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Sample records for ares i-x flight

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  2. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  3. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Heitzman, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  5. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory and Comparison with Pre-Flight Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay M.; Starr, Brett R.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  6. Ares I-X First Flight Loss of Vehicle Probability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark A.; Cross, Robert B.; Osborn, John H.; Li, Yunnhon

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Constellation (Cx) Program development effort, several test flights were planned to prove concepts and operational capabilities of the new vehicles being developed. The first test, involving the Eastern Test Range, is the Ares I-X launched in 2009. As part of this test, the risk to the general public was addressed to ensure it is within Air Force requirements. This paper describes the methodology used to develop first flight estimates of overall loss of vehicle (LOV) failure probability, specifically for the Ares I-X. The method described in this report starts with the Air Force s generic failure probability estimate for first flight and adjusts the value based on the complexity of the vehicle as compared to the complexity of a generic vehicle. The results estimate a 1 in 9 probability of failure. The paper also describes traditional PRA methods used in this assessment, which were then combined with the updated first flight risk methodology to generate inputs required by the malfunction turn analysis to support estimate of casualty (Ec) calculations as part of the Final Flight Data Package (FFDP) delivered to the Eastern Range for Final Flight Plan Approval.

  7. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  8. NASA Aerosciences Perspective on Proposed De-Scope of Ares I-X Development Flight Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This position paper is written as a result of a number of emails and a presentation that have recently been circulated concerning the potential reduction of Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) to be included on the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. A reduction in instrumentation has been proposed presumably to reduce project costs and relieve project schedule pressures. This proposal has generated a significant amount of discussion on both sides of the issue, primarily from those within the project. The intention here is to provide a perspective on this issue from outside the mainline project.

  9. An Assessment of Ares I-X Aeroacoustic Measurements with Comparisons to Pre-Flight Wind Tunnel Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Reed, Darren K.

    2011-01-01

    During the recent successful launch of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle, aeroacoustic data was gathered at fifty-seven locations along the vehicle as part of the Developmental Flight Instrumentation. Several of the Ares I-X aeroacoustic measurements were placed to duplicate measurement locations prescribed in pre-flight, sub-scale wind tunnel tests. For these duplicated measurement locations, comparisons have been made between aeroacoustic data gathered during the ascent phase of the Ares I-X flight test and wind tunnel test data. These comparisons have been made at closely matching flight conditions (Mach number and vehicle attitude) in order to preserve a one-to-one relationship between the flight and wind tunnel data. These comparisons and the current wind tunnel to flight scaling methodology are presented and discussed. The implications of using wind tunnel test data scaled under the current methodology to predict conceptual launch vehicle aeroacoustic environments are also discussed.

  10. The Application of Lean Thinking Principles and Kaizen Practices for the Successful Development and Implementation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Rocket and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for

  11. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  12. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  13. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  14. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  15. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares...

  16. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  17. Ares I-X First Stage Separation Loads and Dynamics Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, Lee; Rooker, BIll; Jarmulowicz, Marc; Glaese, John

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test provided NASA with the opportunity to test hardware and gather critical data to ensure the success of future Ares I flights. One of the primary test flight objectives was to evaluate the environment during First Stage separation to better understand the conditions that the J-2X second stage engine will experience at ignition [1]. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the stage separation motors. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle was successfully launched on October 29, 2009, achieving most of its primary and secondary test objectives. Ground based video camera recordings of the separation event appeared to show recontact of the First Stage and the Upper Stage Simulator followed by an unconventional tumbling of the Upper Stage Simulator. Closer inspection of the videos and flight test data showed that recontact did not occur. Also, the motion during staging was as predicted through CFD analysis performed during the Ares I-X development. This paper describes the efforts to reconstruct the vehicle dynamics and loads through the staging event by means of a time integrated simulation developed in TREETOPS, a multi-body dynamics software tool developed at NASA [2]. The simulation was built around vehicle mass and geometry properties at the time of staging and thrust profiles for the first stage solid rocket motor as well as for the booster deceleration motors and booster tumble motors. Aerodynamic forces were determined by models created from a combination of wind tunnel testing and CFD. The initial conditions such as position, velocity, and attitude were obtained from the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET), which is compiled from multiple ground based and vehicle mounted instruments. Dynamic loads were calculated by subtracting the inertial forces from the applied forces. The simulation results were compared to the Best Estimated Trajectory, accelerometer flight data, and to ground based video.

  18. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  19. Derivation of Aero-Induced Fluctuating Pressure Environments for Ares I-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Y.; Wilby, John F.

    2008-01-01

    A description is given of the external aero-inducted fluctuating pressure model which was fit and anchored to wind tunnel data from the past 40 years. This model is based upon the assumption that the flow around a vehicle can be divided into discrete flow zones with independent fluctuating pressure properties. The model is then used to derive fluctuating pressure environments during ascent for the Ares I-X test vehicle. A sensitivity study of the structural response to the spatial correlation of the fluctuating pressures is also performed.

  20. Ares I-X Management Office (MMO) Integrated Master Schedule (IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Keith; Askins, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar, integrated Ares I/Orion, using Ares I relevant ascent control algorithms. Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between a Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage. Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares I-like First Stage element at KSC. Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics, and parachute performance. Characterize magnitude of integrated vehicle roll torque throughout First Stage flight.

  1. Weld Residual Stress and Distortion Analysis of the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury; Dawicke, David; Cheston, Derrick; Phillips, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. While the main focus of this paper is a discussion of the weld modeling procedures and results for the USS, a short summary of the CIFS assessment is provided.

  2. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  3. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Critical Flaw Size in ARES I-X Flange-to-Skin Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chell, G. Graham; Hudak, Stephen J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Ares 1 Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is being fabricated from welded A516 steel. In order to insure the structural integrity of these welds it is of interest to calculate the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) to establish rational inspection requirements. The CIFS is in turn dependent on the critical final flaw size (CFS), as well as fatigue flaw growth resulting from transportation, handling and service-induced loading. These calculations were made using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), which are thought to be conservative because they are based on a lower bound, so called elastic, fracture toughness determined from tests that displayed significant plasticity. Nevertheless, there was still concern that the yield magnitude stresses generated in the flange-to-skin weld by the combination of axial stresses due to axial forces, fit-up stresses, and weld residual stresses, could give rise to significant flaw-tip plasticity, which might render the LEFM results to be non-conservative. The objective of the present study was to employ Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) to determine CFS values, and then compare these values to CFS values evaluated using LEFM. CFS values were calculated for twelve cases involving surface and embedded flaws, EPFM analyses with and without plastic shakedown of the stresses, LEFM analyses, and various welding residual stress distributions. For the cases examined, the computed CFS values based on elastic analyses were the smallest in all instances where the failures were predicted to be controlled by the fracture toughness. However, in certain cases, the CFS values predicted by the elastic-plastic analyses were smaller than those predicted by the elastic analyses; in these cases the failure criteria were determined by a breakdown in stress intensity factor validity limits for deep flaws (a greater than 0.90t), rather than by the fracture toughness. Plastic relaxation of stresses accompanying shakedown always increases the

  4. Flight and Integrated Testing: Blazing the Trail for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charlie; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors that will carry the next generation of astronauts into space safer and more efficiently than ever and send them to the Moon to develop a permanent outpost. NASA's Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Ares I-X Mission Management Office have primary responsibility for developing and conducting critical ground and flight tests for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. These tests will draw upon Saturn and the Space Shuttle experiences, which taught the value of using sound systems engineering practices, while also applying aerospace best practices such as "test as you fly" and other lessons learned. FITO will use a variety of methods to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks of flying humans safely aboard a launch vehicle.

  5. USMP-4 experiments are prepared for flight in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    United States Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) experiments are prepared to be flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-87 in the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). nThe vertical tube in the center of the photo is the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), which will be used by researchers to study the solidification of semiconductor materials in microgravity. Scientists will be able to better understand how microgravity influences the solidification process of these materials and develop better methods for controlling that process during future Space flights and Earth-based production. To its left is MEPHISTO, the French acronym for a cooperative American-French investigation of the fundamentals of crystal growth. All STS-87 experiments are scheduled for launch on Nov. 19 from KSC.

  6. 14 CFR 61.431 - Are there special provisions for obtaining a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating for persons who are registered ultralight..., FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.431 Are there special provisions for obtaining a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating...

  7. 14 CFR 61.423 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating? 61.423 Section 61.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.423 What are the recordkeeping requirements for a flight instructor with a sport pilot rating? (a) As a flight instructor with...

  8. Cassini Attitude Control Operations Flight Rules and How They are Enforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas; Bates, David

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. Cassini deployed the European-built Huygens probe which descended through the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface on January 14, 2005. Operating the Cassini spacecraft is a complex scientific, engineering, and management job. In order to safely operate the spacecraft, a large number of flight rules were developed. These flight rules must be enforced throughout the lifetime of the Cassini spacecraft. Flight rules are defined as any operational limitation imposed by the spacecraft system design, hardware, and software, violation of which would result in spacecraft damage, loss of consumables, loss of mission objectives, loss and/or degradation of science, and less than optimal performance. Flight rules require clear description and rationale. Detailed automated methods have been developed to insure the spacecraft is continuously operated within these flight rules. An overview of all the flight rules allocated to the Cassini Attitude Control and Articulation Subsystem and how they are enforced is presented in this paper.

  9. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the ARES Atmospheric Flight Vehicle Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, J. F.; Dillman, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a proposed 2007 Mars Scout Mission that will be the first mission to deploy an atmospheric flight vehicle (AFV) on another planet. This paper will describe the preliminary design and analysis of the AFV thermal control system for its flight through the Martian atmosphere and also present other analyses broadening the scope of that design to include other phases of the ARES mission. Initial analyses are discussed and results of trade studies are presented which detail the design process for AFV thermal control. Finally, results of the most recent AFV thermal analysis are shown and the plans for future work are discussed.

  10. Dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei

    This research focuses on dynamic modeling and ascent flight control of large flexible launch vehicles such as the Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A complete set of six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic models of the Ares-I, incorporating its propulsion, aerodynamics, guidance and control, and structural flexibility, is developed. NASA's Ares-I reference model and the SAVANT Simulink-based program are utilized to develop a Matlab-based simulation and linearization tool for an independent validation of the performance and stability of the ascent flight control system of large flexible launch vehicles. A linearized state-space model as well as a non-minimum-phase transfer function model (which is typical for flexible vehicles with non-collocated actuators and sensors) are validated for ascent flight control design and analysis. This research also investigates fundamental principles of flight control analysis and design for launch vehicles, in particular the classical "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack can significantly improve overall performance and stability, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbances. For a typical "non-collocated actuator and sensor" control problem for large flexible launch vehicles, non-minimum-phase filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes is also shown to be effective. The uncertainty model of a flexible launch vehicle is derived. The robust stability of an ascent flight control system design, which directly controls the inertial attitude-error quaternion and also employs the non-minimum-phase filters, is verified by the framework of structured singular value (mu) analysis. Furthermore, nonlinear coupled dynamic simulation results are presented for a reference model of the Ares-I CLV as another validation of the feasibility of the ascent flight control system design. Another important issue for a single main engine launch vehicle is

  11. Optimal search patterns in honeybee orientation flights are robust against emerging infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Andrew M.; Wells, Patricia; Lim, Ka S.; Paxton, Robert J.; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2016-01-01

    Lévy flights are scale-free (fractal) search patterns found in a wide range of animals. They can be an advantageous strategy promoting high encounter rates with rare cues that may indicate prey items, mating partners or navigational landmarks. The robustness of this behavioural strategy to ubiquitous threats to animal performance, such as pathogens, remains poorly understood. Using honeybees radar-tracked during their orientation flights in a novel landscape, we assess for the first time how two emerging infectious diseases (Nosema sp. and the Varroa-associated Deformed wing virus (DWV)) affect bees’ behavioural performance and search strategy. Nosema infection, unlike DWV, affected the spatial scale of orientation flights, causing significantly shorter and more compact flights. However, in stark contrast to disease-dependent temporal fractals, we find the same prevalence of optimal Lévy flight characteristics (μ ≈ 2) in both healthy and infected bees. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of these surprising insights, arguing that Lévy search patterns are an emergent property of fundamental characteristics of neuronal and sensory components of the decision-making process, making them robust against diverse physiological effects of pathogen infection and possibly other stressors. PMID:27615605

  12. 14 CFR 61.415 - What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.415 Section 61.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a...

  13. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kunkle, Thomas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stead, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  14. 14 CFR 61.413 - What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.413 Section 61.413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.413 What are the privileges of my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a fight...

  15. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  16. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  17. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  18. Female Moth Calling and Flight Behavior Are Altered Hours Following Pheromone Autodetection: Possible Implications for Practical Management with Mating Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Stelinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female moths are known to detect their own sex pheromone—a phenomenon called “autodetection”. Autodetection has various effects on female moth behavior, including altering natural circadian rhythm of calling behavior, inducing flight, and in some cases causing aggregations of conspecifics. A proposed hypothesis for the possible evolutionary benefits of autodetection is its possible role as a spacing mechanism to reduce female-female competition. Here, we explore autodetection in two species of tortricids (Grapholita molesta (Busck and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris. We find that females of both species not only “autodetect,” but that learning (change in behavior following experience occurs, which affects behavior for at least 24 hours after pheromone pre-exposure. Specifically, female calling in both species is advanced at least 24 hours, but not 5 days, following pheromone pre-exposure. Also, the propensity of female moths to initiate flight and the duration of flights, as quantified by a laboratory flight mill, were advanced in pre-exposed females as compared with controls. Pheromone pre-exposure did not affect the proportion of mated moths when they were confined with males in small enclosures over 24 hours in laboratory assays. We discuss the possible implications of these results with respect to management of these known pest species with the use of pheromone-based mating disruption.

  19. MMW radar enhanced vision systems: the Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) and Radar-Enhanced Vision System (REVS) are rotary and fixed wing enhanced flight vision systems that enable safe flight operations in degraded visual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jack; Schneider, John; Cariani, Pete

    2013-05-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed rotary and fixed wing millimeter wave radar enhanced vision systems. The Helicopter Autonomous Landing System (HALS) is a rotary-wing enhanced vision system that enables multi-ship landing, takeoff, and enroute flight in Degraded Visual Environments (DVE). HALS has been successfully flight tested in a variety of scenarios, from brown-out DVE landings, to enroute flight over mountainous terrain, to wire/cable detection during low-level flight. The Radar Enhanced Vision Systems (REVS) is a fixed-wing Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) undergoing prototype development testing. Both systems are based on a fast-scanning, threedimensional 94 GHz radar that produces real-time terrain and obstacle imagery. The radar imagery is fused with synthetic imagery of the surrounding terrain to form a long-range, wide field-of-view display. A symbology overlay is added to provide aircraft state information and, for HALS, approach and landing command guidance cuing. The combination of see-through imagery and symbology provides the key information a pilot needs to perform safe flight operations in DVE conditions. This paper discusses the HALS and REVS systems and technology, presents imagery, and summarizes the recent flight test results.

  20. Classical novae and type I X-ray bursts: challenges for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, A; Sala, G

    2014-01-01

    Classical nova explosions and type I X-ray bursts are the most frequent types of thermonuclear stellar explosions in the Galaxy. Both phenomena arise from thermonuclear ignition in the envelopes of accreting compact objects in close binary star systems. Detailed observations of these events have stimulated numerous studies in theoretical astrophysics and experimental nuclear physics. We discuss observational features of these phenomena and theoretical efforts to better understand the energy production and nucleosynthesis in these explosions. We also examine and summarize studies directed at identifying nuclear physics quantities with uncertainties that significantly affect model predictions.

  1. Dance type and flight parameters are associated with different mushroom body neural activities in worker honeybee brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketoshi Kiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honeybee foragers can transmit the information concerning the location of food sources to their nestmates using dance communication. We previously used a novel immediate early gene, termed kakusei, to demonstrate that the neural activity of a specific mushroom body (MB neuron subtype is preferentially enhanced in the forager brain. The sensory information related to this MB neuron activity, however, remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used kakusei to analyze the relationship between MB neuron activity and types of foraging behavior. The number of kakusei-positive MB neurons was higher in the round dancers that had flown a short distance than in the waggle dancers that had flown a long distance. Furthermore, the amount of kakusei transcript in the MBs inversely related to the waggle-phase duration of the waggle dance, which correlates with the flight distance. Using a narrow tunnel whose inside was vertically or axially lined, we manipulated the pattern of visual input, which is received by the foragers during flight, and analysed kakusei expression. The amount of kakusei transcript in the MBs was related to the foraging frequency but not to the tunnel pattern. In contrast, the number of kakusei-positive MB neurons was affected by the tunnel patterns, but not related to foraging frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the MB neuron activity depends on the foraging frequency, whereas the number of active MB neurons is related to the pattern of visual input received during foraging flight. Our results suggest that the foraging frequency and visual experience during foraging are associated with different MB neural activities.

  2. Lift calculations based on accepted wake models for animal flight are inconsistent and sensitive to vortex dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eric; Quinn, Daniel B; Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-12-06

    There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments. The quasi-steady lift at mid-downstroke was estimated based on the velocity field by applying the widely used Kutta-Joukowski theorem, vortex ring model, and actuator disk model. The calculated lift was found to be sensitive to the applied model and its different parameters, including vortex span and distance between the bird and laser sheet-rendering these three accepted ways of calculating weight support inconsistent. The three models predict different aerodynamic force values mid-downstroke compared to independent direct measurements with an aerodynamic force platform that we had available for the same species flying over a similar distance. Whereas the lift predictions of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem and the vortex ring model stayed relatively constant despite vortex breakdown, their values were too low. In contrast, the actuator disk model predicted lift reasonably accurately before vortex breakdown, but predicted almost no lift during and after vortex breakdown. Some of these limitations might be better understood, and partially reconciled, if future animal flight studies report lift calculations based on all three quasi-steady lift models instead. This would also enable much needed meta studies of animal flight to derive bioinspired design principles for quasi-steady lift

  3. Norwegian airline passengers are not more afraid of flying after the terror act of September 11. The flight anxiety, however, is significantly attributed to acts of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeberg, Oivind; Fauske, Berit; Berg-Hansen, Bente

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to study: (1) the prevalence of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers; (2) situations that may be of concern during flights and situations not related to flying; (3) whether passengers feel more afraid after the terror act of September 11, 2001; and (4) whether passengers were more afraid in 2002 than in 1986.A questionnaire was distributed during domestic flights in Norway in 1986 and 2002. To asses flight anxiety, a six point scale was used, from 0 = not afraid at all, to 5 = always very afraid, and sometimes avoid flying because of that. A 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of anxiety. There were 50.8% who were not afraid at all. There were 12 women (5.2%) and one man (0.4%) with flight phobia. However, 22 (4.5%) had cancelled flights because of anxiety during the last two years. Situations that caused most concern during flights were turbulence and fear of terrorism and highjacking. After September 11, 48% were not more afraid, 38% a little more, 10% moderately, 3% rather much and 2% very much. The passengers, however, were not more afraid of flying in 2002 than in 1986. About 3% of Norwegian airline passengers have a flight phobia. Women are significantly more concerned than men. The impact of the terror act September 11, 2001 was rather moderate. The level of flight anxiety among Norwegian airline passengers was not significantly different in 2002 and 1986.

  4. Observations of Type i X-Ray Bursts from GS 1826-238 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Walter

    Type I X-ray bursts are the result of thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars. The spectral lines which are expected in the X-ray spectra of the bursts will allow for a direct measurement of the gravitational redshift from the surface of the neutron stars (one of the holy grails in physics). XMM-Newton has the potential of detecting such lines. We have been awarded 200 ksec observations with XMM-Newton of the X-ray burster GS 1826-238. During this time we expect to observe ten X-ray bursts and to accumulate about 40,000 high-spectral resolution burst counts with the RGS, and roughly 2 Mcounts with EPIC-PN. We are requesting simultaneous observations with RXTE to obtain essential information about the underlying continuum spectrum.

  5. Optimization of geometrical design of nested conical Wolter-I X-ray telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhong Mu; Hongying Liu; Huijun Jin; Xiajun Yang; Fangfang Wang; Wenbin Li; Hong Chen; Zhanshan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Optical design of nested conical Wolter I X-ray telescope covering energy band from 1 to 30 keV is investigated systematically.Recurrence relation of the nested structure is deduced,and the impact of the initial parameters on the performance is analyzed.Due to the need for hard X-ray astronomical observations in China,the initial structure is presented,for which six groups of W/B4C aperiodic multilayer coatings between the innermost and the outermost shell of the mirror are designed.The effective area,resolution,and field of view are calculated in the simulation.The results show that the effective area can achieve 71 cm2 and the field of view can achieve 13' at 30 keV.The resolution is estimated to be ~10" in half-power diameter.

  6. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  7. Vision Changes after Space Flight Are Related to Alterations in Folate-Dependent One-Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gibson, C. Robert; Mader, Thomas H.; Ericson, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    About 20% of astronauts on International Space Station missions have developed measurable ophthalmic changes after flight. This study was conducted to determine whether the folate-dependent 1-carbon pathway is altered in these individuals. Data were modeled to evaluate differences between individuals with ophthalmic changes (n=5) and those without them (n=15). We also correlated mean preflight serum concentrations of the 1-carbon metabolites with changes in measured refraction after flight. Serum homocysteine (HCy), cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid, and methylmalonic acid concentrations were 25%-45% higher (Prefraction, and preflight serum concentrations of 2-methylcitric acid tended to be associated (P=0.06) with ophthalmic changes. The biochemical differences observed in those with vision issues strongly suggests impairment of the folate-dependent 1-carbon transfer pathway. Impairment of this pathway, by polymorphisms, diet or other means, may interact with components of the microgravity environment to influence these pathophysiologic changes. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  8. One-dimensional Turbulence Models of Type I X-ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chen [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    Type I X-ray bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary star system. Observations and simulations of these phenomena are of great importance for understanding the fundamental properties of neutron stars and dense matter because the equation of state for cold dense matter can be constrained by the mass-radius relationship of neutron stars. During the bursts, turbulence plays a key role in mixing the fuels and driving the unstable nuclear burning process. This dissertation presents one-dimensional models of photospheric radius expansion bursts with a new approach to simulate turbulent advection. Compared with the traditional mixing length theory, the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model represents turbulent motions by a sequence of maps that are generated according to a stochastic process. The light curves I obtained with the ODT models are in good agreement with those of the KEPLER model in which the mixing length theory and various diffusive processes are applied. The abundance comparison, however, indicates that the differences in turbulent regions and turbulent diffusivities result in more 12C survival during the bursts in the ODT models, which can make a difference in the superbursts phenomena triggered by unstable carbon burning.

  9. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirgayussa, I. Gde Eka; Yani, Sitti; Rhani, M. Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy

    2015-09-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good criteria of dose

  10. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirgayussa, I Gde Eka, E-mail: ekadirgayussa@gmail.com; Yani, Sitti; Haryanto, Freddy, E-mail: freddy@fi.itb.ac.id [Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, 40132 (Indonesia); Rhani, M. Fahdillah [Tang Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore)

    2015-09-30

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good

  11. Accretion disk signatures in Type I X-ray Bursts: prospects for future missions

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L; Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    Type I X-ray bursts and superbursts from accreting neutron stars illuminate the accretion disk and produce a reflection signal that evolves as the burst fades. Examining the evolution of reflection features in the spectra will give insight into the burst-disk interaction, a potentially powerful probe of accretion disk physics. At present, reflection has been observed during only two bursts of exceptional duration. We investigate the detectability of reflection signatures with four of the latest well-studied X-ray observatory concepts: Hitomi, NICER, Athena, and LOFT. Burst spectra are modeled for different values for the flux, temperature, and the disk ionization parameter, which are representative for most known bursts and sources. The effective area and through-put of a Hitomi-like telescope are insufficient for characterizing burst reflection features. NICER and Athena will detect reflection signatures in Type I bursts with peak fluxes $\\ge 10^{-7.5}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, and also effectively constrain ...

  12. Fast and slow magnetic deflagration fronts in Type I X-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Cavecchi, Yuri; Watts, Anna L; Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Type I X-ray bursts are produced by thermonuclear runaways that develop on accreting neutron stars. Once one location ignites, the flame propagates across the surface of the star. Flame propagation is fundamental in order to understand burst properties like rise time and burst oscillations. Previous work quantified the effects of rotation on the front, showing that the flame propagates as a deflagration and that the front strongly resembles a hurricane. However the effect of magnetic fields was not investigated, despite the fact that magnetic fields strong enough to have an effect on the propagating flame are expected to be present on many bursters. In this paper we show how the coupling between fluid layers introduced by an initially vertical magnetic field plays a decisive role in determining the character of the fronts that are responsible for the Type I bursts. In particular, on a star spinning at 450 Hz (typical among the bursters) we test seed magnetic fields of $10^{7} - 10^{10}$ G and find that for th...

  13. A New Method for Finding Prime-Rich Equations of the Type I=X2-X+C,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    simultaneously all its rows are described by the equations I=X-squared+x-r where r=2N-1 and N=1,2,3,..... Primitive cells and primitive cell arrays are...where P is prime. The primitive cell array can be thought of as being constructed by the translation in the c and r directions of the primitive cell . Analysis...of the superposition of two or more such primitive cell arrays reveals which columns are ’empty’ of two or more divisors. For example

  14. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  15. Neutron contamination of Varian Clinac iX 10 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, S.; Tursinah, R.; Rhani, M. F.; Soh, R. C. X.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.

    2016-03-01

    High energy medical accelerators are commonly used in radiotherapy to increase the effectiveness of treatments. As we know neutrons can be emitted from a medical accelerator if there is an incident of X-ray that hits any of its materials. This issue becomes a point of view of many researchers. The neutron contamination has caused many problems such as image resolution and radiation protection for patients and radio oncologists. This study concerns the simulation of neutron contamination emitted from Varian Clinac iX 10 MV using Monte Carlo code system. As neutron production process is very complex, Monte Carlo simulation with MCNPX code system was carried out to study this contamination. The design of this medical accelerator was modelled based on the actual materials and geometry. The maximum energy of photons and neutron in the scoring plane was 10.5 and 2.239 MeV, respectively. The number and energy of the particles produced depend on the depth and distance from beam axis. From these results, it is pointed out that the neutron produced by linac 10 MV photon beam in a typical treatment is not negligible.

  16. Long Type I X-ray Bursts and Neutron Star Interior Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cumming, A; in 't Zand, J J M; Page, D; Cumming, Andrew; Macbeth, Jared; Page, Dany

    2005-01-01

    Superbursts are very energetic Type I X-ray bursts discovered in recent years by long term monitoring of X-ray bursters, believed to be due to unstable ignition of carbon in the deep ocean of the neutron star. A number of "intermediate duration" bursts have also been observed, probably associated with ignition of a thick helium layer. We investigate the sensitivity of these long X-ray bursts to the thermal profile of the neutron star crust and core. We first compare cooling models of superburst lightcurves with observations, and derive constraints on the ignition mass and energy release, and then calculate ignition models for superbursts and pure helium bursts, and compare to observations. The superburst lightcurves and ignition models imply that the carbon mass fraction is approximately 20% or greater in the fuel layer, constraining models of carbon production. However, the most important result is that when Cooper pairing neutrino emission is included in the crust, the temperature is too low to support unst...

  17. Search for Millisecond Periodicities in Type I X-ray Bursts of the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, D W; Rutledge, R E; Morgan, E H; Guerriero, R A; Bildsten, L; Van der Klis, M; Van Paradijs, J; Moore, C B; Dotani, T; Asai, K

    2000-01-01

    We have searched the rising portion of type I X-ray bursts observed from the Rapid Burster with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for the presence of periodicities. The 95 per cent confidence upper limit on the average root-mean-square variation of near coherent pulsations with a width of 98 per cent significance) at 306.5 Hz.

  18. Accretion Disk Signatures in Type I X-Ray Bursts: Prospects for Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keek, L.; Wolf, Z.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    Type I X-ray bursts and superbursts from accreting neutron stars illuminate the accretion disk and produce a reflection signal that evolves as the burst fades. Examining the evolution of reflection features in the spectra will provide insight into the burst-disk interaction, a potentially powerful probe of accretion disk physics. At present, reflection has been observed during only two bursts of exceptional duration. We investigate the detectability of reflection signatures with four of the latest well-studied X-ray observatory concepts: Hitomi, Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), Athena, and Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT). Burst spectra are modeled for different values for the flux, temperature, and the disk ionization parameter, which are representative for most known bursts and sources. The effective area and throughput of a Hitomi-like telescope are insufficient for characterizing burst reflection features. NICER and Athena will detect reflection signatures in Type I bursts with peak fluxes ≳10-7.5 erg cm-2 s-1 and also effectively constrain the reflection parameters for bright bursts with fluxes of ˜10-7 erg cm-2 s-1 in exposures of several seconds. Thus, these observatories will provide crucial new insight into the interaction of accretion flows and X-ray bursts. For sources with low line-of-sight absorption, the wide bandpass of these instruments allows for the detection of soft X-ray reflection features, which are sensitive to the disk metallicity and density. The large collecting area that is part of the LOFT design would revolutionize the field by tracing the evolution of the accretion geometry in detail throughout short bursts.

  19. Synthesis of (Ga 1–<i>x Zn <i>x )(N 1–<i>x O <i>x ) with Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption and Reduced Defects by Suppressing Zn Volatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dennis P.; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2016-04-18

    (Ga1–<i>x)(N1–<i>x O <i>x) (GZNO) particles with enhanced optical absorption were synthesized by topotactic transformation of Zn2+/Ga3+ layered double hydroxides. This outcome was achieved by suppressing Zn volatilization during nitridation by maintaining a low partial pressure of O2 (pO2). Zn-rich (x > 1/3) variants of GZNO were achieved and compared to those prepared by conventional ammonoylsis conditions. The optical absorption and structural properties of these samples were compared to those prepared in the absence of O2 by diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Notably, suppression of Zn volatilization leads to smaller-band-gap materials (2.30 eV for x = 0.42 versus 2.71 eV for x = 0.21) and reduced structural defects. This synthetic route and set of characterizations provide useful structure–property studies of GZNO and potentially other oxynitrides of interest as photocatalysts.

  20. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  1. Millihertz Oscillation Frequency Drift Predicts the Occurrence of Type I X-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, D; Wijnandsm, R; Cumming, A

    2007-01-01

    Millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations reported in three neutron-star low mass X-ray binaries have been suggested to be a mode of marginally stable nuclear burning on the neutron star surface. In this Letter, we show that close to the transition between the island and the banana state, 4U~1636--53 shows mHz QPOs whose frequency systematically decreases with time until the oscillations disappear and a Type I X-ray burst occurs. There is a strong correlation between the QPO frequency $\

  2. A case of the rare variant of Klinefelter syndrome 47,XY,i(X)(q10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Hun; Won, Hyung Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Cha, Dong Hyun; Shim, Jeong Yun; Shim, Sung Han

    2013-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is the most common genetic form of male hypogonadism, but the phenotype becomes evident only after puberty. It is characterized by infertility, small testes, sparse body and facial hair, increased body weight, gynecomastia, increased LH and FSH, and a low level of testosterone. Early recognition and treatment of Klinefelter syndrome can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and prevent serious consequences. Here, we report an infertile man with a rare variant of Klinefelter syndrome with a 47, XY, i(X)(q10) karyotype.

  3. Burst-only sources: probing type I X-ray bursters at low persistent luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelisse, R.; Zand, J.J.M. in ' t; Kuulkers, E.; Heise, J.; Verbunt, F.; Cocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P

    2004-06-01

    The Wide Field Cameras onboard BeppoSAX observed 9 type I X-ray bursters without detectable persistent emission around the burst. According to the standard theory of X-ray bursts these sources should be in the lowest mass-accretion regime, opening the possibility to study this regime for the first time. We compare the sources with the burst theory, and show that the evidence of a new sub-class of low mass X-ray binaries, the burst-only source, is still meagre.

  4. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Ground Wind Loads for Ares Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Donald F.; Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    A three year program was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aeroelasticity Branch (AB) and Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) with the primary objective to acquire scaled steady and dynamic ground-wind loads (GWL) wind-tunnel data for rollout, on-pad stay, and on-pad launch configurations for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV). The experimental effort was conducted to obtain an understanding of the coupling of aerodynamic and structural characteristics that can result in large sustained wind-induced oscillations (WIO) on such a tall and slender launch vehicle and to generate a unique database for development and evaluation of analytical methods for predicting steady and dynamic GWL, especially those caused by vortex shedding, and resulting in significant WIO. This paper summarizes the wind-tunnel test program that employed two dynamically-aeroelastically scaled GWL models based on the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The first model tested, the GWL Checkout Model (CM), was a relatively simple model with a secondary objective of restoration and development of processes and methods for design, fabrication, testing, and data analysis of a representative ground wind loads model. In addition, parametric variations in surface roughness, Reynolds number, and protuberances (on/off) were investigated to determine effects on GWL characteristics. The second windtunnel model, the Ares I-X GWL Model, was significantly more complex and representative of the Ares I-X FTV and included the addition of simplified rigid geometrically-scaled models of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) and Launch Complex 39B primary structures. Steady and dynamic base bending moment as well as model response and steady and unsteady pressure data was acquired during the testing of both models. During wind-tunnel testing of each model, flow conditions (speed and azimuth) where significant WIO occurred, were identified and thoroughly investigated. Scaled data from

  5. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  6. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  7. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  8. The adiabatic/entropy decomposition in $P(\\phi^I,X^{IJ})$ theories with multiple sound speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Longden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We consider $P(\\phi^I,X^{IJ})$ theories of multi-field inflation and ask the question of how to define the adiabatic and entropy perturbations, widely used in calculating the curvature and isocurvature power spectra, in this general context. It is found that when the field perturbations propagate with different speeds, these adiabatic and entropy modes are not generally the fundamental (most natural to canonically quantise) degrees of freedom that propagate with a single speed. The alternative fields which do propagate with a single speed are found to be a rotation in field space of the adiabatic and entropy perturbations. We show how this affects the form of the horizon-crossing power spectrum, when there is not a single "adiabatic sound speed" sourcing the curvature perturbation. Special cases of our results are discussed, including $P(X)$ theories where the adiabatic and entropy perturbations are fundamental. We finally look at physical motivations for considering multi-speed models of inflation, particula...

  9. Six years of BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras observations of nine galactic type-I X-ray bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelisse, R; Verbunt, F; Kuulkers, E; Heise, J; Den Hartog, P R; Cocchi, M; Natalucci, L; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of BeppoSAX Wide Field Cameras observations of the nine most frequent type-I X-ray bursters in the Galactic center region. Six years of observations (from 1996 to 2002) have amounted to 7 Ms of Galactic center observations and the detection of 1823 bursts. The 3 most frequent bursters are GX 354-0 (423 bursts), KS 1731-260 (339) and GS 1826-24 (260). These numbers reflect an unique dataset. We show that all sources have the same global burst behavior as a function of luminosity. At the lowest luminosities (L_X<=2E37 erg/s bursts occur quasi-periodically and the burst rate increases linearly with accretion rate (clear in e.g. GS 1826-24 and KS 1731-260). At L_pers=2E37 erg/s the burst rate drops by a factor of five. This corresponds to the transition from, on average, a hydrogen-rich to a pure helium environment in which the flashes originate that are responsible for the bursts. At higher luminosities the bursts recur irregularly; no bursts are observed at the highest luminosities. Ou...

  10. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  11. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  12. Sensitivity of Type I X-Ray Bursts to rp-Process Reaction Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Amthor, A M; Heger, A; Sakharuk, A; Schatz, H; Smith, K; Galaviz, Daniel; Heger, Alexander; Sakharuk, Alexander; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Karl

    2006-01-01

    First steps have been taken in a more comprehensive study of the dependence of observables in Type I X-ray bursts on uncertain (p,gamma) reaction rates along the rp-process path. We use the multizone hydrodynamics code KEPLER which implicitly couples a full nuclear reaction network of more than 1000 isotopes, as needed, to follow structure and evolution of the X-ray burst layer and its ashes. This allows us to incorporate the full rp-process network, including all relevant nuclear reactions, and individually study changes in the X-ray burst light curves when modifying selected key nuclear reaction rates. In this work we considered all possible proton captures to nuclei with 10 < Z < 28 and N <= Z. When varying individual reaction rates within a symmetric full width uncertainty of a factor of 10000, early results for some rates show changes in the burst light curve as large as 10 percent of peak luminosity. This is very large compared to the current sensitivity of X-ray observations. More precise reac...

  13. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Self, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ares launch vehicles team, managed by the Ares Projects Office (APO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has completed the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle System Requirements Review and System Definition Review and early design work for the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. This paper provides examples of how Lean Manufacturing, Kaizen events, and Six Sigma practices are helping APO deliver a new space transportation capability on time and within budget, while still meeting stringent technical requirements. For example, Lean philosophies have been applied to numerous process definition efforts and existing process improvement activities, including the Ares I-X test flight Certificate of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process, risk management process, and review board organization and processes. Ares executives learned Lean practices firsthand, making the team "smart buyers" during proposal reviews and instilling the team with a sense of what is meant by "value-added" activities. Since the goal of the APO is to field launch vehicles at a reasonable cost and on an ambitious schedule, adopting Lean philosophies and practices will be crucial to the Ares Project's long-term SUCCESS.

  14. Odor detection in Manduca sexta is optimized when odor stimuli are pulsed at a frequency matching the wing beat during flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Daly

    Full Text Available Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit

  15. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  16. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are s...

  17. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  18. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  19. In-Flight System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  20. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  1. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  2. Dynamic Flight Simulation of aircraft and its comparison to Flight tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Khaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays obtaining data for air vehicles researches and analyses is very expensive and risky through the flight tests. Therefore using flight simulation is usually used for the mentioned researches by aerospace science researchers. In this paper, dynamic flight simulation has been performed by airplane nonlinear equations modelling. In these equations, aerodynamic coefficients and stability derivatives have an important role. Therefore, the stability derivatives for typical aircraft are calculated on various flight conditions by analytical and numerical methods. Flight conditions include of Mach number, altitude, angle of attack, control surfaces and CG position variations. The obtained derivatives are used in the form of look up table for dynamic flight simulation and virtual flight. In order to validate the simulation results, the under investigation maneuvres parameters are recorded during many real flights. The obtained data from flight tests are compared with the outputs of flight simulations. The results indicate that less than 13% differences are found in different parts of the maneuvres.

  3. Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Thaddeus

    1986-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.

  4. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test: Simulation Predictions Versus Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.

  5. Development of a Methodology to Conduct Usability Evaluation for Hand Tools that May Reduce the Amount of Small Parts that are Dropped During Installation while Processing Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Foreign object debris (FOD) is an important concern while processing space flight hardware. FOD can be defined as "The debris that is left in or around flight hardware, where it could cause damage to that flight hardware," (United Space Alliance, 2000). Just one small screw left unintentionally in the wrong place could delay a launch schedule while it is retrieved, increase the cost of processing, or cause a potentially fatal accident. At this time, there is not a single solution to help reduce the number of dropped parts such as screws, bolts, nuts, and washers during installation. Most of the effort is currently focused on training employees and on capturing the parts once they are dropped. Advances in ergonomics and hand tool design suggest that a solution may be possible, in the form of specialty hand tools, which secure the small parts while they are being handled. To assist in the development of these new advances, a test methodology was developed to conduct a usability evaluation of hand tools, while performing tasks with risk of creating FOD. The methodology also includes hardware in the form of a testing board and the small parts that can be installed onto the board during a test. The usability of new hand tools was determined based on efficiency and the number of dropped parts. To validate the methodology, participants were tested while performing a task that is representative of the type of work that may be done when processing space flight hardware. Test participants installed small parts using their hands and two commercially available tools. The participants were from three groups: (1) students, (2) engineers / managers and (3) technicians. The test was conducted to evaluate the differences in performance when using the three installation methods, as well as the difference in performance of the three participant groups.

  6. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  7. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  8. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  9. [How traumatized are the children of World War II? The relationship of age during flight and forced displacement and current posttraumatic stress symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Carolin; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke

    2012-08-01

    Traumatic events experienced in childhood can be reactivated in older age. The present study investigates the relation of age during flight and forced displacement within World War II (WWII; 2-7 years, 8-13 years, 14-20 years) and the current occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic events and current posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Impact of Event Scale-revised. Mean age of participants (N=169) was 73.76 years (SD=4.18). The eldest group reported most war-related traumatic events. In each age group a one-week-prevalence for a full PTSD of 10-11% was found. The prevalence for both full and subthreshold PTSD was higher for the age group 14-20 years (60.5%) compared to the younger age groups (33-35%). People, who experienced WWII as adolescents, show a dose-response-effect indicated by a higher prevalence for subthreshold PTSD.

  10. NMR study of the influence of iodine substitution in the Chevrel compounds Mo 6Te 8- xI x and Mo 6Se 8- xI x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R.; Goren, S. D.; Korn, C.; Shames, A.; Perrin, C.; Privalov, A.; Vieth, H. M.

    2002-11-01

    We have obtained the 125Te and 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the Chevrel type compounds Mo 6Te 8- xI x ( x=0,1,2) at room temperature and Mo 6Se 8- xI x ( x=0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0) over the temperature range 70-300 K, in order to study the effect of I doping in these materials. The spectra consisted of the superposition of two separate anisotropic Knight shifts corresponding to the two different crystallographic sites of the Se and Te nuclei within their respective compounds. The distinction between the two lines became more blurred with the increase of the iodine concentration. Analysis of the results tends to favor the supposition that in the case of the Se compound, the iodine favors the replacement of the Se ternary sites, although some temperature dependence on the choice of site was discerned. In the case of the Te compounds, the experimental evidence showed that even for x=2, both the ternary and the non-ternery sites were occupied. An abrupt change in the NMR parameters for Mo 6Se 8 near T=100 K was found.

  11. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  12. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the newer exercise

  13. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  14. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  15. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  16. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  17. Integrated flight propulsion control research results using the NASA F-15 HIDEC Flight Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several flight research experiments in integrated flight propulsion control. Benefits have included increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. These flight programs were flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits of integrated flight propulsion control systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self repairing flight control system; and an engines only control concept for emergency control. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits are described for the F-15 research.

  18. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  19. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 660

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 671

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 666

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 664

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 684

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 675

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 685

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 655

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Flight Data For Tail 677

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 670

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  15. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  16. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  17. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detection of a type-I X-ray burst from MAXI J1421-613

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.; Kuulkers, Erik

    2014-01-01

    During the Galactic Plane Scan performed on 2014 January 10, the two JEM-X instruments on-board INTEGRAL detected a type-I X-ray burst from the newly discovered X-ray transient MAXI J1421-613 (ATels #5750, #5751, #5759) over the 5 ks in which the source was in the instruments field of view. The o...... (translating into a luminosity of 1.3E37 erg/s at 8 kpc; 3-10 keV). We estimated a persistent flux outside the burst of 7E-10 erg/cm^2/s (3-25 keV). This detection reveals that MAXI J1421-613 is a newly discovered X-ray bursting transient source, thus hosting an accreting neutron star....

  18. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  19. Bimetallic MOFs (H3O)<i>x[Cu(MF6)(pyrazine)2]·(4 - <i>x)H2O (M = V4+, <i>x = 0; M = Ga3+, <i>x = 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manson, Jamie L.; Schlueter, John A.; Garrett, Kerry E.

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds are bimetallic MOFs containing [Cu(pyz)2]2+ square lattices linked by MF6 n- octahedra. In each, only the Cu2+ spins exhibit long-range magnetic order below 3.5 K (M = V4+) and 2.6 K (M = Ga3+). The V4+ spins remain disordered down to 0.5 K....

  20. The results of physical rehabilitation of 0-I X-ray gonarthrosis stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriychuk O.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative and longitudinal researches of change of indexes of the state of locomotorium for patients are resulted. In experiment took part 127 patients on osteoarthrosis of knee-joints. The program included a medical physical culture, massotherapy, mechanotherapy, physiotherapy. Programs of physical rehabilitation built on the basis of changes of index of mass body of patients, pain feelings, morning constraint, amplitude of motions, force of muscles. The dynamics of changes of basic objective and subjective indexes of the state of locomotorium is presented in the process of treatment and rehabilitation. The remote consequences of the conducted treatment and rehabilitation are reflected. The offered chart of rehabilitation in medical establishment and continuation of employments a medical physical culture and self-massage is in home terms.

  1. Trends in ultracool dwarf magnetism. I. X-ray suppression and radio enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cook, B. A., E-mail: pwilliams@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    Although ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) are now known to generate and dissipate strong magnetic fields, a clear understanding of the underlying dynamo is still lacking. We have performed X-ray and radio observations of seven UCDs in a narrow range of spectral type (M6.5-M9.5) but spanning a wide range of projected rotational velocities (vsin i ≈ 3-40 km s{sup –1}). We have also analyzed unpublished archival Chandra observations of four additional objects. All of the newly observed targets are detected in the X-ray, while only one is detected in the radio, with the remainder having sensitive upper limits. We present a database of UCDs with both radio and X-ray measurements and consider the data in light of the so-called Güdel-Benz relation (GBR) between magnetic activity in these bands. Some UCDs have very bright radio emission and faint X-ray emission compared to what would be expected for rapid rotators, while others show the opposite behavior. We show that UCDs would still be radio-overluminous relative to the GBR even if their X-ray emission were at standard rapid-rotator 'saturation' levels. Recent results from Zeeman-Doppler imaging and geodynamo simulations suggest that rapidly rotating UCDs may harbor a bistable dynamo that supports either a stronger, axisymmetric magnetic field or a weaker, non-axisymmetric field. We suggest that the data can be explained in a scenario in which strong-field objects obey the GBR while weak-field objects are radio-overluminous and X-ray-underluminous, possibly because of a population of gyrosynchrotron-emitting coronal electrons that is continuously replenished by low-energy reconnection events.

  2. A Systematic Chandra study of Sgr A$^{\\star}$: I. X-ray flare detection

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Daily X-ray flaring represents an enigmatic phenomenon of Sgr A$^{\\star}$ --- the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. We report initial results from a systematic X-ray study of this phenomenon, based on extensive {\\it Chandra} observations obtained from 1999 to 2012, totaling about 4.5 Ms. We detect flares, using a combination of the maximum likelihood and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, which allow for a direct accounting for the pile-up effect in the modeling of the flare lightcurves and an optimal use of the data, as well as the measurements of flare parameters, including their uncertainties. A total of 82 flares are detected. About one third of them are relatively faint, which were not detected previously. The observation-to-observation variation of the quiescent emission has an average root-mean-square of $6\\%-14\\%$, including the Poisson statistical fluctuation of faint flares below our detection limits. We find no significant long-term variation in the quiescent emission and the flar...

  3. Trends in Ultracool Dwarf Magnetism. I. X-Ray Suppression and Radio Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, P K G; Berger, E

    2013-01-01

    Although ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) are now known to generate and dissipate strong magnetic fields, a clear understanding of the underlying dynamo is still lacking. We have performed X-ray and radio observations of seven UCDs in a narrow range of spectral type (M6.5-M9.5) but spanning a wide range of projected rotational velocities (v sin i ~ 3-40 km/s). We have also analyzed unpublished archival Chandra observations of four additional objects. All of the newly-observed targets are detected in the X-ray, while only one is detected in the radio, with the remainder having sensitive upper limits. We present a database of UCDs with both radio and X-ray measurements and consider the data in light of the so-called G\\"udel-Benz relation (GBR) between magnetic activity in these bands. Some UCDs have very bright radio emission and faint X-ray emission compared to what would be expected for rapid rotators, while others show opposite behavior. We show that UCDs would still be radio-over-luminous relative to the GBR even if...

  4. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  5. 6 MV photon beam modeling for Varian Clinac iX using GEANT4 virtual jaw

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Dong Ho; Baek, Jong Geun; Moon, Su Ho; Rho, Gwang Won; Kang, Jeong Ku; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Most virtual source models (VSM) use beam modeling, with the exception of the patient-dependent secondary collimator (jaw). Unlike other components of the treatment head, the jaw absorbs many photons generated by the bremsstrahlung, which decreases the efficiency of the simulation. In the present study, a new method of beam modeling using a virtual jaw was applied to improve the calculation efficiency of VSM. The results for the percentage depth dose and profile of the virtual jaw VSM calculated in a homogeneous water phantom agreed with the measurement results for the CC13 cylinder type ion chamber within an error rate of 2%, and the 80 to 20% penumbra width agreed with the measurement results within an error of 0.6 mm. Compared with the existing VSM, in which a great number of photons are absorbed, the calculation efficiency of the VSM using the virtual jaw was expected to increase by approximately 67%.

  6. Mechanism of CO 2 Fixation by Ir I -X Bonds (X = OH, OR, N, C)

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-09-08

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the CO2 fixation mechanism proposed by Nolan et al. for the IrI complex [Ir(cod)(IiPr)(OH)] (1; cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; IiPr = 1,3-diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene) and its derivatives. For 1, our results suggest that CO2 insertion is the rate-limiting step rather than the dimerization step. Additionally, in agreement with the experimental results, our results show that CO2 insertion into the Ir-OR1 (R1 = H, methyl, and phenyl) and Ir-N bonds is kinetically facile, and the calculated activation energies span a range of only 12.0-23.0 kcal/mol. Substantially higher values (35.0-50.0 kcal/mol) are reported for analogous Ir-C bonds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An XMM-Newton spectral survey of 12 micron selected galaxies. I. X-ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Brightman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 126 galaxies of the 12 micron galaxy sample. We pay particular attention to Compton thick AGN with the help of new spectral fitting models that we have produced, which are based on Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray radiative transfer, using both a spherical and torus geometry, and taking into account Compton scattering and Fe fluorescence. We use this data to show that with a torus geometry, unobscured sight lines can achieve a maximum EW of the Fe K\\alpha line of ~150 eV, originally shown by Ghisellini, Haardt & Matt (1994). In order for this to be exceeded, the line of sight must be obscured with N_H>10^23 cm^-2, as we show for one case, NGC 3690. We also calculate flux suppression factors from the simulated data, the main conclusion from which is that for N_H>10^25 cm^-2, the X-ray flux is suppressed by a factor of >10 in all X-ray bands and at all redshifts, revealing the biases present against these extremely heavily obscured systems inherent in all X-ray surve...

  8. The INTEGRAL/IBIS AGN catalogue I: X-ray absorption properties versus optical classification

    CERN Document Server

    Malizia, A; Bazzano, A; Bird, A J; Masetti, N; Panessa, F; Stephen, J B; Ubertini, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the most comprehensive INTEGRAL AGN sample which lists 272 objects. Here we mainly use this sample to study the absorption properties of active galaxies, to probe new AGN classes and to test the AGN unification scheme. We find that half (48%) of the sample is absorbed while the fraction of Compton thick AGN is small (~7%). In line with our previous analysis, we have however shown that when the bias towards heavily absorbed objects which are lost if weak and at large distance is removed, as it is possible in the local Universe, the above fractions increase to become 80% and 17%. We also find that absorption is a function of source luminosity, which implies some evolution in the obscuration properties of AGN. Few peculiar classes, so far poorly studied in the hard X-ray band, have been detected and studied for the first time such as 5 XBONG, 5 type 2 QSOs and 11 LINERs. In terms of optical classification, our sample contains 57% of type 1 and 43% of type 2 AGN; this subdivision is simila...

  9. The Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey: I X-ray luminous galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the first results obtained from a new optical identification program of 123 faint X-ray sources with S(0.5-2 keV) greater than 2 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm serendipitously detected in ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. We have spectroscopically identified the optical counterparts to more than 100 sources in this survey. Although the majority of the sample (68 objects) are QSO's, we have also identified 12 narrow emission line galaxies which have extreme X-ray luminosities (10(exp 42) less than L(sub X) less than 10(exp 43.5) erg/s). Subsequent spectroscopy reveals them to be a mixture of star-burst galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies in approximately equal numbers. Combined with potentially similar objects identified in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, these X-ray luminous galaxies exhibit a rate of cosmological evolution, L(sub X) varies as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 1.0), consistent with that derived for X-ray QSO's. This evolution, coupled with the steep slope determined for the faint end of the X-ray luminosity function (Phi(L(sub X)) varies as L(sub X)(exp -1.9)), implies that such objects could comprise 15-35% of the soft (1-2 keV) X-ray background.

  10. Average and Local Crystal Structures of (Ga 1–<i>x Zn <i>x )(N 1–<i>x O <i>x ) Solid Solution Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report a comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–x Zn x)(N1–x O x) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering. In our study, we used four different types of (Ga1–x Zn x)(N1–x O x) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show energy band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc) for the larger nanoparticles, while the crystal structure of smaller nanoparticles is disordered hexagonal. Pair-distribution-function analysis found that the intermediate crystal structure retains a “motif” of the average one; however, the local structure is more disordered. The implications of disorder on the reduced energy band gap are discussed.

  11. Tuning Thermoelectric Properties of Type I Clathrate K 8–<i>x Ba <i>x Al 8+<i>x Si 38–<i>x through Barium Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Fan; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2016-05-10

    The thermal stability and thermoelectric properties of type I clathrate K8Al8Si38 up to 873 K are reported. K8Al8Si38 possesses a high absolute Seebeck coefficient value and high electrical resistivity in the temperature range of 323 to 873 K, which is consistent with previously reported low temperature thermoelectric properties. Samples with Ba partial substitution at the K guest atom sites were synthesized from metal hydride precursors. The samples with the nominal chemical formula of K8–xBaxAl8+xSi38–x (x = 1, 1.5, 2) possess type I clathrate structure (cubic, Pm3n), confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The guest atom site occupancies and thermal motions were investigated with Rietveld refinement of synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Transport properties of Ba-containing samples were characterized from 2 to 300 K. The K–Ba alloy phases showed low thermal conductivity and improved electrical conductivity compared to K8Al8Si38. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficients were measured over the temperature range of 323 to 873 K. Thermal conductivity from 323 to 873 K was estimated from the Wiedemann–Franz relation and lattice thermal conductivity extrapolation from 300 to 873 K. K8–xBaxAl8+xSi38–x (x = 1, 1.5) synthesized with Al deficiency showed enhanced electrical conductivity, and the absolute Seebeck coefficients decrease with the increased carrier concentration. When x = 2, the Al content increases toward the electron balanced composition, and the electrical resistivity increases with the decreasing charge carrier concentration. Overall, K6.5Ba1.5Al9Si37 achieves an enhanced zT of 0.4 at 873 K.

  12. Dynamic stall in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

    2007-11-01

    We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

  13. Flight simulation for flight control computer S/N 0104-1 (ASTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Flight control computer (FCC) 0104-I has been designated the prime unit for the SA-210 launch vehicle. The results of the final flight simulation for FCC S/N 0104-I are documented. These results verify satisfactory implementation of the design release and proper interfacing of the FCC with flight-type control sensor elements and simulated thrust vector control system.

  14. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  15. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  16. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  17. Experimental measurements of the O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19 reaction rate vs. observations of type I X-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Fisker, J L; Görres, J; Wiescher, M; Cooper, R L; Fisker, Jacob Lund; Tan, Wanpeng; Goerres, Joachim; Wiescher, Michael; Cooper, Randall L.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars in close binary star systems often accrete matter from their companion stars. Thermonuclear ignition of the accreted material in the atmosphere of the neutron star leads to a thermonuclear explosion which is observed as an X-ray burst occurring periodically between hours and days depending on the accretion rate. The ignition conditions are characterized by a sensitive interplay between the continuously accreting fuel supply and depletion by nuclear burning via the hot CNO cycles. Therefore the ignition depends critically on the hot CNO breakout reaction O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19 that regulates the flow between the beta-limited hot CNO cycle and the rapid proton capture process. Until recently, the O15(alpha,gamma)Ne19 reaction rate was not known experimentally and the theoretical estimates carried significant uncertainties. In this paper we report on the astrophysical consequences of the first measurement of this reaction rate on the thermonuclear instability that leads to type I X-ray bursts on accr...

  18. Multidimensional Modeling of Type I X-ray Bursts. II. Two-Dimensional Convection in a Mixed H/He Accretor

    CERN Document Server

    Malone, C M; Nonaka, A; Almgren, A S; Bell, J B

    2014-01-01

    Type I X-ray Bursts (XRBs) are thermonuclear explosions of accreted material on the surfaces of a neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. Prior to the ignition of a subsonic burning front, runaway burning at the base of the accreted layer drives convection that mixes fuel and heavy-element ashes. In this second paper in a series, we explore the behavior of this low Mach number convection in mixed hydrogen/helium layers on the surface of a neutron star using two-dimensional simulations with the Maestro code. Maestro takes advantage of the highly subsonic flow field by filtering dynamically unimportant sound waves while retaining local compressibility effects, such as those due to stratification and energy release from nuclear reactions. In these preliminary calculations, we find that the rp-process approximate network creates a convective region that is split into two layers. While this splitting appears artificial due to the approximations of the network regarding nuclear flow out of the breakout reaction 1...

  19. Models of Type I X-ray Bursts from GS 1826-24: A Probe of rp-Process Hydrogen Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Heger, Alexander; Galloway, Duncan K; Woosley, Stanford E

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray burster GS 1826-24 shows extremely regular Type I X-ray bursts whose energetics and recurrence times agree well with thermonuclear ignition models. We present calculations of sequences of burst lightcurves using multizone models which follow the rp-process nucleosynthesis with an extensive nuclear reaction network. The theoretical and observed burst lightcurves show remarkable agreement. The models naturally explain the slow ~5s rise and long ~100s tails of these bursts, as well as their dependence on mass accretion rate. This comparison provides further evidence for solar metallicity in the accreted material in this source, and constrains the distance to the source. The main difference is that the observed lightcurves do not show the distinct two-stage rise of the models. This may reflect the time for burning to spread over the stellar surface, or may indicate that our treatment of heat transport or nuclear physics needs to be revised. The trends in burst properties with accretion rate are well-rep...

  20. Inhomogeneity effect in Varian Trilogy Clinac iX 10 MV photon beam using EGSnrc and Geant4 code system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, S.; Rhani, M. F.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.

    2016-08-01

    Treatment fields consist of tissue other than water equivalent tissue (soft tissue, bones, lungs, etc.). The inhomogeneity effect can be investigated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. MC simulation of the radiation transport in an absorbing medium is the most accurate method for dose calculation in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of inhomogeneity phantom on dose calculations in photon beam radiotherapy obtained by different MC codes. MC code system EGSnrc and Geant4 was used in this study. Inhomogeneity phantom dimension is 39.5 × 30.5 × 30 cm3 and made of 4 material slices (12.5 cm water, 10 cm aluminium, 5 cm lung and 12.5 cm water). Simulations were performed for field size 4 × 4 cm2 at SSD 100 cm. The spectrum distribution Varian Trilogy Clinac iX 10 MV was used. Percent depth dose (PDD) and dose profile was investigated in this research. The effects of inhomogeneities on radiation dose distributions depend on the amount, density and atomic number of the inhomogeneity, as well as on the quality of the photon beam. Good agreement between dose distribution from EGSnrc and Geant4 code system in inhomogeneity phantom was observed, with dose differences around 5% and 7% for depth doses and dose profiles.

  1. Flame Propagation on the Surfaces of Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars during Type I X-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Cavecchi, Yuri; Braithwaite, Jonathan; Levin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    We present the first vertically resolved hydrodynamic simulations of a laterally propagating, deflagrating flame in the thin helium ocean of a rotating accreting neutron star. We use a new hydrodynamics solver tailored to deal with the large discrepancy in horizontal and vertical length scales typical of neutron star oceans, and which filters out sound waves that would otherwise limit our timesteps. We find that the flame moves horizontally with velocities of order $10^5$ cm s$^{-1}$, crossing the ocean in few seconds, broadly consistent with the rise times of Type I X-ray bursts. We address the open question of what drives flame propagation, and find that heat is transported from burning to unburnt fuel by a combination of top-to-bottom conduction and mixing driven by a baroclinic instability. The speed of the flame propagation is therefore a sensitive function of the ocean conductivity and spin: we explore this dependence for an astrophysically relevant range of parameters and find that in general flame pro...

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  3. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  4. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  5. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  6. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  7. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  8. The development and flight test of an electronic integrated propulsion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. J.; Painter, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced technical features of the electronic integrated propulsion control system (IPCS) and flight evaluation tests of IPCS (F-111E with TF30-P-9 engines as test vehicle) are described. Nine baseline flight tests and 15 IPCS flight tests were conducted. Instrumentation, data acquisition and data processing systems, software maintenance procedures, flight test procedures, flight safety criteria, flight test results, and ground and flight testing of the aircraft system are described. Advantages conferred by IPCS include: faster accelerations (both gas generator and afterburner performance), better thrust and flight control, reduced flight idle thrust, reduced engine ground trim, extended service ceiling, automatic stall detection, and stall recovery detection.

  9. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 5: Flight operations processor requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The functional requirements for the Flight Operations Processor are defined. The Flight Operations Processor is that element of the Consumables Management System providing support during the flight operations.

  10. Low Gravity Flight Complement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, H. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The structural and mechanical design and performance requirements for a space transportation system carrier which will accommodate essentially self-supporting low-g MEA and MAUS facilities are described. Also included are the mission requirements for the materials processing facility and MEA/MAUS experiment flight implementation reguirements.

  11. Flight Standards Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  12. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  13. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  14. Optimum Strategies for Selecting Descent Flight-Path Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong G. (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An information processing system and method for adaptively selecting an aircraft descent flight path for an aircraft, are provided. The system receives flight adaptation parameters, including aircraft flight descent time period, aircraft flight descent airspace region, and aircraft flight descent flyability constraints. The system queries a plurality of flight data sources and retrieves flight information including any of winds and temperatures aloft data, airspace/navigation constraints, airspace traffic demand, and airspace arrival delay model. The system calculates a set of candidate descent profiles, each defined by at least one of a flight path angle and a descent rate, and each including an aggregated total fuel consumption value for the aircraft following a calculated trajectory, and a flyability constraints metric for the calculated trajectory. The system selects a best candidate descent profile having the least fuel consumption value while the fly ability constraints metric remains within aircraft flight descent flyability constraints.

  15. Fluorescence methods (VistaCam iX proof and DIAGNODent pen) for the detection of occlusal carious lesions in teeth recovered from archaeological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of occlusal enamel caries in archaeologically derived collections remains a controversial problem because the accumulation of contaminants in fissures can interfere with diagnosis. Certain novel light-induced fluorescence methods, such as the DIAGNODent pen 2190 (DD) and VistaCam iX Proof (VC), have been used to detect dental caries in clinical settings. In this study, the abilities of DD and VC to detect initial enamel caries in archaeologically derived material is determined and compared with those of other methods (visual inspection, X-ray, histology, and micro-CT). Dental material encompassing the remains of 58 individuals, including a total of 380 teeth from each of three historical periods: modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950), Islamic (AD 600-1200) and late Roman (AD 200-400), obtained from two archaeological sites (Terqa and Tell Masaikh) located in the Middle Euphrates valley (Syria), were analyzed. VC was found to have excellent sensitivity (98), while DD obtained lower sensitivity (76) in detecting dental caries in its early stages. The results obtained by VC and micro-CT, considered the most reliable imaging technique, were not statistically significant (P = 0.3068). By contrast, results obtained by DD and micro-CT results, and DD and VC results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, respectively). However the presence of dirt, stain, calculus, and plaque in the pits and fissures of the occlusal surface compromise correct diagnosis of caries by VC and DD. Consequently, for teeth recovered from archaeological contexts where staining, calculus and plaque are present, the best solution remains micro-CT.

  16. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  17. Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    CERN Document Server

    Iams, S M

    2012-01-01

    High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

  18. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  19. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  20. Local sampling for indoor flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver

  1. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  2. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  3. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  4. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  5. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  6. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  7. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528779

  8. 14 CFR 29.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... crash impact. (e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 29.1459 Section...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... crash impact. (e) When both a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder are required by the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders. 27.1459 Section...

  10. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  11. Update of Bisphosphonate Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S. M.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Snyder, R. P.; Sibonga, J.; Keyak, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.; Moralez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest indicating that elevated remodeling is a major factor in the etiology of space flight bone loss. In a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies, we are testing whether an antiresorptive drug would provide additional benefit to in-flight exercise to ameliorate bone loss and hypercalciuria during long-duration spaceflight. Measurements of bone loss include DXA, QCT, pQCT, urinary and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of R+1year data from 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight, as well as immediate post flight (R+<2wks) data from 6 of 10 concurrent controls without treatment. The treated astronauts used the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) during their missions. The purpose of this report is twofold: 1) to report the results of inflight, post flight and one year post flight bone measures compared with available controls with and without the use of ARED; and 2) to discuss preliminary data on concurrent controls. The figure below compares the BMD changes in ISS crewmembers exercising with and without the current ARED protocol and the alendronate treated crewmembers also using the ARED. This shows that the use of ARED prevents about half the bone loss seen in early ISS crewmembers and that the addition of an antiresorptive provides additional benefit. Resorption markers and urinary Ca excretion are not impacted by exercise alone but are significantly reduced with antiresorptive treatment. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline. DXA data for the 6 concurrent controls using the ARED device are similar to DXA data shown in the figure below. QCT data for these six indicate that the integral data are consistent with the DXA data, i.e., comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the ARED protocol. Biochemical data of the concurrent

  12. Analysis of Maneuvering Flight of an Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunada S.; Wang H.; Zeng Lijiang; Kawachi K.

    2004-01-01

    Wing motion of a dragonfly in the maneuvering flight, which was measured by Wang et al. [1] was investigated. Equations of motion for a maneuvering flight of an insect were derived. These equations were applied for analyzing the maneuvering flight. Inertial forces and moments acting on a body and wings were estimated by using these equations and the measured motions of the body and the wings. The results indicated the following characteristics of this flight: (1) The phase difference in flapping motion between the two fore wings and two hind wings, and the phase difference between the flapping motion and the feathering motion of the four wings are equal to those in a steady forward flight with the maximum efficiency. (2)The camber change and the feathering motion were mainly controlled by muscles at the wing bases.

  13. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  14. Flight-determined benefits of integrated flight-propulsion control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gatlin, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, NASA has conducted several experiments in integrated flight-propulsion control. Benefits have included improved maneuverability; increased thrust, range, and survivability; reduced fuel consumption; and reduced maintenance. This paper presents the basic concepts for control integration, examples of implementation, and benefits. The F-111E experiment integrated the engine and inlet control systems. The YF-12C incorporated an integral control system involving the inlet, autopilot, autothrottle, airdata, navigation, and stability augmentation systems. The F-15 research involved integration of the engine, flight, and inlet control systems. Further extension of the integration included real-time, onboard optimization of engine, inlet, and flight control variables; a self-repairing flight control system; and an engines-only control concept for emergency control. The F-18A aircraft incorporated thrust vectoring integrated with the flight control system to provide enhanced maneuvering at high angles of attack. The flight research programs and the resulting benefits of each program are described.

  15. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  16. Detection of Forward Flight Limitations of Unmanned Helicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Andreas; Dauer, Johann; Krenik, Alex; Dittrich, Jörg Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the flight envelope limitations for steady forward flight with the purpose of performing a flight envelope expansion. First, the rotary wing system is analyzed. In this paper, an intermeshing rotor configuration, a SwissDrones Dragon 50, is used to demonstrate the approach. Next, relevant limitations of the forward flight are reviewed and analyzed with the help of the Helicopter Overall Simulation Tool (HOST). From this analysis, relevant measu...

  17. Intersatellite communications optoelectronics research at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of current optoelectronics research and development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for high-power, high-bandwidth laser transmitters; high-bandwidth, high-sensitivity optical receivers; pointing, acquisition, and tracking components; and experimental and theoretical system modeling at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Program hardware and space flight opportunities are presented.

  18. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  19. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are... rotorcraft or as a top hatch, in the flight crew area. (b) Each flight crew emergency exit must be...

  20. A Preliminary Flight Investigation of Formation Flight for Drag Reduction on the C-17 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Joe; Berger, Dave; Venti, Michael W.; Faber, James J.; Duggan, Chris; Cardinal, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that aircraft flying in formation could experience significant reductions in fuel use compared to solo flight. To date, formation flight for aerodynamic benefit has not been thoroughly explored in flight for large transport-class vehicles. This paper summarizes flight data gathered during several two ship, C-17 formation flights at a single flight condition of 275 knots, at 25,000 ft MSL. Stabilized test points were flown with the trail aircraft at 1,000 and 3,000 ft aft of the lead aircraft at selected crosstrack and vertical offset locations within the estimated area of influence of the vortex generated by the lead aircraft. Flight data recorded at test points within the vortex from the lead aircraft are compared to data recorded at tare flight test points outside of the influence of the vortex. Since drag was not measured directly, reductions in fuel flow and thrust for level flight are used as a proxy for drag reduction. Estimated thrust and measured fuel flow reductions were documented at several trail test point locations within the area of influence of the leads vortex. The maximum average fuel flow reduction was approximately 7-8%, compared to the tare points flown before and after the test points. Although incomplete, the data suggests that regions with fuel flow and thrust reduction greater than 10% compared to the tare test points exist within the vortex area of influence.

  1. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  2. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  3. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  4. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  5. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  6. Hypersonic and planetary entry flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.

  7. On Global Optimal Sailplane Flight Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, G. J.; Litt, F. X.

    1979-01-01

    The derivation and interpretation of the necessary conditions that a sailplane cross-country flight has to satisfy to achieve the maximum global flight speed is considered. Simple rules are obtained for two specific meteorological models. The first one uses concentrated lifts of various strengths and unequal distance. The second one takes into account finite, nonuniform space amplitudes for the lifts and allows, therefore, for dolphin style flight. In both models, altitude constraints consisting of upper and lower limits are shown to be essential to model realistic problems. Numerical examples illustrate the difference with existing techniques based on local optimality conditions.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  9. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  10. Experimental study of flight noise on AS350B2 helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaming; ZHANG Qiang; HU Zhangwei; BAO Jinsong

    2005-01-01

    A joint flight experiment is conducted by China Aviation Establishment and German Aerospace Center on an Aerospatiale AS350B2 helicopter to investigate rotorcraft flight acoustics at Pingfang airport, Harbing City, China. This paper briefly introduces the methodologies and facilities used in the flight tests. The flight exposure noise levels for ten test flight conditions are showed in the paper and harmonic spectrum and wavelet analysis methods are used for the noise test data processing, which are measured in the flight test in taking off, climbing, forward and descent flight conditions. Results show that the flight noise levels are relatively higher in the climbing and descending flight conditions. The flight noise comes mainly from the tail rotor for the climbing and from the main rotor due to the blade vortex interaction (BVI) for the descending flight conditions. The highest noise level occurs in the forward rotating blade side when the helicopter flys at moderate speed with about 6° descending slide angle.

  11. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  12. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for prototype development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as...

  13. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Thomas (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Numerous topics in flight mechanics and estimation were discussed. Satellite attitude control, quaternion estimation, orbit and attitude determination, spacecraft maneuvers, spacecraft navigation, gyroscope calibration, spacecraft rendevous, and atmospheric drag model calculations for spacecraft lifetime prediction are among the topics covered.

  14. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  15. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  16. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  17. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  18. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  19. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  20. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  1. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  2. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  3. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  4. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  5. Slow light in flight imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Kali; Gariepy, Genevieve; Henderson, Robert; Howell, John; Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Slow-light media are of interest in the context of quantum computing and enhanced measurement of quantum effects, with particular emphasis on using slow-light with single photons. We use light-in-flight imaging with a single photon avalanche diode camera-array to image in situ pulse propagation through a slow light medium consisting of heated rubidium vapour. Light-in-flight imaging of slow light propagation enables direct visualisation of a series of physical effects including simultaneous observation of spatial pulse compression and temporal pulse dispersion. Additionally, the single-photon nature of the camera allows for observation of the group velocity of single photons with measured single-photon fractional delays greater than 1 over 1 cm of propagation.

  6. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  7. Comparing future options for human space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  8. Astronautics:the physics of space flight

    OpenAIRE

    McClintock, P. V. E.

    2012-01-01

    Space flight provides beautiful examples of the Newtonian dynamics that teachers of physics have always wanted to demonstrate for their students – the consequences of Newton’s Laws and gravitation writ large, and with the effect of dissipation also coming in at the launch of the spacecraft and (especially) duringmits re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. For physicists, the basic principles of space flight are self-evident, but how best to apply them is far less obvious.

  9. Flight Software Design Choices Based on Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Earl

    1999-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the rationale behind flight software design as a function of criticality. The requirements of human rated systems implies a high criticality for the flight support software. Human life is dependent on correct operation of the software. Flexibility should be permitted when the consequences of software failure are not life threatening. This is also relevant for selecting Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) software.

  10. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  11. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  12. Methods for conducting an introductory flight test engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Gentry

    This thesis serves as a guide to teaching an introductory flight test engineering course. There are several references pertaining to this area of study, but they are limited in their discussion of the details in how the professor can teach the course, how the professor can handle the logistics of the course, how the students can record and reduce the data and how the pilot can perform the flight test maneuvers. As such, this thesis, along with the materials developed therein, serves the reader as a guide to developing and conducting an introductory flight test engineering course. Materials were developed for the parties involved with an introductory flight test engineering course. Lesson plans and background theory is developed for the professor of the course. In-flight videos and flight maneuver manuals were developed to assist the pilot with flying the maneuvers. In-flight videos, a workbook and in-flight data collection manuals were developed to teach the students the basics of flight test engineering. A chapter is also dedicated to the logistics of the course for the professor. With these materials, any university interested in teaching the basics of flight test engineering will have a foundation to build upon. They will also be guided in the selection of a pilot who can perform the flight test maneuvers required of this course.

  13. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  14. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  15. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  16. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  17. New modeling approach for bounding flight in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Lenz, Jakob

    2011-12-01

    A new modeling approach is presented which accounts for the unsteady motion features and dynamics characteristics of bounding flight. For this purpose, a realistic mathematical model is developed to describe the flight dynamics of a bird with regard to a motion which comprises flapping and bound phases involving acceleration and deceleration as well as, simultaneously, pull-up and push-down maneuvers. Furthermore, a mathematical optimization method is used for determining that bounding flight mode which yields the minimum energy expenditure per range. Thus, it can be shown to what extent bounding flight is aerodynamically superior to continuous flapping flight, yielding a reduction in the energy expenditure in the speed range practically above the maximum range speed. Moreover, the role of the body lift for the efficiency of bounding flight is identified and quantified. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization of the relations describing the bird's flight dynamics, results of generally valid nature are derived for the addressed items.

  18. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  19. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  20. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  1. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;

    2008-01-01

    30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  2. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  3. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  4. Merging Autopilot/Flight Control and Navigation-Flight Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Qutbodin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this abstract the following commercial aircraft 3 avionics systems will be merged together: (1 Autopilot Flight Director System (APFDS, (2 Flight Control System (FCS and (3 Flight Management Systems (FMS. Problem statement: These systems perform functions that are dependant and related to each other, also they consists of similar hardware components. Each of these systems consists of at least one computer, control panel and displays that place on view the selection and aircraft response. They receive several similar sensor inputs, or outputs of one system are fed as input to the other system. By combining the three systems, repeated and related functions are reduced. Since these systems perform related functions, designers and programmers verify that conflict between these systems is not present. Combining the three systems will eliminate such possibility. Also used space, weight, wires and connections are decreased, consequently electrical consumption is reduced. To keep redundancy, the new system can be made of multiple channels. Approach: The new system (called Autopilot Navigation Management System, APNMS is more efficient and resolves the above mention drawbacks. Results: The APFDS system functions (as attitude-hold or heading-hold are merged with the FCS system main function which is controlling flight control surfaces as well as other functions as flight protection, Turn coordination and flight stability augmentation. Also the Flight Management system functions (as flight planning, aircraft flight performance/engine thrust management are merged in the new system. All this is done through combining all 3 systems logic software’s. Conclusion/Recommendations: The new APNMS system can be installed and tested on prototype aircraft in order to verify its benefits and fruits to the aviation industry.

  5. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  6. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  7. Evaluation of Night Route Network on Flight Efficiency in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mihetec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many different concepts and definitions for the flight efficiency, where every stakeholder involved in air transport has its own perception on flight efficiency. Flight efficiency concept is based on trade-offs between safety, airspace capacity, fuel consumption, flying distance, time distance, time cost, fuel cost etc. Flight time and flying distance which has impact to fuel burn and operation costs to airspace users are mainly generated by deviations from the optimum trajectories. According to the Performance Review Commission (PRC Report in 2009 average en-route extension in Europe was 47.6 km, with the year on year improvement of 1.2 km. The PRC Report emphasized that there is constant increase of medium/long haul flights operated by aircraft operators in Europe while short haul flights are decreasing. One of the issues, concerning flight efficiency in Europe, is that aircraft operators are not using night routes sufficient during flight planning process. This paper is presenting flight efficiency for the traffic demand using night route network and not using it at all. Flight inefficiency is expresses by the agreed performance indicators: distance difference (NM, duration difference (min, fuel combustion difference (kg and CO2 emission (t environmental indicator.

  8. The Next Giant Leap: NASA's Ares Launch Vehicles Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The next chapter in NASA's history also promises to write the next chapter in America's history, as the Agency makes measurable strides toward developing new space transportation capabilities that wi!! put astronauts on course to explore the Moon as the next giant leap toward the first human footprint on Mars. This paper will present top-level plans and progress being made toward fielding the Ares I crew launch vehicle in the 2013 timeframe and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle in the 2018 timeframe. It also gives insight into the objectives for the first test flight, known as the Ares I-X, which is scheduled for April 2009. The U.S. strategy to scientifically explore space will fuel innovations such as solar power and water recycling, as well as yield new knowledge that directly benefits life on Earth. For the Ares launch vehicles, NASA is building on heritage hardware and unique capabilities; as well as almost 50 years of lessons learned from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and commercial launch vehicle programs. In the Ares I Project's inaugural year, extensive trade studies and evaluations were conducted to improve upon the designs initially recommended by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, resulting in significant reduction of near-term and long-range technical and programmatic risks; conceptual designs were analyzed for fitness against requirements; and the contractual framework was assembled to enable a development effort unparalleled in American space flight since the Space Shuttle. The Exploration Launch Projects team completed the Ares I System Requirements Review (SRR) at the end of 2006--the first such engineering milestone for a human-rated space transportation system in over 30 years.

  9. Range Safety Flight Elevation Limit Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    This program was developed to fill a need within the Wallops Flight Facility workflow for automation of the development of vertical plan limit lines used by flight safety officers during the conduct of expendable launch vehicle missions. Vertical plane present-position-based destruct lines have been used by range safety organizations at numerous launch ranges to mitigate launch vehicle risks during the early phase of flight. Various ranges have implemented data submittal and processing workflows to develop these destruct lines. As such, there is significant prior art in this field. The ElLimits program was developed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to automate the process for developing vertical plane limit lines using current computing technologies. The ElLimits program is used to configure launch-phase range safety flight control lines for guided missiles. The name of the program derives itself from the fundamental quantity that is computed - flight elevation limits. The user specifies the extent and resolution of a grid in the vertical plane oriented along the launch azimuth. At each grid point, the program computes the maximum velocity vector flight elevation that can be permitted without endangering a specified back-range location. Vertical plane x-y limit lines that can be utilized on a present position display are derived from the flight elevation limit data by numerically propagating 'streamlines' through the grid. The failure turn and debris propagation simulation technique used by the application is common to all of its analysis options. A simulation is initialized at a vertical plane grid point chosen by the program. A powered flight failure turn is then propagated in the plane for the duration of the so-called RSO reaction time. At the end of the turn, a delta-velocity is imparted, and a ballistic trajectory is propagated to impact. While the program possesses capability for powered flight failure turn modeling, it does not require extensive user

  10. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  11. Flight Controller Design of Transport Airdrop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SHIZhongke

    2011-01-01

    During airdrop of heavy load,the flight paramctcrs vary continuously as the load moves in the hold,and change suddenly when the load drops out.This process deteriorates the flight quality and control characteristic as the load becomes heavier.Based on the simplified airdrop flight equations,the backstepping and switch control methods are developed to tackle the flight state holding and disturbance/uncertainty(such as large scale flight condition,pilot manipulation error,system measure delay,etc.)attenuation problem in this paper.Moreover,these methods can be used as a reference for pilot manipulating during airdrop.With the backstepping theory,an adaptive controller is synthesized for the purpose of stabilizing the transport when the load moves in the hold,and then a coordinated switch control method is used to control the aircraft when the condition jumps from the existence of load at the rear of fuselage to no load in the fuselage.Simulation results show that the proposed controllers not only provide effective state holding during airdrop,but also achieve robust performance within wide flight conditions.

  12. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  13. Significant Reduction in NiO Band Gap Upon Formation of Li<i>xNi1-<i>xO alloys: Applications To Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Keith, John A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-11-21

    Long-term sustainable solar energy conversion relies on identifying economical and versatile semiconductor materials with appropriate band structures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications (e.g., band gaps of ~1.5–2.0 eV). Nickel oxide (NiO) is an inexpensive yet highly promising candidate. Its charge-transfer character may lead to longer carrier lifetimes needed for higher efficiencies, and its conduction band edge is suitable for driving hydrogen evolution via water-splitting. However, NiO’s large band gap (~4 eV) severely limits its use in practical applications. Our first-principles quantum mechanics calculations show band gaps dramatically decrease to ~2.0 eV when NiO is alloyed with Li2O. In this paper, we show that LixNi1-xO alloys (with x=0.125 and 0.25) are p-type semiconductors, contain states with no impurity levels in the gap and maintain NiO’s desirable charge-transfer character. Lastly, we show that the alloys have potential for photoelectrochemical applications, with band edges well-placed for photocatalytic hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, as well as in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells as a photocathode.

  14. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  15. Oxygen-sensitive flight metabolism in the dragonfly erythemis simplicicollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison; Lighton

    1998-06-01

    Insect flight metabolism is completely aerobic, and insect resting metabolism is quite insensitive to atmospheric oxygen level, suggesting a large safety margin in the capacity of the tracheal system to deliver oxygen during flight. We tested the sensitivity of flight initiation and metabolism to atmospheric oxygen level in the libellulid dragonfly Erythemis (Mesothemis) simplicicollis using flow-through respirometric measurements of the rate of CO2 emission (CO2). Flight initiations were unimpaired in atmospheric oxygen levels as low as 10 %. However, flight metabolic rate was affected by ambient oxygen level. Flight CO2 decreased in hypoxic mixtures (5 kPa or 10 kPa oxygen) and increased in hyperoxic atmospheres (30 kPa or 50 kPa oxygen), suggesting that ambient oxygen level influences flight muscle oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and the vigour of flight. These are the first data to show oxygen-limitation of flight metabolism in a free-flying insect. A low safety margin for oxygen delivery during dragonfly flight is consistent with a previous hypothesis that atmospheric hyperoxia facilitated gigantism in Paleozoic protodonates. However, allometric studies of tracheal morphology, and mechanisms and capacity of gas exchange in extant insects are necessary in order to test the hypothesis that the oxygen-sensitivity of aerobic metabolism increases with body size in insects.

  16. Type-I X-ray bursts reveal a fast co-evolving behavior of the corona in an X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Peng; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Li, Jian; Wang, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    The coronae in X-ray binaries (XRBs) still remain poorly understood, although they have been believed for a long time to play a key role in modeling the characteristic outbursts of XRBs. Type-I X-ray bursts, the thermonuclear flashes happening on the surface of a neutron star (NS), can be used as a probe to the innermost region of a NS XRB, where the corona is believed to be located very close to the NS. We report the discovery of a tiny life cycle of the corona that is promptly co-evolved with the type-I bursts superimposed on the outburst of the NS XRB IGR J17473$-$2721. This finding may serve as the first evidence of directly seeing the rapid disappearance and formation of a corona in an XRB with a cooling/heating timescale of less than a second, which can strongly constrain the accretion models in XRBs at work.

  17. Synthesis of {beta}-phase Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I (x = 0-0.5) solid solutions nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianli [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, College of Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jilin Weather Modification Office, Changchun 130062 (China); Zhang, Jinghong [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jilin Weather Modification Office, Changchun 130062 (China); Zhang, Guilan, E-mail: lxl5211@126.com [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, College of Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jiang, Zhonghao [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jin, Dezhen [Jilin Weather Modification Office, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Wet-chemical-chelating reaction processing has been used to synthesized A series of single {beta}-phase nano-Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I (x = 0-0.5) solid solutions powders. {yields} Citric acid as complexing agent takes part in the process of chemical reaction and the chemical reactions can be described in this paper. {yields} The lattice parameters have been ascertained by the results of XRD. {yields} Crystalline sizes, which decrease with copper iodide concentration increasing, have been demonstrated by XRD and TEM. -- Abstract: A series of single {beta}-phase nano-Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I (x = 0-0.5) solid solutions powders were synthesized by wet-chemical-chelating reaction processing and citric acid used as complexing agent. The Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I powders were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the crystalline size and lattice parameter of the Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I powders decrease with an increase in the amount of CuI substitution. The copper in the lattice of the Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I can effectively prevent the crystalline growth of the Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I powders and citrate used in the Ag{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}I powders synthesized process can accelerate single {beta}-phase crystalline structure formation.

  18. Discovery of three new RS Canum Venaticorum-like counterparts to HEAO I X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Tuohy, I. R.; Remillard, R. A.; Bradt, H. V.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of three high-latitude HEAO I Scanning Modulation Collimator X-ray sources with the chromospherically active RS CVn-like stars HD 113816, HD 146413, and HD 39576 is reported. Optical observations, including coude spectroscopy and broad-band and narrow band photoelectric photometry are presented. The Ca II emission strength of all three stars shows that they are chromospherically active. HD 146413 and HD 39576 exhibit variable X-ray emission in the 1-13 keV energy range, while HD 113816 is a softer and steadier source. The level of X-ray flux detected from these three stars is some one to two orders of magnitude higher than predicted empirically from the Ca II emission fluxes. It is proposed that this emission results from flarelike activity.

  19. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly-Inclined Disk Galaxies I: X-ray Measurements of Galactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematical analysis of the Chandra observations of 53 nearby highly-inclined (i>60 degree) disk galaxies to study the coronae around them. This sample covers a broad range of galaxy properties: e.g., about three orders of magnitude in the SFR and more than two orders of magnitude in the stellar mass. The Chandra observations of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from 20 of these galaxies are presented for the first time. The data are reduced in a uniform manner, including the excision/subtraction of both resolved and unresolved stellar contributions. Various coronal properties, such as the scale height and luminosity, are characterized for all the sample galaxies. For galaxies with high enough counting statistics, we also examine the thermal and chemical states of the coronal gas. We note on galaxies with distinct multi-wavelength characteristics which may affect the coronal properties. The uniformly processed images, spectra, and brightness profiles, as well as the inferred hot gas parameters, fo...

  20. Acquisition of a Biomedical Database of Acute Responses to Space Flight during Commercial Personal Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    There is currently too little reproducible data for a scientifically valid understanding of the initial responses of a diverse human population to weightlessness and other space flight factors. Astronauts on orbital space flights to date have been extremely healthy and fit, unlike the general human population. Data collection opportunities during the earliest phases of space flights to date, when the most dynamic responses may occur in response to abrupt transitions in acceleration loads, have been limited by operational restrictions on our ability to encumber the astronauts with even minimal monitoring instrumentation. The era of commercial personal suborbital space flights promises the availability of a large (perhaps hundreds per year), diverse population of potential participants with a vested interest in their own responses to space flight factors, and a number of flight providers interested in documenting and demonstrating the attractiveness and safety of the experience they are offering. Voluntary participation by even a fraction of the flying population in a uniform set of unobtrusive biomedical data collections would provide a database enabling statistical analyses of a variety of acute responses to a standardized space flight environment. This will benefit both the space life sciences discipline and the general state of human knowledge.

  1. Bat flight with bad wings: is flight metabolism affected by damaged wings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C

    2013-04-15

    Infection of North American bats with the keratin-digesting fungus Geomyces destructans often results in holes and ruptures of wing membranes, yet it is unknown whether flight performance and metabolism of bats are altered by such injuries. I conducted flight experiments in a circular flight arena with Myotis albescens and M. nigricans individuals with an intact or ruptured trailing edge of one of the plagiopatagial membranes. In both species, individuals with damaged wings were lighter, had a higher aspect ratio (squared wing span divided by wing area) and an increased wing loading (weight divided by wing area) than conspecifics with intact wings. Bats with an asymmetric reduction of the wing area flew at similar speeds to conspecifics with intact wings but performed fewer flight manoeuvres. Individuals with damaged wings showed lower metabolic rates during flight than conspecifics with intact wings, even when controlling for body mass differences; the difference in mass-specific metabolic rate may be attributable to the lower number of flight manoeuvres (U-turns) by bats with damaged wings compared with conspecifics with intact wings. Possibly, bats compensated for an asymmetric reduction in wing area by lowering their body mass and avoiding flight manoeuvres. In conclusion, it may be that bats suffer from moderate wing damage not directly, by experiencing increased metabolic rate, but indirectly, by a reduced manoeuvrability and foraging success. This could impede a bat's ability to gain sufficient body mass before hibernation.

  2. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  3. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  4. Effective area calibration of the Reflection Grating Spectrometers of XMM-Newton. I. X-ray spectroscopy of the Crab nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Kaastra, J S; Costantini, E; Herder, J W A den

    2009-01-01

    The Crab nebula and pulsar have been widely used as a calibration source for X-ray instruments. The in-flight effective area calibration of the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) of XMM-Newton depend upon the availability of reliable calibration sources. We investigate how the absolute effective area calibration of RGS can be obtained using Crab as a standard candle. We have analysed RGS observations of the Crab using different instrument configurations and spatial offsets, and made use of previous determinations of the continuum spectrum of the nebula plus pulsar. Due to the high spectral resolution of the RGS, we resolve the main absorption edges and detect the strong 1s-2p absorption lines of neutral oxygen. We get an excellent fit to the Crab spectrum using this fixed continuum and the absorption spectrum determined by RGS. We get accurate column densities for the neutral atoms of H, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Fe, as well as a clear detection of Fe II and firm upper limits for other ions. Our data are in good ...

  5. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  6. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  7. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air.

  8. Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies as the parent population of BL Lacertae objects. I. X-ray constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, P.; Urry, C.M. (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects are a special subset of Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies, namely, those dominated by beamed emission from a relativistic jet aligned with the line of sight, is examined by looking at the relative number densities. The calculation depends primarily on observed quantities, including the X-ray luminosity function of Fanaroff-Riley type I galaxies. The model predicts the X-ray luminosity function of BL Lacertae objects, the shape of the X-ray counts below currently observed fluxes, and the velocity of the X-ray emitting jet. With Fanaroff-Riley type I galaxies as the parent population the flat luminosity function, the observed X-ray number counts, and the partial redshift distribution of BL Lacertae objects can be explained. 41 refs.

  9. Methods for Accurate Free Flight Measurement of Drag Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes experimental methods for free flight measurement of drag coefficients to an accuracy of approximately 1%. There are two main methods of determining free flight drag coefficients, or equivalent ballistic coefficients: 1) measuring near and far velocities over a known distance and 2) measuring a near velocity and time of flight over a known distance. Atmospheric conditions must also be known and nearly constant over the flight path. A number of tradeoffs are important when designing experiments to accurately determine drag coefficients. The flight distance must be large enough so that the projectile's loss of velocity is significant compared with its initial velocity and much larger than the uncertainty in the near and/or far velocity measurements. On the other hand, since drag coefficients and ballistic coefficients both depend on velocity, the change in velocity over the flight path should be small enough that the average drag coefficient over the path (which is what is really determined)...

  10. Testing the theory of colliding winds: the periastron passage of 9 Sagittarii. I. X-ray and optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauw, G.; Blomme, R.; Nazé, Y.; Spano, M.; Mahy, L.; Gosset, E.; Volpi, D.; van Winckel, H.; Raskin, G.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The long-period, highly eccentric O-star binary 9 Sgr, known for its non-thermal radio emission and its relatively bright X-ray emission, went through its periastron in 2013. Aims: Such an event can be used to observationally test the predictions of the theory of colliding stellar winds over a broad range of wavelengths. Methods: We conducted a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign of 9 Sgr around the 2013 periastron. In this paper, we focus on X-ray observations and optical spectroscopy. Results: The optical spectra allow us to revisit the orbital solution of 9 Sgr and to refine its orbital period to 9.1 years. The X-ray flux is maximum at periastron over all energy bands, but with clear differences as a function of energy. The largest variations are observed at energies above 2 keV, whilst the spectrum in the soft band (0.5-1.0 keV) remains mostly unchanged, indicating that it arises far from the collision region, in the inner winds of the individual components. The level of the hard emission at periastron clearly deviates from the 1 /r relation expected for an adiabatic wind-interaction zone, whilst this relation seems to hold at the other phases that are covered by our observations. The spectra taken at phase 0.946 reveal a clear Fe xxv line at 6.7 keV, but no such line is detected at periastron (φ = 0.000), although a simple model predicts a strong line that should be easily visible in the data. Conclusions: The peculiarities of the X-ray spectrum of 9 Sgr could reflect the effect of radiative inhibition as well as a phase-dependent efficiency of particle acceleration on the shock properties. Based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and the USA (NASA). Also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and with the Mercator Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish

  11. 6-MV photon beam modeling for the Varian Clinac iX by using the Geant4 virtual jaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hyung Dong; Kim, Dong Ho; Baek, Jong Geun; Moon, Su Ho; Rho, Gwang Won; Kang, Jeong Ku; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Most virtual source models (VSMs), with the exception of the patient-dependent secondary collimator (jaw), use beam modeling. Unlike other components of the treatment head, the jaw absorbs many photons generated by bremsstrahlung, which decreases the efficiency of the simulation. In the present study, a new method of beam modeling using a virtual jaw was applied to improve the calculation efficiency of VSM. This new method of beam modeling was designed so that the interaction was not generated in the jaw. The results for the percentage depth dose and the profile of the virtual jaw VSM calculated in a homogeneous water phantom agreed with the measurement results for the CC13 cylinder-type ion chamber to within an error of 2%, and the 80-20% penumbra width agreed with the measurement results to within an error of 0.6 mm. Compared with the existing VSM, in which a great number of photons are absorbed, the calculation efficiency of the VSM using the virtual jaw is expected to be increased by approximately 67%.

  12. The influence of accretion geometry on the spectral evolution during thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajava, Jari J E; Latvala, Outi-Marja; Pursiainen, Miika; Poutanen, Juri; Suleimanov, Valery F; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Kuulkers, Erik; Galloway, Duncan K

    2014-01-01

    Neutron star (NS) masses and radii can be estimated from observations of photospheric radius-expansion X-ray bursts, provided the chemical composition of the photosphere, the spectral colour-correction factors in the observed luminosity range, and the emission area during the bursts are known. By analysing 246 X-ray bursts observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer from 11 low-mass X-ray binaries, we find a dependence between the persistent spectral properties and the time evolution of the black body normalisation during the bursts. All NS atmosphere models predict that the colour-correction factor decreases in the early cooling phase when the luminosity first drops below the limiting Eddington value, leading to a characteristic pattern of variability in the measured blackbody normalisation. However, the model predictions agree with the observations for most bursts occurring in hard, low-luminosity, 'island' spectral states, but rarely during soft, high-luminosity, 'banana' states. The observed behaviour may...

  13. X-ray behaviour of Circinus X-1 - I: X-ray Dips as a diagnostic of periodic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, W I

    2004-01-01

    We examine the periodic nature of detailed structure (particularly dips) in the RXTE/ASM lightcurve of Circinus X-1. The significant phase wandering of the X-ray maxima suggests their identification with the response on a viscous timescale of the accretion disk to perturbation. We find that the X-ray dips provide a more accurate system clock than the maxima, and thus use these as indicators of the times of periastron passage. We fit a quadratic ephemeris to these dips, and find its predictive power for the X-ray lightcurve to be superior to ephemerides based on the radio flares and the full archival X-ray lightcurve. Under the hypothesis that the dips are tracers of the mass transfer rate from the donor, we use their occurrence rate as a function of orbital phase to explore the (as yet unconstrained) nature of the donor. The high $\\dot{P}$ term in the ephemeris provides another piece of evidence that Cir X-1 is in a state of dynamical evolution, and thus is a very young post-supernova system. We further sugge...

  14. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  15. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  16. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  17. STS-107 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 9 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 9 are spaceborne experiments. The video shows a commercial experiment on roses, a partial view of Africa from Libya to the Horn of Africa through the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), and the FAST (Facility for Absorption and Surface Tension) experiment. The STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are shown. The preliminary results of these experiments on the effects of microgravity on silkworms, spiders, crystal growth, fish embryos, carpenter bees, and ants are discussed. The video includes a view of southern Spain and the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-02-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  19. Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, P; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the flight characteristics of a swift (Apus apus) in cruising flight at three different flight speeds (8.0, 8.4 and 9.2 m s(-1)) in a low turbulence wind tunnel. The wingbeat kinematics were recorded by high-speed filming and the wake of the bird was visualized by digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Certain flight characteristics of the swift differ from those of previously studied species. As the flight speed increases, the angular velocity of the wingbeat remains constant, and so as the wingbeat amplitude increases, the frequency decreases accordingly, as though the flight muscles were contracting at a fixed rate. The wings are also comparatively inflexible and are flexed or retracted rather little during the upstroke. The upstroke is always aerodynamically active and this is reflected in the wake, where shedding of spanwise vorticity occurs throughout the wingbeat. Although the wake superficially resembles those of other birds in cruising flight, with a pair of trailing wingtip vortices connected by spanwise vortices, the continuous shedding of first positive vorticity during the downstroke and then negative vorticity during the upstroke suggests a wing whose circulation is gradually increasing and then decreasing during the wingbeat cycle. The wake (and implied wing aerodynamics) are not well described by discrete vortex loop models, but a new wake-based model, where incremental spanwise and streamwise variations of the wake impulse are integrated over the wingbeat, shows good agreement of the vertical momentum flux with the required weight support. The total drag was also estimated from the wake alone, and the calculated lift:drag ratio of approximately 13 for flapping flight is the highest measured yet for birds.

  20. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  1. Flight-testing of the self-repairing flight control system using the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James F.; Shuck, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests conducted with the self-repairing flight control system (SRFCS) installed on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control aircraft are described. The development leading to the current SRFCS configuration is highlighted. Key objectives of the program are outlined: (1) to flight-evaluate a control reconfiguration strategy with three types of control surface failure; (2) to evaluate a cockpit display that will inform the pilot of the maneuvering capacity of the damage aircraft; and (3) to flight-evaluate the onboard expert system maintenance diagnostics process using representative faults set to occur only under maneuvering conditions. Preliminary flight results addressing the operation of the overall system, as well as the individual technologies, are included.

  2. P.I.X.S.C.A.N.: a micro-CT scanner for small animal based on hybrid pixel detectors; PIXSCAN: micro-tomodensitrometre a pixels hybrides pour le petit animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, R

    2008-03-15

    Since more than a dozen years, efforts were led in the field of X-ray tomography for small animals, principally for the improvement of spatial resolution and the diminution of the absorbed dose. The C.P.P.M. developed the micro-CT P.I.X.S.C.A.N. based on the hybrid pixel detector X.P.A.D.2. In this context, my thesis work consists in studying the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 and the contribution of the hybrid pixels in the imaging of small animals. A fast analytical simulation, FastSimu, was developed. An extrapolation of the performance of the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N, as well as the validation of the results obtained with the measured data, were led by means of the analytical simulator FastSimu. The demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 allowed to obtain reconstructed images with a rather good quality for a relatively weak absorbed dose. Its spatial resolution is degraded by the high number of defective pixels of the detector X.P.A.D.2. Beyond this study, a new version of the demonstrator P.I.X.S.C.A.N./X.P.A.D.2 is under construction. This latter, characterized by two and a half times smaller pixels and about no defective pixels will bring a considerable improvement on spatial resolution. (author)

  3. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  4. Effective area calibration of the reflection grating spectrometers of XMM-Newton. I. X-ray spectroscopy of the Crab nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.; de Vries, C.P.; Costantini, E.; den Herder, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. The Crab nebula and pulsar have been widely used as a calibration source for X-ray instruments. The in-flight effective area calibration of the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) of XMM-Newton depend upon the availability of reliable calibration sources. Aims. We investigate how the abs

  5. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  6. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  7. Animal flight dynamics I. Stability in gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A L; Taylor, G K

    2001-10-07

    Stability is as essential to flying as lift itself, but previous discussions of how flying animals maintain stability have been limited in both number and scope. By developing the pitching moment equations for gliding animals and by discussing potential sources of roll and yaw stability, we consider the various sources of static stability used by gliding animals. We find that gliding animals differ markedly from aircraft in how they maintain stability. In particular, the pendulum stability provided when the centre of gravity lies below the wings is a much more important source of stability in flying animals than in most conventional aircraft. Drag-based stability also appears to be important for many gliding animals, whereas in aircraft, drag is usually kept to a minimum. One unexpected consequence of these differences is that the golden measure of static pitching stability in aircraft--the static margin--can only strictly be applied to flying animals if the equilibrium angle of attack is specified. We also derive several rules of thumb by which stable fliers can be identified. Stable fliers are expected to exhibit one or more of the following features: (1) Wings that are swept forward in slow flight. (2) Wings that are twisted down at the tips when swept back (wash-out) and twisted up at the tips when swept forwards (wash-in). (3) Additional lifting surfaces (canard, hindwings or a tail) inclined nose-up to the main wing if they lie forward of it, and nose-down if they lie behind it (longitudinal dihedral). Each of these predictions is directional--the opposite is expected to apply in unstable animals. In addition, animals with reduced stability are expected to display direct flight patterns in turbulent conditions, in contrast to the erratic flight patterns predicted for stable animals, in which large restoring forces are generated. Using these predictions, we find that flying animals possess a far higher degree of inherent stability than has generally been

  8. X-31A Tactical Utility Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin

    1997-01-01

    The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.

  9. Correlation Time-of-flight Spectrometry of Ultracold Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Novopoltsev, M I

    2010-01-01

    The fearures of the correlation method used in time-of-flight spectrometry of ultracold neutrons are analyzed. The time-of-flight spectrometer for the energy range of ultracold neutrons is described, and results of its testing by measuring spectra of neutrons passing through interference filters are presented.

  10. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  11. ALICE Time of Flight Construction of MRPCs

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Particles are identified in ALICE by time-of-flight (TOF); heavier particles are slower and it takes for them longer to reach the outer layers of the detector. For TOF system ALICE uses detectors called multigap resistive plate chambers, like the prototype shown here.

  12. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  13. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  14. A plume spectroscopy system for flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, D. B.; Petersen, T. V.; Duncan, D. B.; Madzsar, G. C.

    1993-06-01

    An operational plume spectroscopy system will be an important element of any rocket engine health management system (HMS). The flight capable FPI spectrometer will enable prognosis and response to incipient rocket engine failures as well as diagnosis of wear and degradation for on-condition maintenance. Spectrometer application to development programs, such as the Space Lifter, NASP, and SSTO, will reduce program risks, allow better adherence to schedules and save money by reducing or eliminating redesign and test costs. The diagnostic capability of a proven, calibrated spectrometer will enhance post-burn certification of high value, reusable engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), where life and reliability are key cost drivers. This paper describes a prototype FPI spectrometer for demonstration and validation testing on NASA's Technology Test Bed Engine (TTBE) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The TTBE test unit is designed with flight prototype optics and a commercial off-the-shelf data processing system.

  15. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  16. Structural Properties of US Flight Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池丽平; 王茹; 苏航; 徐新平; 赵金松; 李炜; 蔡勖

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the directed, weighted and evolutionary US flight network, in which vertices are the airports and the flights connecting two airports represent the edges. It is shown that such a network displays two important features recently found in small-world networks. First, the average shortest-path length is 2.4 s, the clustering coefficient of the entire network, 0.618, is greatly larger than that of the random networks with the same N system size)and (average degree), 0.065. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole.In both the cases, using the Pareto distributions, we find the degree distributions follow two-segment power laws. The weight distributions have power-law tails with the exponents of around 2, and the clustering coefficient distributions follow linear distributions.

  17. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible.

  18. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  19. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  20. The FLP microsatellite platform flight operations manual

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .

  1. Introduction: Assessment of aerothermodynamic flight prediction tools through ground and flight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmisseur, John D.; Erbland, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an introduction and overview to the efforts of NATO Research and Technology Organization Task Group AVT-136, Assessment of Aerothermodynamic Flight Prediction Tools through Ground and Flight Experimentation. During the period of 2006-2010, AVT-136 coordinated international contributions to assess the state-of-the-art and research challenges for the prediction of critical aerothermodynamic flight phenomena based on the extrapolation of ground test and numerical simulation. To achieve this goal, efforts were organized around six scientific topic areas: (1) Noses and leading edges, (2) Shock Interactions and Control Surfaces, (3) Shock Layers and Radiation, (4) Boundary Layer Transition, (5) Gas-Surface Interactions, and (6) Base and Afterbody Flows. A key component of the AVT-136 strategy was comparison of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with data to be acquired from planned flight research programs. Although it was recognized from the onset of AVT-136 activities that reliance on flight research data yet to be collected posed a significant risk, the group concluded the substantial benefit to be derived from comparison of computational simulations with flight data warranted pursuit of such a program of work. Unfortunately, program delays and failures in the flight programs contributing to the AVT-136 effort prevented timely access to flight research data. Despite this setback, most of the scientific topic areas developed by the Task Group made significant progress in the assessment of current capabilities. Additionally, the activities of AVT-136 generated substantial interest within the international scientific research community and the work of the Task Group was prominently featured in a total of six invited sessions in European and American technical conferences. In addition to this overview, reviews of the state-of-the-art and research challenges identified by the six research thrusts of AVT-136 are also included in this special

  2. Examination of the role of the $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F reaction rate in type I x-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, J; Parikh, A; Xu, S W; Yamaguchi, H; Kahl, D; Ma, P; Su, J; Wang, H W; Nakao, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Teranishi, T; Hahn, K I; Moon, J Y; Jung, H S; Hashimoto, T; Chen, A A; Irvine, D; Lee, C S; Kubono, S

    2014-01-01

    The $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F reaction is one of the key reactions involved in the breakout from the hot-CNO cycle to the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts (XRBs). The resonant properties in the compound nucleus $^{18}$Ne have been investigated through resonant elastic scattering of $^{17}$F+$p$. The radioactive $^{17}$F beam was separated by the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator (CRIB) and bombarded a thick H$_2$ gas target at 3.6 MeV/nucleon. The recoiling light particles were measured by three ${\\Delta}$E-E silicon telescopes at laboratory angles of $\\theta$$_{lab}$$\\approx$3$^\\circ$, 10$^\\circ$ and 18$^\\circ$, respectively. Five resonances at $E_{x}$=6.15, 6.28, 6.35, 6.85, and 7.05 MeV were observed in the excitation functions, and their spin-parities have been determined based on an $R$-matrix analysis. In particular, $J^{\\pi}$=1$^-$ was firmly assigned to the 6.15-MeV state which dominates the thermonuclear $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F rate below 2 GK. As well, a possible new excited state in $...

  3. Properties of resonant states in 18Ne relevant to key 14O(alpha,p)17F breakout reaction in type I x-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, J; Parikh, A; Xu, S W; Yamaguchi, H; Kahl, D; Ma, P; Su, J; Wang, H W; Nakao, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Teranishi, T; Hahn, K I; Moon, J Y; Sung, H S; Hashimoto, T; Chen, A A; Irvine, D; Lee, C S; Kubono, S

    2014-01-01

    The $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F reaction is one of the key reactions involved in the breakout from the hot-CNO cycle to the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts. The resonant properties in the compound nucleus $^{18}$Ne have been investigated through resonant elastic scattering of $^{17}$F+$p$. The radioactive $^{17}$F beam was separated by the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator (CRIB) and bombarded a thick H$_2$ gas target at 3.6 MeV/nucleon. The recoiling light particles were measured by using three ${\\Delta}$E-E silicon telescopes at laboratory angles of $\\theta$$_{lab}$$\\approx$3$^\\circ$, 10$^\\circ$ and 18$^\\circ$, respectively. Five resonances at $E_{x}$=6.15, 6.28, 6.35, 6.85, and 7.05 MeV were observed in the excitation functions. Based on an $R$-matrix analysis, $J^{\\pi}$=1$^-$ was firmly assigned to the 6.15-MeV state. This state dominates the thermonuclear $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F rate below 1 GK. We have also confirmed the existence and spin-parities of three states between 6.1 and 6.4 MeV. A...

  4. Discovery of type-I X-ray bursts from the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1708-40

    CERN Document Server

    Migliari, S; Belloni, T; Van der Klis, M; Fender, R P; Campana, S; Kouveliotou, C; Méndez, M; Lewin, W H G

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of type-I X-ray bursts from the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1708-40 during the 100 ks observation performed by BeppoSAX on 1999 August 15-16. Six X-ray bursts have been observed. The unabsorbed 2-10 keV fluxes of the bursts range from ~ (3-9)x10^(-10) erg cm^(-2)s^(-1). A correlation between peak flux and fluence of the bursts is found, in agreement with the behaviour observed in other similar sources. There is a trend of the burst flux to increase with the time interval from the previous burst. From the value of the persistent flux we infer a mass accretion rate Mdot~7x10^(-11) Msun/yr, that may correspond to the mixed hydrogen/helium burning regime triggered by thermally unstable hydrogen. We have also analysed a BeppoSAX observation performed on 2001 August 22 and previous RXTE observations of 4U 1708-40, where no bursts have been observed; we found persistent fluxes of more than a factor of 7 higher than the persistent flux observed during the BeppoSAX observation showing X-ray bursts...

  5. Wing Kinematics and Wake Velocity Characteristics of Bat Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    Bats demonstrate unequalled flight characteristics and are capable of highly efficient flight as well as extreme maneuverability at high speeds. They have morphological properties that are unique in the animal world including jointed wings skeletons, elastic wing membranes and very complex wing motions. We report on a series of experiments on bats flying in a flight cage along both a straight path and through a 90-degree turn. Measurements of their kinematic wing motion (using high speed photography) and wake velocity structures (using stereo PIV) are reported. The live animal measurements are also interpreted with the help of a series of companion wind tunnel experiments using model structures that mimic some key features of bat flight mechanics. The results reveal a complex vortex wake structure which is compared and contrasted to that found in bird and insect flight.

  6. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  7. Innovative use of global navigation satellite systems for flight inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Ho

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) mandates flight inspection in every country to provide safety during flight operations. Among many criteria of flight inspection, airborne inspection of Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) is very important because the ILS is the primary landing guidance system worldwide. During flight inspection of the ILS, accuracy in ILS landing guidance is checked by using a Flight Inspection System (FIS). Therefore, a flight inspection system must have high accuracy in its positioning capability to detect any deviation so that accurate guidance of the ILS can be maintained. Currently, there are two Automated Flight Inspection Systems (AFIS). One is called Inertial-based AFIS, and the other one is called Differential GPS-based (DGPS-based) AFIS. The Inertial-based AFIS enables efficient flight inspection procedures, but its drawback is high cost because it requires a navigation-grade Inertial Navigation System (INS). On the other hand, the DGPS-based AFIS has relatively low cost, but flight inspection procedures require landing and setting up a reference receiver. Most countries use either one of the systems based on their own preferences. There are around 1200 ILS in the U.S., and each ILS must be inspected every 6 to 9 months. Therefore, it is important to manage the airborne inspection of the ILS in a very efficient manner. For this reason, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) mainly uses the Inertial-based AFIS, which has better efficiency than the DGPS-based AFIS in spite of its high cost. Obviously, the FAA spends tremendous resources on flight inspection. This thesis investigates the value of GPS and the FAA's augmentation to GPS for civil aviation called the Wide Area Augmentation System (or WAAS) for flight inspection. Because standard GPS or WAAS position outputs cannot meet the required accuracy for flight inspection, in this thesis, various algorithms are developed to improve the positioning ability of Flight

  8. Experimental study on the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter: free flight testing and wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2012-09-01

    This study experimentally shows the flight dynamics of a bioinspired ornithopter using two different types of approach: (1) free flight testing, and (2) wind tunnel testing. An ornithopter is flown in straight and level flight with a fixed wingbeat frequency and tail elevation angle. A three-dimensional visual tracking system is applied to follow the retro-reflective markers on the ornithopter and record the flight trajectories. The unique oscillatory behavior of the body in the longitudinal plane is observed in the free flight testing and the detailed wing and tail deformations are also obtained. Based on the trim flight data, a specially devised tether device is designed and employed to emulate the free flight conditions in the wind tunnel. The tether device provides minimal mechanical interference and longitudinal flight dynamic characteristics similar to those of free flight. On introducing a pitching moment disturbance to the body, the oscillation recovered to the original trajectory turns out to be a stable limit-cycle oscillation (LCO). During the wind tunnel testing, the magnitude of LCO is effectively suppressed by active tail motion.

  9. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INSECT FLIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mu-lin; MIAO Wen-bo; ZHONG Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In the non-inertial coordinates attached to the model wing, the two-dimensional unsteady flow field triggered by the motion of the model wing, similar to the flapping of the insect wings, was numerically simulated. One of the advantages of our method is that it has avoided the difficulty related to the moving-boundary problem. Another advantage is that the model has three degrees of freedom and can be used to simulate arbitrary motions of a two-dimensional wing in plane only if the motion is known. Such flexibility allows us to study how insects control their flying. Our results show that there are two parameters that are possibly utilized by insects to control their flight: the phase difference between the wing translation and rotation, and the lateral amplitude of flapping along the direction perpendicular to the average flapping plane.

  11. Dimpled Ball Grid Array process development for space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, S. L.; Mehta, A.

    2000-01-01

    The 472 Dimpled Ball Grid Array (D-BGA) package has not been used in past space flight environments, therefore it is necessary to determine the robustness and reliability of the solder joints. The 472 D-BGA packages passed the above environmental tests within the specifications and are now qualified for use on space flight electronics.

  12. "In flight catering": feeding critical care patients during aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ruth, M J; Bruce, D L

    2008-12-01

    The benefits of early enteral nutrition are well recognised but may be incompatible with CCAST evacuation due to the risk of micro-aspiration predisposing to pneumonia. A study has been approved by the Surgeon Generals Research Strategy Group designed to quantify the risks of microaspiration during CCAST flights in order to inform DMA policy with regard to feeding critically ill casualties during flight.

  13. ASDAR (aircraft to satellite data relay) flight test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, E. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Conroy, M. J.; Culp, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft to Satellite Data Relay (ASDAR), an airborne data collection system that gathers meteorological data from existing aircraft instrumentation and relays it to ground user via a geo-synchronous meteorological satellite, is described and the results of the first test flight on a commercial Boeing 747 aircraft are presented. The flight test was successful and verified system performance in the anticipated environment.

  14. 1998 Fuel Use and Emissions for Danish IFR Flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report explains a city-pair fuel use and emission inventory made for all IFR (Instrumental Flight Rules) flights leaving Danish airports in 1998. Pollutants covered are CO, NOx, VOC, CO2 and SO2. The calculations have been made for domestic and international LTO (Landing and Take Off...

  15. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  16. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a f

  17. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  18. Aerodynamic map for soft and hard hypersonic level flight in near space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifeng Hu; Ziniu Wu; Zhe Wu; Xiaoxin Wang; Zhongwei Tian

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we design a velocity-altitude map for hypersonic level flight in near space of altitude 20-100 km. This map displays aerodynamic-related parameters associated with near space level flight, schematically or quantitatively. Various physical conditions for the near-space level flight are then characterized, including laminar or turbulent flow, rarefaction or continuous flow, aerodynamic heating, as well as conditions for sustaining level flight with and without orbital effect. This map allows one to identify conditions to have soft flight or hard flight, and this identification would be helpful for making correct planning on detailed studies of aerodynamics or making initial design of near space vehicles.

  19. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school...

  20. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  1. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  2. Social psychology on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  3. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  4. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight onc

  5. Heuristic Optimization Applied to an Intrinsically Difficult Problem: Birds Formation Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1996-01-01

    The birds formation flight is studied by means oftheoretical aerodynamics, heuristic methods anddistributed systems. A simplified aerodynamic analog is presented, and calculations of drag savings and flight range are shown for sometypical cases, including the line abreast flightwith various...

  6. Space transportation system flight 2 OSTA-1 scientific payload data management plan: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Flight events for the OSTA-1 scientific payload on the second flight of the Space Shuttle, STS-2 are described. Data acquisition is summarized. A discussion of problems encountered and a preliminary evaluation of data quality is also provided.

  7. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-14

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined.

  8. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues after Space Flight and Otolith Assessment during Post-Flight Re-Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation and perceptual illusions following Gtransitions. These studies are designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short duration space flights.

  9. Design and Manufacturing of Extremely Low Mass Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Extremely small flight systems pose some unusual design and manufacturing challenges. The small size of the components that make up the system generally must be built with extremely tight tolerances to maintain the functionality of the assembled item. Additionally, the total mass of the system is extremely sensitive to what would be considered small perturbations in a larger flight system. The MUSES C mission, designed, built, and operated by Japan, has a small rover provided by NASA that falls into this small flight system category. This NASA-provided rover is used as a case study of an extremely small flight system design. The issues that were encountered with the rover portion of the MUSES C program are discussed and conclusions about the recommended mass margins at different stages of a small flight system project are presented.

  10. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview: Space Access Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Projects Office at the Marshall Space Flight Center manages the design, development, testing, and evaluation of both vehicles and serves as lead systems integrator. A little over a year after it was chartered, the Exploration Launch Projects team is testing engine components, refining vehicle designs, performing wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I-X, scheduled for spring 2009. The Exploration Launch Projects team conducted the Ares I System Requirements Review (SRR) at the end of 2006. In Ares' first year, extensive trade studies and evaluations were conducted to refine the design initially recommended by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, conceptual designs were analyzed for fitness, and the contractual framework was assembled to enable a development effort unparalleled in American space flight since the Space Shuttle. Now, the project turns its focus to the Preliminary Design Review (PDR), scheduled for 2008. Taking into consideration the findings of the SRR, the design of the Ares I is being tightened and refined to meet the safety, operability, reliability, and affordability goals outlined by the Constellation Program. The Ares V is in the early design stage, focusing its activities on requirements validation and ways to develop this heavy-lift system so that synergistic hardware commonality between it and the Ares I can reduce the operational footprint and foster sustained exploration across the decades ahead.

  11. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on almost thirty square meters of exposed surfaces to accomplish both of these functions. These durable, non-ablative surfaces maintain their surface profile through atmospheric reentry; thus, they preserve any surface imperfections that occur prior to atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, Orion's launch abort system includes a shroud that protects the thermal protection system while awaiting launch and during ascent. The combination of these design features and a careful pre-flight inspection to identify any manufacturing imperfections results in a high confidence that damage to the thermal protection system identified post-flight is due to the in-flight solid particle environments. These favorable design features of Orion along with the unique flight profile of the first exploration flight test of Orion (EFT-1) have yielded solid particle environment measurements that have never been obtained before this flight.

  12. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  13. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  14. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  15. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  16. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  17. Cosmic radiation algorithm utilizing flight time tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Mika Helminen, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [Tampere Univ., School of Public Health (Finland); Gerhard Leuthold, D.Sc. [GSF - Research Center, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Cosmic radiation is considerably higher on cruising altitudes used in aviation than at ground level. Exposure to cosmic radiation may increase cancer risk among pilots and cabin crew. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended that air crew should be classified as radiation workers. Quantification of cosmic radiation doses is necessary for assessment of potential health effects of such occupational exposure. For Finnair cabin crew (cabin attendants and stewards), flight history is not available for years prior to 1991 and therefore, other sources of information on number and type of flights have to be used. The lack of systematically recorded information is a problem for dose estimation for many other flight companies personnel as well. Several cosmic radiation dose estimations for cabin crew have been performed using different methods (e.g. 2-5), but they have suffered from various shortcomings. Retrospective exposure estimation is not possible with personal portable dosimeters. Methods that employ survey data for occupational dose assessment are prone to non-differential measurement error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number of past flights. Assessment procedures that utilize surrogate measurement methods i.e. the duration of employment, lack precision. The aim of the present study was to develop an assessment method for individual occupational exposure to cosmic radiation based on flight time tables. Our method provides an assessment method that does not require survey data or systematic recording of flight history, and it is rather quick, inexpensive, and possible to carry out in all other flight companies whose past time tables for the past periods exist. Dose assessment methods that employ survey data are prone to random error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number or types of routes that they have flown during the past. Our method avoids this since survey data are not needed

  18. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  19. Wing attachment position of fruit fly minimizes flight cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    Flight is energetically costly which means insects need to find ways to reduce their energy expenditure during sustained flight. Previous work has shown that insect muscles can recover some of the energy used for producing flapping motion. Moreover the form of flapping motions are efficient for generating the required force to balance the weight. In this talk, we show that one of the morphological parameters, the wing attachment point on a fly, is suitably located to further reduce the cost for flight, while allowing the fly to be close to stable. We investigate why this is the case and attempt to find a general rule for the optimal location of the wing hinge. Our analysis is based on computations of flapping free flight together with the Floquet stability analysis of periodic flight for descending, hovering and ascending cases.

  20. Simulation to Flight Test for a UAV Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.

  1. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G K

    2001-11-01

    Insects have evolved sophisticated fight control mechanisms permitting a remarkable range of manoeuvres. Here, I present a qualitative analysis of insect flight control from the perspective of flight mechanics, drawing upon both the neurophysiology and biomechanics literatures. The current literature does not permit a formal, quantitative analysis of flight control, because the aerodynamic force systems that biologists have measured have rarely been complete and the position of the centre of gravity has only been recorded in a few studies. Treating the two best-known insect orders (Diptera and Orthoptera) separately from other insects, I discuss the control mechanisms of different insects in detail. Recent experimental studies suggest that the helicopter model of flight control proposed for Drosophila spp. may be better thought of as a facultative strategy for flight control, rather than the fixed (albeit selected) constraint that it is usually interpreted to be. On the other hand, the so-called 'constant-lift reaction' of locusts appears not to be a reflex for maintaining constant lift at varying angles of attack, as is usually assumed, but rather a mechanism to restore the insect to pitch equilibrium following a disturbance. Differences in the kinematic control mechanisms used by the various insect orders are related to differences in the arrangement of the wings, the construction of the flight motor and the unsteady mechanisms of lift production that are used. Since the evolution of insect flight control is likely to have paralleled the evolutionary refinement of these unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms, taxonomic differences in the kinematics of control could provide an assay of the relative importance of different unsteady mechanisms. Although the control kinematics vary widely between orders, the number of degrees of freedom that different insects can control will always be limited by the number of independent control inputs that they use. Control of the moments

  2. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  3. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  4. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  5. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  6. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  7. REACTION RATES OF {sup 64}Ge(p,γ){sup 65}As AND {sup 65}As(p,γ){sup 66}Se AND THE EXTENT OF NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN TYPE I X-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Y. H.; He, J. J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S. [Key Laboratory of High Precision Nuclear Spectroscopy, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Parikh, A. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain); Schatz, H.; Brown, B. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); Guo, B., E-mail: jianjunhe@impcas.ac.cn, E-mail: anuj.r.parikh@upc.edu, E-mail: schatz@nscl.msu.edu [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(10), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2016-02-10

    The extent of nucleosynthesis in models of type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) and the associated impact on the energy released in these explosive events are sensitive to nuclear masses and reaction rates around the {sup 64}Ge waiting point. Using the well known mass of {sup 64}Ge, the recently measured {sup 65}As mass, and large-scale shell model calculations, we have determined new thermonuclear rates of the {sup 64}Ge(p,γ){sup 65}As and {sup 65}As(p,γ){sup 66}Se reactions with reliable uncertainties. The new reaction rates differ significantly from previously published rates. Using the new data, we analyze the impact of the new rates and the remaining nuclear physics uncertainties on the {sup 64}Ge waiting point in a number of representative one-zone XRB models. We find that in contrast to previous work, when all relevant uncertainties are considered, a strong {sup 64}Ge rp-process waiting point cannot be ruled out. The nuclear physics uncertainties strongly affect XRB model predictions of the synthesis of {sup 64}Zn, the synthesis of nuclei beyond A = 64, the energy generation, and the burst light curve. We also identify key nuclear uncertainties that need to be addressed to determine the role of the {sup 64}Ge waiting point in XRBs. These include the remaining uncertainty in the {sup 65}As mass, the uncertainty of the {sup 66}Se mass, and the remaining uncertainty in the {sup 65}As(p,γ){sup 66}Se reaction rate, which mainly originates from uncertain resonance energies.

  8. In-flight measurement of upwind dynamic soaring in albatrosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2016-03-01

    In-flight measurement results on upwind flight of albatrosses using dynamic soaring are presented. It is shown how the birds manage to make progress against the wind on the basis of small-scale dynamic soaring maneuvers. For this purpose, trajectory features, motion quantities and mechanical energy relationships as well as force characteristics are analyzed. The movement on a large-scale basis consists of a tacking type flight technique which is composed of dynamic soaring cycle sequences with alternating orientation to the left and right. It is shown how this is performed by the birds so that they can achieve a net upwind flight without a transversal large-scale movement and how this compares with downwind or across wind flight. Results on upwind dynamic soaring are presented for low and high wind speed cases. It is quantified how much the tacking trajectory length is increased when compared with the beeline distance. The presented results which are based on in-flight measurements of free flying albatrosses were achieved with an in-house developed GPS-signal tracking method yielding the required high precision for the small-scale dynamic soaring flight maneuvers.

  9. On the typography of flight-deck documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf

    1992-01-01

    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

  10. Transatlantic flight times and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft do not fly through a vacuum, but through an atmosphere whose meteorological characteristics are changing because of global warming. The impacts of aviation on climate change have long been recognised, but the impacts of climate change on aviation have only recently begun to emerge. These impacts include intensified turbulence (Williams and Joshi 2013) and increased take-off weight restrictions. A forthcoming study (Williams 2016) investigates the influence of climate change on flight routes and journey times. This is achieved by feeding synthetic atmospheric wind fields generated from climate model simulations into a routing algorithm of the type used operationally by flight planners. The focus is on transatlantic flights between London and New York, and how they change when the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is doubled. It is found that a strengthening of the prevailing jet-stream winds causes eastbound flights to significantly shorten and westbound flights to significantly lengthen in all seasons, causing round-trip journey times to increase. Eastbound and westbound crossings in winter become approximately twice as likely to take under 5h 20m and over 7h 00m, respectively. The early stages of this effect perhaps contributed to a well-publicised British Airways flight from New York to London on 8 January 2015, which took a record time of only 5h 16m because of a strong tailwind from an unusually fast jet stream. Even assuming no future growth in aviation, extrapolation of our results to all transatlantic traffic suggests that aircraft may collectively be airborne for an extra 2,000 hours each year, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg of carbon dioxide. These findings provide further evidence of the two-way interaction between aviation and climate change. References Williams PD (2016) Transatlantic flight times and climate change. Environmental Research Letters, in

  11. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  12. Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Warrick, Douglas R; Clark, Christopher J; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Hyder, Gabriel A; Biewener, Andrew A

    2007-07-01

    Hummingbirds are specialized for hovering flight, and substantial research has explored this behavior. Forward flight is also important to hummingbirds, but the manner in which they perform forward flight is not well documented. Previous research suggests that hummingbirds increase flight velocity by simultaneously tilting their body angle and stroke-plane angle of the wings, without varying wingbeat frequency and upstroke: downstroke span ratio. We hypothesized that other wing kinematics besides stroke-plane angle would vary in hummingbirds. To test this, we used synchronized high-speed (500 Hz) video cameras and measured the three-dimensional wing and body kinematics of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g, N=5) as they flew at velocities of 0-12 m s(-1) in a wind tunnel. Consistent with earlier research, the angles of the body and the stroke plane changed with velocity, and the effect of velocity on wingbeat frequency was not significant. However, hummingbirds significantly altered other wing kinematics including chord angle, angle of attack, anatomical stroke-plane angle relative to their body, percent of wingbeat in downstroke, wingbeat amplitude, angular velocity of the wing, wingspan at mid-downstroke, and span ratio of the wingtips and wrists. This variation in bird-centered kinematics led to significant effects of flight velocity on the angle of attack of the wing and the area and angles of the global stroke planes during downstroke and upstroke. We provide new evidence that the paths of the wingtips and wrists change gradually but consistently with velocity, as in other bird species that possess pointed wings. Although hummingbirds flex their wings slightly at the wrist during upstroke, their average wingtip-span ratio of 93% revealed that they have kinematically ;rigid' wings compared with other avian species.

  13. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  14. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  15. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ablation of the all Böhm’s bristle fields caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Second, ablation of only the scapal Böhm’s bristle...fields also caused the antenna to be improperly positioned during flight. Third, the effect of ablation of pedicellar bristles appeared to be...Research,GKVK Campus, Bellary Rd,Bangalore 560 065,India,NA,NA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  16. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  17. Space Shuttle propulsion performance reconstruction from flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The aplication of extended Kalman filtering to estimating Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) performance, specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program. The flight data used includes inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRBs, which represents a reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are included.

  18. Hermes flight control center: Definition status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letalle, Pierre

    1990-10-01

    The Hermes Flight Control Center (HFCC) located in Toulouse (France) is described. The center is the third in the world after the American center in Houston and the Soviet center in Kaliningrad. All the Hermes elements, both on board and on the ground will be coordinated by the HFCC for all phases of each mission. Aspects of the detailed definition phase still in the requirements analysis subphase are described. Diagrams are used to illustrate the interplay between the different systems.

  19. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1981-01-01

    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  20. A Comparitive Analysis of the Influence of Weather on the Flight Altitudes of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, Emiel; van Gasteren, Hans; van Belle, Jelmer; Bouten, Willem; Buurma, Luit

    2006-01-01

    Birds pose a serious risk to flight safety worldwide. A Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) is being developed in the Netherlands to reduce the risk of bird aircraft collisions. In order to develop a temporally and spatially dynamic model of bird densities, data are needed on the flight-altitude distribution of birds and how this is influenced by weather. This study focuses on the dynamics of flight altitudes of several species of birds during local flights over land in relation to meteorological conditions.We measured flight altitudes of several species in the southeastern Netherlands using tracking radar during spring and summer 2000. Representatives of different flight strategy groups included four species: a soaring species (buzzard ), an obligatory aerial forager (swift Apus apus), a flapping and gliding species (blackheaded gull Larus ridibundus), and a flapping species (starling Sturnus vulgaris).Maximum flight altitudes varied among species, during the day and among days. Weather significantly influenced the flight altitudes of all species studied. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric instability, cloud cover, and sea level pressure were related to flight altitudes. Different combinations of factors explained 40% 70% of the variance in maximum flight altitudes. Weather affected flight strategy groups differently. Compared to flapping species, buzzards and swifts showed stronger variations in maximum daily altitude and f lew higher under conditions reflecting stronger thermal convection. The dynamic vertical distributions of birds are important for risk assessment and mitigation measures in flight safety as well as wind turbine studies.

  1. Optimal flight altitude and flight routes with respect to environmental and economical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodorp, D.; Sausen, R.; Land, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    A flight routing method is presented. In addition to conventional minimization of travel time and/or fuel consumption it also takes into account the environmental impact of the aircraft emissions on the climate system. In the process the ECHAM general circulation model is used to trace the pollutants after release, estimate their potential to cause damage and to weight this environmental relative to the economical aspect. Some case studies are presented for an Airbus A340 in the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 6 refs.

  2. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  3. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  4. Biomechanics and biomimetics in insect-inspired flight systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2016-09-26

    Insect- and bird-size drones-micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 10(4)-10(5) or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles. In this article, we give a selective review on the state of the art of biomechanics in bioinspired flight systems in terms of flapping and flexible wing aerodynamics, flight dynamics and stability, passive and active mechanisms in stabilization and control, as well as flapping flight in unsteady environments. We further highlight recent advances in biomimetics of flapping-wing MAVs with a specific focus on insect-inspired wing design and fabrication, as well as sensing systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  5. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  6. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird.

  7. 鸟类的飞翔%Bird flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulla M.LINDHE NORBERG

    2004-01-01

    本文综述了目前对鸟类飞翔的研究,包括飞翔机制、运动学和形态适应等问题.首先讨论动力产生的基础包括翼型运动和气体旋涡以及飞翔需要的动力,而后论述振翅飞翔和姿势变换的运动学原理及量化飞翔强度,阐明了翼部和尾部外形对飞翔的重要作用,并分析了始祖鸟的飞翔能力[动物学报 50(6):921-935,2004].%The current states of knowledge concerning flight mechanics,kinematics and morphological adaptations for flight are reviewed. The basis for force generation,including airfoil action and vorticity,and the power required for flight,are discussed first,followed by the kinematics of flapping flight and gait changes,and scaling issues for flight.The importance of the shape of wing and tail for flight performance is elucidated,concluding with an analysis of the flight capability of Archaeopteryx[Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(6):921-935,2004].

  8. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  10. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  11. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  12. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  13. Investigation of periodontal tissue during a long space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Zoya; Viacheslav, Ilyin; Skedina, Marina

    Previous studies conducted on the International Space Station found that upon completion of the space flight there are significant changes in the local immunity and periodontal microflora of astronauts. Also research in ground-based experiments that simulate space flight factors showed that prolonged hypokinesia antiorthostatic leads to impaired functional indicators of the periodontal vascular system, an unidirectional change from the microbiota and the immune system. That results in the appearance and progressive increase of the parodontial pathogenic bacteria and increase of the content of immunoglobulins in the oral fluid. All these changes are classified as risk factors for the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in astronauts. However, the studies were unable to determine whether the changes result from a long space flight and the peculiarities of formation the local immunity and periodontal microbiota during the space flight, or they are one of the specific manifestations of the readaptationary post-flight condition of the body. In this regard, the planned research in a long space flight suggests: to use the means of microbial control, which can retain of the anaerobes periodontal microbiota sampling directly in the space flight; to assess the specificity of changes of the periodontal immune status under the influence of the space flight factors, and to assess the state of microcirculation of periodontal tissue in astronauts. A comprehensive study of the reaction of dentition during the space flight will make it possible to study the pathogenesis of changes for developing an adequate prevention aimed at optimizing the state of dentition of the astronauts.

  14. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents during 1993-2012 Based on Flight Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2016-01-01

    Usually aviation accidents are categorized and analyzed within flight conduct rules (Part 121, Part 135, Part 91) because differences in accident rates within flight rules have been demonstrated. Even within a particular flight rule the flights have different purposes. For many, Part 121 flights are synonymous with scheduled passenger transport, and indeed this is the largest group of Part 121 accidents. But there are also non-scheduled (charter) passenger transport and cargo flights. The primary purpose of the analysis reported here is to examine the differences in aviation accidents based on the purpose of the flight. Some of the factors examined are the accident severity, aircraft characteristics and accident occurrence categories. Twenty consecutive years of data were available and utilized to complete this analysis.

  15. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight: Testing Wing Designs in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugalee, David K.; Nusinov, Chuck; Giersch, Chris; Royster, David; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation involving several designs of airplane wings in trial flight simulations based on a NASA CONNECT program. Students' experiences with data collection and interpretation are highlighted. (Contains 5 figures.)

  16. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan FERENCZ; František JÚN; Dušan KEVICKÝ

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  17. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  18. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  19. Flight telerobotic servicer control from the Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Texas M.; Harlan, Don L.

    1989-01-01

    The research and work conducted on the development of a testbed for a display and control panel for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) are presented. Research was conducted on both software and hardware needed to control the FTS. A breadboard was constructed and placed into a mockup of the aft station of the Orbiter spacecraft. This breadboard concept was then evaluated using a computer graphics representation of the Tinman FTS. Extensive research was conducted on the software requirements and implementation. The hardware selected for the breadboard was 'flight like' and in some cases fit and function evaluated. The breadboard team studied some of the concepts without pursuing in depth their impact on the Orbiter or other missions. Assumptions are made concerning payload integration.

  20. Perception of stress among aviation flight students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita

    There have been many studies related to stress among college students and the purpose of this research was to determine what causes stress among the student pilots enrolled in the Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) flight program, also to find out what students think could be some possible ways to reduce their stress, and to compare the results with a previous study conducted by South Illinois University. The survey designed by Robertson and Ruiz (2010) was administered to MTSU students so that a comparison could be done between MTSU and SIU, as SIU used the same survey form. Results of the study showed that flight students are exposed to similar stress at both universities, but some of the factors that cause stress are different between MTSU and SIU students.

  1. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard......This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...

  2. Visual edge orientation shapes free-flight behavior in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Dickinson, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    Insects rely on visual cues to estimate and control their distance to approaching objects and their flight speed. Here we show that in free-flight, the motion cues generated by high-contrast vertical edges are crucial for these estimates. Within a visual environment dominated by high-contrast horizontal edges, flies fly unusually fast and barely avoid colliding with the walls of the enclosure. The disruption of flight behavior by horizontal edges provides insight into the structure of visually-mediated control algorithms.

  3. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  4. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  5. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  6. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  7. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  8. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  9. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Sholtis

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics. These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  10. Flight Recorders - Alternative Concept for Commercial Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Turiak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of deployable flight data recorders. It gives an insight into pros and cons of this solution based on experience gained in military application. Advantages of such solution are at least worth considering as they may help reduce the number of accidents and save lives in the first place. And should the accident happen the location and extraction of evidence is much easier.

  11. On the modelling of gyroplane flight dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Stewart; Thomson, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The study of the gyroplane, with a few exceptions, is largely neglected in the literature which is indicative of a niche configuration limited to the sport and recreational market where resources are limited. However the contemporary needs of an informed population of owners and constructors, as well as the possibility of a wider application of such low-cost rotorcraft in other roles, suggests that an examination of the mathematical modelling requirements for the study of gyroplane flight mechanics is timely. Rotorcraft mathematical modelling has become stratified in three levels, each one defining the inclusion of various layers of complexity added to embrace specific modelling features as well as an attempt to improve fidelity. This paper examines the modelling of gyroplane flight mechanics in the context of this complexity, and shows that relatively simple formulations are adequate for capturing most aspects of gyroplane trim, stability and control characteristics. In particular the conventional 6 degree-of-freedom model structure is suitable for the synthesis of models from flight test data as well as being the framework for reducing the order of the higher levels of modelling. However, a high level of modelling can be required to mimic some aspects of behaviour observed in data gathered from flight experiments and even then can fail to capture other details. These limitations are addressed in the paper. It is concluded that the mathematical modelling of gyroplanes for the simulation and analysis of trim, stability and control presents no special difficulty and the conventional techniques, methods and formulations familiar to the rotary-wing community are directly applicable.

  12. Multicore Considerations for Legacy Flight Software Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Kenneth; Day, Len

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss potential benefits and pitfalls when considering a migration from an existing single core code base to a multicore processor implementation. The results of this study present options that should be considered before migrating fault managers, device handlers and tasks with time-constrained requirements to a multicore flight software environment. Possible future multicore test bed demonstrations are also discussed.

  13. Key Performance Indicators for SAS Flights

    OpenAIRE

    Arhall, Johanna; Cox, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    Revenue management is a thoroughly researched field of study and it is widely used in several different industries. The Revenue Management Department at the airline SAS (Scandinavian Airline System) serves to maximise the profit of the company’s flights. At their disposal they have a number of tools, which use KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) as a measurement. The KPIs are used in prognosis to determine future initiatives, and to analyse and verify results. SAS does not know if the KPIs they...

  14. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changpeng; Yin Tangwen; Zhao Weina; Huang Dan; Fu Shan

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recog-nition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantify-ing the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled:information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  15. Stabilization control of a bumblebee in hovering and forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study shows that the hovering and forward flight of a bumblebee do not have inherent stabil-ity (passive stability). But the bumblebees are observed to fly stably. Stabilization control must have been applied. In this study, we investigate the longitudinal stabilization con-trol of the bumblebee. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the control derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis and modal decomposition are used for solving the equations of motion. Controllability analysis shows that at all flight speeds consid-ered, although inherently unstable, the flight is controllable. By feedbacking the state variables, i.e. vertical and horizon-tal velocities, pitching rate and pitch angle (which can be measured by the sensory system of the insect), to produce changes in stroke angle and angle of attack of the wings, the flight can be stabilized, explaining why the bumblebees can fly stably even if they are passively unstable.

  16. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-bin GU; Ming LU; Jian-qing LIU; Qin-xing DONG; Zhen-xiong WANG; Jiang-hai CHEN

    2014-01-01

    The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane’s method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  17. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  18. Quasi-satellite dynamics in formation flight

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkola, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-satellite (QS) phenomenon makes two celestial bodies to fly near each other (Mikkola et al. 2006) and that effect can be used also to make artificial satellites move in tandem. We consider formation flight of two or three satellites in low eccentricity near Earth orbits. With the help of weak ion thrusters it is possible to accomplish tandem flight. With ion thrusters it is also possible to mimic many kinds of mutual force laws between the satellites. We found that both a constant repulsive force or an attractive force that decreases with the distance are able to preserve the formation in which the eccentricities cause the actual relative motion and the weak thrusters keep the mean longitude difference small. Initial values are important for the formation flight but very exact adjustment of orbital elements is not important. Simplicity is one of our goals in this study and this result is achieved at least in the way that, when constant force thrusters are used, the satellites only need to detect the...

  19. AltiKa in-flight performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  20. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  1. Serotonergic neurons of the Drosophila air-puff-stimulated flight circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sufia Sadaf; Gaiti Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Monoaminergic modulation of insect flight is well documented. Recently, we demonstrated that synaptic activity is required in serotonergic neurons for Drosophila flight. This requirement is during early pupal development, when the flight circuit is formed, as well as in adults. Using a Ca2+-activity-based GFP reporter, here we show that serotonergic neurons in both prothoracic and mesothoracic segments are activated upon air-puff-stimulated flight. Moreover ectopic activation of the entire serotonergic system by TrpA1, a heat activated cation channel, induces flight, even in the absence of an air-puff stimulus.

  2. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TĂTARU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements imposed by regulatory agencies as part of the vehicle certification process.Loads and boundary conditions can be associated to either the finite element model or the underlying geometry. By associating loads and boundary conditions to the geometry the finite element model mesh and elements can be modified without redefining and applying the loads to the model. Loads and boundary conditions are associated to the model geometry by default.

  3. Characteristics of Five Propellers in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Mixson, R E

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was made for the purpose of determining the characteristics of five full-scale propellers in flight. The equipment consisted of five propellers in conjunction with a VE-7 airplane and a Wright E-2 engine. The propellers were of the same diameter and aspect ratio. Four of them differed uniformly in thickness and pitch and the fifth propeller was identical with one of the other four with exception of a change of the airfoil section. The propeller efficiencies measured in flight are found to be consistently lower than those obtained in model tests. It is probable that this is mainly a result of the higher tip speeds used in the full-scale tests. The results show also that because of differences in propeller deflections it is difficult to obtain accurate comparisons of propeller characteristics. From this it is concluded that for accurate comparisons it is necessary to know the propeller pitch angles under actual operating conditions. (author)

  4. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method; Influence du dopage en zinc et en manganese sur la cinetique de resorption d`un implant d`hydroxyapatite et etude des effets de matrice dans la methode nucleaire P.I.X.E. utilisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallot, E.

    1997-01-16

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author).

  5. Flight mode affects allometry of migration range in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-08-01

    Billions of birds migrate to exploit seasonally available resources. The ranges of migration vary greatly among species, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. I hypothesise that flight mode (flapping or soaring) and body mass affect migration range through their influence on flight energetics. Here, I compiled the tracks of migratory birds (196 species, weighing 12-10 350 g) recorded by electronic tags in the last few decades. In flapping birds, migration ranges decreased with body mass, as predicted from rapidly increasing flight cost with increasing body mass. The species with higher aspect ratio and lower wing loading had larger migration ranges. In soaring birds, migration ranges were mass-independent and larger than those of flapping birds, reflecting their low flight costs irrespective of body mass. This study demonstrates that many animal-tracking studies are now available to explore the general patterns and the underlying mechanisms of animal migration.

  6. A Review on Fish Swimming and Bird/Insect Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Theodore Yaotsu

    2010-01-01

    This expository review is devoted to fish swimming and bird/insect flight. (i) The simple waving motion of an elongated flexible ribbon plate of constant width, immersed in a fluid at rest, propagating a wave distally down the plate to swim forward is first considered to provide a fundamental concept on energy conservation. It is generalized to include variations in body width and thickness, vortex shedding from appended dorsal, ventral and caudal fins to closely simulate fish swimming for which a nonlinear theory is presented for large-amplitude propulsion. (ii) For bird flight, the pioneering studies on oscillating rigid wings are briefed, followed by presenting a nonlinear unsteady theory for flexible wing with arbitrary variations in shape and trajectory with a comparative study with experiments. (iii) For insect flight, more recent advances are reviewed under aerodynamic theory and modeling, computational methods, and experiments, on forward and hovering flights with producing leading-edge vortex to give...

  7. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  8. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette

    2007-01-01

    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  9. The TORCH time-of-flight detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnew, N., E-mail: Neville.Harnew@physics.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N. [University College London, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Castillo García, L. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cussans, D. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gao, R. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcia, A.; Dijk, M. van [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    The TORCH time-of-flight detector is being developed to provide particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum over a flight distance of 10 m. TORCH is designed for large-area coverage, up to 30 m{sup 2}, and has a DIRC-like construction. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within quartz radiator plates of 10 mm thickness. A four-year R&D programme is underway with an industrial partner (Photek, UK) to produce 53×53 mm{sup 2} Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors for the TORCH application. The MCP-PMT will provide a timing accuracy of 40 ps per photon and it will have a lifetime of up to at least 5 Ccm{sup −2} of integrated anode charge by utilizing an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating. The MCP will be read out using charge division with customised electronics incorporating the NINO chipset. Laboratory results on prototype MCPs are presented. The construction of a prototype TORCH module and its simulated performance are also described.

  10. Evolutionary flight and enabling smart actuator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    Recent interest in morphing vehicles with multiple, optimized configurations has led to renewed research on biological flight. The flying vertebrates - birds, bats, and pterosaurs - all made or make use of various morphing devices to achieve lift to suit rapidly changing flight demands, including maneuvers as complex as perching and hovering. The first part of this paper will discuss these devices, with a focus on the morphing elements and structural strong suits of each creature. Modern flight correlations to these devices will be discussed and analyzed as valid adaptations of these evolutionary traits. The second part of the paper will focus on the use of active joint structures for use in morphing aircraft devices. Initial work on smart actuator devices focused on NASA Langley's Hyper-Elliptical Cambered Span (HECS) wing platform, which led to development of a discretized spanwise curvature effector. This mechanism uses shape memory alloy (SMA) as the sole morphing actuator, allowing fast rotation with lightweight components at the expense of energy inefficiency. Phase two of morphing actuator development will add an element of active rigidity to the morphing structure, in the form of shape memory polymer (SMP). Employing a composite structure of polymer and alloy, this joint will function as part of a biomimetic morphing actuator system in a more energetically efficient manner. The joint is thermally actuated to allow compliance on demand and rigidity in the nominal configuration. Analytical and experimental joint models are presented, and potential applications on a bat-wing aircraft structure are outlined.

  11. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  12. Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Ning, Simeon Andrew; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Flying airplanes in extended formations, with separation distances of tens of wingspans, significantly improves safety while maintaining most of the fuel savings achieved in close formations. The present study investigates the impact of roll trim and compressibility at fixed lift coefficient on the benefits of extended formation flight. An Euler solver with adjoint-based mesh refinement combined with a wake propagation model is used to analyze a two-body echelon formation at a separation distance of 30 spans. Two geometries are examined: a simple wing and a wing-body geometry. Energy savings, quantified by both formation drag fraction and span efficiency factor, are investigated at subsonic and transonic speeds for a matrix of vortex locations. The results show that at fixed lift and trimmed for roll, the optimal location of vortex impingement is about 10% inboard of the trailing airplane s wing-tip. Interestingly, early results show the variation in drag fraction reduction is small in the neighborhood of the optimal position. Over 90% of energy benefits can be obtained with a 5% variation in transverse and 10% variation in crossflow directions. Early results suggest control surface deflections required to achieve trim reduce the benefits of formation flight by 3-5% at subsonic speeds. The final paper will include transonic effects and trim on extended formation flight drag benefits.

  13. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  14. In-Flight Personalized Medication Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletskaya, E.; Griko, Y. V.

    2016-01-01

    Current medication selection for treatment of astronauts during spaceflight missions is primarily dictated by the task of efficiently treating the widest possible range of physiological conditions and illnesses with a limited set of medications. Dosage and recommendations on the combination of drugs are based on the assumption of genetically equal drug sensitivity and unchanged metabolism. To our knowledge, there was no pre-flight drug sensitivity testing on a genetic level for any of the previous manned NASA space missions. Although many of the common, binary drug-drug interactions are, most likely, already considered in the ISS Medical kit composition, multi-drug and multi-drug-gene factors are not incorporated in the medication selection or prescription. Furthermore, due to the physiological changes occurring in microgravity environments, astronauts might be susceptible to potential increased drug toxicity as a result of decreased clearance of numerous drugs. In particular, perturbation of CYP450 enzymes which contribute to the hepatic metabolism of the majority of drugs may have significant effects on therapeutic efficacy and increase treatment-related toxicity5. The genes encoding the CYP450 enzymes are highly variable in humans. Inheritable variations of CYP450 hepatic metabolizer enzymes and transport proteins play a crucial role in the inter-individual variability of drug efficiency and risks of adverse drug reactions5. Additionally, there are some reports that document changes in the levels of production of drug-metabolizing enzymes in microgravity. These data can be extrapolated to provide reasonable assumptions of decreased levels of expression for most CYP450 enzymes in human body during prolonged space travel. If the prescribed medication regiment is not fully effective or causes undesirable side effects, the ability of the astronauts to function and maintain peak performance levels during space flight could be seriously compromised. Therefore

  15. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  16. NASA Space Flight Vehicle Fault Isolation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramon, Christopher; Inman, Sharon K.; Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2016-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discrete programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as testability of the integrated flight vehicle especially problematic. The cost of fully automated diagnostics can be completely justified for a large fleet, but not so for a single flight vehicle. Fault detection is mandatory to assure the vehicle is capable of a safe launch, but fault isolation is another issue. SLS has considered various methods for fault isolation which can provide a reasonable balance between adequacy, timeliness and cost. This paper will address the analyses and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate risk while providing a reasonable testability solution for fault isolation.

  17. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  18. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Morteza; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2015-11-01

    Mood is a moderating factor that is known to affect performance. For airlines, the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing prior to a commercial flight is not only an opportunity to inform passengers about the safety features on-board the aircraft they are flying, but an opportunity to positively influence their mood, and hence performance in the unlikely event of an emergency. The present research examined whether indeed the pre-flight safety briefing could be used to positively impact passengers' mood. In addition, the present research examined whether the recall of key safety messages contained within the pre-flight safety briefing was influenced by the style of briefing. Eighty-two participants were recruited for the research and divided into three groups; each group exposed to a different pre-flight cabin safety briefing video (standard, humorous, movie theme). Mood was measured prior and post safety briefing. The results revealed that pre-flight safety briefing videos can be used to manipulate passengers' mood. Safety briefings that are humorous or use movie themes to model their briefing were found to positively affect mood. However, there was a trade-off between entertainment and education, the greater the entertainment value, the poorer the retention of key safety messages. The results of the research are discussed from both an applied and theoretical perspective.

  19. Free flight odor tracking in Drosophila: Effect of wing chemosensors, sex and pheromonal gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houot, Benjamin; Gigot, Vincent; Robichon, Alain; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of powered flight in insects had major consequences for global biodiversity and involved the acquisition of adaptive processes allowing individuals to disperse to new ecological niches. Flies use both vision and olfactory input from their antennae to guide their flight; chemosensors on fly wings have been described, but their function remains mysterious. We studied Drosophila flight in a wind tunnel. By genetically manipulating wing chemosensors, we show that these structures play an essential role in flight performance with a sex-specific effect. Pheromonal systems are also involved in Drosophila flight guidance: transgenic expression of the pheromone production and detection gene, desat1, produced low, rapid flight that was absent in control flies. Our study suggests that the sex-specific modulation of free-flight odor tracking depends on gene expression in various fly tissues including wings and pheromonal-related tissues. PMID:28067325

  20. Basic flight mechanics a simple approach without equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tewari, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    This book presents flight mechanics of aircraft, spacecraft, and rockets to technical and non-technical readers in simple terms and based purely on physical principles. Adapting an accessible and lucid writing style, the book retains the scientific authority and conceptual substance of an engineering textbook without requiring a background in physics or engineering mathematics. Professor Tewari explains relevant physical principles of flight by straightforward examples and meticulous diagrams and figures. Important aspects of both atmospheric and space flight mechanics are covered, including performance, stability and control, aeroelasticity, orbital mechanics, and altitude control. The book describes airplanes, gliders, rotary wing and flapping wing flight vehicles, rockets, and spacecraft and visualizes the essential principles using detailed illustration. It is an ideal resource for managers and technicians in the aerospace industry without engineering degrees, pilots, and anyone interested in the mechanic...

  1. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  2. Flight Research and Validation Formerly Experimental Capabilities Supersonic Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Experimental Capabilities Supersonic project, that is being reorganized into Flight Research and Validation. The work of Experimental Capabilities Project in FY '09 is reviewed, and the specific centers that is assigned to do the work is given. The portfolio of the newly formed Flight Research and Validation (FRV) group is also reviewed. The various projects for FY '10 for the FRV are detailed. These projects include: Eagle Probe, Channeled Centerbody Inlet Experiment (CCIE), Supersonic Boundary layer Transition test (SBLT), Aero-elastic Test Wing-2 (ATW-2), G-V External Vision Systems (G5 XVS), Air-to-Air Schlieren (A2A), In Flight Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS), Dynamic Inertia Measurement Technique (DIM), and Advanced In-Flight IR Thermography (AIR-T).

  3. Ares I concept illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  4. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  5. Effects of body size on the oxygen sensitivity of dragonfly flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Joanna Randyl; Harrison, Jon Fewell

    2014-10-01

    One hypothesis for the small size of insects relative to vertebrates, and the existence of giant fossil insects, is that atmospheric oxygen levels constrain insect body sizes because oxygen delivery is more challenging in larger insects. This study tested this hypothesis in dragonflies by measuring the oxygen sensitivity of flight metabolic rates and behavior during hovering for 11 species of dragonflies that ranged in mass by an order of magnitude. We measured flight times and flight metabolic rates in seven oxygen concentrations ranging from 30% to 2.5% to assess the sensitivity of their flight to atmospheric oxygen. We also assessed the oxygen sensitivity of flight in low-density air (nitrogen replaced with helium) in order to increase the metabolic demands of hovering flight. Lowered atmospheric densities did induce higher flight metabolic rates. Flight behavior was more sensitive to decreasing oxygen levels than flight metabolic rate. The oxygen sensitivity of flight metabolic rates and behaviors were not correlated with body size, indicating that larger insects are able to maintain an oxygen supply-to-demand balance even during flight.

  6. Extraction of Modal Parameters from Spacecraft Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George H.; Cao, Timothy T.; Fogt, Vincent A.; Wilson, Robert L.; Bartkowicz, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    The modeled response of spacecraft systems must be validated using flight data as ground tests cannot adequately represent the flight. Tools from the field of operational modal analysis would typically be brought to bear on such structures. However, spacecraft systems have several complicated issues: 1. High amplitudes of loads; 2. Compressive loads on the vehicle in flight; 3. Lack of generous time-synchronized flight data; 4. Changing properties during the flight; and 5. Major vehicle changes due to staging. A particularly vexing parameter to extract is modal damping. Damping estimation has become a more critical issue as new mass-driven vehicle designs seek to use the highest damping value possible. The paper will focus on recent efforts to utilize spacecraft flight data to extract system parameters, with a special interest on modal damping. This work utilizes the analysis of correlation functions derived from a sliding window technique applied to the time record. Four different case studies are reported in the sequence that drove the authors understanding. The insights derived from these four exercises are preliminary conclusions for the general state-of-the-art, but may be of specific utility to similar problems approached with similar tools.

  7. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  8. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  9. Biomechanics and biomimetics in insect-inspired flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Insect- and bird-size drones—micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 104–105 or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles. In this article, we give a selective review on the state of the art of biomechanics in bioinspired flight systems in terms of flapping and flexible wing aerodynamics, flight dynamics and stability, passive and active mechanisms in stabilization and control, as well as flapping flight in unsteady environments. We further highlight recent advances in biomimetics of flapping-wing MAVs with a specific focus on insect-inspired wing design and fabrication, as well as sensing systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528780

  10. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Nickkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  11. An assessment of space shuttle flight software development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In early 1991, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Flight commissioned the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council (NRC) to investigate the adequacy of the current process by which NASA develops and verifies changes and updates to the Space Shuttle flight software. The Committee for Review of Oversight Mechanisms for Space Shuttle Flight Software Processes was convened in Jan. 1992 to accomplish the following tasks: (1) review the entire flight software development process from the initial requirements definition phase to final implementation, including object code build and final machine loading; (2) review and critique NASA's independent verification and validation process and mechanisms, including NASA's established software development and testing standards; (3) determine the acceptability and adequacy of the complete flight software development process, including the embedded validation and verification processes through comparison with (1) generally accepted industry practices, and (2) generally accepted Department of Defense and/or other government practices (comparing NASA's program with organizations and projects having similar volumes of software development, software maturity, complexity, criticality, lines of code, and national standards); (4) consider whether independent verification and validation should continue. An overview of the study, independent verification and validation of critical software, and the Space Shuttle flight software development process are addressed. Findings and recommendations are presented.

  12. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  13. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  14. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  15. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  16. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  17. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground.

  18. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    vapors; light ballast; cabin furnishings; stowage bins/hat racks ; trash containers; clothing; APU; jetway; ramp fires 10.2.2 Identify class of fire...are closed 1.7.14 Ensure proper precautions for passenger seats and stowage on combi (sic) aircraft 1.7.15 Check that class B cargo compartments...are clear for crew fire fighting 1.7.16 Check stowage areas for unapproved items and proper restraints 1.7.17 Identify seats with removable aisle

  19. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  20. Investigation of the flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimovich, M.; Rosen, A.; Rand, O.; Mansur, M. H.; Tischler, M. B.

    1992-01-01

    The flight mechanics simulation of a hovering helicopter is investigated by comparing the results of two different numerical models with flight test data for a hovering AH-64 Apache. The two models are the U.S. Army BEMAP and the Technion model. These nonlinear models are linearized by applying a numerical linearization procedure. The results of the linear models are compared with identification results in terms of eigenvalues, stability and control derivatives, and frequency responses. Detailed time histories of the responses of the complete nonlinear models, as a result of various pilots' inputs, are compared with flight test results. In addition the sensitivity of the models to various effects are also investigated. The results are discussed and problematic aspects of the simulation are identified.

  1. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight envelope. 23.333 Section 23.333... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.333 Flight envelope. (a) General. Compliance with the strength requirements of this subpart must be shown...

  2. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No..., having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 80,000 pounds without a flight...

  3. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  4. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  5. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  6. Use of KC-135 parabolic flights to determine if brief changes in the gravity field can influence the phase and/or period of the circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Fred W. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In February 1994 a total of 10 hampsters flew on two separate KC-135 flights. On one flight, 25 animals experienced 31 parabolas, thus going through 31 cycles of hypergravity (up to about 1.8 G). On the other flight, the animals were exposed to 43 parabolas. fifty additional animals served as ground based controls and were treated in the same fashion as the experimental animals. The profiles of plasma GH, corisol and coricosterone from representative parabolic flight and ground control animals during pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions are depicted.

  7. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  8. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight...

  9. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. 121.425 Section 121.425 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.425 Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition...

  10. 14 CFR 437.27 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-flight and post-flight operations. 437.27 Section 437.27 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Experimental Permit Operational Safety Documentation § 437.27 Pre-flight and post-flight operations....

  11. 14 CFR 121.426 - Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. 121.426 Section 121.426 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.426 Flight navigators: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition...

  12. 14 CFR 125.405 - Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans. 125.405 Section 125.405 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRCRAFT Records and Reports § 125.405 Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans....

  13. Flight Model Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPfi. ’r (Inc!tlde Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL G. Keineth Yates (617’ 37/-3991 I AFGL /PHF 0D Form 1473, JUN 86 Pfvvious editions are obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified

  14. Flight and walking in locusts-cholinergic co-activation, temporal coupling and its modulation by biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A; Pflueger, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG) that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamine and tyramine to initiate fictive flight and walking in deafferented locust preparations. Our data illustrate that fictive walking is readily evoked by comparatively lower concentrations of pilocarpine, whereas higher concentrations are required to elicit fictive flight. Interestingly, fictive flight did not suppress fictive walking so that the two patterns were produced simultaneously. Frequently, leg motor units were temporally coupled to the flight rhythm, so that each spike in a step cycle volley occurred synchronously with wing motor units firing at flight rhythm frequency. Similarly, tyramine also induced fictive walking and flight, but mostly without any coupling between the two rhythms. Octopamine in contrast readily evoked fictive flight but generally failed to elicit fictive walking. Despite this, numerous leg motor units were recruited, whereby each was temporarily coupled to the flight rhythm. Our results support the notion that the CPGs for walking and flight are largely independent, but that coupling can be entrained by aminergic modulation. We speculate that octopamine biases the whole motor machinery of a locust to flight whereas tyramine primarily promotes walking.

  15. Flight and walking in locusts-cholinergic co-activation, temporal coupling and its modulation by biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamine and tyramine to initiate fictive flight and walking in deafferented locust preparations. Our data illustrate that fictive walking is readily evoked by comparatively lower concentrations of pilocarpine, whereas higher concentrations are required to elicit fictive flight. Interestingly, fictive flight did not suppress fictive walking so that the two patterns were produced simultaneously. Frequently, leg motor units were temporally coupled to the flight rhythm, so that each spike in a step cycle volley occurred synchronously with wing motor units firing at flight rhythm frequency. Similarly, tyramine also induced fictive walking and flight, but mostly without any coupling between the two rhythms. Octopamine in contrast readily evoked fictive flight but generally failed to elicit fictive walking. Despite this, numerous leg motor units were recruited, whereby each was temporarily coupled to the flight rhythm. Our results support the notion that the CPGs for walking and flight are largely independent, but that coupling can be entrained by aminergic modulation. We speculate that octopamine biases the whole motor machinery of a locust to flight whereas tyramine primarily promotes walking.

  16. Flight mechanics expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Rowland E.

    1991-01-01

    A method is established which can be used to solve any problem in equation-driven disciplines. This is accomplished by solving all applicable equations of the given discipline for all variables which occur in each of the equations. The system then provides logic tests to determine if enough information is available to calculate a new variable. By recording the order in which the equations are used, the machine can also supply a derivation of the answer to each problem.

  17. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. A number of flight tests have been conducted and are planned to demonstrate the performance and enable certification of the Orion Spacecraft. Exploration Flight Test 1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. Orion's first flight was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety, such as heat shield performance, separation events, avionics and software performance, attitude control and guidance, parachute deployment and recovery operations. One of the key separation events tested during this flight was the nominal jettison of the LAS. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. The LAS nominal jettison event on Exploration Flight Test 1 occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff (See Fig. 3). The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. A suite of developmental flight instrumentation was included on the flight test to provide data on spacecraft subsystems and separation events. This paper will focus on the flight test objectives and performance of the LAS during ascent and nominal jettison. Selected LAS subsystem flight test data will be presented and discussed in the paper. Exploration Flight Test -1 will provide critical data that will enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test

  18. The experimental determination of atmospheric absorption from aircraft acoustic flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Oncley, P. B.

    1971-01-01

    A method for determining atmospheric absorption coefficients from acoustic flight test data is presented. Measurements from five series of acoustic flight tests were included in the study. The number of individual flights totaled 24: six Boeing 707 flights performed in May 1969 in connection with the turbofan nacelle modification program, eight flights from Boeing tests conducted during the same period, and 10 flights of the Boeing 747 airplane. The effects of errors in acoustic, meteorological, and aircraft performance and position measurements are discussed. Tabular data of the estimated sample variance of the data for each test are given for source directivity angles from 75 deg to 120 deg and each 1/3-octave frequency band. Graphic comparisons are made of absorption coefficients derived from ARP 866, using atmospheric profile data, with absorption coefficients determined by the experimental method described in the report.

  19. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  20. Flight Avionics Hardware Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Raphael; Goforth, Monte; Chen, Yuan; Powell, Wes; Paulick, Paul; Vitalpur, Sharada; Buscher, Deborah; Wade, Ray; West, John; Redifer, Matt; Partridge, Harry; Sherman, Aaron; McCabe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Avionics Technology Roadmap takes an 80% approach to technology investment in spacecraft avionics. It delineates a suite of technologies covering foundational, component, and subsystem-levels, which directly support 80% of future NASA space mission needs. The roadmap eschews high cost, limited utility technologies in favor of lower cost, and broadly applicable technologies with high return on investment. The roadmap is also phased to support future NASA mission needs and desires, with a view towards creating an optimized investment portfolio that matures specific, high impact technologies on a schedule that matches optimum insertion points of these technologies into NASA missions. The roadmap looks out over 15+ years and covers some 114 technologies, 58 of which are targeted for TRL6 within 5 years, with 23 additional technologies to be at TRL6 by 2020. Of that number, only a few are recommended for near term investment: 1. Rad Hard High Performance Computing 2. Extreme temperature capable electronics and packaging 3. RFID/SAW-based spacecraft sensors and instruments 4. Lightweight, low power 2D displays suitable for crewed missions 5. Radiation tolerant Graphics Processing Unit to drive crew displays 6. Distributed/reconfigurable, extreme temperature and radiation tolerant, spacecraft sensor controller and sensor modules 7. Spacecraft to spacecraft, long link data communication protocols 8. High performance and extreme temperature capable C&DH subsystem In addition, the roadmap team recommends several other activities that it believes are necessary to advance avionics technology across NASA: center dot Engage the OCT roadmap teams to coordinate avionics technology advances and infusion into these roadmaps and their mission set center dot Charter a team to develop a set of use cases for future avionics capabilities in order to decouple this roadmap from specific missions center dot Partner with the Software Steering Committee to coordinate computing hardware

  1. Structures Flight Test Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    external stores are most common. It will be obvious whether a vertical, lateral or longitudinal excitation is best, especially ULZtL,’.,i~ aULa 1 alaay. [i...3 Aq C)%0lp f--/E. - I7 -4C. 0 f~ L 0 r 6’.’ ,1[ -v- F igure 7.3 Characteri % tics of a Cross Point Measurement 7-11 7.7 TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION The...phase and gai, chlractert.- tics zvailabl., at the time of requi.re:•eit verificatiori. 8- 14 motion commanded by the FCS. This can result in the shaker

  2. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  3. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  4. Natural Laminar Flow Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A supercritical airfoil section was designed with favorable pressure gradients on both the upper and lower surfaces. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The outer wing panels of the F-111 TACT airplane were modified to incorporate partial span test gloves having the natural laminar, flow profile. Instrumentation was installed to provide surface pressure data as well as to determine transition location and boundary layer characteristics. The flight experiment encompassed 19 flights conducted with and without transition fixed at several locations for wing leading edge sweep angles which varied from 10 to 26 at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85 and altitudes of 7620 meters and 9144 meters. Preliminary results indicate that a large portion of the test chord experienced laminar flow.

  5. Aerodynamic maneuvering hypersonic flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautel, Dick

    1988-01-01

    The emergence of current high-interest mission involving aeromaneuvering hypersonic flight has given rise to the corresponding need for preliminary design and performance analyses of such vehicles. This need in turn has motivated efforts to develop simplified analytical and computational methods for parametric analysis of maneuvering hypersonic flight under conditions appropriate to the mission involved. The effort included a review of different formulations of the general equations of motion, their associated coordinate frames, various simplifications of the equations, and previously achieved analytical solutions. This study sought to both extend previous solution methods and to develop new ones. In addition, evaluation of the literature and developing a systematic perspective on the knowledge it represents proved to be a major portion of the effort.

  6. Cuckoo Search via Levy Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to formulate a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Cuckoo Search (CS), for solving optimization problems. This algorithm is based on the obligate brood parasitic behaviour of some cuckoo species in combination with the Levy flight behaviour of some birds and fruit flies. We validate the proposed algorithm against test functions and then compare its performance with those of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Finally, we discuss the implication of the results and suggestion for further research.

  7. Levy Flights over Quantum Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, N

    2005-01-01

    An impact of integration over the paths of the Levy flights on the quantum mechanical kernel has been studied. Analytical expression for a free particle kernel has been obtained in terms of the Fox H-function. A new equation for the kernel of a partical in the box has been found. New general results include the well known quantum formulae for a free particle kernel and particle in box kernel.

  8. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  9. Flight Planning and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Allison C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was founded in 1958 by President Eisenhower as a civilian lead United States federal agency designed to advance the science of space. Over the years, NASA has grown with a vision to "reach for new heights and reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind" (About NASA). Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle are just a few of the programs that NASA has led to advance our understanding of the universe. Each of the eleven main NASA space centers located across the United States plays a unique role in accomplishing that vision. Since 1961, Johnson Space Center (JSC) has led the effort for manned spaceflight missions. JSC has a mission to "provide and apply the preeminent capabilities to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions spanning commercial, academic, international, and US government partners" (Co-op Orientation). To do that, JSC is currently focused on two main programs, Orion and the International Space Station (ISS). Orion is the exploration vehicle that will take astronauts to Mars; a vessel comparable to the Apollo capsule. The International Space Station (ISS) is a space research facility designed to expand our knowledge of science in microgravity. The first piece of the ISS was launched in November of 1998 and has been in a continuous low earth orbit ever since. Recently, two sub-programs have been developed to resupply the ISS. The Commercial Cargo program is currently flying cargo and payloads to the ISS; the Commercial Crew program will begin flying astronauts to the ISS in a few years.

  10. Miniaturised Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, U.; Benz, W.; Whitby, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Schulz, R.; Romstedt, J.

    2004-04-01

    Originally intended for the European Space Agency's BepiColombo mission to Mercury, we have built a series of highly miniaturised laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometers (LMS), suitable for in situ measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of the surface of airless planetary bodies. The instruments will determine ma jor, minor, and trace element abundances in minerals on a spatial scale of 10 m, and will have sufficient dynamic range and mass resolution to perform useful isotopic measurements in favourable cases. Solid material is simultaneously evaporated and ionised by means of laser ablation, requiring intense pulsed laser radiation. Laser ablation was chosen as the sample introduction technique principally because of its high spatial resolution and the lack of any need for sample preparation. Advantages of the technique include simplicity of the resulting design, speed of measurement, and the ability for depth profiling (potentially important for a regolith in which mineral grains are coated with impact produced glass). Time of flight mass spectrometers are simple, robust devices that couple well to a pulsed ion source and we have previous experience of their construction for space flight, e.g. the ROSINA instrument suite for the ROSETTA mission. For BepiColombo, we have built two prototype instruments, one with a design mass of 500 g and a volume comparable to a beer can intended to be deployed on a static lander, and a smaller cigarettebox sized version with a design mass of 250 g, small enough to be integrated in a rover or robotic arm.

  11. A suggested classification system for standard on-orbit shuttle flight phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of standard flight segments of phases, representing flight profile components which can be combined in various sequences to satisfy particular objectives, is a necessity for simplifying operational procedures and for minimizing the cost of flight planning, software development, and training. The critical elements are (1) a greater variety of generic segment types that may be incorporated into a given flight profile, (2) a greater variability of the order in which segments may be combined to construct a particular flight profile, and (3) a greater variation of detail within a given generic segment type. All of these variations arise basically from shuttle payload characteristics. They are manifested in a number of ways, including changes in the shuttle configuration from one flight to another.

  12. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  13. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects.

  14. On numerical modeling of animal swimming and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Chen, Duan-Duan; Dai, Hu; Wu, Jian; Tian, Fang-Bao

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic and aerial animals have developed their superior and complete mechanisms of swimming and flight. These mechanisms bring excellent locomotion performances to natural creatures, including high efficiency, long endurance ability, high maneuverability and low noise, and can potentially provide inspiration for the design of the man-made vehicles. As an efficient research approach, numerical modeling becomes more and more important in studying the mechanisms of swimming and flight. This review is focused on assessing the recent progress in numerical techniques of solving animal swimming and flight problems. According to the complexity of the problems considered, numerical studies are classified into five stages, of which the main characteristics and the numerical strategies are described and discussed. In addition, the body-conformal mesh, Cartesian-mesh, overset-grid, and meshfree methods are briefly introduced. Finally, several open issues in numerical modeling in this field are highlighted.

  15. Energetics and metabolite profiles during early flight in American robins (Turdus Migratorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Alexander R; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    Although birds use fat as the primary fuel for migratory flights, carbohydrate and protein catabolism could be significant in the early stages of flight while pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation are induced. The fuel mixture of long distance migrant birds can also be affected by the rate of water loss, where birds catabolize more protein to increase endogenous water production under dehydrating flight conditions. Despite many studies investigating flight metabolism, few have focused on the metabolic response to flight during the switchover to fat catabolism in migrants, and none have examined the effect of ambient conditions on fuel selection during early flight. We investigated the effect of water loss on the metabolic response to short duration flight in the American robin (Turdus migratorius). Birds were flown in a climatic wind tunnel and changes in body composition and plasma metabolites were measured. As flight duration increased, there was a gradual switchover from carbohydrate and protein catabolism to fat catabolism. Plasma metabolite profiles indicate that the mobilization of fat occurred within 20 min of initiating flight. Plasma glucose decreased and uric acid increased with flight duration. Ambient humidity did not affect fuel mixture. Thus, it seems that the utilization of fat may be delayed as migrants initiate flight. Short-hop migrants may exploit high rates of endogenous water production resulting from carbohydrate and protein catabolism early in flight to offset high water loss associated with low humidity. Rapid catabolism of lean body components at the start of a flight also reduces mass quickly, and may reduce energy costs.

  16. Real space flight travel is associated with ultrastructural changes, cytoskeletal disruption and premature senescence of HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonova, M Y; Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Yusoff, W N W; Othman, S; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H M

    2012-12-01

    Microgravity, hypergravity, vibration, ionizing radiation and temperature fluctuations are major factors of outer space flight affecting human organs and tissues. There are several reports on the effect of space flight on different human cell types of mesenchymal origin while information regarding changes to vascular endothelial cells is scarce. Ultrastructural and cytophysiological features of macrovascular endothelial cells in outer space flight and their persistence during subsequent culturing were demonstrated in the present investigation. At the end of the space flight, endothelial cells displayed profound changes indicating cytoskeletal lesions and increased cell membrane permeability. Readapted cells of subsequent passages exhibited persisting cytoskeletal changes, decreased metabolism and cell growth indicating cellular senescence.

  17. CONDUCTING IFR FLIGHTS WITHOUT THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL NAVIGATION AIDS AT THE UNCONTROLLED AERODROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał GERATOWSKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flights conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR allow to perform flights below the minimums for visual meteorological conditions. Nowadays, in Poland none of the uncontrolled aerodromes have implemented any IFR procedures. The paper presents an analysis of the international and national law in terms of establishing the appropriate IFR procedures at the uncontrolled aerodromes. The exemplary solutions, based on European uncontrolled aerodromes, are presented.

  18. The B-747 flight control system maintenance and reliability data base for cost effectiveness tradeoff studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Primary and automatic flight controls are combined for a total flight control reliability and maintenance cost data base using information from two previous reports and additional cost data gathered from a major airline. A comparison of the current B-747 flight control system effects on reliability and operating cost with that of a B-747 designed for an active control wing load alleviation system is provided.

  19. Future ultra-speed tube-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert M.

    1994-05-01

    Future long-link, ultra-speed, surface transport systems will require electromagnetically (EM) driven and restrained vehicles operating under reduced-atmosphere in very straight tubes. Such tube-flight trains will be safe, energy conservative, pollution-free, and in a protected environment. Hypersonic (and even hyperballistic) speeds are theoretically achievable. Ultimate system choices will represent tradeoffs between amoritized capital costs (ACC) and operating costs. For example, long coasting links might employ aerodynamic lift coupled with EM restraint and drag make-up. Optimized, combined EM lift, and thrust vectors could reduce energy costs but at increased ACC. (Repulsive levitation can produce lift-over-drag l/d ratios a decade greater than aerodynamic), Alternatively, vehicle-emanated, induced-mirror fields in a conducting (aluminum sheet) road bed could reduce ACC but at substantial energy costs. Ultra-speed tube flight will demand fast-acting, high-precision sensors and computerized magnetic shimming. This same control system can maintain a magnetic 'guide way' invariant in inertial space with inertial detectors imbedded in tube structures to sense and correct for earth tremors. Ultra-speed tube flight can complete with aircraft for transit time and can provide even greater passenger convenience by single-model connections with local subways and feeder lines. Although cargo transport generally will not need to be performed at ultra speeds, such speeds may well be desirable for high throughput to optimize channel costs. Thus, a large and expensive pipeline might be replaced with small EM-driven pallets at high speeds.

  20. Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

  1. STS-107 Flight Day 13 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 13 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew members include: Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist. The primary activities of flight day 13 are spaceborne experiments, including troubleshooting undertaken by Mission Specialist Chawla on the Water Mist Fire Suppression (MIST) experiment. Chawla performs troubleshooting tasks relayed to her by Mission Control. She shows Mission Control the location of air and water in a transparent hose that is part of the atomizer on the exterior of the combustion module. She also changes the atomizer head. All six Space Technology and Research Students (STARS) experiments are profiled in the video. These experiments are on ants, crystal growth in a chemical garden, fish embryos, carpenter bees, spiders, and silkworms. The video also includes a view of the southeast Texas coast near Houston, and a view of Portugal, Spain, Gibraltar, Morocco, and the Sahara Desert. The video ends with an explanation of roses at Mission Control which commemorate astronauts who have died on missions.

  2. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  3. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  4. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  5. Instrumentation and Performance Analysis Plans for the HIFiRE Flight 2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Mark; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Eklund, Dean; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea M.; Liu, Jiwen

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic combustion performance of a bi-component gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture is one of the primary aspects under investigation in the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In-flight instrumentation and post-test analyses will be two key elements used to determine the combustion performance. Pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses provide valuable information that can be used to optimize the placement of a constrained set of wall pressure instrumentation in the experiment. The simulations also allow pre-flight assessments of performance sensitivities leading to estimates of overall uncertainty in the determination of combustion efficiency. Based on the pre-flight CFD results, 128 wall pressure sensors have been located throughout the isolator/combustor flowpath to minimize the error in determining the wall pressure force at Mach 8 flight conditions. Also, sensitivity analyses show that mass capture and combustor exit stream thrust are the two primary contributors to uncertainty in combustion efficiency.

  6. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  7. Decreased Flight Activity in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Naturally Infected With Culex flavivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-01-01

    Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) commonly infect vectors of mosquito-borne arboviruses. To investigate whether infection with an ISFV might affect mosquito flight behavior, we quantified flight behavior in Culex pipiens L. naturally infected with Culex flavivirus (CxFV). We observed a significant reduction in the scotophase (dark hours) flight activity of CxFV-positive mosquitoes relative to CxFV-negative mosquitoes, but only a marginal reduction in photophase (light hours) flight activity, and no change in the circadian pattern of flight activity. These results suggest that CxFV infection alters the flight activity of naturally infected Cx. pipiens most dramatically when these vectors are likely to be host seeking and may therefore affect the transmission of medically important arboviruses.

  8. On the correlation of moth flight to characteristics of a turbulent plume

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...

  9. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  10. Beyond the cockpit: The visual world as a flight instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. W.; Kaiser, M. K.; Foyle, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cockpit instruments to guide flight control is not always an option (e.g., low level rotorcraft flight). Under such circumstances the pilot must use out-the-window information for control and navigation. Thus it is important to determine the basis of visually guided flight for several reasons: (1) to guide the design and construction of the visual displays used in training simulators; (2) to allow modeling of visibility restrictions brought about by weather, cockpit constraints, or distortions introduced by sensor systems; and (3) to aid in the development of displays that augment the cockpit window scene and are compatible with the pilot's visual extraction of information from the visual scene. The authors are actively pursuing these questions. We have on-going studies using both low-cost, lower fidelity flight simulators, and state-of-the-art helicopter simulation research facilities. Research results will be presented on: (1) the important visual scene information used in altitude and speed control; (2) the utility of monocular, stereo, and hyperstereo cues for the control of flight; (3) perceptual effects due to the differences between normal unaided daylight vision, and that made available by various night vision devices (e.g., light intensifying goggles and infra-red sensor displays); and (4) the utility of advanced contact displays in which instrument information is made part of the visual scene, as on a 'scene linked' head-up display (e.g., displaying altimeter information on a virtual billboard located on the ground).

  11. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  12. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  13. Free-flight experiments in LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Armano, M; Auger, G; Baird, J; Binetruy, P; Born, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Cruise, M; Cutler, C; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L; Ferroni, V; Fitzsimons, E; Freschi, M; Gallegos, J; Marirrodriga, C Garcia; Gerndt, R; Gesa, LI; Gibert, F; Giardini, D; Giusteri, R; Grimani, C; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hueller, M; Huesler, J; Inchauspe, H; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johlander, B; Karnesis, N; Kaune, B; Korsakova, N; Killow, C; Lloro, I; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Madden, S; Maghami, P; Mance, D; Martin, V; Martin-Porqueras, F; Mateos, I; McNamara, P; Mendes, J; Mendes, L; Moroni, A; Nofrarias, M; Paczkowski, S; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Petiteau, A; Pivato, P; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Ragnit, U; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Perez, J A Romera; Robertson, D; Rozemeijer, H; Russano, G; Sarra, P; Schleicher, A; Slutsky, J; Sopuerta, C F; Sumner, T; Texier, D; Thorpe, J; Trenkel, C; Tu, H B; Vetrugno, D; Vitale, S; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Waschke, S; Wass, P; Wealthy, D; Wen, S; Weber, W; Wittchen, A; Zanoni, C; Ziegler, T; Zweifel, P

    2014-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this `suspension noise'. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlyi...

  14. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  16. Effects of ambient and preceding temperatures and metabolic genes on flight metabolism in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Swee Chong; Oksanen, Alma; Mattila, Anniina L K; Lehtonen, Rainer; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-02-01

    Flight is essential for foraging, mate searching and dispersal in many insects, but flight metabolism in ectotherms is strongly constrained by temperature. Thermal conditions vary greatly in natural populations and may hence restrict fitness-related activities. Working on the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), we studied the effects of temperature experienced during the first 2 days of adult life on flight metabolism, genetic associations between flight metabolic rate and variation in candidate metabolic genes, and genotype-temperature interactions. The maximal flight performance was reduced by 17% by 2 days of low ambient temperature (15 °C) prior to the flight trial, mimicking conditions that butterflies commonly encounter in nature. A SNP in phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) had a significant association on flight metabolic rate in males and a SNP in triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) was significantly associated with flight metabolic rate in females. In the Pgi SNP, AC heterozygotes had higher flight metabolic rate than AA homozygotes following low preceding temperature, but the trend was reversed following high preceding temperature, consistent with previous results on genotype-temperature interaction for this SNP. We suggest that these results on 2-day old butterflies reflect thermal effect on the maturation of flight muscles. These results highlight the consequences of variation in thermal conditions on the time scale of days, and they contribute to a better understanding of the complex dynamics of flight metabolism and flight-related activities under conditions that are relevant for natural populations living under variable thermal conditions.

  17. Real-time In-Flight Strain and Deflection Monitoring with Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Dryden's efforts to develop in-flight monitoring based on Fiber Optics. One of the motivating factors for this development was the breakup of the Helios aircraft. On Ikhana the use of fiber optics for wing shape sensing is being developed. They are being used to flight validate fiber optic sensor measurements and real-time wing shape sensing predictions on NASA's Ikhana vehicle; validate fiber optic mathematical models and design tools; Assess technical viability and, if applicable, develop methodology and approach to incorporate wing shape measurements within the vehicle flight control system, and develop and flight validate advanced approaches to perform active wing shape control.

  18. Modeling and software implementation of flight system for simulator of a new fighter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Cheng-cheng; YANG Yong-tian; JIA Rong-zhen

    2004-01-01

    Real-time modeling and simulation of flight system are the key parts of simulator. After describing the architecture of simulator for a newer fighter, author presents the composition of flight system and its mathematic models. In this paper, aircraft is regarded as an elastic flight body. And a new integrated algorithm which can remedy the shortcoming of Euler method and four-element method is used to calculate the Eulerian angles of aircraft. Finally, the software implementation of the flight system is given in the paper.

  19. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  20. Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling From Flight Data Using Advanced Piloted Maneuvers and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Seedling Project Phase I research project entitled "Nonlinear Aerodynamics Modeling using Fuzzy Logic" are presented. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope. Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions.