), testosterone undecanoate (Aveed), and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a ...

  16. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... aspirin) such as ketorolac may have a higher risk of having a heart attack or a stroke ...

  17. Busulfan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... days (for a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  18. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also sometimes used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; cancer that begins in a type of white ... this medication. You should not plan to have children while receiving fludarabine injection or for at least ...

  19. Gemcitabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  20. Tesamorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is colored, cloudy, contains particles, or if the expiration date on the bottle has passed.Never reuse ... swelling of the face or throat shortness of breath difficulty breathing fast heartbeat dizziness fainting Tesamorelin injection ...

  1. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  2. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the transplant recipient's immune system) in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only ...

  3. Belatacept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of a transplanted organ by the immune system of a person receiving the organ) of kidney transplants. Belatacept injection is in a class of medications ...

  4. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using ciprofloxacin injection and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical help: rash hives itching peeling or blistering of the skin ...

  5. Aflibercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes that can lead to vision loss), and diabetic retinopathy (damage to the eyes caused by diabetes). Aflibercept ... your doctor about how long you should continue treatment with aflibercept injection.

  6. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before receiving tacrolimus injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to tacrolimus, any other ...

  7. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about basiliximab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of ...

  8. A Solution-Processed Heteropoly Acid Containing MoO3 Units as a Hole-Injection Material for Highly Stable Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohisa, Satoru; Kagami, Sho; Pu, Yong-Jin; Chiba, Takayuki; Kido, Junji

    2016-08-17

    We report hole-injection layers (HILs) comprising a heteropoly acid containing MoO3 units, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). PMA possesses outstanding properties, such as high solubility in organic solvents, very low surface roughness in the film state, high transparency in the visible region, and an appropriate work function (WF), that make it suitable for HILs. We also found that these properties were dependent on the postbaking atmosphere and temperature after film formation. When the PMA film was baked in N2, the Mo in the PMA was reduced to Mo(V), whereas baking in air had no influence on the Mo valence state. Consequently, different baking atmospheres yielded different WF values. OLEDs with PMA HILs were fabricated and evaluated. OLEDs with PMA baked under appropriate conditions exhibited comparably low driving voltages and higher driving stability compared with OLEDs employing conventional hole-injection materials (HIMs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate), and evaporated MoO3, which clearly shows the high suitability of PMA HILs for OLEDs. PMA is also a commercially available and very cheap material, leading to the widespread use of PMA as a standard HIM. PMID:27456454

  9. Inhibitory effects of argatroban on instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction after islet transplantation in vitro%应用阿加曲班在体外抑制针对胰岛的即刻经血液介导的炎性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王本刚; 程颖; 石蕊; 赵宁; 刘永锋

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨凝血酶抑制剂--阿加曲班对胰岛移植后即刻经血液介导的炎性反应(IBMIR)的抑制作用.方法 分离、纯化Wistar大鼠胰岛,采用体外循环模型模拟IBMIR,设立空白对照组、对照组与实验组,对照组将血液与胰岛直接混合,实验组在对照组的基础上加入阿加曲班注射液,空白对照组只加入血液,而无胰岛.各组于37℃下循环反应60 min后,将内容物通过70 tan滤网过滤,将对照组与实验组的过滤残余血栓块和组织经膜式薄层细胞检测(TCT),滤过液进行血常规检测,并以胰岛素释放试验判定其中胰岛的功能.结果 实验组滤过液中的血小板数、白细胞数、单核细胞数和淋巴细胞百分数显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组的胰岛在高糖和低糖的刺激下,胰岛素释放量明显高于对照组,其胰岛素释放指数为3.36±0.18,明显高于对照组的2.25±0.18(P<0.05).对照组过滤残余的血栓块和组织中胰岛数量较少,结构破坏严重,被膜不完整,胰岛周嗣见大量红细胞形成的微血栓包绕,实验组中胰岛数量较多,结构完整.呈团块状,胰岛周围未见明显微血栓形成.结论 阿加曲班在体外可以有效抑制针对胰岛的IBMIR,减轻对胰岛细胞的损伤.%Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of Argatroban on the instant bloodmediated inflammatory reaction(IBMIR)after islet transplantation.Methods Rat islets were isolated and purified rat islets,and were divided into blank control group,control group and experimental group.In the control group,the blood and the islets were directly mixed,and in the experimental group the Argatroban was added to the mixture based on the control group.while the blank control group was added with blood alone without the islets.Each group was reacted at 37℃for 60min,and then the content was filtered through trap valve of 70 μm.The residual thrombus and tissues were filtered

  10. Carbon nanotubes decorated with gold, platinum and rhodium clusters by injection of colloidal solutions into the post-discharge of an RF atmospheric plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, N; Demoisson, F; Dufour, Thierry; Mansour, Ali; Felten, A; Guillot, J.; Pireaux, J-J; Reniers, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new, simple, robust and efficient technique to decorate multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with metal nanoparticles. As case studies, Au, Pt and Rh nanoparticles are grafted onto MWCNTs by spraying a colloidal solution into the post-discharge of an atmospheric argon or argon/oxygen RF plasma. The method that we introduce here is different from those usually described in the literature, since the treatment is operated at atmospheric pressure, allowing the realizati...

  11. High-efficiency and solution processible multilayer white polymer light-emitting diodes using neutral conjugated surfactant as an electron injection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Huang, Fei; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Chi, Yun

    2008-02-01

    High-efficiency white polymer light-emitting diodes were fabricated by using an yellow-emitting osmium complex Os(fptz)2(dppe) [fptz =3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole, dppe =cis-1,2-bis-(dipheneyl-phosphino) ethylene] doped into blue fluorescent copolymer based on an ultraviolet-blue light emitting host poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-1,3-(5-carbazolphenylene)] and a blue light emitting component 4-N,N-diphenylaminostilbene (PFCz-DPS1-OXD5) as the emissive layer and a neutral conjugated surfactant, poly[9,9-bis(6'(diethanolamino)hexyl)-fluorene] (PFN-OH), as the electron injection layer sandwiched between the emissive layer and Al cathode. The device with the configuration of indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid)/poly(N-vinylcarbazole)/Os(fptz)2(dppe)(1wt%):PFCz-DPS1-OXD5/PFN-OH/Al exhibited efficient white light emission at the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.33, 0.34) and a maximum luminance efficiency of 16.9cd/A and brightness of 22100cd/m2.

  12. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding. If you become pregnant while using alirocumab injection, call your doctor. ... Eat a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary ... at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/chol_tlc.pdf.

  13. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection when you are a teenager or young adult. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has osteoporosis; if you have or have ever had any other bone disease or anorexia nervosa (an eating disorder); or if you drink a ...

  14. Botox Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Shopping Cart American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Home Meetings & Courses Find a Surgeon Physicians’ Buyers ... Portal Botox Injections The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery recommends persons considering Botox® treatment to: Check the ...

  15. Ibritumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  16. Tositumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  17. Oxytocin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  18. Infliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is also sometimes used to treat Behcet's syndrome (ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals and inflammation of various ... runny nose back pain white patches in the mouth vaginal itching, burning, and pain, or other signs of a yeast ...

  19. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in patients ... Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection comes as a powder in vials to be mixed into a solution for injection. Interferon beta-1a intramuscular ...

  20. Research progress on submucosal injection solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection%内镜黏膜下剥离术中黏膜下注射媒介的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春; 张旭; 黄敏; 张群超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the progress of submucosal injection solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD). Methods The literatures about submucosal injection at home and abroad from January 2008 to January 2014 were seached in WANFANG PubMed and Web of science database by using " ESD, Submucosal injection" as key words. Results The greatest problem with 0. 9% NS solution is that it rapidly dissipates into the surrounding tissue. Hypertonic solution has a clear injury of mucosal tissues. Hyaluronic acid has maintained long time submucosa liquid pad and security, so it can be used as a model submucosal injection solution. As a synthesized product, Hydroxymethyl cellulose may cause antigen-antibody reaction, and Fibrinogen mixture has a risk of spread of hepatitis and other viruses. Carbon dioxide as a submucosal injection has a better mucosal lifting time than saline. Alginate can be used as an alternative to hyaluronic acid. Elastic polymer IDEEp submucosa lifting height is better than that of normal saline, and it can effectively promote the healing of mucosa after ESD. Photo-crosslinked chitosan hydrogel has a stronger ability to maintain mucosa lift than sodium hyaluronate, but the degradable time is too long, which delayed the healing of mucosa. Conclusions These submucosal agents differ with regard to their efficacy, cost, and availability. The traditional media of submucosal injection of the existence of deficiencies, and the new media of submucosal injection have a comparative advantage, but cannot fully meet the needs of the ESD. In order to make ESD technology more secure and efficient,we need to find a suitable ESD submucosal injection.%目的:探讨在内镜黏膜下剥离术(ESD)中黏膜下注射媒介的应用进展。方法在万方、PubMed、Web of science 等数据库,以“ESD”、“黏膜下注射”为关键词,查阅2008年1月—2014年1月国内外有关不同物质材料作为 ESD 黏膜下注射媒介应用的相关文献,进

  1. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  2. Carbon nanotubes decorated with gold, platinum and rhodium clusters by injection of colloidal solutions into the post-discharge of an RF atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a new, simple, robust and efficient technique to decorate multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with metal nanoparticles. As case studies, Au, Pt and Rh nanoparticles are grafted onto MWCNTs by spraying a colloidal solution into the post-discharge of an atmospheric argon or argon/oxygen RF plasma. The method that we introduce here is different from those usually described in the literature, since the treatment is operated at atmospheric pressure, allowing the realization in only one step of the surface activation and the deposition processes. We demonstrate experimentally that the addition of oxygen gas in the plasma increases significantly the amount of grafted metal nanoparticles. Moreover, TEM pictures clearly show that the grafted nanoparticles are well controlled in size.

  3. Effect of contrast material pushed with saline solution using dual injection on enhancement of aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma in multislice CT of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effect of the enhancement value of the abdominal aorta, portal vein, and liver parenchyma by the saline flush technique. One hundred eight patients who underwent multislice CT of the liver were randomly divided into four groups: 100 ml of contrast material (Iomeprol 300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) only and 100 ml of contrast material (300 mgI/ml or 350 mgI/ml) flushed with 50 ml of saline solution at a rate of 5 ml/sec. The saline flush technique demonstrated statistically significantly greater portal enhancement. Therefore, we consider that this technique contributes to the visualization of three-dimensional CT portography. (author)

  4. Electron microscopic studies of various cells in the alveolar wall of mice with special reference to spheroid alveolar epithelial cells after intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwa,Kiichi

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution on adult mouse spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was observed by the electron microscope. Sepia-melanin particles were seen in all alveolar wall cells examined that seems to suggest the entrance of sepia-melanin particles into the spheroid alveolar epithlial cells from the alveolar blood capillary. In cases of large penetrations of sepia-melanin particles into spheroid alveolar epithelial cells, a greater increase was found in the intramitochondrial granules. In addition, the so-called inclusion body believed to be formed by the degeneration of mitochondria had very high electron density and its quantity was abundant. On the contrary, in cases where the quantity of sepia-melanin entrance into the spheroid alveolar epithelial cell was small, neither an increase of intramitochondrial granules, an increase of the electron density nor an increase in the quantity of specific inclusion body was found.

  5. Pharmacokinetics for the solutable type injections of propofol glycoside in rats%葡萄糖基化丙泊酚溶液型注射剂在大鼠体内的药物动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆; 居瑞军; 李学涛; 张东晓; 吴仁荣; 陈学军; 吕万良

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the pharmacokinetics for two solution types of propofol glycoside in-jections in rats .Methods:A high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry ( HPLC-MS) was established for measuring propofol in rat plasma .Two kinds of propofol glycoside injec-tions were developed and intravenously administered to rats via tail vein , respectively , and a commercial-ly available propofol emulsion injection was intravenously administered as a control .Propofol plasma concentration-time curves were determined , and the pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated .Re-sults:HPLC-MS measurement was performed by using a quadrupole-orbit trap high-resolution mass spec-trometer on a C18 chromatographic column.The mobile phase consisted of water and methanol (20∶80, V/V) .The ion source was an atmospheric pressure chemical ion source , and the negative ion was used for detection with a scanning mode of selective ion monitoring in which m/z 177.127 4 was used for propofol and m/z 149.096 1 used for thymol as an internal standard .A linear correlation between con-centration and peak area ratio was constructed in the range of 50 μg/L-10.0 mg/L propofol.The limit of quantification was 50μg/L propofol .The average recoveries of propofol from plasma were in the range of 93.6% -101.1%, and intra-day or inter-day relative standard deviation for measurement was <14%.The pharmacokinetic results showed that the two kinds of propofol glycoside injections exhibited the same pharmacokinetic behavior .However, the clearance and area under curve values of propofol for the two propofol glycoside injections were evidently increased as compared with those for propofol emulsion injection, respectively.Furthermore, their apparent distribution volumes were increased as well .Never-theless, the propofol elimination half-life (t1/2) value of the newly developed propofol glycoside injections was the same as that of commercial propofol emulsion injection

  6. 注射用头孢唑林钠溶液澄清度与细胞毒性相关性研究%Studies on the Correlation between Clarity of Solution and Cytotoxicity of Cefazolin Sodium for Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹玲; 刘用国; 刘钐; 林晨煦

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the correlation between clarity of solution and cytotoxicity of cefazolin sodium for injection and evaluate the cytotoxicity test results of samples and rubber stopper from 2009 and 2011 by establis-hing the cytotoxicity test of cefazolin sodium for injection.METHODS Using L929 cells and MTT assay,the sample concentration was 0.78 mg・ mL-1 ,and use cefazolin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient as negative control.The relative inhibition of proliferation was used as evaluation indicator,the turbidity values was used to characterize clarity of solution of samples.RESULTS There was a negative linear correlation between the sample turbidity value and the relative inhibitory effect of cell proliferation with the sample at a concentration of 0.78 mg・ mL-1 .Namely clarity of solution being worse,cytotoxicity may be bigger.When the sample turbidity was more pronounced than that of the reference suspensionⅣ,compared with cefazolin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient,the cytotoxicity of the sam-ple was close to level 2.The toxic substance that has an impact on cell growth is not the cause of the decline in clarity of solution,but the clarity of solution test results for the samples that use non-coated halogenated butyl rubber stopper can be used as the reference index of cytotoxicity.CONCLUSION Based on the fact that butyl rubber stopper may increase the cytotoxicity of medicines,we recommend that the biosafety performance tests of the quality standard for pharmaceutical halogenated butyl rubber stopper should also include in cytotoxicity test,in addition to pyrogen,he-molysis,and acute toxicity test,to evaluate potential effects the rubber stopper migratory substances on cytotoxicity.%目的:通过建立注射用头孢唑林钠细胞毒性检测方法,评价2009年和2011年国抽部分样品及胶塞的细胞毒性,探讨注射用头孢唑林钠溶液澄清度与细胞毒性的相关性。方法采用L929细胞,MTT

  7. Solution mining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution mining process which may be used for uranium, thorium, vanadium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, rhenium, and selenium is claimed. During a first injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years, a leaching solution is injected through at least one well into the formation to solubilize the mineral values and form a pregnant liquor. This liquor is recovered through another well. The leaching solution contains sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, an alkali metal carbonate, an alkali metal bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate. Subsequently during a first production-only phase of between about 2 weeks and one year, injection of the leaching solution is suspended but pregnant liquor is still recovered. This stage is followed by a second injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years and a second production-only phase. The mineral values are separated from the pregnant liquor to form a barren liquor. The leaching agent is introduced into this liquor, and the solution is recycled. In a second claim for the solution mining of uranium, dilute carbonic acid is used as the leaching solution. The solution has a pH less than 7 and a bicarbonate ion concentration between about 380 ppm and 1000 ppm. The injection-and-production phase lasts between one and two years and the production only phase takes between one and four months. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the barren liquor to form a dilute carbonic acid solution and the solution is recycled

  8. Solution-processed high-LUMO-level polymers in n-type organic field-effect transistors: a comparative study as a semiconducting layer, dielectric layer, or charge injection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the polymers with high level of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs, > −3.5 eV) are especially susceptible to electron-trapping that causes low electron mobility and strong instability in successive operation. However, the role of high-LUMO-level polymers could be different depending on their locations relative to the semiconductor/insulator interface, or could even possibly benefit the device in some cases. We constructed unconventional polymer heterojunction n-type OFETs to control the location of the same polymer with a high LUMO level, to be in, under, or above the accumulation channel. We found that although the devices with the polymer in the channel suffer from dramatic instability, the same polymer causes much less instability when it acts as a dielectric modification layer or charge injection layer. Especially, it may even improve the device performance in the latter case. This result helps to improve our understanding of the electron-trapping and explore the value of these polymers in OFETs. (invited article)

  9. Utilization of water/alcohol-soluble polyelectrolyte as an electron injection layer for fabrication of high-efficiency multilayer saturated red-phosphorescence polymer light-emitting diodes by solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liang, Bo; Huang, Fei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2006-10-01

    Highly efficient multilayer red polymer light-emitting diodes were fabricated by solution process-ing from iridium complex, bis(1-(3-(9,9-dimethyl-fluorene-2-yl)phenyl)isoquinoline-C2,N ') iridium(III)acetylacetonate, doped into polyfluorene as a host and with a water/alcohol-soluble polymer, poly[(9,9-bis(3'-((N ,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammonium)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-4,7-(2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole)]dibromide (PFN) as electron injection layer. The device with the structure ITO /PEDOT-PSS(50nm)/PVK(40nm)/PFO:PBD:Ir(DMFPQ)2acac(2%,75nm)/PFN(20nm)/Ba(4.5nm)/Al(150nm) showed an external quantum efficiency of 18.0% and luminance efficiency of 9.8Cd/A at a current density of 1.1mA/cm2, a peak emission at λmax=636nm, and Commission International de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.665, 0.319). The efficiency remained as high as QE =11.1%, and LE =6.0cd/A, at a current density of 100mA/cm2, and a luminance of 6140cd/m2.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086... Guaifenesin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of guaifenesin and 50 milligrams of dextrose. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 037990 and 059130 in §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.540 - Dexamethasone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 522.540, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dexamethasone injection. 522.540 Section 522.540... Dexamethasone injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 2 milligrams...

  12. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  13. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  14. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  15. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  16. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  17. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  18. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  19. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  20. The Investigation of Compatibility Stability of 5% Glucose Injection and 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Solution%5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诚; 罗建华; 杜娆

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍的稳定性.方法:模拟临床液体疗法用药情况,将5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配制成不同配比的输液,在各个不同时间测定输液pH值、葡萄糖含量和5-羟甲基糠醛限量.结果:在实验时段内,pH值超过5%葡萄糖的规定范围,葡萄糖含量略有下降,5-羟甲基糠醛限量未见异常升高,紫外扫描未见5-羟甲基糠醛吸收峰增大.结论:5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍使用,建议临用时配制,一旦配制应尽快用完.%Objective: To investigate the compatibility stability of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection. Methods: Imitating the fluid therapy status in clinic and admixing different proportion transfusion of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection. The pH value of infusion, glucose level and the limits of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural were determined in different time. Results: The pH values were higher than the prescribed limit of 5% glucose injection and glucose content declined slightly during the experiment. There was no obvious abnormality in the limits of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural and the ultraviolet scanning absorbance of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural did not increase. Conclusions: It is suggested that the compatibility use of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection should be mixed before using and be used as soon as possible after mixing.

  1. Beam injection into RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam

  2. A Logic of Injectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Adamek, J; Souza, L

    2007-01-01

    Injectivity of objects with respect to a set $\\ch$ of morphisms is an important concept of algebra, model theory and homotopy theory. Here we study the logic of injectivity consequences of $\\ch$, by which we understand morphisms $h$ such that injectivity with respect to $\\ch$ implies injectivity with respect to $h$. We formulate three simple deduction rules for the injectivity logic and for its finitary version where \\mor s between finitely ranked objects are considered only, and prove that they are sound in all categories, and complete in all "reasonable" categories.

  3. Impact of discretization of the decision variables in the search of optimized solutions for history matching and injection rate optimization; Impacto do uso de variaveis discretas na busca de solucoes otimizadas para o ajuste de historico e distribuicao de vazoes de injecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Madeira, Marcelo G. [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the classical operations research arena, there is the notion that the search for optimized solutions in continuous solution spaces is easier than on discrete solution spaces, even when the latter is a subset of the first. On the upstream oil industry, there is an additional complexity in the optimization problems because there usually are no analytical expressions for the objective function, which require some form of simulation in order to be evaluated. Thus, the use of meta heuristic optimizers like scatter search, tabu search and genetic algorithms is common. In this meta heuristic context, there are advantages in transforming continuous solution spaces in equivalent discrete ones; the goal to do so usually is to speed up the search for optimized solutions. However, these advantages can be masked when the problem has restrictions formed by linear combinations of its decision variables. In order to study these aspects of meta heuristic optimization, two optimization problems are proposed and solved with both continuous and discrete solution spaces: assisted history matching and injection rates optimization. Both cases operate on a model of the Wytch Farm onshore oil filed located in England. (author)

  4. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  5. Acupuncture Sample Injection for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A simple nanoliter-scale injection technique was developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to form the well-defined sample plugs in microfluidic channels. Sample injection was achieved by performing acupuncture on a channel with a needle and applying external pressure to a syringe. This technique allowed us to achieve reproducible injection of a 3-nL segment into a microchannel for PDMS microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with bead packing were successfully performed by applying a single potential in the most simplified straight channel. The advantages of this acupuncture injection over the electrokinetic injection in microchip CE include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware, capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into a same microchannel, capability of injecting sample plugs into any position of a microchannel, independence on sample solutions during the loading step, and ease in making microchips due to the straight channel, etc. PMID:27056036

  6. In situ solution mining technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

  7. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  8. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  9. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  10. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  11. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  12. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  13. Perceptions of injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on interviews with experts in the petroleum and natural gas exploration industry and results of a workshop insight is given into the attitudes, opinions and perceptions on the possibility to store wastes from the exploration activities in the deep underground, e.g. by means of injection. In a separate report a comparison is made on injection and other waste processing options

  14. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.; Andersen, Verner; Nielsen, Arne Nordskov; Sass, Bjarne Ove; Weisberg, Knud-Vilhelm

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocit...

  15. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  16. Spin injection into semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  17. Shale fracturing injections at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: 1977-1979 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate-level waste solution generated at ORNL is periodically mixed with a cement-base blend of dry solids and injected into an impermeable shale formation at an approximate depth of 240 m (800 ft). The grout mix sets shortly after the injection, permanently fixing the radionuclides in the shale formation. A series of four injections of intermediate-level waste solution was made between 1977 and 1979. A total of 1.2 million l (314,000 gal) of waste solution containing 81,780 Ci of radionuclides was injected. This report is an account of this injection series - preparations, injections, results, and conclusions. The volumes and activities that were injected are summarized. In Injection ILW-15 a small leak of grout to the waste pit eroded the drain valves and forced a shutdown of the injection while repairs were made. The injection was completed 2 days later. Injection ILW-16 was terminated about two-thirds through the injection when the diesel drive of the injection pump blew a connecting rod through the block. The facility and well were washed down with the standby pump. Prior to Injection ILW-17, air pads were installed on all bulk solids storage bins. All subsequent injections have been marked by a much more even flow of solids and a resulting improvement in the mix ratio control. Injections ILW-17 and ILW-18 were made without notable incidents. Logs of the observation wells indicated that all grout sheets were within the disposal zone

  18. Chemiluminescence of carbon dots induced by diperiodato-nicklate (IV) in alkaline solution and its application to a quenchometric flow-injection assays of paracetamole, L-cysteine and glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solutions of carbon dots (C-dots) were prepared by microwave-assisted thermal carbonization of poly(ethylene glycol). They were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectra. It is shown that diperiodato-nicklate(IV), a strong oxidant, induces the chemiluminescence (CL) of C-dots in strongly alkaline solution without use of an additional reagent. A mechanism for this reaction is suggested. It is also found that the CL of the system is quenched by paracetamole, L-cysteine and glutathione. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration plot is linear with a correlation coefficient (r) of >0.995. The limits of detection are 90, 8, and 60 µg L-1 for paracetamole, L-cysteine, and glutathione, respectively. Spiked urine and serum samples were analyzed and gave recoveries in the range from 84.38 to 116.0 %, with an RSD of 1.2–2.7 %. (author)

  19. A study on the steady-state solutions of a Bursian diode in the presence of transverse magnetic field, when the electrons of the injected beam are turned back partially or totally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kuznetsov, V. I. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The properties of a steady-state planar vacuum diode driven by a cold electron beam have been investigated in the presence of an external transverse magnetic field, employing both the Eulerian and the Lagrangian formalism. With the help of a numerical scheme, the features of the steady-state solutions have been explored in the Eulerian frame, particularly for the case that corresponds to the potential distributions with a virtual cathode. However, exact analytical formulae for the potential and velocity profiles within the inter-electrode region have been derived with the Lagrangian description. In contrast to the previous work [Phys. Plasmas 22, 042110 (2015)], here we have emphasized the situation when electrons are reflected back to the emitter by the magnetic field. Both partial and complete reflection of the electrons due to the magnetic field have been taken into account. Using the emitter electric field as a characteristic parameter, steady-state solutions have been evaluated for specific values of diode length, applied voltage, and magnetic field strength. It has been shown that, due to the inclusion of the magnetic field, a new region of non-unique solutions appears. An external magnetic field seems to have a profound effect in controlling fast electronic switches based on the Bursian diode.

  20. 21 CFR 522.1244 - Levamisole phosphate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole phosphate injection. 522.1244 Section... § 522.1244 Levamisole phosphate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains levamisole phosphate equivalent to 136.5 or 182 milligrams of levamisole...

  1. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so ...

  2. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in the blood; high levels of certain fats in the blood; and swelling of the arms, hands, feet, and legs). Corticotropin repository injection is in a class of medications called hormones. ...

  3. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  4. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000660.htm Giving an insulin injection To use the sharing features on this ... and syringes. Filling the Syringe - One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry ...

  5. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  6. Meperidine Hydrochloride Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as your buttock or hip) or added ... lung or thyroid disease, heart disease, seizures, prostatic hypertrophy, or urinary problems.tell your doctor if you ...

  7. Soft tissue injections

    OpenAIRE

    Inês, Luís P. B. S.; Silva, José António P. da

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue rheumatism includes a wide spectrum of common lesions of the tendons, enthesis, tendon sheaths, bursae, ligaments and fasciae as well as nerve compression syndromes. Studies on the pathogenesis of these lesions do not support a major role for inflammation, thus questioning the rationale for glucocorticoid injections. This chapter reviews current indications for local glucocorticoid injections and available evidence on its efficacy, as well as contraindications and potential risks....

  8. Feline injection site sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Nóbrega, C.; Mesquita, Jr.; Cruz, R; C. Coelho; Esteves, F.; Mega, A. C.; Santos, C.; Vala, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Feline injection site sarcoma (FISS), formerly known as Vaccine Associated Sarcoma (VAS) is a rare, but life-threatening disease. The incidence estimates have varied from 1 case of FISS per 1,000-10,000 cats vaccinated in North America and between 1 per 5,000-12,500 vaccination visits in United Kingdom. It has been primarily associated with vaccine administration, but several other injectable materials/substances have been implicated as aetiologic agents, namely lufenuron, penicilin, meti...

  9. Detection Block Model for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha G. Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet, more and more organizations connect their databases to the Internet for resource sharing. However, due to developers' lack of knowledge of all possible attacks, web applications become vulnerable to multiple attacks. Thus the network databases could face multiple threats. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable asset in any organization. SQL injection is an attack technique in which specially crafted input string is entered in user input field. It is submitted to server and result is returned to the user. In SQL injection vulnerability, the database server is forced to execute malicious operations which may cause the data loss or corruption, denial of access, and unauthentic access to sensitive data by crafting specific inputs. An attacker can directly compromise the database, and that is why this is a most threatening web attack. SQL injection attack occupies first position in top ten vulnerabilities as specified by Open Web Application Security Project. It is probably the most common Website vulnerability today. Current scenarios which provide solutions to SQL injection attack either have limited scope i.e. can’t be implemented across all platforms, or do not cover all types of SQL injection attacks. In this work we implement Message Authentication Code (MAC based solution against SQL injection attacks. The model works both on client and server side. Client side implements a filter function and server side is based on information theory. MAC of static and dynamic queries is compared to detect SQL injection attack.

  10. Progestin-only injectables offer many advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1995-06-01

    Progestin-only injectables are among the most effective and safe of all contraceptives, yet they are not widely used in many countries. This limited use is in part due to a lack of accurate information about health concerns, inadequate counseling for users about managing side effects, and their limited availability. Where they are available, progestin-only injectables rapidly become one of the preferred methods. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are the two progestin-only injectables in use worldwide. The former drug is sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, and the latter as Noristerat. DMPA is delivered in a water-based, crystalline suspension and absorbed gradually by the body. The normal injection of 150 mg is intended to be administered every three months, but contraceptive protection continues for an additional two weeks to provide a grace period for women who are late receiving their next injection. NET-EN is an oily solution which requires a larger needle than DMPA for injection. A 200 mg injection of NET-EN is usually administered every two months. Both of these safe, highly effective drugs are injected in either the upper arm or buttocks. DMPA and NET-EN can be distributed easily in nonclinical settings where nonphysicians can provide them to clients. The main disadvantage of the method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, but that is generally not a serious medical problem. Focusing mainly upon DMPA, this article includes discussion of menstrual irregularity, the reduced risk of endometrial cancer among DMPA users, and method availability. PMID:12289828

  11. Improving pulverized coal injection systems for operating with higher injection rates; Amelioration des performances d'installations d'injection de charbon en vue d'une augmentation du taux d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, K. [Thyssen Krupp Stahl (Germany); Kroemmer, Y.; Goedert, P.; Schmit, L. [Arcelor Paul Wurth (Luxembourg)

    2004-10-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The latest developments in injection technology allow reaching injection rates of 200 kg/t{sub HM} and more. The new technology can be applied directly to green field plants but also to existing injection plants. Two innovative solutions for upgrading simple distributor systems with respect to flow control and distribution accuracy are presented. The installation of oxy-coal lances and of a preheating system for pulverized coal upstream of the injection improves the combustion conditions at the lance tip.

  12. Method for improving solution flow in solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation containing same in which an injection and production well are drilled and completed within said formation, leach solution and an oxidant are injected through said injection well into said formation to dissolve said mineral, and said dissolved mineral is recovered via said production well, wherein the improvement comprises pretreating said formation with an acid gas to improve the permeabiltiy thereof

  13. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  14. Syringe-injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  15. Reactor water injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  16. The LHC Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

  17. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O4- mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-Tc-99m-O4- mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- Tc-99m-O4- mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver.=20

  18. Determinação espectrofotométrica de alumínio em concentrados salinos utilizados em hemodiálise empregando pré-concentração em fluxo Spectrophotometric aluminium determination in high salts concentrations solution used in hemodyalisis emploing preconcentration in flow injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Silva Pereira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic flow injection procedure for spectrophotometric aluminium determination in purified water and solutions containing high salts concentrations used for hemodyalisis treatment was developed. The method was base on reaction of Al3+ with cianine eriochrome R (ECR after preconcentration using the AG50W-X8 cationic-exchange resin. Elution was carried out using a 1 % (m/v calcium chloride solution. The manifold comprised an automatic proporcional injector controlled by a computer equipped with an eletronic interface and software written in QuicBASIC 4.5 with facilities to control the injector and perform data acquisition. Samples with concentration ranging from 4.96 to 19.90 µg L-1 Al were analyzed and recoveries between 88 and 113% were obtained by using the standard addition method. Other profitable analytical characteristics such as a relative standard deviation 1.3 % (n = 10 for a typical sample 14.5 µg L-1 Al, a linear response ranging up to 60.0 µg L-1Al, and a sampling throughput of 10 determinations per hour were achieved. A detection limit of 4.2 µg L-1 Al was estimated as suggested by IUPAC.

  19. STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The approach used is to inject steam into 1- dimensional columns that have been packed with contaminated soil from the site. Temperatures in the system are monitored aliquots of the effluent collected for analysis. A sample of the initial soil, the final steamed soil, the effluen...

  20. Morphine Sulfate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered morphine, a strong analgesic (painkiller), to relieve your pain. The drug will be either injected into a large muscle (such as ... or under your skin.You probably will receive morphine continuously for around-the-clock pain relief. Your ...

  1. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment over the course of many years without side effects from long-term use. Immunity Because botulinum neurotoxin is a biological product, it ... but not the result you expected or unacceptable side effects, ask your ... a patient for immunity by injecting a tiny amount of botulinum neurotoxin ...

  2. SPS injection kicker

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 5-cell, lumped-delay-line structure of the first-generation SPS injection kickers. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502073X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  3. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  4. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Insulin & Other Injectables Share: Print Page Text ... Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your ...

  5. Percutaneous Ethibloc injection in aneurysmal bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, N.K.; Walsh, H.P.J.; Dorgan, J.C.; Bruce, C.E. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Carty, H. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the injection of Ethibloc into aneurysmal bone cysts can be an effective treatment modality.Design and patients. Ethibloc is an alcoholic solution of zein (corn protein) which has thrombogenic and fibrogenic properties. Ten patients with aneurysmal bone cysts were treated with CT-guided percutaneous injection of Ethibloc into the cyst cavity. Ethibloc injection was the primary treatment in five patients. Four patients had recurrence following previous curettage and bone grafting and one patient had not responded to injection into the lesion of autologous iliac crest bone marrow aspirate. Three patients needed a second injection. The median follow-up was 27 (6-60) months.Results and conclusion. Symptoms were relieved in all patients. At imaging, seven patients had resolution of the lesion and three had partial response at the most recent follow-up. Complications consisted of a local transitory inflammatory reaction in two patients and an aseptic abscess in one patient. This relatively simple, minimally invasive procedure makes an operation unnecessary by stopping the expansion of the cyst and inducing endosteal new bone formation. This technique may be used as the primary management of aneurysmal bone cysts excluding spinal lesions. (orig.)

  6. Percutaneous Ethibloc injection in aneurysmal bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To investigate whether the injection of Ethibloc into aneurysmal bone cysts can be an effective treatment modality.Design and patients. Ethibloc is an alcoholic solution of zein (corn protein) which has thrombogenic and fibrogenic properties. Ten patients with aneurysmal bone cysts were treated with CT-guided percutaneous injection of Ethibloc into the cyst cavity. Ethibloc injection was the primary treatment in five patients. Four patients had recurrence following previous curettage and bone grafting and one patient had not responded to injection into the lesion of autologous iliac crest bone marrow aspirate. Three patients needed a second injection. The median follow-up was 27 (6-60) months.Results and conclusion. Symptoms were relieved in all patients. At imaging, seven patients had resolution of the lesion and three had partial response at the most recent follow-up. Complications consisted of a local transitory inflammatory reaction in two patients and an aseptic abscess in one patient. This relatively simple, minimally invasive procedure makes an operation unnecessary by stopping the expansion of the cyst and inducing endosteal new bone formation. This technique may be used as the primary management of aneurysmal bone cysts excluding spinal lesions. (orig.)

  7. Negative Flash for Calculating the Intersecting Key Tie lines in Multicomponent Gas Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2014-01-01

    Gas injection is a widely used enhanced oil recovery method, and its application is expected to increase in the foreseeable future. In order to build a method of characteristics solution to a two-phase gas injection system, we must construct the composition route from the injection gas to the ini...

  8. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers (99mTc-HAMS, 99mTc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  9. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  10. Stability of esmolol hydrochloride in intravenous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaske, D M; Dykstra, S D; Wagenknecht, D M; Karnatz, N N

    1994-11-01

    The stability of esmolol hydrochloride in a variety of i.v. solutions was studied. Solutions of esmolol hydrochloride 10 mg/mL were prepared separately in 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose with lactated Ringer's injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% sodium bicarbonate injection, and 5% dextrose injection with potassium chloride 40 meq/L. One glass and one polyvinyl chloride container of each solution (except glass only in the case of the solution in 5% sodium bicarbonate injection) were stored in the dark at 5 degrees C, under ambient room light at 23-27 degrees C, in the dark at 40 degrees C, and under intense light at 25-30 degrees C. At storage intervals up to 168 hours, samples were tested for esmolol hydrochloride concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography. Optical density and pH were also measured. Esmolol hydrochloride was stable in the various i.v. fluids for at least 168 hours when stored at 5 degrees C or 23-27 degrees C, for at least 24 hours when stored under intense light, and, with one exception, for at least 48 hours when stored at 40 degrees C. When mixed with 5% sodium bicarbonate injection, the drug was stable for only about 24 hours at 40 degrees C. There were no substantial changes in optical density or pH. The type of container had no effect on stability. With one exception, esmolol hydrochloride was stable in all the i.v. solutions under all the conditions tested. PMID:7856582

  11. Injective Spaces via Adjunction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Our work over the past years shows that not only the collection of (for instance) all topological spaces gives rise to a category, but also each topological space can be seen individually as a category by interpreting the convergence relation $\\mathfrak{x}\\to x$ between ultrafilters and points of a topological space $X$ as arrows in $X$. Naturally, this point of view opens the door to the use of concepts and ideas from (enriched) Category Theory for the investigation of (for instance) topological spaces. In this paper we study cocompleteness, adjoint functors and Kan extensions in the context of topological theories. We show that the cocomplete spaces are precisely the injective spaces, and they are algebras for a suitable monad on $\\SET$. This way we obtain enriched versions of known results about injective topological spaces and continuous lattices.

  12. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  13. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  14. Injectivity on one line

    OpenAIRE

    Gwoździewicz, Janusz

    1993-01-01

    Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. Let $H:k^2\\to k^2$ be a polynomial mapping such that the Jacobian $\\text{Jac}\\,H$ is a non-zero constant. In this note we prove, that if there is a line $l \\subset k^2$ such that $H|_l:l\\to k^2$ is an injection, then $H$ is a polynomial automorphism.

  15. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  16. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  17. Expectation of the parts quality on the ground of the simulation of the injection moulding process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nabialek; J. Koszkul; A. Gnatowski

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to present results of researches concerned to predestining quality of polymer parts created by injection moulding method. The estimation of structural solution quality was made on the grounds of the injection moulding computer simulation. Results of studies were compared with predictions presented in professional literature.Design/methodology/approach: Series of injection moulding computer simulations were carried out for different structural solutions of ch...

  18. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migranal® Nasal Spray ... inject subcutaneously (under the skin) and as a spray to be used in the nose. It is ... that you know how to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you ...

  19. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  20. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  1. Spheromak injection into a tokamak

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M R; Bellan, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from the Caltech spheromak injection experiment [to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] are reported. First, current drive by spheromak injection into the ENCORE tokamak as a result of the process of magnetic helicity injection is observed. An initial 30% increase in plasma current is observed followed by a drop by a factor of 3 because of sudden plasma cooling. Second, spheromak injection results in an increase of tokamak central density by a factor of 6. The high-current/high-density...

  2. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard;

    and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These...... understand structure-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  3. Reductant injection and mixing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  4. Multiobjective Design of Turbo Injection Mode for Axial Flux Motor in Plastic Injection Molding Machine by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Long Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a turbo injection mode (TIM for an axial flux motor to apply onto injection molding machine. Since the injection molding machine requires different speed and force parameters setting when finishing a complete injection process. The interleaved winding structure in the motor provides two different injection levels to provide enough injection forces. Two wye-wye windings are designed to switch two control modes conveniently. Wye-wye configuration is used to switch two force levels for the motor. When only one set of wye-winding is energized, field weakening function is achieved. Both of the torque and speed increase under field weakening operation. To achieve two control objectives for torque and speed of the motor, fuzzy based multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI with particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to find out the multiobjective optimal design solution. Both of the torque and speed are expected to be maximal at the same time. Three control factors are selected as studied factors: winding diameter, winding type, and air-gap. Experimental results show that both of the torque and speed increase under the optimal condition. This will provide enough large torque and speed to perform the turbo injection mode in injection process for the injection molding machine.

  5. Compatibility of ketorolac tromethamine injection with common infusion fluids and administration sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floy, B J; Royko, C G; Fleitman, J S

    1990-05-01

    The compatibility of ketorolac tromethamine injection with commonly used i.v. infusion solutions and administration set components was evaluated. The infusion solutions tested were 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% dextrose injection, Plasma-Lyte A pH 7.4 injection, Ringer's injection, and lactated Ringer's injection. The ketorolac tromethamine admixture concentration studied was 30 mg/50 mL for all solutions. Admixtures were stored in polyvinyl chloride bags and glass bottles at room temperature under fluorescent light and sampled at 0, 6, 24, and 48 hours. Chemical compatibility was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical compatibility was determined by visual analysis, counting of subvisible particles by HIAC, and pH measurements. Adsorption of ketorolac tromethamine to i.v. administration set components was also evaluated. Ketorolac tromethamine exhibited excellent physical and chemical stability in all six infusion solutions tested. No degradation of drug, formation of particulates, or adsorption to containers or infusion tubing was noted at any concentration for any of the solutions. After the solutions were mixed, the pH remained essentially unchanged. Ketorolac tromethamine injection was physically and chemically stable when mixed with a variety of commonly used infusion solutions and was not adsorbed to administration set components or to glass or polyvinyl chloride containers. PMID:2337102

  6. Gas injection pilot in the Hochleiten field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potsch, K.; Ramberger, R.; Glantschnig, J.; Baumgarthuber, S.; Goessnitzer, F. [OMV AG, Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The Hochleiten field, located in the north of Vienna, is small in extension and highly compartmentalized. The main reservoir horizons are at a depth of approximately 1000 m. The oil quality shows high density and viscosity. Waterflood was initiated, but worked only in a part of the reservoir. Compartmentalization and lateral facies changes result in poor comunication and big pressure differences across the field. Some of the oil in place is not reached by primary or secondary recovery processes, and a solution was sought for accessing the bypassed oil. The screening process suggested gas injection as the most promising method. This contribution presents the first results of a field pilot project. Information will be given on the geology, additional lab work, and the realization in the field. The injection and production profiles of this pilot are presented. CO{sub 2} improved the inflow capacity of the injector, but the oil rates of the effected wells increased only slightly. In order to match the actual response of the reservoir, we had to adjust our reservoir model. Meanwhile N{sub 2} was injected as a tracer in one of the wells, to find out the preferred communication paths, before we proceeded with further gas injection. (orig.)

  7. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  8. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  9. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  10. Spin Injection Across a Heterojunction: A Ballistic Picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin injection across heterojunctions plays a decisive role in the new field of spintronics. Within the ballistic transport regime, we state a general expression for the spin-injection rate in a heterojunction made of two ballistic electrodes. Both the spin-orbit interaction and interface scattering effect are taken into account. Our model is consistent with the well-documented results of ferromagnetic-metal junctions. It explains the recent experimental results of a dilute-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor junction and predicts solutions to enhance the spin-injection rate across a ferromagnetic-semiconductor junction

  11. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  12. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  13. An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, A C H; Bakker, Maarten H; Tseng, Cheyenne C S; Bastings, Maartje M C; Koudstaal, Stefan; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of lost myocardium is an important goal for future therapies because of the increasing occurrence of chronic ischemic heart failure and the limited access to donor hearts. An example of a treatment to recover the function of the heart consists of the local delivery of drugs and bioactives from a hydrogel. In this paper a method is introduced to formulate and inject a drug-loaded hydrogel non-invasively and side-specific into the pig heart using a long, flexible catheter. The use of 3-D electromechanical mapping and injection via a catheter allows side-specific treatment of the myocardium. To provide a hydrogel compatible with this catheter, a supramolecular hydrogel is used because of the convenient switching from a gel to a solution state using environmental triggers. At basic pH this ureido-pyrimidinone modified poly(ethylene glycol) acts as a Newtonian fluid which can be easily injected, but at physiological pH the solution rapidly switches into a gel. These mild switching conditions allow for the incorporation of bioactive drugs and bioactive species, such as growth factors and exosomes as we present here in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments give an on forehand indication of the gel stability and drug release, which allows for tuning of the gel and release properties before the subsequent application in vivo. This combination allows for the optimal tuning of the gel to the used bioactive compounds and species, and the injection system. PMID:26132631

  14. Cusp Injection Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey is given of the characteristics of the β = 1 cusped configuration and the experimental techniques for establishing hot field-free cusped plasmas. Results from the cusp compression experiments at the Culham Laboratory are summarised and it is concluded that wall and external plasma effects make it extremely difficult to obtain a cusp hole of size less than an ion gyro-diameter by the compression method. An injection technique is described in which hot field-free plasma is transferred from a conical theta-pinch gun through a uniform magnetic guide field into a cusped field region where directed energy is randomised by collision with counter-streaming plasma. Experimental results are presented on gun development, on the injection of plasma into guide fields and on the stability of flow of plasma ''spears'' along guide fields. Preliminary measurements on plasma trapping in a cusped region are reported. Experiments on the collision of plasmas in guide field and zero field show the importance of very low magnitude trapped magnetic fields in causing strong interaction and randomisation of directed energy. The study of a magnetic mirror plasma formed by colliding plasma spears indicates that thermal conductivity may be the major energy loss process. (author)

  15. Development of a Fully Automated Flow Injection Analyzer Implementing Bioluminescent Biosensors for Water Toxicity Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinos Georgiou; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Gerasimos Kremmydas; Efstathios Vasiliou; Efstratios Komaitis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor biol...

  16. Transverse Injection Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of a plasma stream injected transverse to a magnetic field has been discussed by several authors. In early experiments with the injection of a fast (50 to 70 cm/μsec) dense (1014 ion/cm3) plasma transverse to a magnetic field, a self polarization electric field was observed and the stream crossed the magnetic field with an E x B drift. The magnetic field was only slightly disturbed by the stream (| ΔB/B | <0.1) while the drift across magnetic fields up to 5 kG was at approximately the velocity of the injected stream. The height of the stream in the direction of V x B is compressed as it drifts into high magnetic field regions. At the same time, electron density measurements using interferometry techniques with the He-Ne laser show that the transverse field up to 7 kG causes no appreciable spreading of the stream to take place in the direction of B. Of interest is the action of the stream as it crosses a region where magnetic field lines reverse direction about a field null line. As the stream proceeds across the separatrix between the two field line directions, the electric field must change direction if the stream drift is to continue. The stream halts in the region of the separatrix while large currents are measured along magnetic field lines connecting the front of the stream with the following portions. Insulators placed to interrupt the current allow the stream to proceed into the reversed field region. By making use of the inductance associated with the depolarization current when magnetic field lines are tied at some distance to the side of the stream, a separation of fast and slow stream components can be made. The cutoff of the slow stream component is observed with the He-Ne laser interferometry techniques. Electric field measurements at several points along the stream show some of the more complicated features of the plasma flow. (author)

  17. Viscoelastic-injecting cystotome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teus, M A; Fagúndez-Vargas, M A; Calvo, M A; Marcos, A

    1998-11-01

    This continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is for use in complicated surgical cases such as when the anterior chamber is shallow, the red reflex is not good, or eye movements are present. This technique is easier and safer in such cases because it uses a cystotome connected to a viscoelastic syringe. First, the anterior chamber is filled with viscoelastic material using a conventional cannula. The cannula is replaced with a bent needle (or cystotome), and the CCC is performed in the usual way. This instrument allows the surgeon to inject small amounts of viscoelastic material exactly where and when it is needed. The anterior chamber remains deep while the CCC is performed, and the anterior capsule tear is done in a more controlled fashion. PMID:9818330

  18. Statement on injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  19. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  20. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deli, Martin, E-mail: martin.deli@web.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Fritz, Jan, E-mail: jfritz9@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Mateiescu, Serban, E-mail: mateiescu@microtherapy.de; Busch, Martin, E-mail: busch@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Carrino, John A., E-mail: jcarrin2@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Becker, Jan, E-mail: j.becker@microtherapy.de; Garmer, Marietta, E-mail: garmer@microtherapy.de; Groenemeyer, Dietrich, E-mail: dg@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  1. Lattice Design and Injection Issues for the 2-TeV SSCL High-Energy Booster to Collider Injection Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, K

    2003-01-01

    An intensive and systematic lattice design study for the 2 TeV injection lines from the High Energy Booster (HEB) to the Collider rings has led to a compact resistive magnet solution which is a one piece achromat having beta function transitions on both ends and a pseudo-periodic structure in between. A comparison between several possible solutions concentrated on the desired optical flexibility and major technical problems associated with the huge amount of beam energy (6.55MJ) in the HEB and mechanical interferences. The HEB extraction and Collider injection schemes were designed with kicker misfire control and aperture limits on both the HEB and the Collider sides.

  2. Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-02-01

    We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime. The implications of the regime diagram are discussed using practical

  3. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  4. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Muller, S.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  5. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  6. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  7. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  8. Hydrogen injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type reactor, a corrosion potential of materials on a bottom of the reactor is measured. A developing rate of cracks of the material is determined based on the measured value. A dose rate of a main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of a feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate of the main steam system are within predetermined ranges respectively. In addition, the concentration of oxidant in the reactor is determined based on the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system, and the corrosion potential of the materials on the bottom of the reactor is determined based on the value. The dose rate of the main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate are within predetermined ranges respectively. The amount of hydrogen injected to the feedwater system is determined based on the previously obtained correlation, whereby the corrosion circumference on the bottom of the reactor is directly improved within a predetermined range. Accordingly, the water quality can be controlled appropriately for the equipments on the bottom of the reactor, and the developing rate of the cracks of the material can be lowered without increasing the dose rate of the main steam system thereby enabling to extend the working life. (N.H.)

  9. The RHIC injection kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t·m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a open-quotes Cclose quotes cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ω characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding ∼ 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ω terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the open-quotes Sextant Testclose quotes are reported

  10. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  11. Injectable bioactive calcium-magnesium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel injectable and degradable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) with rapid-setting characteristic was developed by the introduction of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) into calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The calcium-magnesium phosphate cement prepared under the optimum P/L ratio exhibited good injectability and desired workability. It could set within 10 min at 37 0C in 100% relative humidity and the compressive strength could reach 47 MPa after setting for 48 h, indicating that the prepared cement has relatively high initial mechanical strength. The results of in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated the good degradability of the injectable CMPC, and its degradation rate occurred significantly faster than that of pure CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. It can be concluded that the novel injectable calcium-magnesium phosphate cement is highly promising for a wide variety of clinical applications, especially for the development of minimally invasive techniques.

  12. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  13. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  14. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, M.J.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2001-03-26

    This report was an integrated study of the physics and chemistry affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involved theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. Specifically, advances were made on streamline-based simulation, analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements, and modeling and experimental measures of three-phase flow.

  15. A Novel Injective Approach For Osgood-schlatter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite first being reported more than 100 years ago, Osgood-Schlatter disease(OSD) currently has no effective treatment. The recent use of ultrasonography in the orthopedic surgery and sports medicine fields revealed that patellar tendinopathy and deep infrapatellar bursitis contributes to the pain experienced by patients with OSD. Considering the reported effectiveness and safety of hyperosmolar dextrose injection for patellar tendinopathy, here we investigated the efficacy and safety of hyperosmolar dextrose injection as a novel treatment for OSD. Our hypothesis was that hyperosmolar dextrose injection would be safe and well tolerated by patients with OSD. Methods: We performed this prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial between April 2012 and June 2015. A total of 44 knees in 36 boys (average age, 12.3 ± 1.1 years) for whom conventional conservative therapy for >1 month was ineffective were randomly assigned to the double-blind injection of 1% lidocaine (1 mL) with saline (1 mL) (Saline group) or 1% lidocaine (1 mL) with 20% dextrose (1 mL) (Dextrose group). Half of the solution was injected into the distal attachment of the patellar tendon, while the remaining half was injected into the deep infrapatellar bursa or infrapatellar fat pad under ultrasound guidance. Injections were administered monthly for 3 months by a single investigator. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) score was used to evaluate pain. Results: A total of 40 knees in 33 boys were included in this clinical trial. The mean pre-injection VISA scores of the Dextrose and Saline groups were 59.6 ± 19.1 and 62.5 ± 16.6, while those at the final follow-up were 83.6 ± 19.3 and 84.1 ± 19.1, respectively. There were no significant differences in the two group pre-injection versus at the final follow-up (P = 0.61 and 0.93, respectively). In contrast, the mean VISA score significantly increased in both group between pre-injection and final follow-up (P < 0

  16. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  17. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  18. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Abdus-Samee, M. [Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Mann, C. [Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Singh, D. [Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Angel, J.C. [Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy.

  19. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  20. Distribution of ethanolamine oleate after injecting into the esophageal varices studied by isotope; sup(99m)TcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of sclerosant injected by endoscope. Sclerotherapy for esophageal varices was performed on 6 patients in 16 times of injection. The used sclerosant contained 5% ethanolamine oleate (EO) and sup(99m)TcO4- solution at the ratio of volume 9:1 (EO-sup(99m)Tc). At each injection session 5 to 20ml of this solution was injected into one varix. The distribution of injected material was observed by a scintillation camera. Systemic dissemination of the sclerosant through portal vein was demonstrated in five out of 16 procedures, in which the injections were correctly intravenous. Dissemination occured irrespective of the sclerosant volume injected. In these, most of the EO-sup(99m)Tc was washed out within 5 minutes leaving a trace in the peri-esophageal veins. Effects of injection were, however, evident and the varices showed atrophic changes. (author)

  1. Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

  2. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  3. Injecting equipment schemes for injecting drug users : qualitative evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Cattan, Mima; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Akhionbare, Kate; Burrell, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This review of the qualitative literature about needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) for injecting drug users (IDUs) complements the review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. It aims to provide a more situated narrative perspective on the overall guidance questions.

  4. Efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution combination clonazepam oral versus haloperidol intramuscular injection for treatment of acute psychotic agitation in schizophrenia%利培酮口服液合用氯硝西泮与氟哌啶醇针剂肌内注射治疗精神分裂症急性激越症状疗效和安全性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房茂胜; 王刚; 张庆娥; 郑洪波; 张璐璐; 汪波; 周建初; 赵靖平; 李乐华; 陈红辉; 李毅; 刘连忠; 叶萌; 黄继忠; 诸索宇

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety between risperidone oral solution combination clonazepam oral and haloperidol IM injection on controlling psychotic agitation in patients of acute schizophrenia or schizophrenic-affective disorder and to explore the possibility of decreasing efficacy of 6 week acute treatment from switching IM injection to oral.Method Altogether 205 patients exhibiting agitation were randomly assigned to receive either oral treatment with risperidone oral solution puls clonazepam ( n = 104) or intramuscular injection treatment with haloperidol ( n = 101 ).The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in scores based on PANSS-EC in session Ⅰ ( the first five days), and the response rate based on the PANSS score in session Ⅱ ( the following 6 weeks).Safety was evaluated using the Simpson-Angus Scale (ASA), Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS), adverse events and lab test.Result Mean acute-agitation score improvement was significant after 5 day treatment in both groups (P <0.01 ) and were similar in both groups ( P > 0.05).While the cooperation was better and the advert events, especially extrapyramidal symptoms was lower in risperidone oral solution groups than that in haloperidol IM injection group(P <0.05).The mean PANSS-EC and PANSS scores remained stable after switching from IM injection to oral.The efficacy was not differenct in both groups after 6 week treatment (P > 0.05).There was no significant difference at the rate of total advert events ( P > 0.05 ) while there were yet significantly higher rates of extrapyramidal symptoms in switching drug group than that in oral group ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Risperidone oral solution plus oral clonazepam has similar therapeutic effect to haloperidol IM injection in the treatment of acute agitation, but risperidone oral solution plus clonazepam has better compliance and tolerability.The illness is stable after switching from haloperidol IM injection to risperidone oral solution

  5. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  6. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  7. 奥扎格雷钠在转化糖等三种注射液中的稳定性考察%Stability of ozagrel sodium for injections in invertose injection,fructose injection and xylitol injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋士卒; 王兰香; 韩静文

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study the stability of ozagrel sodium for injections in invertose injection.Fructose injection and xylitol injection.Methods The contents of ozagrel sodium for injections were determined by HPLC,meanwhile their changes in the appearances and the Ph values were observed.Results The contents of ozagrel sodium for injections were stable within 6 hours,and the mixed solutions and their Ph values were stable on the whole.Conclusion 0zagrel sodium can be mixed with invertose injection,fructose injection or xylitol injection for clinical use.%目的 考察注射用奥扎格雷钠在转化糖等三种注射液中的稳定性.方法 采用高效液相色谱( HPLC)法测定6 h内奥扎格雷钠在转化糖等三种注射液中的含量,并考察配伍液在不同时间的外观、pH值变化.结果 奥扎格雷钠在转化糖等三种注射液中中的含量6 h内无明显变化,各配伍液的外观和PH值无明显变化.结论 室温6 h内,注射用奥扎格雷钠可以在转化糖等三种注射液中配伍使用.

  8. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

  9. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  10. Particles in small volume injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  11. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... conjugate) Sterile Solution for Injection, administered as two doses 4 weeks apart to intact male pigs for... Pfizer, Inc. The supplemental NADA extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with... use in female pigs and barrows. Do not use in intact male pigs intended for breeding because of...

  12. SORBENT/UREA SLURRY INJECTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of sorbent injection and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technologies has been investigated for simulataneous SO2/NOx removal. A slurry composed of a urea-based solution and various Ca-based sorbents was injected at a range of tempera...

  13. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... veterinary prescription use of a combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin... that provides for veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin...

  14. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug... NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid... releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution for Injection for temporary...

  15. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect.

  16. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  17. Gadodiamide injection and gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-blind, randomized parallel phase III study in MR imaging of the central nervous system was conducted to compare the safety and diagnostic utility of gadodiamide injection and gadopentetate dimeglumine at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg by b.w. in 60 adult patients. Seven patients in the gadodiomide injection group experienced 10 adverse events, 5 of the events possibly related to the contrast agent. In the gadopentate dimeglumine group 5 patients reported 3 contrast agent-related adverse events out of 8 events. All events were transient and required no treatment. Seven incidents of patient discomfort, and some minor changes in vital signs and laboratory parameters were of no clinical concern. Contrast enhancement was observed in 60% and 44% of the patients with structural abnormalities in the gadodiamide injection group and gadopentetate dimeglumine group, respectively. No difference in overall efficacy was observed. Gadodiamide injection was found to be a safe and effective contrast agent. (orig.)

  18. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience any of the following symptoms: fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, worsening of skin sores, fast ... weakness fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat return of fever, sore throat, chills, or other signs of infection Penicillin G injection ...

  19. Microcellular Injection Molding Using Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison with conventional foaming process microcellular injection molding process has advantages such as small bubble size, the removal of sink mark, scale reliability, and weight lightening. So microcellular injection molded parts are applied to electrical product and automobile part. Conventional microcellular foaming process used carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a foaming agent. And it has been never researched and applied about microcellular injection molding process using helium. In this paper, we did a microcellular injection molding process using helium based on previous research result and made samples. From this we can certificate the possibility of microcellular continuous process using helium. Helium is lighter and faster in diffusion than carbon dioxide or nitrogen so through this technique, it can be solved the problem such as spray or labeling

  20. New aspects of injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, O P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious and safe contraceptive agents, not all women's contraceptive needs are being met. An injectable contraceptive method offers convenience and encourages compliance, both very important aspects for women seeking ideal contraception. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a long-acting injectable, and is highly effective; one injection provides 3 months of contraception. Drawbacks of DMPA include irregular bleeding and a slow return to fertility. A new monthly injectable contraceptive agent is medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate suspension (Lunelle). It provides menstrual regulation and a rapid return to fertility. The estrogen ensures a withdrawal bleed monthly; however, women with contraindications to estrogen-containing contraception are not candidates for Lunelle. PMID:11294618

  1. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  2. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  3. Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible side effects include infection, tendon rupture and muscle damage. In order to reduce your risk of infection, follow your doctor's instructions carefully and keep the injection site clean. Call your doctor right away if ...

  4. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system problems Talk to your doctor about your risk of complications. Having these injections too often may weaken the bones of your spine or nearby muscles. Receiving higher doses of the steroids in the ...

  5. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagner, G.R.; Garaev, A.S.; Guzenko, L.P.; Khaber, N.V.; Kruglitskii, N.N.; Kurochkin, B.M.; Shumilov, V.A.

    1981-03-23

    Proposed is a plugging solution which contains cement, hydrophilic biosilica, polymer, and water, and which is distinguished by the fact that in order to increase the strength properties of the stone with simultaneous increase in its resistance to the effect of corrosive bed water under conditions of normal temperatures, as hydrophilic biosilica the solution contains carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil, and as a polymer, carboxylate divinyl styrene latex and it also contains sodium with the following ingredient ratio, wt %: 63.47-66.08% cement, 0.66-1.28% carboxylate divinyl styrene latex, 1.26-1.32% sodium chloride, 0.22-0.36% carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil, and the rest water. The plugging solution is distinguished by the fact that carboxy aerosil or aminoethoxy aerosil have a specific surface of 50-300 m/g.

  6. Powder co-injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, S. M. J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel powder processing technique has been developed by combining conventional powder injection moulding with polymer co-injection moulding, to permit the in-situ surface engineering of metal or ceramic components as an integral step within the processing cycle. The new technique has been used to produce surface engineered iron based components with either corrosion resistant or wear resistant surfaces, and to produce alumina based components with toughened surfaces. Th...

  7. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... analyses of advantages and disadvantages of different electrical injection schemes for the development of the optimal device design for the future generation of electrically pumped nanolasers for terabit communication....

  8. Patient Safety: An Injectable Education

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold William Klein

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the effects of all injectable filling agents were temporary and very rarely associated with permanent problems. In the past, the permanent injectable silicone had been used but had been so problematic that the Justice Department filed injunctions against certain physicians on behalf of the FDA. After 2000 a dangerous pattern grew in the corridors of Washington DC, where politics and money changed the face of America and the field of aesthetics to the detriment of the face...

  9. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A.U.; Polyakov, V.N.; Yangirova, I.Z.

    1982-06-10

    Proposed is a plugging solution containing cement, modified methyl cellulose, and water. In order to decrease the viscosity in time with the preservation of filtration and strength properties of the solution and stone, it also contains wastes of the production of 4,4-dimethyl dioxane-1,3 with following ratio of components, mass%: 66.0-67.0% cement; 0.07-0.15 modified methyl cellulose, 0.13-0.33% wastes from the production of 4,4-dimethyl dioxane-1,3, and the rest water.

  10. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  11. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  12. Are There Enough Injective Sets?

    CERN Document Server

    Aczel, Peter; Granstroem, Johan; Schuster, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The axiom of choice ensures precisely that, in ZFC, every set is projective: that is, a projective object in the category of sets. In constructive ZF (CZF) the existence of enough projective sets has been discussed as an additional axiom taken from the interpretation of CZF in Martin-Loef's intuitionistic type theory. On the other hand, every non-empty set is injective in classical ZF, which argument fails to work in CZF. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the problem whether there are (enough) injective sets in CZF. We show that no two element set is injective unless the law of excluded middle is admitted for negated formulas, and that the axiom of power set is required for proving that there are strongly enough injective sets. The latter notion is abstracted from the singleton embedding into the power set, which ensures enough injectives both in every topos and in IZF. We further show that it is consistent with CZF to assume that the only injective sets are the singletons. In particular, assumin...

  13. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients). Teriparatide injection contains a synthetic form of natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works ... container.Teriparatide injection controls osteoporosis but does not cure it. Continue to use teriparatide injection even if ...

  14. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  15. Chemical species injection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample preparation device is disposed to injection pipelines of each system of a BWR type power plant, and a control device is connected to an electrolysis device and the sample preparation device respectively. An injection water analyzing device is connected to the exit of the sample preparation device, a sampling pipeline is connected to a reactor coolant cleanup system or a reactor recycling system, and a reactor water analyzing rack is connected to the sampling pipeline. The reactor water analyzing rack is connected to a signal processing system from a radiation concentration measuring device in reactor water, and the output of the signal processing system is connected to the control device. Chemical species for controlling water quality are formed from metal or metal compounds in a water solution by electrolysis. The concentration of each of the products is controlled and injected from a primary system or accompanied sampling systems of a reactor to the reactor. Parameters such as injection system concentration, reactor primary system concentration, radiation concentration in reactor water and corrosion potential are measured, to control injection, an amount of electrolysis or an injection concentration for the species. (N.H.)

  16. Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Maleki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the cannula and inflates to 70 mmHg, and then drug was injected. After 20 seconds, the tourniquet deflated, and propofol 2mg/kg injected over 10 seconds and pain assessment was made. Results: Tramadol and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain more than placebo (P=0.001. The efficacy of ondansetron in alleviating the pain on injection of propofol was no different from tramadol (P=0.330. Ondansetron pretreatment may be used to reduce the incidence of pain on injection of propofol, an advantage added to the useful prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  17. Modeling of melt-coolant mixing by bottom injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the flow characteristics during the coolant injection, with submerged nozzles, at the bottom of a molten pool are studied. The flow pattern developed by the rising coolant is considered for the case of complete coolant vaporization, and the pool-coolant phase distributions are assessed by a modeling approach delivered from literature for a heterogeneous turbulent jet. To calculate the basic characteristics of such flow, integral relationships are proposed for the two-phase boundary layer. The results of numerical computations and approximate solution are compared with the experimental data obtained in the low temperature experiments, conducted in the DECOBI (debris coolability by bottom injection) facility. (authors)

  18. Computational Simulation of Semiconductor Laser with Optical Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the dynamics of a semiconductor laser with optical injection. The time behaviour of solutions of a system of three coupled nonlinear rate equations, describing the electric field amplitude and the carrier concentration and the phase difference within the resonator, is discussed both qualitatively and numerically. We then concentrate on the periodic orbits that emanate from Hopf bifurcations. Depending on the injection strength and the phase difference two types of oscillations can be found, such as relaxation and periodic oscillations

  19. Researches on direct injection in internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscher, Jean E

    1941-01-01

    These researches present a solution for reducing the fatigue of the Diesel engine by permitting the preservation of its components and, at the same time, raising its specific horsepower to a par with that of carburetor engines, while maintaining for the Diesel engine its perogative of burning heavy fuel under optimum economical conditions. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  20. PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin J. Blunt; Franklin M. Orr Jr

    2000-06-01

    This final report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996--May 2000 under a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The advances from the research include: new tools for streamline-based simulation including the effects of gravity, changing well conditions, and compositional displacements; analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements which can speed-up gas injection simulation still further; and modeling and experiments that delineate the physics that is unique to three-phase flow.

  1. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and

  2. PACSPLUS Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza A Zoroofi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Medal Electronic (ME Engineering Company provides high quality systems, software and services in medical image management, processing and visualization. We assist health care professionals to improve and extend the efficiency of their practices with cost effective solutions. ME is the developer of several medical software including MEDAL-PACS, 3D-Sonosoft, Analytical-Electrophoresis, CBONE and Rhino-Plus. ME is also the exclusive distributor of PACSPLUS in Iran. PACSPLUS is an international, standard, scalable and enterprise PACS solution. PACSPLUS is of ISO, CE and FDA-510 approvals. It is now operational in more than 1000 clinical environment throughout the globe. We discuss about the key features of PACSPLUS system for dealing with real world challenge in PACS as well as the PACS solu-tions needed to fulfill the demands of the clinicians in Iran. Our experience in developing high-end medical software confirms our capability in providing the PACSPLUS as an ultimate PACS solution in Iran.

  3. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  4. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  5. Impact of injection solvents on supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Victor; Sandahl, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    Even though there has been a rapid development in instrumentation and applications of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), relatively little is known about retention mechanisms compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Much effort has been made to characterize the influence of injection solvents on chromatographic efficiency in HPLC, however has been left rather uninvestigated in the domain of SFC. In this study properties of different injection solvents have been studied and correlated with properties of seven various analytes on three different columns, a C18, a 2-ethylpyridine and a bare-silica column. Aided by calculations of correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA), the physical properties of injection solvents and the interactions between injection solvent, solute and stationary phase were investigated. The findings of this work shows that interactions capable of masking accessible silanol groups on a C18 column are of importance in order to maximize the plate number. While solvents with dipolar and hydrogen bond interaction properties are associated negatively with chromatographic efficiency using polar columns. Properties such as molar density, vapor pressure and boiling point were related to sharper peaks, mostly likely because of solubility issues of the injection solvent into the methanol-modified carbon dioxide. However, no additional solubility due to hydrogen interactions between the injection solvent and the carbon dioxide in SFC was observed. Surface tension and viscosity was not particularly associated with a decrease in plate numbers. By increasing the injection volume a stronger correlation between solubility related properties and plate numbers were obtained. Additional experiments showed that the resistance in solubility became an issue when performing partial-loop injection where additional washing solvent entered the system, thus providing broadened peaks. PMID:23899383

  6. In Vivo Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Embryoid Bodies in an Injectable in Situ-Forming Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Moon Suk Kim; Seung-Yup Ku; Shin Yong Moon; Yoon Young Kim; Hai Bang Lee; Da Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the in vivo osteogenic differentiation of human embryoid bodies (hEBs) by using an injectable in situ-forming hydrogel. A solution containing MPEG-b-(polycaprolactone-ran-polylactide) (MCL) and hEBs was easily prepared at room temperature. The MCL solution with hEBs and osteogenic factors was injected into nude mice and developed into in situ-forming hydrogels at the injection sites; these hydrogels maintained their shape even after 12 weeks in vivo, thereby indicat...

  7. Distribution of 15N-labeled urea injected into field-grown corn plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) assimilate supply to developing corn (Zea mays L.) ears plays a critical role in grain dry weight accumulation. The use of stem-perfused/injected 15N labeled compounds to determine the effects of an artificial N source on the subsequent distribution of injected N and grain weight of field-grown corn plants has not been reported previously. Our objective was to assess the distribution of N added via an artificial source. Three soil N fertilizer levels (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha-1) and three N solutions (distilled water control and 15N enriched urea at 15 and 30 mM N) were arranged in a split-plot design. Three N concentrations were injected using a pressurized stem injection technique. The injection started fifteen days after silking and continued until immediately prior to plant physiological maturity. The average uptake volume was 256 mL over the 30-day injection period. The N supplied via injection represented 1.5 to 3% of the total plant N. Neither soil applied N fertilizer nor injected N altered dry matter distribution among plant tissues. As the concentration of N in the injected solutions increased, N concentrations increased in the grain and upper stalks, and % 15N atom excess in ear+1 leaves and leaves increased. The relative degree of 15N enrichment for each of the tissues measured was injected internode grain upper stalks leaves lower stalks cob husk ear + 1 leaf ear leaf. This study indicated that the exogenous N supplied via stem-injection, was incorporated into all the measured plant parts, although not uniformly. The distribution of the injected 15N was affected both by the proximity of sinks to the point of injection and the strength of the various sinks

  8. A miniaturized stepwise injection spectrophotometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel micro-stepwise injection analyzer (μSWIA) has been developed for the automation and miniaturization of spectrophotometric analysis. The main unit of this device is a mixing chamber (MC) connected to the atmosphere. This part of the μSWIA provides rapid and effective homogenization of the reaction mixture components and completion of the reaction by means of gas bubbling. The μSWIA contained a rectangular labyrinth channel designed in way allowing one to eliminate bubbles by moving a solution from the MC to an optical channel. The light-emitting diode (LED) was used as a light emitter and the analytical signal was measured by a portable spectrophotometer. Fluid movement was attained via the use of a computer-controlled syringe pump. The μSWIA was successfully used for the spectrophotometric determination of cysteine in biologically active supplements and fodder by using 18-molybdo-2-phosphate heteropoly anion (18-MPA) as the reagent. (author)

  9. Compatible solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  10. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  11. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  12. Very rapid bolus injection as routine method in excretion urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, F.; Wehweck, H.; Eggemann, F.

    1982-09-01

    The authors report on a comparative examination of the tolerance and diagnostic value of excretion urography using a standard dose of 50 ml of a 77% solution of the meglumine-sodium salt of ioxythalamic acid (Telebrix 380) at conventional injection speed (60-90 sec.) compared with a very rapid bolus injection (less than 10 sec.) Although the risk of severe side effects is probably the same in both cases, the rate of mild or so-called non-specific side effects is significantly lower with the more rapid type of injection. At the same time, it is possible to improve the diagnostic value with a slightly greater effort (vascular early nephrogram.

  13. Very rapid bolus injection as routine method in excretion urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on a comparative examination of the tolerance and diagnostic value of excretion urography using a standard dose of 50 ml of a 77% solution of the meglumine-sodium salt of ioxythalamic acid (Telebrix 380) at conventional injection speed (60-90 sec.) compared with a very rapid bolus injection (less than 10 sec.) Although the risk of severe side effects is probably the same in both cases, the rate of mild or so-called non-specific side effects is significantly lower with the more rapid type of injection. At the same time, it is possible to improve the diagnostic value with a slightly greater effort (vascular early nephrogram. (orig.)

  14. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Injection molding of metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The powder Injection Moulding (PIM) process is a viable and competitive commercial technique for producing complex-shaped parts of various materials in high volumes. PIM based on a new binder system and using a Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder as a test material, has been described. The binder comprises a major fraction of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of various molecular weights and a minor fraction of very finely dispersed poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) incorporated in the form of an emulsion. Various processing stages of the PIM process, i.e., feedstock preparation, injection molding, de binding and sintering have been discussed. (author)

  16. ATF neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed

  17. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  18. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  19. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at... intramuscular injection. Dosage may be repeated in approximately 10 days. (2) No. 000856 for use of product... deficiency, administer an initial intramuscular injection of 100 mg at 2 to 4 days of age. Dosage may...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infections in dogs. (ii) It is administered by subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection at an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine injection. 522.2220 Section 522....2220 Sulfadimethoxine injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Sulfadimethoxine injection containing...

  1. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  2. Modeling analysis of urea direct injection on the NOx emission reduction of biodiesel fueled diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effects of urea direct injection on NOx emissions reduction was investigated. • Aqueous urea solution was proposed to be injected after the fuel injection process. • The optimized injection strategy achieved a reduction efficiency of 58%. • There were no severe impacts on the CO emissions and BSFC. - Abstract: In this paper, a numerical simulation study was conducted to explore the possibility of an alternative approach: direct aqueous urea solution injection on the reduction of NOx emissions of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. Simulation studies were performed using the 3D CFD simulation software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN II code for pure biodiesel combustion under realistic engine operating conditions of 2400 rpm and 100% load. The chemical behaviors of the NOx formation and urea/NOx interaction processes were modeled by a modified extended Zeldovich mechanism and urea/NO interaction sub-mechanism. To ensure an efficient NOx reduction process, various aqueous urea injection strategies in terms of post injection timing, injection angle, and injection rate and urea mass fraction were carefully examined. The simulation results revealed that among all the four post injection timings (10 °ATDC, 15 °ATDC, 20 °ATDC and 25 °ATDC) that were evaluated, 15 °ATDC post injection timing consistently demonstrated a lower NO emission level. The orientation of the aqueous urea injection was also shown to play a critical role in determining the NOx removal efficiency, and 50 degrees injection angle was determined to be the optimal injection orientation which gave the most NOx reduction. In addition, both the urea/water ratio and aqueous urea injection rate demonstrated important roles which affected the thermal decomposition of urea into ammonia and the subsequent NOx removal process, and it was suggested that 50% urea mass fraction and 40% injection rate presented the lowest NO emission levels. At last, with the optimized injection strategy, the

  3. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  4. Multilingual Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Solutions ofrecera capacitación a los agentes de Contact y Call centers de Bogotá con dominio de una segunda lengua. La capacitación consiste en mejorar las falencias comunicativas que se presentan en empresas de este tipo, y así optimizar los servicios de estas compañías por medio de mejoras en el servicio prestado por sus agentes; siendo estas las características que la hacen diferente de las demás empresas prestadoras de servicios de capacitación. Con base a los estudios reali...

  5. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT or "CAT" scan), may be used to help the doctor place the needle in exactly the right location so the patient can receive maximum benefit from the injection. top of page What are ...

  6. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications, or any of the ingredients in amphotericin B lipid complex injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  7. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226Ra, 239Pu, 228Ra, 228Th, 90Sr, 241Am, 249Cf, or 252Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  8. [Lethal intravenous injection of benzine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirwes, Christian; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hinsch, Nora; Kardel, Bernd; Hartung, Benno

    2015-01-01

    A man who suffered from chronic pain syndrome died two days after intravenous injection of 2 ml benzine. Previous suicide attempts by drug intoxication and strangulation had failed. Death occurred due to multi-organ failure. We present the results of the clinical, morphological and toxicological examinations performed. PMID:26548034

  9. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  10. INJECTION OPTICS FOR THE JLEIC ION COLLIDER RING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, Fulvia C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wei, Guohio [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Nosochkov, Y. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wang, M. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) will accelerate protons and ions from 8 GeV to 100 GeV. A very low beta function at the Interaction Point (IP) is needed to achieve the required luminosity. One consequence of the low beta optics is that the beta function in the final focusing (FF) quadrupoles is extremely high. This leads to a large beam size in these magnets as well as strong sensitivity to errors which limits the dynamic aperture. These effects are stronger at injection energy where the beam size is maximum, and therefore very large aperture FF magnets are required to allow a large dynamic aperture. A standard solution is a relaxed injection optics with IP beta function large enough to provide a reasonable FF aperture. This also reduces the effects of FF errors resulting in a larger dynamic aperture at injection. We describe the ion ring injection optics design as well as a beta-squeeze transition from the injection to collision optics.

  11. A reproducible method for injecting the mouse corneal stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved delivery system for injecting the mouse corneal stroma was developed. This system incorporates the following features: a repeating dispenser that eliminates inaccuracies in depressing a syringe plunger, foot activation which frees both hands for manipulating the needle and permits constant observation of the injection site, and a flexible 30-cm, 32-gauge stainless steel needle with a 30 degrees bevel and a locking hub that resists pulsation due to back pressure while permitting freedom of motion by the operator. These injections were done while observing the cornea with a vertically mounted slit lamp, ideally suited for examining and photographing the eyes of laboratory animals. The reproducibility of the new delivery system, expressed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, was estimated and compared with that of a hand-held microsyringe by injecting a solution of radioactive chromium into the corneal stroma of A/J mice. The eyes were removed within 1 hr of injection, and the amount of chromium in each eye was determined in a gamma counter. The new delivery system had significantly (P less than 0.05) greater reproducibility than the hand-held syringe and could be calibrated to deliver up to 0.65 microliter to the mouse cornea

  12. Intradermal Alcian-Blue Injection Method to Trace Acupuncture Meridians

    OpenAIRE

    Baeckkyoung Sung; Min-Su Kim; Vyacheslav Ogay; Dae-In Kang; Kwang-Sup Soh

    2008-01-01

    Objective : In this article, we report on the intradermal Alcian blue staining method for tracing the meridians of acupuncture. Methods : 1% Alcian blue solution was injected into acupoints by using a 0.5mL insulin syringe with a 31-gauge needle, then the skin was incised and was observed under a stereoscopic microscope. The specimens were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results : A threadlike structure, which w...

  13. Monitoring CO2 behaviour during injection into reservoir sandstone

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Truong Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Storing CO2 in deep subsurface aquifers is considered to be a good solution for reducing the increasing atmospheric emissions of CO2. To mitigate the possibility of stored CO2 leaking out to the atmosphere, geophysical monitoring techniques are applied. These techniques must be able to detect small and big changes in CO2 saturation. In this thesis acoustic and electrical resistivity measurement will be used to detect and monitor the injection of CO2 into three brine saturated samples. Two san...

  14. Code Pointer Masking: Hardening applications against code injection attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Philippaerts, Pieter; Younan, Yves; Muylle, Stijn; Piessens, Frank; Lachmund, Sven; Walter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an efficient countermeasure against code injection attacks. Our countermeasure does not rely on secret values such as stack canaries and protects against attacks that are not addressed by state-of-the-art countermeasures of similar performance. By enforcing the correct semantics of code pointers, we thwart attacks that modify code pointers to divert the application's control flow. We have implemented a prototype of our solution in a C-compiler for Linux. The evaluatio...

  15. Three-Dimensional Simulation And Design Sensitivity Analysis Of The Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François

    2004-06-01

    Getting the proper combination of different process parameters such as injection speed, melt temperature and mold temperature is important in getting a part that minimizes warpage and has the desired mechanical properties. Very often a successful design in injection molding comes at the end of a long trial and error process. Design Sensitivity Analysis (DSA) can help molders improve the design and can produce substantial investment savings in both time and money. This paper investigates the ability of the sensitivity analysis to drive an optimization tool in order to improve the quality of the injected part. The paper presents the solution of the filling stage of the injection molding process by a 3D finite element solution algorithm. The sensitivity of the solution with respect to different process parameters is computed using the continuous sensitivity equation method. Solutions are shown for the non-isothermal filling of a rectangular plate with a polymer melt behaving as a non-Newtonian fluid. The paper presents the equations for the sensitivity of the velocity, pressure and temperature and their solution by finite elements. Sensitivities of the solution with respect to the injection speed, the melt and mold temperatures are shown.

  16. Improved Method for the Flow Injection Analysis of Chemical Oxygen Demand Using Silver Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Korenaga, Takashi; Ikatsu, Hisayoshi; Moriwake, Tosio; Takahashi, Teruo

    1980-01-01

    On the flow injection analysis (FIA) of chemical oxygendemand (COD), silver salt was added as an oxidation catalyst for COD substances and a masking agent for halide to improve operating conditions of the FIA apparatus. Both of a proper concentration of potassium permanganate solution and 6.0 % sulfuric acid solution containing 0.1 % silver nitrate are individually pumped up with respective flow rates of 0.51 ml min(-l) and merged into a carrier stream. A 20 μ1 of sample solution is injected ...

  17. Solution Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  18. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Chu, Henry S.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  19. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the underground injection by BASF, of the specific restricted hazardous...

  20. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Cornerstone, of the specific...

  1. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... underground injection by Mosaic, of the specific restricted hazardous wastes identified in this...

  2. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the...

  3. A history of growth hormone injection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidotti, E

    2001-05-01

    In the early 1960s, growth hormone (GH) deficiency was treated by intramuscular injection of GH extracted from human pituitary glands. Since then, there have been many advances in treatment encompassing the route of administration, the injection product and the injection device. This review considers the advances in injection device that have already taken place and how they have benefited the patient, particularly in terms of reduced pain and improved convenience. In the future, needle-free injection techniques and depot formulations of GH are likely to offer alternatives to daily subcutaneous injections. PMID:11393569

  4. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations is the...

  5. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. PMID:26566569

  6. Code Injection in Web applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bikesh

    2016-01-01

    Code injection is the most critical threat for the web applications. The security vulnerabilities have been growing on web applications. With the growth of the importance of web application, preventing the applications from unauthorized usage and maintaining data integrity have been challenging. Especially those applications which an interface with back-end database components like mainframes and product databases that contain sensitive data can be addressed as the attacker’s main target. ...

  7. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  8. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for 1H, and 31P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min

  9. Life's Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  11. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  12. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:18953975

  13. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:20052957

  14. Field injection of microscale zerovalent iron for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Rajandrea; Tosco, Tiziana; Luna, Michela; Gastone, Francesca; Velimirovic, Milica; Gemoets, Johan; Muyshond, Rob; Sapion, Hans; Klaas, Norbert; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the research project AQUAREHAB (FP7 - G. A. Nr. 226565), a pilot injection test of guar gum stabilized microsized zerovalent iron has been designed and performed under low pressure in a CAHs contaminated site in Belgium, characterized by fine sand (hydraulic conductivity in the order of 2·10-5m/s) and an effective velocity equal to 0.005 m/day (1). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI particles field injection, mainly due to ZVI-based colloidal suspensions instability. A shear thinning guar gum solution (2 g/l) was selected as an environmentally friendly stabilizer. The relevant properties of the iron slurry (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (namely iron reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements).The slurry preparation was successfully up-scaled to the field application, allowing a fast preparation of large volumes (1 m3 at a time) of slurry with good dissolution of guar gum and effective dispersion of mZVI. Since the injection regime of iron slurries depends on subsurface geotechnical parameters, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and fluid properties, a specific injection well and monitoring strategy have been developed in order to achieve high discharge rates and radii of influence, and a more homogeneous distribution of the iron particles through low pressure injection. The injection well has been designed and sealed in order to sustain average to high discharge rates, preventing the daylighting of the product. Moreover the well has been hydraulically tested by means of innovative water and guar gum step rate tests in order to determine the most suitable injection rate for the iron slurry. The injection of 50 kg of microsized iron particles (BASF, Germany), dispersed in 5 m3 of a 2 g/l guar gum suspension, was performed at a

  15. Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma after intracameral injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; Li; Xiu-Jun; Peng; Zheng-Jun; Fan; Xu; Pang; Yu; Xia; Teng-Fei; Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the enrichment of riboflavin in the corneal stroma after intracameral injection to research the barrier ability of the corneal endothelium to riboflavin in vivo.METHODS: The right eyes of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Different concentrations riboflavin-balanced salt solutions(BSS)were injected into the anterior chamber(10 with 0.5%, 10 with 1%, and 10 with 2%). Eight corneal buttons of 8.5mm in diameter from each group were dissected at 30 min after injection and the riboflavin concentrations in the corneal stroma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) after removing the epithelium and endothelium. The other two rabbits in every group were observed for 24 h and sacrificed. As a comparison, the riboflavin concentrations from 16 corneal stromal samples were determined using HPLC after instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-BSS solution for30 min on the corneal surface(8 without epithelium and 8with intact epithelium).RESULTS: The mean riboflavin concentrations were11.19, 18.97, 25.08, 20.18, and 1.13 μg/g for 0.5%, 1%, 2%,de-epithelialzed samples, and the transepithelial groups,respectively. The color change of the corneal stroma and the HPLC results showed that enrichment with riboflavin similar to classical de-epithelialized corneal collagen crosslinking(CXL) could be achieved by intracameral 1%riboflavin-BSS solution after 30min; the effect appeared to be continuous for at least 30 min.CONCLUSION: Riboflavin can effectively penetrate the corneal stroma through the endothelium after an intracameral injection in vivo, so it could be an enhancing method that could improve the corneal riboflavin concentration in transepithelial CXL.

  16. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections. PMID:26554409

  17. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually are used during fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Injections of gonadotropins ... Gestation. When using injectable gonadotropins alone or with IUI, up to 30% of pregnancies are associated with ...

  18. Combining High-Level and Low-Level Approaches to Evaluate Software Implementations Robustness Against Multiple Fault Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Rivière, Lionel; Potet, Marie-Laure; Le, Thanh-Ha; Bringer, Julien; Chabanne, Hervé; Puys, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    International audience Physical fault injections break security functionalities of algorithms by targeting their implementations. Software techniques strengthen such implementations to enhance their robustness against fault attacks. Exhaustively testing physical fault injections is time consuming and requires complex platforms. Simulation solutions are developed for this specific purpose. We chose two independent tools presented in 2014, the Laser Attack Robustness (Lazart) and the Embedde...

  19. A better future for injectable contraception?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Provision of injectables though drug shops appears practicable and can contribute a marked share of family planning services. A potential longer-acting injectable providing at least 6 months of protection appeals to programmatic professionals. Subcutaneous administration of DMPA offers major injectable improvements over the current intramuscular approach. Ironically, while injectable use will inevitably grow, better choice and wider availability of other methods—especially of long-acting and ...

  20. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Noaparast; Rasoul Mirsharifi; Fezzeh Elyasinia; Reza Parsaei; Hessam Kondori; Sara Farifteh

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. ...

  1. Surfactant solutions developed for NAPL recovery in contaminated aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase diagrams can be used to select surfactant solutions for diesel dissolution and extraction in contaminated aquifers. They indicate the active matter concentrations which can be injected into an aquifer. Due to surfactant precipitation or fine particles dispersion in sediments, surfactant solutions concentration greater than 5% and less than their solubility limit can be used for injections. Surfactant solution effects on interfacial tension (IFT) are consistent with predictions from phase diagrams. For similar active matter concentrations, IFT are lower for surfactant solutions that dissolve more diesel. IFT values between equilibrated diesel and surfactant solutions and observation of the oil-in-water microemulsions in column effluents confirm that solubilization of oil can occur in a Winsor Type 1 system without oil mobilization. More than 50 sand column experiments were done for this study and a good agreement is observed between diesel dissolved in sand column experiments (with downward injection) and diesel dissolution predicted from phase diagrams. However, sand columns experiments showed significant decrease in efficiency with a drop in temperature from 25 C to 8 C (phase diagrams predict no change) and they are essential to check efficiencies of washing solution selected by phase diagrams. Optimal injection concentration of solutions decreases as the alcohols ratio (n-AmOH:n-BuOH) increases and as the temperature decreases. In columns, optimal concentration of surfactant solutions has a maximum efficiency of 0.4 (dissolved diesel/active matter)

  2. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas of your body with a layer of fat between the skin and muscle, such as your thigh, the outer surface of your upper arms, your stomach, or your buttocks. If you are very thin, only inject in your thigh or the outer surface of your arm for injection. Choose a different spot each time you inject ...

  3. The Three Generations of Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the three generations of flow injection analysis, that is, FIA, sequential injection analysis (SIA), and bead injection-lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are briefly outlined, their individual advantages and shortcomings are discussed, and selected practical applications are presented....

  4. Intravitreal Injection-Induced Migraine Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours, Valerie C; Nguyen, Thanh-Giao; Sarup, Vimal; Rossi, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A case of migraine headache triggered by intravitreal injection, and aborted by retrobulbar injection, is reported. To date, migraine and related cephalgia have not been reported after intravitreal injection. Ophthalmologists and neurologists should be aware of this potential sequela of a very common procedure. 

  5. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Sari B. Mahon; Brenner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intram...

  6. A rapid-compression-machine study of gaseous fuel injection and combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Klimkiewicz, Dariusz; Leżański, Tomasz; Jarnicki, Rafael; Rychter, Tadeusz J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid-compression-machine studies of an enginećs combustion system with the direct injection of gaseous fuel were made. The very short time available for the injection, combined with the poor penetration and mixing of the gas jet with the surrounding air, caused the serious problems with combustion initiation. One of the solutions to facilitate the ignition seems to be the use of a small ignition prechamber. The ignition takes place within the prechamber and the hot, chemically active combust...

  7. Drag reduction caused by the injection of polymer thread into a turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiromoto; Maeguchi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Yuji

    1988-09-01

    Drag reduction caused by the injection of concentrated polymer solutions into a turbulent pipe flow was studied. Measurements were made of the radial distribution of fluctuating velocities by means of video image analysis. The results showed that a higher velocity was observed for injected polymer threads and both the radial fluctuation and the Reynolds stress were significantly suppressed. It was suggested that the wall turbulence structure might be controlled by suppressing the large scale turbulent motion in the turbulent core region.

  8. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  9. Trans-Corneal Subretinal Injection in Mice and Its Effect on the Function and Morphology of the Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qi

    Full Text Available To introduce a practical method of subretinal injection in mice and evaluate injection-induced retinal detachment (RD and damage using a dynamic imaging system, electrophysiology, and histology.After full dilation of a 2-month-old C57BL/6J mouse pupil, the cornea near the limbus was punctured with a 30 ½-gague disposable beveled needle. A 33 ½-gauge blunt needle was inserted through the corneal perforation into the anterior chamber, avoiding the lens before going deeper into the vitreous cavity, and penetrating the inner retina to reach the subretinal space. The mice were divided into four groups: in group 1, about 80-100% of the retina was filled with subretinally injected solution; in group 2, approximately 50-70% of the retina was filled with injected solution; in group 3, the procedures were stopped before solution injection; and non-injected eyes were used as the negative control in group 4. An optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging system was used to monitor retinal reattachment during the first three days following the injections. Histological and functional changes were examined by light microscopy and electroretinography (ERG at five weeks post-injection.After a short-term training, a 70% success rate with 50% or more coverage (i.e., retinal blebs occupied 50% or more retinal area and filled with the injected solution with minimal injection-related damages can be achieved. Bleb formation was associated with retinal detachment (RD between the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer. Partial RD could be observed at post-injection day 1, and by day 2 most of the retina had reattached. At 5 weeks post-injection, compared to uninjected control group 4, the b-wave amplitudes of ERG decreased 22% in group 1, 16% in group 2, and 7% in group 3; the b-wave amplitudes were statistically different between the uninjected group and the groups with either 50-70% or 80-100% coverage. The subretinal injection-induced RD reattached

  10. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  11. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

    2006-03-15

    In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

  13. Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

  14. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  15. Office-based laryngeal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallur, Pavan S; Rosen, Clark A

    2013-02-01

    Office-based vocal fold injection (VFI), though initially described more than a century ago, has recently reemerged as an attractive alternative to VFI performed during microsuspension laryngoscopy. Multiple office-based approaches exist, including percutaneous, peroral, and transnasal endoscopic approaches. Surgeon preference typically dictates the approach, although patient tolerance or anatomic variations are also key factors. Regardless of the approach or indication, a myriad of technical considerations make preparation and familiarity requisite for optimal patient outcomes. Office-based VFI offers several distinct advantages over traditional direct or microsuspension laryngoscopy VFI, making it a standard of treatment for a variety of indications. PMID:23177408

  16. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction with a...... analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  17. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  18. Computational fluid dynamics model for liquid poison injection in the ACR-1000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000) Shutdown System 2 is capable of quickly rendering the reactor core subcritical by injecting a neutron absorbing solution (poison) into the heavy water moderator via injection nozzles. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the poison injection into the moderator. This paper presents the model development and preliminary results to demonstrate its feasibility to the ACR-1000 design. The CFD model has been validated against the test data from the CANDU 6 LISS test. Validation tests based on the ACR-1000 design are underway, in which the poison concentration distribution will be measured. (author)

  19. Technique for injection into the sciatic nerve of the mouse for quantitative in vivo metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a technique for intraneural injections, applicable to mouse peripheral nerves, which, compared with previous techniques, reduces trauma to the nerves and increases the level and reduces the variability of label recovery. Our technique employs glass needles (tip diameter, 50 micron) linked to a peristaltic pump by polyethylene tubing to inject small volumes (in the microliter range) of radiolabeled substrate solutions into mouse sciatic nerves, and allows the recovery of 20.9 +/- 1.9% (mean +/- standard deviation) and 30.5 +/- 4.8% of the injected radioactivity for 2 microliter [3H]acetate and 0.5 microliter of [3H]stearate, respectively

  20. Effect of injected polymer thread on turbulence in a pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiromoto; Sano, Yuji

    The effect of polymer threads injected into a shear pipe flow on the properties of the flow were investigated using an experimental setup similar to that described by Usui et al. (1987). The velocity data on the injected threads were obtained separately from the water-phase velocity in the pipe flow. Results showed that polymer threads moved with higher velocity and that both the radial fluctuation and the Reynolds stress of the flow were significantly suppressed, demonstrating that an injection of highly viscoelastic polymer solution into a turbulent pipe flow is an effective method for controlling turbulence.

  1. Self-Injection is a Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonna Gintberg; Høi, Henriette Brahe

    bleed profusely, and hurt the rest of the day. Dents occur, who almost disappears from time to time. No talk with their doctor about everyday things, only at the beginning Injection days can be varied by private activities Hygiene important - lack of hand hygiene gave infection by the GP Solves...... practical problems (transport, fatigue) Freedom to plan Feel confident in yourself to take injections Experiences after repeatedly self-injection: Evening injection - you will sleep from nausea When I inject, it makes less evil, I know when spotted coming and it does not bleed. Opinion: "I can only...

  2. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  3. Reversed flow injection spectrophotometric determination of chlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Wonganan, Tharinee; Wongchanapiboon, Teerapol; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2009-09-15

    An interfacing has been developed to connect a spectrophotometer with a personal computer and used as a readout system for development of a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed flow injection (rFI) procedure for chlorate determination. The method is based on the oxidation of indigo carmine by chlorate ions in an acidic solution (dil. HCl) leading to the decrease in absorbance at 610 nm. The decrease in absorbance is directly related to the chlorate concentration present in the sample solutions. Optimum conditions for chlorate were examined. A linear calibration graph over the range of 0.1-0.5 mg L(-1) chlorate was established with the regression equation of Y=104.5X+1.0, r(2)=0.9961 (n=6). The detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.03 mg L(-1), the limit of quantitation (10 sigma) of 0.10 mg L(-1) and the RSD of 3.2% for 0.3 mg L(-1) chlorate (n=11) together with a sample throughput of 92 h(-1) were obtained. The recovery of the added chlorate in spiked water samples was 98.5+/-3.1%. Major interferences for chlorate determination were found to be BrO(3)(-), ClO(2)(-), ClO(-) and IO(3)(-) which were overcome by using SO(3)(2-) (as Na(2)SO(3)) as masking agent. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of chlorate in spiked water samples with the minimum reagent consumption of 14.0 mL h(-1). Good agreement between the proposed rFIA and the reference methods was found verified by Student's t-test at 95% confidence level. PMID:19615529

  4. Charge Accretion Rate and Injection Radius of Ionized-Induced Injections in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Chen, Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Ionization-induced injection has recently been proved to be a stable injection method with several advantages in laser wakefield accelerators. However, the controlling of this injection process aiming at producing high quality electron beams is still challenging. In this paper, we examine the ionization injection processes and estimate the injection rate with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The injection rate is shown to increase linearly with the high-Z gas density as long as its ratio is smaller than some threshold in the mix gases. It is also shown that by changing the transverse mode of the driving lasers one can control the injection rate.

  5. Acetaminophen injection: a review of clinical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen injection is an antipyretic and analgesic agent recently marketed in the United States as Ofirmev. Five published trials directly compare acetaminophen injection to drugs available in the United States. For management of pain in adults, acetaminophen injection was at least as effective as morphine injection in renal colic, oral ibuprofen after cesarean delivery, and oral acetaminophen after coronary artery bypass surgery. In children (3 to 16 years old), single-dose acetaminophen injection was similar to meperidine intramuscular (i.m.) for pain after tonsillectomy; readiness for discharge from the recovery room was shorter with acetaminophen injection (median 15 minutes) compared with meperidine i.m. (median 25 minutes), P = .005. In children (2 to 5 years old) postoperative adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, the time to rescue analgesia was superior with high-dose acetaminophen rectal suppository (median 10 hours) compared with acetaminophen injection (median 7 hours), P = .01. One published trial demonstrated acetaminophen injection is noninferior to propacetamol injection for fever related to infection in pediatric patients. Dosing adjustments are not required when switching between oral and injectable acetaminophen formulations in adult and adolescent patients. Acetaminophen injection represents another agent for multimodal pain management. PMID:21936636

  6. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  7. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  8. Tyrihans SRSWI (subsea raw seawater injection)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Time, Nils Petter

    2010-07-01

    By the summer of 2010, Statoil will have installed and commissioned a 2 x 2.5 MW electrical subsea pump system for injection of seawater on the Tyrihans field. Powered from the Kristin platform, the system will pump untreated water directly from the sea into one well at a rate of 14000 m3/day to achieve an Increased Oil Recovery of 10%. The pump system was designed and delivered by Aker Solutions and interfaces the Tyrihans subsea production system delivered by FMC, a power umbilical from Nexans as well as the Kristin topside facilities. In addition to qualification testing, the SRSWI system underwent extensive system testing, including performance- and long term testing, and function testing of the control system from FMC and Kongsberg Maritime. The subsea modules of the SRSWI system and the power umbilical were installed by Acergy's vessel Scandi Acergy, while the topside transformers and variable speed drives were installed on Kristin by Aker Reinertsen, the topside modifications and hook-up contractor. The many interfaces in this project required close and constructive cooperation between the parties in all phases of the development. This paper summarises the experiences from the project. (Author)

  9. Air injection vacuum blower noise control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mose, Tyler L.A.; Faszer, Andrew C. [Noise Solutions Inc. (Canada)], email: tmose@noisesolutions.com, email: afaszer@noisesolutions.com

    2011-07-01

    Air injection vacuum blowers, with applications in waste removal, central vacuum systems, and aeration systems, are widely used when high vacuum levels are required. Noise generated by those blowers must be addressed for operator health and residential disturbance. This paper describes a project led by Noise Solutions Inc., to identify noise sources in a blower, and design and test a noise mitigation system. First the predominant noise sources in the blower must be determined, this is done with a sound level meter used to quantify the contribution of each individual noise source and the dominant tonal noise from the blower. Design of a noise abatement system must take into account constraints arising from blower mobile use, blower optimal performance, and the resulting overall vibration of the structure. The design was based on calculations from the sound attenuation of a reactive expansion chamber and two prototypes of custom silencers were then tested, showing a significant noise reduction both in total sound levels and tonal noise.

  10. Numerical investigation of the flow front behaviour in the co-injection moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, F.; Hétu, J.-F.; Derdouri, A.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) solution algorithm for solving the sequential co-injection moulding process. The flow of skin and core materials inside a rectangular cavity is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A 3D finite element flow analysis code is used to solve the governing equations of the non-isothermal sequential co-injection moulding. The predicted flow front behaviour is compared to the experimental observations for various skin/core volume ratio, injection speed, injection temperature, and core injection delay. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and indicate correctly the trends in solution change when processing parameters are changing. Solutions are also shown for the filling of a spiral-flow mould. The numerical approach is shown to predict the core expansion phase during which the flow front of core and skin materials advance together without breakthrough. Breakthrough phenomena is also predicted and the numerical solution is in good agreement with the experiment.

  11. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed...... based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as material, and different mold temperatures were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the basis of...

  12. Effective properties of a cemented or an injected granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamida, A.; Bouchelaghem, F.; Dumontet, H.

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the macroscopic elastic properties of injected or cemented sands are derived from the characteristics of the constituents and the analysis of the microstructure using a multi-scale modelling approach. Particular interest is given to the choice of the representative elementary volume, by relying on existing microstructural data. The periodic homogenization is adopted and required numerical solutions are performed by the finite element method. An assessment of the validity of the multi-scale approach is achieved through comparison with theoretical and experimental results on cemented and injected granular media reported in the literature. The capabilities of the model are also used to investigate the influence of geometrical and mechanical microscale parameters on the macroscopic behaviour of the treated materials. Copyright

  13. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  14. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation Of Gas-Assisted And Co-Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results obtained at the Industrial Materials Institute (IMI) on the numerical simulation of the gas-assisted injection molding and co-injection molding. For this work, the IMI's three-dimensional (3D) finite element flow analysis code was used. Non-Newtonian, non-isothermal flow solutions are obtained by solving the momentum, mass and energy equations. Two additional transport equations are solved to track polymer/air and skin/core materials interfaces. Solutions are shown for various part geometries. The final shape and depth of the core material is predicted and numerical results compare well with experimental data.

  15. Capital injections with negative surplus and delays:models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo JIN; George YIN

    2014-01-01

    This work develops a new model to deal with the scenario that some companies can still run business even the surplus falls below zero temporarily. With such a scenario in mind, we allow the surplus process to continue in this negative-surplus period, during which capital injections will be ordered to assist in the stabilization of financial structure, until the financial status becomes severe enough to file bankruptcy. The capital injections will be modeled as impulse controls. By introducing the capital injections with time delays, optimal dividend payment and capital injection policies are considered. Using the dynamic programming approach, the value function obeys a quasi-variational inequality. With delays in capital injections, the company will be exposed to the risk of bankruptcy during the delay period. In addition, the optimal dividend payment and capital injection strategies should balance the expected cost of the possible capital injections and the time value of the delay periods. This gives rise to a stochastic control problem with mixed singular and delayed impulse controls. Under general assumptions, the lower capital injection barrier is determined, where bankruptcy occurs. The closed-form solution to the value function and corresponding optimal policies are obtained.

  16. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  17. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  18. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Søgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  19. Controlling Beamloss at Injection into the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Appleby, R B; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cornelis, K; Dehning, B; del Busto, E; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Höfle, W; Holzer, E B; Jacobsson, R; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Weisz, S

    2011-01-01

    Losses at injection into the superconducting LHC can adversely affect the machine performance in several important ways. The high injected beam intensity and energy mean that precautions must be taken against damage and quenches, including collimators placed close to the beam in the injection regions. Clean injection is essential, to avoid spurious signals on the sensitive beam loss monitoring system which will trigger beam dumps. In addition, the use of the two injection insertions to house downstream high energy physics experiments brings constraints on permitted beam loss levels. In this paper the sources of injection beam loss are discussed together with the contributing factors and various issues experienced in the first full year of LHC operation. Simulations are compared with measurement, and the implemented and planned mitigation measures and diagnostic improvements are described. An outlook for future LHC operation is given.

  20. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  1. Low Viscosity Highly Concentrated Injectable Nonaqueous Suspensions of Lysozyme Microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Maria A.; Engstrom, Joshua D.; Ludher, Baltej S.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2010-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of concentrated protein and peptide solutions, in the range of 100–400 mg/mL, is often not possible with a 25- to 27-gauge needle, as the viscosity can be well above 50 cP. Apparent viscosities below this limit are reported for suspensions of milled lysozyme microparticles up to nearly 400 mg/mL in benzyl benzoate or benzyl benzoate mixtures with safflower oils through a syringe with a 25- to 27-gauge needle at room temperature. These apparent viscosities were confirmed...

  2. Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol

    OpenAIRE

    Anahid Maleki; Hamid Zahedi

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the ca...

  3. Serum creatine kinase after intramuscular injections.

    OpenAIRE

    Konikoff, F; Halevy, J.; Theodor, E

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured after intramuscular injections in 44 patients hospitalized for non-cardiac reasons. The drugs injected were: diazepam, dipyrone, metoclopramide, meperidine, pentazocine and procaine penicillin. Only 3 out of 44 patients (7%) demonstrated significant elevation of CK levels following the intramuscular injections. In these 3 patients the elevation was mainly due to a rise of the MM-isoenzyme fraction with MB levels increased in one patient. These ...

  4. Treatment of Lipoma by Injection Lipolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Soni Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Injection lipolysis or lipodissolve is the practice of injecting phosphatidyl choline/ sodium deoxycholate (PDC/DC) compounds in the subcutaneous fat. Though this practice is being used extensively for nonsurgical contouring of body and dissolving localized collections of excess fat, it′s use as a treatment modality for lipomas needs further evaluation. We present a case where this technique was used for treating a lipoma, with no recurrence after 9 months of follow up. Injection lipolysis as...

  5. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Kwun Kim; Tae-Heon Kim; Keun-Cheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine) for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin l...

  6. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  7. Postoperative Systemic Dissemination of Injected Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcut...

  8. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  9. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  10. Polyamide 6 - long glass fiber injection moldings

    OpenAIRE

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of impregnation and fiber concentration were studied. The injection molded samples were analyzed for fiber concentration, fiber length, and fiber orientation. Dumbbell-shaped tensile bars were made t...

  11. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems

  12. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment....

  13. Intravitreous Injection for Establishing Ocular Diseases Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Kin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreous injection is a widely used technique in visual sciences research. It can be used to establish animal models with ocular diseases or as direct application of local treatment. This video introduces how to use simple and inexpensive tools to finish the intravitreous injection procedure. Use of a 1 ml syringe, instead of a hemilton syringe, is used. Practical tips for how to make appropriate injection needles using glass pipettes with perfect tips, and how to easily connect the syri...

  14. Soft Tissue Injections in the Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injections into or adjacent to soft tissue structures, including muscle, tendon, bursa, and fascia, for pain relief and an earlier return to play have become common in the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Clinical review. Results: Corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) are the most commonly used injectable agents in athletes. The use of these injectable agents have proven efficacy in some disorders, whereas the clinical benefit for others r...

  15. Flow of polymer solutions through porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Denys, K.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    These days leading oil and gas producing companies are investing increasing amounts of money into the development of non-fossil energy sources like wind-, solar-, biomass energy and forestry. On the other hand these companies are persisting in developing techniques to make energy recovery more efficient intending to stretch the life span of fossil resources. One of the more mature techniques to improve recovery efficiency is polymer flooding. Herein polymer solutions are injected in injector ...

  16. A dual egalitarian solution

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989). We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its dual concave game.

  17. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its dual concave game.

  18. Method of preparation of a radiodiagnostic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to prepare a diagnostic solution for i.v. injection to be applied in mammals has been developed. The solution contains the sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate ion, sodium pyrophosphate, 2,3-dimercaptosuccimic acid and/or 6,8-dihydrothioctinic acid as specific diagnostic ligand, and a tin-II salt as reduction agent for the pertechnetate ion in the form of SnF2, MSnF3 and/or MSn2F5, where M stands for NH4, Na, K, Li, Rb, or Cs. (VJ)

  19. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  20. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  1. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  2. Pressure-transient testing of water-injection wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaszadeh, M.; Kamal, M.

    1989-02-01

    This paper presents an interpretation method for injectivity and falloff testing in a single-layer oil reservoir that is under waterflooding and develops analytical solutions for pressure and saturation distributions. The effects of relative permeability, wellbore storage, and skin are considered in these solutions. New field-dependent type curves for falloff tests, which exhibit features that do not appear in the currently available single-phase-flow type curves, are also presented. Matching of field data on these curves yields fluid mobilities in various banks, skin, formation permeability, and flood-front location. Field data interpretation with the new method shows that falloff tests can be used to monitor the progress of waterfloods.

  3. Starting hydrocarbon fluid production by injecting nitrogen-generating liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerman, R.F.; Richardson, E.A.

    1981-03-03

    A process is described which treats a liquid-containing well by passing a nitrogen gas-generating solution into the well to cause a gas-effected displacemnt of liquid from the well. More particularly, it relates to kicking off or initiating production from a well which is dead due to hydrostatic pressure of the liquid it contains; without the necessity of swabbing the well, or injecting nitrogen or other gas which has been compressed at a surface location. The process comprises displacing sufficient liquid from the well to reduce the hydrostatic pressure to less than the reservoir fluid pressure by means of gas generated from an aqueous liquid solution which forms or contains a nitrogen gas-forming mixture. 15 claims.

  4. Technique for ultrasound-guided intraarticular cervical articular process injection in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Gaschen, Lorrie; Rademacher, Nathalie; Bragulla, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided intraarticular injection of cervical articular process joints is a well-established procedure in both humans and horses for neck pain resulting from osteoarthritis, but the technique has not been described in dogs. Aims of this study were to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy and landmarks for cervical articular process joint injections in the dog, develop a technique for articular process joint injections using these landmarks, and determine the accuracy of injections and factors that may influence it. Eleven canine cadavers were used and bilateral joint spaces from C2-3 to C7-T1 were injected under ultrasound guidance with a blue radiopaque solution. A computed tomographic scan was acquired following each injection, and an injection score was assigned and compared with other patient-specific factors. Of the 132 injections performed, 110 (83.3%) were intraarticular, 20 (15.1%) were periarticular within 5 mm, and 2 (1.5%) were periarticular beyond 5 mm from the joint. There was no significant difference in mean scores between dogs. Only C2-3 had a significantly lower mean score than any other joint. There was no significant correlation between injection score and any other factors measured. The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae served as excellent ultrasonographic landmarks for identifying the cervical articular process joints in dogs regardless of the size of the dog or location along the vertebrae. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided intraarticular process joint injection was 83% in dogs and similar to published techniques in horses. Further studies are needed to examine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in live animals. PMID:24506833

  5. Development of a Fully Automated Flow Injection Analyzer Implementing Bioluminescent Biosensors for Water Toxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Georgiou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+ solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor’s response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri’s bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5–10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions.

  6. Development of a fully automated Flow Injection analyzer implementing bioluminescent biosensors for water toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+)) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor's response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri's bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5-10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

  7. Novel Injectable Interpenetrating Polymer Network as a Semi-Permanent Injectable Implant for Soft Tissue Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Injectable fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation in cosmetic procedures, as well as minimally invasive treatment for medical conditions such as urinary and fecal incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux and vocal cord repair. The market for injectable fillers is a multibillion dollar industry worldwide, and each FDA-approved injectable filler has its own drawbacks, namely, lack of durability for temporary fillers, and difficulty in injection for semi-permanent to permanent...

  8. INJECTING EQUPMENT SHARING AND PERCEPTION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS RISK AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS IN BUDAPEST

    OpenAIRE

    Rácz, József; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2007-01-01

    In Central European states, rates of HIV among IDUs have been low although HCV infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among injection drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured between 1999-2000 and 29 ethnographic between 2003-2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. ...

  9. Optimal Dividend and Dynamic Reinsurance Strategies with Capital Injections and Proportional Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-dong WU; Jun-yi GUO

    2012-01-01

    We consider an optimization problem of an insurance company in the diffusion setting,which controls the dividends payout as well as the capital injections.To maximize the cumulative expected discounted dividends minus the penalized discounted capital injections until the ruin time,there is a possibility of (cheap or non-cheap) proportional reinsurance.We solve the control problems by constructing two categories of suboptimal models,one without capital injections and one with no bankruptcy by capital injection.Then we derive the explicit solutions for the value function and totally characterize the optimal strategies.Particularly,for cheap reinsurance,they are the same as those in the model of no bankruptcy.

  10. Development of liquid poison injection system (SDS-2) for 500 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secondary shut-down system (SDS-2) in the form of a mecahnism for introducing poison into the moderator of the PHWR is under development in Reactor Engineering Division of BARC. The system, as conceived, consists of a tank containing pressurised helium connected to poison tanks through quick opening solenoid valves. The tanks are connected to horizontal injection tubes in the calandria. On system actuation, gadolinium nitrate solution from the tanks passes to the injection tubes which have a number of holes through which the poison enters the moderator. This report details the development work being done on this poison injection system. An experimental facility was set up to measure the poison jet growth rate and the jet spread after injection, and mathematical models were developed to convert the observed jets into reactivity worth values. A description of the work and the computed results are presented. (author). 21 graphs. , 15 tabs

  11. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF UNSTEADY PLANE COUETTE FLOW OF A VISCOELASTIC FLUID WITH SUCTION & INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Shukla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deals with unsteady couette flow of a viscoelastic fluid between two parallel walls when the fluid is being injected uniformly at one of the walls and withdrawn at the other. Series solution for the velocity has been presented in terms of motion or injection parameter. Various limiting cases have also been discussed and are found to agree with the results obtained by Srivastava [15, 16]. We have made an effort to study the unsteady flow of viscoelastic fluid between two parallel plates with uniform suction and injection at the walls. The corresponding solution for steady flow has been obtained by Srivastava [16]. We have taken only the relaxation phenomenon of the fluid into consideration and have used a modified form of the stress-strain-rate relationship.

  12. Numerical Simulation Characteristics of Logging Response in Water Injection Well by Reproducing Kernel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jing Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproducing kernel Hilbert space method (RKHSM is an effective method. This paper, for the first time, uses the traditional RKHSM for solving the temperature field in two phase flows of multilayer water injection well. According to 2D oil-water temperature field mathematical model of two phase flows in cylindrical coordinates, selecting the properly initial and boundary conditions, by the process of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, the analytical solution was given by reproducing kernel functions in a series expansion form, and the approximate solution was expressed by n-term summation. The satisfied numerical results were carried out by Mathematica 7.0, showing that the larger the difference between injected water temperature and initial borehole temperature or water injection conditions, the more obvious the indication of water accepting zones. The numerical examples evidence the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method of the two phase flows in engineering.

  13. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoosong00@gmail.com; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang, E-mail: usshin12@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Et{sub 3}PO{sub 4} followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc){sub 2} to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for {sup 1}H, and {sup 31}P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO{sub 4} or CaCl{sub 2} were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min.

  14. Giant pilomatricoma (pilomatrixoma) following an intramuscular injection

    OpenAIRE

    Malpathak, Vijay D; Vijay P Zawar; Chuh, Antonio A; Ghadi, Prakash S

    2008-01-01

    We describe a young Indian male patient who developed a large solitary tumor following an intramuscular injection at the same location. The tumor was histologically proven to be a pilomatricoma. It was treated by surgical excision and there was no recurrence until one year after the operation. An alarming phenomenon following intramuscular injection is presented here for its novelty.

  15. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  16. Anxiety and pain during dental injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Wijk; J. Hoogstraten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the relationship between anxiety and pain felt during a dental injection in a sample of ‘normal’ patients about to undergo ‘invasive’ dental treatment. Methods: Duration and intensity of pain during a dental injection were measured within a sample of 24

  17. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  18. Polyamide 6 - long glass fiber injection moldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of

  19. Pellet injection into ASDEX upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises results obtained using the new centrifuge injection system for the two first years of pellet injection experiments at Asdex Upgrade until the end of the 1995 experimental campaign. The main aim of the pellet injection investigation is to develop scenarios allowing for a more flexible plasma density control means of injection of cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. Efforts have been made to develop scenarios allowing more flexible plasma density control by injecting cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. While the injection of pellets during ohmic discharges was found to be most efficient and also improves the plasma performance, increasing the auxiliary heating power causes a detoriation of the pellet fuelling efficiency. A further strong reduction of the pellet fuelling efficiency by an additional process was observed for the more reactor-relevant conditions of shallow particle deposition during H-mode phases. With injection during type I ELMy H-mode phases, each pellet was found to trigger the release of an ELM and therefore cause particle losses mainly from the edge region. In the type I ELMy H-mode, only sufficient pellet penetration allowed noticeable, persistent particle deposition in the plasma by the pellets. Applying adequate pellet injection conditions and favourable scenarios using combined pellet/gas puff refuelling, significant density ramp-up to densities exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit by up to a factor of two was achieved even for strongly heated H-mode plasmas. (orig.)

  20. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process w...

  1. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator massspectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitiveminicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described togetherwith the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having beenoperating for fiveyears, which provides a basis for consideration ofimprovements to the injectionsystem. An optimized injection system with an analyticalmagnet added prior to theminicyclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  2. 21 CFR 522.2005 - Propofol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propofol injection. 522.2005 Section 522.2005 Food... Propofol injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, oil-in-water emulsion containing 10 milligrams of propofol per milliliter. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of...

  3. Direct Fuel Injection of LPG in Small Two-Stroke Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Heng Teoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used carburetted two-stroke engines in developing countries have high exhaust emission and poor fuel efficiency. To meet more rigid emissions requirements, two-stroke vehicles are typically phase out in favour of four-stroke engines. The problems of ubiquitous legacy two-stroke vehicles remain unsolved by these measures and they are likely to be a major source of transport for many years to come. A number of technologies are available for solving the problems associated with two-stroke engines such as catalytic after-treatment and direct fuel injection (DI. However, these solutions are relatively high cost and have shown only slow market acceptance for applications in developing countries. Research in recent years has demonstrated that direct fuel injection is a well developed and readily deployable solution to existing two-stroke engines. Gaseous fuels such as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG are considered a promising energy source and in many countries provide fuel cost savings. LPG coupled with DI two-stroke technologies, is expected to be clean and cost effective retrofit solution for two-stroke engines. In this research project, direct injection (DI of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG is introduced and tested on a typical two-stroke engine. Results of in cylinder combustion pressure translated to fuel mass fraction burned, engine performance and exhaust emissions are taken and compared for various injection timings from premixed (early injection to fully direct injection mode (late injection. Results show that DI of LPG effectively reduces exhaust hydrocarbon and can substantially improve the fuel economy of two-stroke engines.

  4. Study of the Transition from Non-Injection to Injection in Heroin Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yarmohammadi Vasel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: The goal of our study was to elucidate the time and factors influencing the transition from non-injection to injection among male heroin users.Materials & Methods: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in Iran from April to August 2007, the data was obtained from the subjects who had never injected heroin at study entry. The total population included 7743 (402 women and 7341 men substance dependents in Iran. In this study we enrolled 1641 non-injecting male heroin users. The data was collected through Inventory Rapid Situation Assessment (RSA.Results: The results revealed that among the 1641 never injectors, 591 had initiated injection (The incidence of initiation into injection was 36% after 6.5 years. Independent predictors of transition into injection among non-injecting heroin users were being single, unemployment, attending injecting friends’ gatherings , age at first heroin use(early adolescent drug use. Conclusion: The study suggests that several factors increase the risk of injecting drugs among heroin users. Interventions to prevent injecting should identify risk factors associated with the transition from heroin sniffing to heroin injection.

  5. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  6. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  7. Injection System To Damping Ring Of An Electron-positron Injection Complex Vepp5

    CERN Document Server

    Butakov, A I; Podgorny, F V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper elements of an injection system to a damping ring of an injection complex VEPP-5, and a status of work for today also are briefly described. For last year the large work on assembly of the injection system has been done: trial switching on and tests of the system element wise, and work of all elements in common also are made.

  8. Thalidomide inhibition of vascular remodeling and inflammatory reactivity in the quinolinic acid-injected rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J K; Jantaratnotai, N; McLarnon, J G

    2009-10-01

    Effects of thalidomide administration on vascular remodeling, gliosis and neuronal viability have been studied in excitotoxin-injected rat striatum. Intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) caused time-dependent changes (durations of 6 h, 1 and 7 d post-injection) in vascular remodeling. QUIN excitotoxic insult was associated with increased numbers of vessels (laminin or collagen IV markers) demonstrating considerable abnormalities in morphology, including short fragments and vascular loops. Non-lesioned striatum, with injection of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as a vehicle, showed no evidence for vascular remodeling. A maximal extent of vascular remodeling was measured at 1 d post-QUIN and was correlated with marked increases in microgliosis (ED1 marker) and astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] marker) relative to control PBS injection. Double staining of laminin with ED1 and GFAP demonstrated areas of close association of glial cells with blood vessels. Treatment of QUIN-injected animals with the anti-inflammatory compound, thalidomide significantly inhibited vascular remodeling (by 43%) and reduced microgliosis (by 33%) but was ineffective in modifying extents of astrogliosis. Intrastriatal QUIN injection was associated with a marked loss of striatal neurons relative to non-lesioned control with thalidomide treatment exhibiting a significant degree of neuroprotection (24% recovery) against QUIN-induced neurotoxicity. These results suggest close links between microglial-mediated inflammatory responses and vascular remodeling, with inflammatory reactivity associated with, and contributing to, neuronal damage in excitotoxically-lesioned striatum. PMID:19591904

  9. Therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic muscles after local injection of fragmented fibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.

  10. THE EFFICACY OF ORAL GLUCOSE FOR RELIEVING PAIN FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN TERM NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sajedi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain in neonates can be associated with various risks and it seems essential to find a simple and acceptable method for relieving pain. Pharmacologic agents are not recommended in neonates for pain relief in minor procedures but orally administered glucose solution is found to be effective. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral 30% glucose during intramuscular injection in term neonates. Sixty-four healthy term neonates were recruited for this study during 1 month. The inclusion criteria were gestational age 37-42 weeks, birth weight 2500-4000 gr, and Apgar score > 7. The intervention consists of administration of either 2 ml of oral 30% glucose or 2ml of sterile water 2 minutes before injection. The primary out come measure was the cumulative Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection. Thirty-two neonates received 30% glucose and 32 neonates received sterile water. The cumulative NIPS score at 3 minutes after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.000 lower than for neonates given sterile water. The heart rate immediately after injection for neonates given 30% glucose was significantly (P = 0.002 lower than for neonates given sterile water. Oral 30% glucose given 2 minutes before injection was effective in reducing neonatal pain following injection. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedures in term neonates.

  11. Reduction of exposure of pet staff by computer-aided injection of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Positron Emission Tomograph y (PET) is now widely used, and everyday employment of positron emitters have brought new needs for radiation protection. Analysing the dosimetry of PET staff in the course of medical examinations, it was shown that the injection step is the most irradiating part. The necessity to monitor the safety of the patient during the injection of the radiotracer prevents us from reducing exposure time or to insert a complete shielding between the source and the operator. To lower the dose by increasing the distance, we designed a system based on two syringe pumps: one for the tracer and one for saline solution. Both a re remotely controlled by computer. The exposure of staff during the injection step is thus reduced to the five seconds necessary to place the shielded syringe in the pump. The sequence of injection is fully automatic, but all relevant parameters (such as pressure, volume, flow, occlusion detection, etc...) are continuously monitored and the operator can safely interrupt the sequence at any time. A visual, dialogue-based, interface has been designed to provide a convenient full monitoring service even for non-familiar computer users, without lowering the security of the patient. With this computer-aided injection system, the mean dose of exposure to PET staff was divided by eight. Such a system can be used in all radiopharmaceutical injections encountered in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy facilities, by adapting the injection sequence and the number of syringe pumps. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H2O2, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H2O2 injection as an oxygenation technique

  13. Quantifying pesticide sorption and degradation parameters: Modeling a field injection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Anker Lajer; Christensen, J. L.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard;

    2000-01-01

    The potential for natural attenuation of pesticides in a shallow aerobic aquifer was investigated in three injection experiments. Two pesticides could readily be identified as easily degradable from the observed decrease in solute concentration whereas degradation could only be quantified by use of...... numerical modeling for the remaining pesticides....

  14. Particulate exhaust aftertreatment of direct injection gasoline engines; Partikel-Abgasnachbehandlung bei Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toebben, Heike; Oesterle, Joerg J. [J. Eberspaecher GmbH und Co. KG, Esslingen (Germany). Abt. Thermodynamik und Emissionskonzepte der Grundlagenentwicklung Abgastechnik

    2013-02-01

    With the introduction of the Euro 6 emissions standard, gasoline engines with direct fuel injection must also comply with a limit value for the number of particulates. With the support of NGK Europe GmbH, Eberspaecher has investigated potential solutions for ensuring compliance with future emissions standards using a particulate filter. (orig.)

  15. Electroforming of Tool Inserts for Injection Molding of Optical or Microfluidic Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.; Jensen, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    With a rapidly increasing international interest in “Lab-on-a-chip”-systems as well as affordable polymer optics, the combination of electroforming and injection molding offers an attractive fabrication solution. Miniaturized analysis systems can be used for medical, security (anti terror...

  16. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Forostyanaya, N. A.; Levitskiy, V. S.; Mazing, D. S.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. Ph; Moshnikov, V. A.; Shupta, A. A.; Spivak, Yu M.; Tulenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study lead sulphide - cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

  17. Clinical diagnostic indicators of renal and bone damage in rats intramuscularly injected with depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effects and changes in biochemical markers related to kidney and bone in depleted uranium (DU)-injected rats were examined in order to clarify the relation between clinical biochemical markers and the degree of damage in these organs. Male Wistar rats received a single injection in the femoral muscles of 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 mg kg-1 of DU which was dissolved in nitric acid solution adjusted to pH 3.2, for comparison with the group injected with nitric acid solution, and the control group. Urine and faeces were collected periodically over a 24 h period. Thereafter, the rats were killed at 28 d after DU injection. The body weights of the DU-injected groups decreased dose-dependently for the first 3-7 d, and then began to increase. The DU concentrations in the urine and faeces decreased rapidly within 3-7 d after DU injection. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)/ creatinine peaked at the third day after DU injection, with a high correlation to the injected DU doses. There were high correlations among the injected DU doses, DU concentrations in the kidney and urinary NAG/ creatinine values that were obtained at 28 d, respectively. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum also showed a high correlation with the DU-injected doses. The results indicated that urinary NAG/creatinine, BUN and creatinine in serum were useful indicators to diagnose the renal damage by DU, as well as to estimate the DU intake and concentration in the kidney when the intake is >2 mg kg-1 DU. The total bone mineral density of the proximal metaphysis of the tibia decreased in the 2 mg kg-1 DU group. In addition, alterations of the trabecular bone structure by inhibiting bone formation and promoting bone resorption were observed by bone histo-morphometry. The bone biochemical markers osteo-calcin, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase, pyridinoline and rat-parathyroid hormone increased in all the DU injected groups, indicating that these markers were useful as sensitive

  18. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  19. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101)

  20. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    material, the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection......Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... moulding machine in a clean room environment. The mould and the injection moulding machine were fitted with transducers for subsequent process analysis. A total of 13 different plastic material grades were applied. Topographical characterisation was performed with an optical laser focus detection...

  1. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  2. Starting gas production by injecting nitrogen-generating liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1980-10-14

    A process is provided for treating a well by inflowing a nitrogen-gas-generating solution to cause a gas-effected displacment of liquid from the well. More particularly, it relates to kicking off, or initiating production from, a gas well which is dead due to hydrostatic pressure of the liquid it contains, without the necessity of swabbing the well, or injecting nitrogen or other gas which has been compressed at a surface location. The process consists of injecting into the well at least one aqueous liquid solution which forms or contains a nitrogen-gas-forming mixture of 1) at least one water-soluble compound which is capable of reacting within an aqueous medium to yield nitrogen gas and byproducts which are substantially inert to the components of the well and reservoir formation; 2) at least one oxidizing agent which is capable of reacting with the nitrogen-containing compound to form the gas and by-products; and 3) an aqueous liquid which is capable of dissolving or homogeneously dispersing the nitrogen-containing compound, the oxidizing agent and the byproducts of the nitrogen-gas-producing reaction. 12 claims.

  3. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

  4. Primary chemistry response to initial zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of June 2009, fifty-seven pressurized water reactor (PWR) units were adding zinc to their primary coolant systems. This represents about 22% of the world's PWR units. Zinc injection is used in at least six different countries and in essentially all major Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) designs. Plant-specific strategies for injection of zinc are now tailored with respect to concentrations, injection location, injection timing, and monitoring protocols. At least 14 additional plants are expected to begin zinc injection within the next two years and many more plants are investigating options for injecting zinc. A principal concern regarding the plant response to initial injection is that dissolved zinc will interact with ex-core oxide films in a manner that causes a release of nickel to the primary coolant system. It is possible that nickel released by this mechanism could deposit in the core and challenge fuel performance. In this work primary system chemistry data (principally nickel concentrations and radiocobalt activities) were evaluated for the cycles in which zinc was first injected. Assessments included comparisons of concentrations and activities before and after zinc injection as well as comparison of these periods to similar times in previous cycles. The mass of nickel released during shutdown, an imperfect indicator of the mass deposited on the fuel during the cycle, was also assessed. While the analyses presented in this work are not a complete analysis of plant response to zinc injection (for example, direct observations of surface film modification were not included) they represent a significant addition to the understanding of the way in which zinc interacts with the PWR primary system. (author)

  5. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  6. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): effects of body weight and injection sites on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, M H; Cromie, M A; Hopkins, N K; Tong, D M

    1999-10-01

    A new contraceptive option, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C, Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection), will soon be available for women in the US. This article reports the results of a US trial that assessed the effects of body weight and injection site on the pharmacokinetics of MPA, the progestin mediating contraceptive efficacy. This assessment was part of a nonrandomized, open-label, multicenter US study in healthy women receiving a monthly injection of MPA/E2C for 60 weeks. A total of 77 women (aged 18-47 years) at four centers participated in the pharmacokinetics assessment during the sixth or the seventh injection. For determination of serum MPA concentration-time profiles, blood samples were collected before the sixth and seventh injections (day 0) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the sixth and seventh monthly administrations. For effects of injection site, MPA pharmacokinetics were compared at injection sites of the arm, hip, and leg. The pharmacokinetics of MPA, determined at the sixth and seventh injection, were not significantly affected by injection sites. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-28), however, was different between the arm and the leg injection sites; the difference was 38, n = 6). There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of MPA among the three BMI categories. The only significant difference (p = 0.0387) was the AUC0-28 between BMI 18-28 and BMI 29-38. Because of the small sample size in the highly obese group, a reanalysis was performed by pooling subjects of the obese and highly obese groups. Results of the pooled statistical analysis remained the same. In summary, these results suggest that minor differences observed in the MPA pharmacokinetics--whether due to injection site or body weight or both--have no impact on the contraceptive efficacy of MPA/E2C, as trough concentrations (Cmin) are well above the threshold levels required to suppress ovulation. No dose adjustment

  7. Radiochromic liquid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochromic solution which is sensitive to small dosages of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation is described. It consists of a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent with enough organic acid added to make the solution at least slightly acidic and responds to radiation by permanently changing color. Up to one half of the solution by weight can be replaced by a second solution of an aromatic solvent and an organic fluor. Another modification of the invention is a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent having an aromatic group, an organic fluor, and enough organic acid to make the solution at least slightly acidic. (author)

  8. Combined vitrectomy and intravitreal injection versus combined laser and injection for treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M SaeedDepartment of Ophthalmology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of combined vitrectomy, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA, and bevacizumab injection with that of IVTA and bevacizumab injection and subsequent macular grid laser photocoagulation for the treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema.Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt, and included 34 eyes from 34 diabetic patients diagnosed with intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema without vitreomacular traction. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid was performed, and at the end of the procedure, IVTA 0.1 mL (40 mg/mL and bevacizumab 1.25 mg were injected. In group 2, macular grid laser photocoagulation was performed 2 weeks after the same intravitreal injection combination as used in group 1. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness, which were measured using optical coherence tomography at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results: Changes in BCVA and central foveal thickness at 3, 6, and 12 months from baseline were highly statistically significant (P < 0.01. Mean BCVA was better in group 1 at 3 months, nearly equal at 6 months, and less at 12 months. Mean central foveal thickness was more improved in group 1 than in group 2 at 3 months, and was better in group 2 at subsequent measurement points. The major adverse events were development of cataract (more common in group 1 and elevation of intraocular pressure (more common in group 2.Conclusion: The combined therapy described here could represent a solution for the treatment of intractable diabetic macular edema, and could have a favorable long-term outcome. Combined treatment of IVTA and bevacizumab plus grid laser resulted in a more favorable

  9. The Asymmetric Leximin Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Driesen, Bram W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define and characterize a class of asymmetric leximin solutions, that contains both the symmetric leximin solution of Imai[5] and the two-person asymmetric Kalai-Smorodinsky solution of Dubra [3] as special cases. Solutions in this class combine three attractive features: they are defined on the entire domain of convex n-person bargaining problems, they generally yield Pareto efficient solution outcomes, and asymmetries among bargainers are captured by a single parameter ve...

  10. Steam injection profiling with unstable radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of determining liquid and vapor phase profiles in a stream injection well. It comprises inserting a well logging tool into a steam injection well at a first location, the logging tool further comprising duel gamma ray detectors separated by a specified distance; measuring a mass flow rate of steam entering the steam injection well; before, during, and after logging the steam injection well; injecting an unstable radioactive isotope into the steam injection well, the isotope being of a type which naturally hydrolyzes from a vapor phase into a liquid phase at a known rate, so that a given time after the isotope injection, the relative proportions of the vapor phase and the liquid phase can be determined; measuring the transit time of the vapor phase isotope and the liquid phase isotope to pass between the gamma ray detectors; moving the logging tool to a second location in the well; calculating vapor phase and liquid phase velocities based on the elapsed time required for the vapor and liquid phase isotopes to pass between the two gamma detectors; and calculating the amount of vapor and liquid entering a formation between the first location and the second location based on the mass flow rate of steam entering the well, the liquid transit times, and the vapor transit times

  11. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  12. IAEA technical committee meeting on pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Pellet Injection, May 10-12, 1993, at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, was held to review the latest results on pellet injection and its effects on plasma confinement. In particular, topics included in the meeting include (i) pellet ablation and particle fueling results, (ii) pellet injection effects on confinement, including improved confinement modes, edge effects, magnetohydrodynamic activity and impurity transport, and (iii) injector technology and diagnostics using pellets. About 30 experts attended and 23 papers were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification test under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out test in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident. (author)

  14. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  15. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  16. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  17. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  18. Innovative Drug Injection via Laser Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-10-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of micro scale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of the nozzle is 125 um and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  19. Toxicity of particles on intracoronary injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of studies on the use of particles in the coronary circulation is presented. Some studies discussed are as follows: toxicity of radioiodinated macroaggregated albumin (MAA) in dogs; effects of injecting MAA into coronary artery on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, heart rate, and general condition of patients; toxicity of intracoronary injection of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human albumin microspheres (HAM); effects of intra-atrial injection of carbon microspheres on coronary blood flow, cardiac output, aortic blood pressure, and heart rate in dogs; myocardial clearance of MAA; and hypersensitivity reactions to denatured human serum albumin

  20. Electrical spin injection into zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwark, Christoph; Weyer, Christian; Guentherodt, Gernot; Beschoten, Bernd [II. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Aachen (Germany); Althammer, Matthias; Goennenwein, Sebastian T.B.; Opel, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of electrically injecting spin-polarized carriers into ZnO. For this purpose we have used Co/n-ZnO heterostructures deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Electrical spin injection was demonstrated at 10 K by optical means using Kerr rotation measurements in Hanle geometry. Spin injection can be observed up to a temperature of 35 K with a temperature independent spin dephasing time of 1 ns, which has been determined from the width of the Hanle curves.

  1. Injection performance evaluation for SSRF storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Leng, Yong-Bin; Yan, Ying-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Chu

    2015-09-01

    The injection performance of the storage ring is one of the most important factors to consider at a synchrotron radiation facility, especially in the top-up mode. To evaluate the injection performance of the storage ring at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have built a bunch-by-bunch position measuring system based on an oscilloscope Input/Output Controller. Accurate assessment of energy mismatching, distribution of residual oscillation, and angle error of injection kickers can be achieved by this system. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375255)

  2. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  3. An additive to well injection water for increasing the oil yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absov, M.T.; Abutalybov, M.G.; Aslanov, S.M.; Movruzov, E.N.; Musaev, R.A.; Tairov, N.D.

    1979-03-05

    This invention relates to oil production using flooding. The goal of this invention is to increase the oil yield of a producing formation. This is achieved by using a saponin solution as an additive to the water injected into the formation (with related organic substances which are complex organic nitrogen-free compounds from the glycoside group; these substances yield solution that foam easily with an agitation). The use of saponin facilitates good solubility in fresh, sea and formation (alkaline and hard) waters, as well as the absence of sediment formation during dissolution, low solid adsorption, and a significant decrease in the surface water tension on the oil-water boundary. The aqueous saponin solution makes it possible to decrease the production cost of oil, as well as to decrease the development time of the fields and the volume of water injected into the formation and to significantly increase the oil yield.

  4. Cavity formation by hydrogen injection in electron-irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foil specimens of solution annealed Type 316, 316L and Ti-modified 316L steels, cold worked Type 316 steel, and 1 MV electron-irradiated Type 316 steel are injected with hydrogen ions to 3x1021-9x1021 ions/m2 at 673 K. A number of cavities are formed not only in the matrix but also on grain boundaries in all the solution annealed steels. In the 5% cold worked 316 steel, the cavity number density is more reduced than in the solution annealed 316 steel. Cavity formation in 1 MV electron irradiated regions depends sensitively on electron predamage given prior to hydrogen ion injection. From a comparison of the cavity formations in electron irradiated regions with predamaged structures, it is noted that vacancy clusters interact strongly with hydrogen atoms and that tangled dislocation networks enable hydrogen atom transport to the foil surface. (orig.)

  5. Effects of intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intratumoral injection of I-125 iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), saline solution, and oil suspension was investigated using Ehrlich ascites tumors in the thighs of mice. The oil suspension was more effective in tumor growth delay than was the saline solution. Single injection of the oil suspension at the dose of 12.5 microCi resulted in 21.5 days growth delay, whereas 50 microCi of the saline solution resulted in 11.5 days growth delay relative to control growth delay. At 40 days after treatment, higher radioactivities were observed in the tumor and the skin of the mice treated with the oil suspension, which represented the prolongation of I-125 IUdR oil suspension within the tumor. No normal tissue toxicities were observed

  6. Rheological evaluations and in vitro studies of injectable bioactive glass-polycaprolactone-sodium alginate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Shokoufeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Behnamghader, Ali-Asghar; Ghasemi, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Composite pastes composed of various amounts of melt-derived bioactive glass 52S4 (MG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres in sodium alginate solution were prepared. Rheological properties in both rotatory and oscillatory modes were evaluated. Injectability was measured as injection force versus piston displacement. In vitro calcium phosphate precipitation was also studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) and tracked using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. All composite pastes were thixotropic in nature and exhibited shear thinning behavior. The magnitude of thixotropy decreased by adding 10-30 wt% PCL, while further amounts of PCL increased it again. Moreover, the composites were viscoelastic materials in which the elastic modulus was higher than viscous term. The pastes which were just made of MG5 or PCL had poor injectability, whereas the composites containing both of these constituents exhibited reasonable injectability. All pastes revealed adequate structural stability in contact with SBF solution. In vitro calcium phosphate precipitation was well observed on the paste made of MG5 and somewhat on the pastes with 10-40 wt% PCL, however the precipitated layer was amorphous in nature. Overall, the produced composites may be appropriate as injectable biomaterials for non-invasive surgeries but more biological evaluations are essential. PMID:27432416

  7. Central Effect of Exogenous Histamine on Pain Induced by Sub-Plantar Injection of Formalin in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of normal saline (control), histamine, mepyramine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (a histamine H2-receptor antagonist) were investigated on the formalin-induced pain in rabbits. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of a formalin (100 μl, 5%) solution into the ventral surface of the right hind paw was performed, and the time durations spent licking and biting the injected paw were measured in 10 min bl...

  8. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  9. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface...... the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection-molding conditions, i.e., with commodity materials within typical process windows. It was found that within typical process windows the replication quality depends significantly on several process parameters, and especially the...... topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication, however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection...

  10. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and...... ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are...

  11. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment. (1) The injection of local anaesthetic and corticosteroid should be considered as a potential trigger for brachial neuritis. (2) Brachial neuritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with severe arm pain and weakness. (3) The nerves originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus are most commonly affected. (4) The anterior interosseous nerve is involved in one-third of cases. PMID:24596414

  12. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  13. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  14. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  15. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  16. Rejuvenation of the lip with injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, K R

    2007-04-01

    As the range of soft tissue augmentation products proliferates, most will be used (with varying degrees of success) to shape and augment the lip. The range of outcomes for this indication depends on the skill of the injector, the anatomy of the patient and the intrinsic properties of the product. Permutations of these interacting factors are infinite and it is the range of combinations that is responsible for the complexity (and fascination) of lip rejuvenation with injectable products. Based on personal experience, the perfect lip is the one that "wows" the patient and makes them happy with the procedure. Individualizing the injection is of paramount importance and should take priority over a formulaic approach that defines each lip injection as identical. This review will discuss some of the factors that should be considered prior to injecting a lip with soft tissue augmentation products. PMID:17487348

  17. Higher injection energy for CAMD accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that two unused linac-accelerating sections, which are at Jefferson Laboratory could be transferred to CAMD. These sections are identical to the ones presently in use here. The addition of one of these sections to the CAMD linac would allow the injection energy to be increased to about 275 MeV. A study is being conducted of the implications of this scheme, covering: modifications to the transport line; upgrading the injection kicker systems; extra space requirements; and upgrades to other systems associated with the linac. The high-energy injection upgrade will help to overcome the vertical aperture restriction of new insertion devices, to improve the ion clearing if any ion trapping occurs, to decrease the synchrotron radiation damping times, etc. In the paper, the specifications of the linac will be given, and the parameters of the storage ring at injection energy will be posed based on the current lattice configurations

  18. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  19. SQL Injection Test System for Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  20. Plasticising and injecting lowest quantities of plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuß, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, T.

    2014-05-01

    For an economic production of thermoplastic micro parts a reproducible quality is one of the key aspects. Therefore, injection moulding is one of the most common production technologies. The material and process oriented plasticising of the required amount of plastic material are still challenging. Due to the concept of standard injection moulding machines the plasticising screw with a non-return valve is used as the injection plunger. This principle can only realise injection volumes which arise directly from the screw diameter D and the injection stroke. Miniaturisation of this design is limited, since the screw core must absorb the required torque while a feeding of the granules is to ensure by a sufficient flight depth. Even the smallest standard diameters of 14 mm and minimum injection strokes result in shot volumes, which account for multiples of the component volume of common micro parts. At present a new plasticising concept is developed by the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen, Germany. The concept is characterised by the position of the screw flights, which are attached to the inside of the plasticising cylinder. The injection piston is mounted coaxially within the cylinder. The so-called 'inverted plastication' is based on the kinematic reversal of the screw flights' arrangement. As the injection piston does not have to feature neither a special feed section nor screw flights, it is exposed to lower mechanical stresses. It therefore features a smaller diameter than common plasticising screws. Thus, the entire plasticising unit can be adapted to the volume of micro parts. Currently, an experimental setup is built which allows a systematical analysis of the different influencing parameters.