Sample records for arene c-h bonds

  1. Spontaneous reduction and C-H borylation of arenes mediated by uranium(III) disproportionation. (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; Mansell, Stephen M; Maron, Laurent; McKay, David


    Transition-metal-arene complexes such as bis(benzene)chromium Cr(η(6)-C(6)H(6))(2) are historically important to d-orbital bonding theory and have modern importance in organic synthesis, catalysis and organic spintronics. In investigations of f-block chemistry, however, arenes are invariably used as solvents rather than ligands. Here, we show that simple uranium complexes UX(3) (X = aryloxide, amide) spontaneously disproportionate, transferring an electron and X-ligand, allowing the resulting UX(2) to bind and reduce arenes, forming inverse sandwich molecules [X(2)U(µ-η(6):η(6)-arene)UX(2)] and a UX(4) by-product. Calculations and kinetic studies suggest a 'cooperative small-molecule activation' mechanism involving spontaneous arene reduction as an X-ligand is transferred. These mild reaction conditions allow functionalized arenes such as arylsilanes to be incorporated. The bulky UX(3) are also inert to reagents such as boranes that would react with the traditional harsh reaction conditions, allowing the development of a new in situ arene C-H bond functionalization methodology converting C-H to C-B bonds.

  2. Manganese-Mediated C-H Alkylation of Unbiased Arenes Using Alkylboronic Acids. (United States)

    Castro, Susana; Fernández, Juan J; Fañanás, Francisco J; Vicente, Rubén; Rodríguez, Félix


    The alkylation of arenes is an essential synthetic step of interest not only from the academic point of view but also in the bulk chemical industry. Despite its limitations, the Friedel-Crafts reaction is still the method of choice for most of the arene alkylation processes. Thus, the development of new strategies to synthesize alkyl arenes is a highly desirable goal, and herein, we present an alternative method to those conventional reactions. Particularly, a simple protocol for the direct C-H alkylation of unbiased arenes with alkylboronic acids in the presence of Mn(OAc)3 ⋅2H2 O is reported. Primary or secondary unactivated alkylboronic acids served as alkylating agents for the direct functionalization of representative polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or benzene. The results are consistent with a free-radical mechanism. PMID:27124250

  3. C-H fluorination: U can fluorinate unactivated bonds (United States)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Ritter, Tobias


    Introducing C-F bonds into organic molecules is a challenging task, particularly through C-H activation methods. Now, a uranium-based photocatalyst turns traditional selectivity rules on their heads and fluorinates unfunctionalized alkane Csp3-H bonds, even in the presence of C-H bonds that are typically more reactive.

  4. Carboxylate-Assisted Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Amination of Arenes with Biologically Relevant Alkyl Azides. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Tiantian; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Lu, Hongjian


    An iridium-catalyzed C-H amination of arenes with a wide substrate scope is reported. Benzamides with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups and linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl azides are all applicable. Cesium carboxylate is crucial for both reactivity and regioselectivity of the reactions. Many biologically relevant molecules, such as amino acid, peptide, steroid, sugar, and thymidine derivatives can be introduced to arenes with high yields and 100 % chiral retention. PMID:26712274

  5. C-H bond activation by f-block complexes. (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; McMullon, Max W; Rieb, Julia; Kühn, Fritz E


    Most homogeneous catalysis relies on the design of metal complexes to trap and convert substrates or small molecules to value-added products. Organometallic lanthanide compounds first gave a tantalizing glimpse of their potential for catalytic C-H bond transformations with the selective cleavage of one C-H bond in methane by bis(permethylcyclopentadienyl)lanthanide methyl [(η(5) -C5 Me5 )2 Ln(CH3 )] complexes some 25 years ago. Since then, numerous metal complexes from across the periodic table have been shown to selectively activate hydrocarbon C-H bonds, but the challenges of closing catalytic cycles still remain; many f-block complexes show great potential in this important area of chemistry. PMID:25384554

  6. Iron-Carbonyl-Catalyzed Redox-Neutral [4+2] Annulation of N-H Imines and Internal Alkynes by C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Jia, Teng; Zhao, Chongyang; He, Ruoyu; Chen, Hui; Wang, Congyang


    Stoichiometric C-H bond activation of arenes mediated by iron carbonyls was reported by Pauson as early as in 1965, yet the catalytic C-H transformations have not been developed. Herein, an iron-catalyzed annulation of N-H imines and internal alkynes to furnish cis-3,4-dihydroisoquinolines is described, and represents the first iron-carbonyl-catalyzed C-H activation reaction of arenes. Remarkablely, this is also the first redox-neutral [4+2] annulation of imines and alkynes proceeding by C-H activation. The reaction also features only cis stereoselectivity and excellent atom economy as neither base, nor external ligand, nor additive is required. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal an oxidative addition mechanism for C-H bond activation to afford a dinuclear ferracycle and a synergetic diiron-promoted H-transfer to the alkyne as the turnover-determining step.

  7. Light-Induced C-H Arylation of (Hetero)arenes by In Situ Generated Diazo Anhydrides. (United States)

    Cantillo, David; Mateos, Carlos; Rincon, Juan A; de Frutos, Oscar; Kappe, C Oliver


    Diazo anhydrides (Ar-N=N-O-N=N-Ar) have been known since 1896 but have rarely been used in synthesis. This communication describes the development of a photochemical catalyst-free C-H arylation methodology for the preparation of bi(hetero)aryls by the one-pot reaction of anilines with tert-butyl nitrite and (hetero)arenes under neutral conditions. The key step in this procedure is the in situ formation and subsequent photochemical (>300 nm) homolytic cleavage of a transient diazo anhydride intermediate. The generated aryl radical then efficiently reacts with a (hetero)arene to form the desired bi(hetero)aryls producing only nitrogen, water, and tert-butanol as byproducts. The scope of the reaction for several substituted anilines and (hetero)arenes was investigated. A continuous-flow protocol increasing selectivity and safety has been developed enabling the experimentally straightforward preparation of a variety of substituted bi(hetero)aryls within 45 min of reaction time. PMID:26239967

  8. Pd-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation of Arenes Using PyrDipSi, a Transformable and Removable Silicon-Tethered Directing Group. (United States)

    Sarkar, Dhruba; Gevorgyan, Vladimir


    An efficient Pd-catalyzed ortho-C-H alkylation reaction of arenes using a transformable and removable Si-tethered pyridyldiisopropylsilyl (PyrDipSi) directing group has been developed. In addition, the PyrDipSi directing group allows for an efficient sequential double-fold C-H alkylation/oxygenation of arenes to produce meta-alkylated phenols. This directing group can easily be removed or converted into valuable functionalities, such as aryl, iodo, boronic ester, or phenol. PMID:27272930

  9. Homolytic Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of C C and C-H Bonds in Highly Crowded Alkanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chen; RUI Lei; FU Yao


    The homolytic C-C and C--H bond dissociation enthalpyies (BDE) of highly crowded alkanes were calcu- lated by using an ONIOM-G3B3 method. Geometric parameters such as bond length, bond angle and molecular volume were carefully investigated, as most of the acyclic alkanes in this study were not yet synthesized. These pa-rameters reflect the influence of steric effect on BDE. Good correlations were found between the rapid decrease of BDE and the increase of molecular volumes. The correlations can be applied to the prediction of the possible exis-tence of many highly strained compounds.

  10. Chelation-assisted Pd-catalysed ortho-selective oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling of aromatic carboxylic acids with arenes and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation: one-pot formation of fluorenones. (United States)

    Sun, Denan; Li, Bijin; Lan, Jingbo; Huang, Quan; You, Jingsong


    Pd-Catalysed ortho-selective oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling of aromatic carboxylic acids with arenes and subsequent intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation has been accomplished for the first time through a chelation-assisted C-H activation strategy. Starting from the readily available substrates, a variety of fluorenone derivatives are obtained in one pot. The direct use of naturally occurring carboxylic acid functionalities as directing groups avoids unnecessary steps for installation and removal of an extra directing group. PMID:26861768

  11. Surface-Controlled Mono/Diselective ortho C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Aghdassi, Nabi; Miao, Kangjian; Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Haiming; Li, Youyong; Duhm, Steffen; Fan, Jian; Chi, Lifeng


    One of the most charming and challenging topics in organic chemistry is the selective C-H bond activation. The difficulty arises not only from the relatively large bond-dissociation enthalpy, but also from the poor reaction selectivity. In this work, Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces were used to address ortho C-H functionalization and ortho-ortho couplings of phenol derivatives. More importantly, the competition between dehydrogenation and deoxygenation drove the diversity of reaction pathways of phenols on surfaces, that is, diselective ortho C-H bond activation on Au(111) surfaces and monoselective ortho C-H bond activation on Ag(111) surfaces. The mechanism of this unprecedented phenomenon was extensively explored by scanning tunneling microscopy, density function theory, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our findings provide new pathways for surface-assisted organic synthesis via the mono/diselective C-H bond activation. PMID:26853936

  12. Anion–arene adducts: C–H hydrogen bonding, anion– interaction, and carbon bonding motifs


    Hay, Benjamin P.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.


    This article summarizes experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of four distinct binding modes for complexes of anions with charge-neutral arenes. These include C–H hydrogen bonding and three motifs involving the arene– system—the noncovalent anion– interaction, weakly covalent interaction, and strongly covalent interaction.

  13. C-H and N-H bond dissociation energies of small aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barckholtz, C.; Barckholtz, T.A.; Hadad, C.M.


    A survey of computational methods was undertaken to calculate the homolytic bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the C-H and N-H bonds in monocyclic aromatic molecules that are representative of the functionalities present in coal. These include six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine) and five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, pyrrole, oxazole). By comparison of the calculated C-H BDEs with the available experimental values for these aromatic molecules, the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was selected to calculate the BDEs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including carbonaceous PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, coronene) and heteroatomic PAHs (benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole, benzoxazole, quinoline, isoquinoline, dibenzofuran, carbazole). The cleavage of a C-H or a N-H bond generates a {sigma} radical that is, in general, localized at the site from which the hydrogen atom was removed. However, delocalization of the unpaired electron results in {approximately} 7 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} stabilization of the radical with respect to the formation of phenyl when the C-H bond is adjacent to a nitrogen atom in the azabenzenes. Radicals from five-membered rings are {approximately} 6 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} less stable than those formed from six-membered rings due to both localization of the spin density and geometric factors. The location of the heteroatoms in the aromatic ring affects the C-H bond strengths more significantly than does the size of the aromatic network. Therefore, in general, the monocyclic aromatic molecules can be used to predict the C-H BDE of the large PAHs within 1 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1}.

  14. Aliphatic C-H---Anion Hydrogen Bonds: Weak Contacts or Strong Interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Pedzisa, Lee [ORNL


    Electronic structure calculations, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ, are used to determine C H---Cl hydrogen bond energies for a series of XCH3 donor groups in which the electron-withdrawing ability of X is varied over a wide range of values. When attached to polarizing substituents, aliphatic CH groups are moderate to strong hydrogen bond donors, exhibiting interaction energies comparable to those obtained with O H and N H groups. The results explain why aliphatic C H donors are observed to function as competitive binding sites in solution and suggest that such C H---anion contacts should be considered as possible contributors when evaluating the denticity of an anion receptor.

  15. Facile P-C/C-H Bond Cleavage Reactivity of Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Li, Haixia; Appel, Aaron M.; Hall, Michael B.; Bullock, R. Morris


    Unusual cleavage of P-C and C-H bonds of the P2N2 ligand in heteroleptic [Ni(P2N2)(diphosphine)]2+ complexes results in the formation of an iminium formyl nickelate featuring a C,P,P-tridentate coordination mode.

  16. Efficient photolytic C-H bond functionalization of alkylbenzene with hypervalent iodine(iii) reagent. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryu; Inada, Tsubasa; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Moteki, Shin A; Maruoka, Keiji


    A practical approach to radical C-H bond functionalization by the photolysis of a hypervalent iodine(iii) reagent is presented. The photolysis of [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) leads to the generation of trifluoroacetoxy radicals, which allows the smooth transformation of various alkylbenzenes to the corresponding benzyl ester compounds under mild reaction conditions. PMID:26686276

  17. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach

  18. C-H bond activation by metal-superoxo species: what drives high reactivity? (United States)

    Ansari, Azaj; Jayapal, Prabha; Rajaraman, Gopalan


    Metal-superoxo species are ubiquitous in metalloenzymes and bioinorganic chemistry and are known for their high reactivity and their ability to activate inert C-H bonds. The comparative oxidative abilities of M-O2(.-) species (M = Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), and Cu(II)) towards C-H bond activation reaction are presented. These superoxo species generated by oxygen activation are found to be aggressive oxidants compared to their high-valent metal-oxo counterparts generated by O⋅⋅⋅O bond cleavage. Our calculations illustrate the superior oxidative abilities of Fe(III)- and Mn(III)-superoxo species compared to the others and suggest that the reactivity may be correlated to the magnetic exchange parameter.

  19. Time resolved infrared studies of C-H bond activation by organometallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, M.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.


    This work describes how step-scan Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and visible and near infrared ultrafast lasers have been applied to the study of the photochemical activation of C-H bonds in organometallic systems, which allow for the selective breaking of C-H bonds in alkanes. The author has established the photochemical mechanism of C-H activation by Tp{sup *}Rh(CO){sub 2}(Tp{sup *} = HB-Pz{sup *}{sub 3}, Pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl) in alkane solution. The initially formed monocarbonyl forms a weak solvent complex, which undergoes a change in Tp{sup *} ligand connectivity. The final C-H bond breaking step occurs at different time scales depending on the structure of the alkane. In linear solvents, the time scale is <50 ns and cyclic alkanes is {approximately}200 ps. The reactivity of the Tp{sup *}Rh(CO){sub 2} system has also been studied in aromatic solvents. Here the reaction proceeds through two different pathways, with very different time scales. The first proceeds in a manner analogous to alkanes and takes <50 ns. The second proceeds through a Rh-C-C complex, and takes place on a time scale of 1.8 {micro}s.

  20. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Addition/Amine-Mediated Cyclization of Bis-Michael Acceptors. (United States)

    Potter, Tyler J; Ellman, Jonathan A


    A Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond addition/primary amine-promoted cyclization of bis-Michael acceptors is reported. The C-H bond addition step occurs with high chemoselectivity, and the subsequent intramolecular Michael addition, mediated by a primary amine catalyst, sets three contiguous stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity. A broad range of directing groups and both aromatic and alkenyl C-H bonds were shown to be effective in this transformation, affording functionalized piperidines, tetrahydropyrans, and cyclohexanes.

  1. Enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds following a strategy of functionalization and diversification. (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F


    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by the catalytic diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S, or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with a high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated.

  2. Activation of C-H and B-H bonds through agostic bonding: an ELF/QTAIM insight. (United States)

    Zins, Emilie-Laure; Silvi, Bernard; Alikhani, M Esmaïl


    Agostic bonding is of paramount importance in C-H bond activation processes. The reactivity of the σ C-H bond thus activated will depend on the nature of the metallic center, the nature of the ligand involved in the interaction and co-ligands, as well as on geometric parameters. Because of their importance in organometallic chemistry, a qualitative classification of agostic bonding could be very much helpful. Herein we propose descriptors of the agostic character of bonding based on the electron localization function (ELF) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) topological analysis. A set of 31 metallic complexes taken, or derived, from the literature was chosen to illustrate our methodology. First, some criteria should prove that an interaction between a metallic center and a σ X-H bond can indeed be described as "agostic" bonding. Then, the contribution of the metallic center in the protonated agostic basin, in the ELF topological description, may be used to evaluate the agostic character of bonding. A σ X-H bond is in agostic interaction with a metal center when the protonated X-H basin is a trisynaptic basin with a metal contribution strictly larger than the numerical uncertainty, i.e. 0.01 e. In addition, it was shown that the weakening of the electron density at the X-Hagostic bond critical point with respect to that of X-Hfree well correlates with the lengthening of the agostic X-H bond distance as well as with the shift of the vibrational frequency associated with the νX-H stretching mode. Furthermore, the use of a normalized parameter that takes into account the total population of the protonated basin, allows the comparison of the agostic character of bonding involved in different complexes. PMID:25760795

  3. Boron-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Bond Silylation with Hydrosilanes. (United States)

    Ma, Yuanhong; Wang, Baoli; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Zhaomin


    Metal-free catalytic C-H silylation of a series of aromatic compounds such as N,N-disubstituted anilines with various hydrosilanes has been achieved for the first time using commercially available B(C6F5)3 as a catalyst. This protocol features simple and neutral reaction conditions, high regioselectivity, wide substrate scope (up to 40 examples), Si-Cl bond compatibility, and no requirement for a hydrogen acceptor. PMID:26959863

  4. Titanium-Thiolate-Aluminum-Carbide Complexes by Multiple C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Guérin; Stephan


    All three C-H bonds of a methyl group are activated in the reaction of [Cp(iPr(3)PN)Ti(SR)(2)] with AlMe(3) [Eq. (1)]. The Ti-Al-carbide clusters formed contain a severely distorted tetrahedral carbide carbon atom with a relatively short bond to Ti, which is attributed to a relative increase in the Lewis acidity of the Ti center as a result of the interaction of the S and N donors with Al. PMID:10649329

  5. Direct Oxidation of Aliphatic C-H Bonds in Amino-Containing Molecules under Transition-Metal-Free Conditions. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Che, Xing; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Jia-Lei; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Gao, Yi Qin; Shi, Zhang-Jie


    By employing a simple, inexpensive, and transition-metal-free oxidation system, secondary C-H bonds in a series of phthaloyl protected primary amines and amino acid derivatives were oxidized to carbonyls with good regioselectivities. This method could also be applied to oxidize tertiary C-H bonds and modify synthetic dipeptides. PMID:26949833

  6. The C-H bond dissociation enthalpies in fused N-heterocyclic compounds (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Xing; Zheng, Wen-Rui; Ding, Lan-Lan


    The C-H bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of the 26 N, O, S-containing mono-heterocyclic compounds were evaluated using the composite high-level ab initio methods G3 and G4. The C-H BDEs for 32 heterocyclic compounds were calculated using 8 types of density functional theory (DFT) methods. Comparing with the experimental values, the BMK method gave the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.2 kJ/mol. Therefore, the C-H BDEs of N-fused-heterocyclic compounds at different positions were investigated by the BMK method. By NBO analysis two linear relationships between the C-H BDEs of quinoline and isoquinoline with natural charges qC/ e in molecules and with natural charges qC/ e in radicals were found. The substituent effects on C(α)-H BDEs in N-fused-heterocyclic compounds were also discussed. It was found that there are two linear relationships between the C(α)-H BDEs of quinoline and isoquinoline derivatives with natural charges qC(α)/ e for the EDGs and CEGs substituents.

  7. Crystal structures of resorcin[4]arene and pyrogallol[4]arene complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid. Model compounds for the recognition of the pipecolinyl ring, a key fragment of FK506, through C-H⋯π interaction (United States)

    Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Yuji; Kato, Ryo; Murayama, Kazutaka; Aoki, Katsuyuki


    Resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer, abbreviated as RCT) or pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer, PCT) form host-guest 1:1 complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid (DL-pipeH), RCT·DL-pipeH·EtOH·8H2O (1), PCT DL-pipeH·EtOH·4H2O (2), and PCT·DL-pipeH·3H2O (3), whose crystal structures have been determined. In each complex, the pipeH ligand is incorporated into the bowl-shaped cavity of the RCT or PCT host molecules through C-H⋯π interactions between alkyl protons of the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT, forming an [(RCT/PCT)·pipeH] structural fragment. In 1 and 3, two [(RCT/PCT) pipeH] fragments self-associate across an inversion center to form a guest-mediated, obliquely declined dimeric structure [(RCT/PCT)·L-pipeH·D-pipeH (RCT/PCT)]. In 2, each PCT-capped pipeH ligand bridges to two adjacent PCT molecules to form guest-mediated, optically-discrete helical polymers [PCT·L-pipeH]n or [PCT·D-pipeH]n. An 1H NMR experiment shows that the complexation through C-H⋯π interaction between the piperidine ring of pipeH and π-rings of RCT or PCT occurs also in solution, with the binding constants of 9.7 ± 0.6 M-1 for RCT and 26.5 ± 1.5 M-1 for PCT. These complexes provide a synthetic model for the recognition of the pipecolinyl-ring moiety, a key constituent of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506, FK520 or rapamycin, by their binding proteins through C-H⋯π interaction.

  8. A direct experimental evidence for an aromatic C-H⋯O hydrogen bond by fluorescence-detected infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Venkatesan, V.; Fujii, A.; Ebata, T.; Mikami, N.


    Formation of a weak aromatic C-H⋯O hydrogen bond has been discerned both experimentally and computationally in the 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB)-water system. The intermolecular structure of the isolated TFB-water cluster in a supersonic jet was characterized using fluorescence-detected infrared spectroscopy. The formation of a weak hydrogen bond in the cluster was directly evidenced by a low-frequency shift and intensity enhancement of the hydrogen-bonded aromatic C-H stretch in the TFB moiety. This is the first direct observation of an aromatic C-H⋯O hydrogen bond in isolated gas phase clusters.

  9. The Breathing Orbital Valence Bond Method in Diffusion Monte Carlo: C-H Bond Dissociation ofAcetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domin, D.; Braida, Benoit; Lester Jr., William A.


    This study explores the use of breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB) trial wave functions for diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). The approach is applied to the computation of the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond dissociation energy (BDE) of acetylene. DMC with BOVB trial wave functions yields a C-H BDE of 132.4 {+-} 0.9 kcal/mol, which is in excellent accord with the recommended experimental value of 132.8 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol. These values are to be compared with DMC results obtained with single determinant trial wave functions, using Hartree-Fock orbitals (137.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol) and local spin density (LDA) Kohn-Sham orbitals (135.6 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol).

  10. Inserting CO2 into Aryl C-H Bonds of Metal-Organic Frameworks: CO2 Utilization for Direct Heterogeneous C-H Activation. (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Wu, Haifan; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian


    Described for the first time is that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of the backbone of a metal-organic framework (MOF) to generate free carboxylate groups, which serve as Brønsted acid sites for efficiently catalyzing the methanolysis of epoxides. The work delineates the very first example of utilizing CO2 for heterogeneous C-H activation and carboxylation reactions on MOFs, and opens a new avenue for CO2 chemical transformations under mild reaction conditions.

  11. Modification of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Direct C-H Bond Activation

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    Yong Liang


    Full Text Available Transition metal-catalyzed modifications of the activated heterocyclic bases of nucleosides as well as DNA or RNA fragments employing traditional cross-coupling methods have been well-established in nucleic acid chemistry. This review covers advances in the area of cross-coupling reactions in which nucleosides are functionalized via direct activation of the C8-H bond in purine and the C5-H or C6-H bond in uracil bases. The review focuses on Pd/Cu-catalyzed couplings between unactivated nucleoside bases with aryl halides. It also discusses cross-dehydrogenative arylations and alkenylations as well as other reactions used for modification of nucleoside bases that avoid the use of organometallic precursors and involve direct C-H bond activation in at least one substrate. The scope and efficiency of these coupling reactions along with some mechanistic considerations are discussed.

  12. A potential role of substrate as a base for deprotonation pathway in Rh-catalysed C-H amination of heteroArenes: DFT insights

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John


    The possibility of direct introduction of a new functionality through C–H bond activation is an attractive strategy in covalent synthesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism of Rh-catalysed C-H amination of the hetero-aryl substrate (2-phenylpyridine) using phenyl azide as nitrogen source by density functional theory (DFT). For the deprotocyclometallation and protodecyclometallation processes of the title reaction, we propose a stepwise base-assisted mechanism (pathway I) instead of previously reported concerted mechanism (pathway II). In the new mechanism proposed here, 2-phenylpyridine acts as a base in the initial deprotonation step (C-H bond cleavage) and transports the proton towards the final protonation step. In fact, the N-H bond of the strong conjugate acid (formed during initial C-H bond cleavage) considered in pathway I (via TS4) is more acidic than the C-H bond of the neutral substrate considered in pathway II (via TS5). The higher activation barrier of TS5 mainly originates from the ring strain of the four membered cyclic transition state. The vital role of base, as disclosed here, can potentially have broader mechanistic implications for the development of reaction conditions of transition metal catalysed reactions.

  13. Selective molecular recognition, C-H bond activation, and catalysis in nanoscale reaction vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Leung, Dennis H.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.


    Supramolecular chemistry represents a way to mimic enzyme reactivity by using specially designed container molecules. We have shown that a chiral self-assembled M{sub 4}L{sub 6} supramolecular tetrahedron can encapsulate a variety of cationic guests, with varying degrees of stereoselectivity. Reactive iridium guests can be encapsulated and the C-H bond activation of aldehydes occurs, with the host cavity controlling the ability of substrates to interact with the metal center based upon size and shape. In addition, the host container can act as a catalyst by itself. By restricting reaction space and preorganizing the substrates into reactive conformations, it accelerates the sigmatropic rearrangement of enammonium cations.

  14. Insertion of singlet chlorocarbenes across C-H bonds in alkanes: Evidence for two phase mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramalingam; K Ramasami; P Venuvanalingam


    Transition states for the insertion reactions of singlet mono and dichlorocarbenes (1CHCl and 1CCl2) into C-H bonds of alkanes (methane, ethane, propane and -butane) have been investigated at MP2 and DFT levels with 6-31g ( , ) basis set. The of 1CHCl and 1CCl2 may interact with alkane’s filled fragment orbital of either or symmetry. So chlorocarbenes insertion reactions have been investigated for both (/) approaches. The approach has been adjudicated to be the minimum energy path over the approach both at the MP2 and DFT levels. Mulliken, NPA and ESP derived charge analyses have been carried out along the minimal energy reaction path using the IRC method for 1CHCl and 1CCl2 insertions into the primary and secondary C-H bonds of propane. The occurrence of TSs either in the electrophilic or nucleophilic phase has been identified through NBO charge analyses in addition to the net charge flow from alkane to the carbene moiety.

  15. Iridium(iii)-catalyzed regioselective direct arylation of sp(2) C-H bonds with diaryliodonium salts. (United States)

    Gao, Pan; Liu, Li; Shi, Zhuangzhi; Yuan, Yu


    A regioselective direct arylation of arenes and olefins at the ortho position is reported. The key to the high selectivity is the appropriate choice of diaryliodonium salts as the arylating reagent in the presence of a cationic iridium(iii) catalyst. The coordination of the metal with an oxygen atom or a nitrogen atom and subsequent C-H activation allows for direct arylation with coupling partners. This reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and with a high tolerance of various functional groups including many halide functional groups. PMID:27381238

  16. Silylation of C-H bonds in aromatic heterocycles by an Earth-abundant metal catalyst (United States)

    Toutov, Anton A.; Liu, Wen-Bo; Betz, Kerry N.; Fedorov, Alexey; Stoltz, Brian M.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Heteroaromatic compounds containing carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are of great interest in the fields of organic electronics and photonics, drug discovery, nuclear medicine and complex molecule synthesis, because these compounds have very useful physicochemical properties. Many of the methods now used to construct heteroaromatic C-Si bonds involve stoichiometric reactions between heteroaryl organometallic species and silicon electrophiles or direct, transition-metal-catalysed intermolecular carbon-hydrogen (C-H) silylation using rhodium or iridium complexes in the presence of excess hydrogen acceptors. Both approaches are useful, but their limitations include functional group incompatibility, narrow scope of application, high cost and low availability of the catalysts, and unproven scalability. For this reason, a new and general catalytic approach to heteroaromatic C-Si bond construction that avoids such limitations is highly desirable. Here we report an example of cross-dehydrogenative heteroaromatic C-H functionalization catalysed by an Earth-abundant alkali metal species. We found that readily available and inexpensive potassium tert-butoxide catalyses the direct silylation of aromatic heterocycles with hydrosilanes, furnishing heteroarylsilanes in a single step. The silylation proceeds under mild conditions, in the absence of hydrogen acceptors, ligands or additives, and is scalable to greater than 100 grams under optionally solvent-free conditions. Substrate classes that are difficult to activate with precious metal catalysts are silylated in good yield and with excellent regioselectivity. The derived heteroarylsilane products readily engage in versatile transformations enabling new synthetic strategies for heteroaromatic elaboration, and are useful in their own right in pharmaceutical and materials science applications.

  17. C-H Bond Oxidation Catalyzed by an Imine-Based Iron Complex: A Mechanistic Insight. (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Nardi, Martina; Vìdal, Diego; Barbieri, Alessia; Lapi, Andrea; Gómez, Laura; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Costas, Miquel; Di Stefano, Stefano


    A family of imine-based nonheme iron(II) complexes (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 has been prepared, characterized, and employed as C-H oxidation catalysts. Ligands LX (X = 1, 2, 3, and 4) stand for tridentate imine ligands resulting from spontaneous condensation of 2-pycolyl-amine and 4-substituted-2-picolyl aldehydes. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex occurs just upon mixing aldehyde, amine, and Fe(OTf)2 in a 2:2:1 ratio in acetonitrile solution. The solid-state structures of (L1)2Fe(OTf)(ClO4) and (L3)2Fe(OTf)2 are reported, showing a low-spin octahedral iron center, with the ligands arranged in a meridional fashion. (1)H NMR analyses indicate that the solid-state structure and spin state is retained in solution. These analyses also show the presence of an amine-imine tautomeric equilibrium. (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 efficiently catalyze the oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds employing H2O2 as a terminal oxidant. Manipulation of the electronic properties of the imine ligand has only a minor impact on efficiency and selectivity of the oxidative process. A mechanistic study is presented, providing evidence that C-H oxidations are metal-based. Reactions occur with stereoretention at the hydroxylated carbon and selectively at tertiary over secondary C-H bonds. Isotopic labeling analyses show that H2O2 is the dominant origin of the oxygen atoms inserted in the oxygenated product. Experimental evidence is provided that reactions involve initial oxidation of the complexes to the ferric state, and it is proposed that a ligand arm dissociates to enable hydrogen peroxide binding and activation. Selectivity patterns and isotopic labeling studies strongly suggest that activation of hydrogen peroxide occurs by heterolytic O-O cleavage, without the assistance of a cis-binding water or alkyl carboxylic acid. The sum of these observations provides sound evidence that controlled activation of H2O2 at (LX)2Fe(OTf)2 differs from that occurring in biomimetic iron catalysts described to date. PMID

  18. Enzymatic hydroxylation of an unactivated methylene C-H bond guided by molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Narayan, Alison R. H.; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Liu, Peng; Negretti, Solymar; Zhao, Wanxiang; Gilbert, Michael M.; Ramabhadran, Raghunath O.; Yang, Yun-Fang; Furan, Lawrence R.; Li, Zhe; Podust, Larissa M.; Montgomery, John; Houk, K. N.; Sherman, David H.


    The hallmark of enzymes from secondary metabolic pathways is the pairing of powerful reactivity with exquisite site selectivity. The application of these biocatalytic tools in organic synthesis, however, remains under-utilized due to limitations in substrate scope and scalability. Here, we report how the reactivity of a monooxygenase (PikC) from the pikromycin pathway is modified through computationally guided protein and substrate engineering, and applied to the oxidation of unactivated methylene C-H bonds. Molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations were used to develop a predictive model for substrate scope, site selectivity and stereoselectivity of PikC-mediated C-H oxidation. A suite of menthol derivatives was screened computationally and evaluated through in vitro reactions, where each substrate adhered to the predicted models for selectivity and conversion to product. This platform was also expanded beyond menthol-based substrates to the selective hydroxylation of a variety of substrate cores ranging from cyclic to fused bicyclic and bridged bicyclic compounds.

  19. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions using organic azides as the nitrogen source: a journey for the mild and versatile C-H amination. (United States)

    Shin, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyunwoo; Chang, Sukbok


    catalyst system using Ir(III) species was developed for the direct C-H amidation of arenes and alkenes with acyl azides under exceptionally mild conditions. As a natural extension, amidation of primary C(sp(3))-H bonds could also be realized on the basis of the superior activity of the Cp*Ir(III) catalyst. Mechanistic investigations revealed that a catalytic cycle is operated mainly in three stages: (i) chelation-assisted metallacycle formation via C-H bond cleavage; (ii) C-N bond formation through the in situ generation of a metal-nitrenoid intermediate followed by the insertion of an imido moiety to the metal carbon bond; (iii) product release via protodemetalation with the concomitant catalyst regeneration. In addition, this Account also summarizes the recent advances in the ruthenium- and cobalt-catalyzed amination reactions using organic azides, developed by our own and other groups. Comparative studies on the relative performance of those catalytic systems are briefly described.

  20. Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct funtionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes their work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. They initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2-alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. They then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, they discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. They then synthesized analogous Rh-NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2}] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolein, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C-H bond occurs. The resulting Rh-H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid co-catalysts accelerate the alkylation, they developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of

  1. Consequences of metal-oxide interconversion for C-H bond activation during CH4 reactions on Pd catalysts. (United States)

    Chin, Ya-Huei Cathy; Buda, Corneliu; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique


    Mechanistic assessments based on kinetic and isotopic methods combined with density functional theory are used to probe the diverse pathways by which C-H bonds in CH4 react on bare Pd clusters, Pd cluster surfaces saturated with chemisorbed oxygen (O*), and PdO clusters. C-H activation routes change from oxidative addition to H-abstraction and then to σ-bond metathesis with increasing O-content, as active sites evolve from metal atom pairs (*-*) to oxygen atom (O*-O*) pairs and ultimately to Pd cation-lattice oxygen pairs (Pd(2+)-O(2-)) in PdO. The charges in the CH3 and H moieties along the reaction coordinate depend on the accessibility and chemical state of the Pd and O centers involved. Homolytic C-H dissociation prevails on bare (*-*) and O*-covered surfaces (O*-O*), while C-H bonds cleave heterolytically on Pd(2+)-O(2-) pairs at PdO surfaces. On bare surfaces, C-H bonds cleave via oxidative addition, involving Pd atom insertion into the C-H bond with electron backdonation from Pd to C-H antibonding states and the formation of tight three-center (H3C···Pd···H)(‡) transition states. On O*-saturated Pd surfaces, C-H bonds cleave homolytically on O*-O* pairs to form radical-like CH3 species and nearly formed O-H bonds at a transition state (O*···CH3(•)···*OH)(‡) that is looser and higher in enthalpy than on bare Pd surfaces. On PdO surfaces, site pairs consisting of exposed Pd(2+) and vicinal O(2-), Pd(ox)-O(ox), cleave C-H bonds heterolytically via σ-bond metathesis, with Pd(2+) adding to the C-H bond, while O(2-) abstracts the H-atom to form a four-center (H3C(δ-)···Pd(ox)···H(δ+)···O(ox))(‡) transition state without detectable Pd(ox) reduction. The latter is much more stable than transition states on *-* and O*-O* pairs and give rise to a large increase in CH4 oxidation turnover rates at oxygen chemical potentials leading to Pd to PdO transitions. These distinct mechanistic pathways for C-H bond activation, inferred from theory

  2. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongjun; Tang, Pei; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hanjun; Yan, Ning; Hu, Gang; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Ding


    A heterogeneous, inexpensive and environment-friendly carbon catalytic system was developed for the C-H bond arylation of benzene resulting in the subsequent formation of biaryl compounds. The oxygen-containing groups on these graphene oxide sheets play an essential role in the observed catalytic activity. The catalytic results of model compounds and DFT calculations show that these functional groups promote this reaction by stabilization and activation of K ions at the same time of facilitating the leaving of I. And further mechanisms studies show that it is the charge induced capabilities of oxygen groups connected to specific carbon skeleton together with the giant π-reaction platform provided by the π-domain of graphene that played the vital roles in the observed excellent catalytic activity. D. Mei acknowledges the support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  3. Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-Incarvillateine Employing an Intramolecular Alkylation via Rh-Catalyzed Olefinic C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    An asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-incarvillateine, a natural product having potent analgesic properties, has been achieved in 11 steps and 15.4% overall yield. The key step is a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkylation of an olefinic C-H bond to set two stereocenters. Additionally, this transformation produces an exocyclic, tetrasubstituted alkene through which the bicyclic piperidine moiety can readily be accessed.

  4. Synthesis of a Benzodiazepine-derived Rhodium NHC Complex by C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Roberg G.; Gribble, Jr., Michael W.; Ellman, Jonathan A.


    The synthesis and characterization of a Rh(I)-NHC complex generated by C-H activation of 1,4-benzodiazepine heterocycle are reported. This complex constitutes a rare example of a carbene tautomer of a 1,4-benzodiazepine aldimine stabilized by transition metal coordination and demonstrates the ability of the catalytically relevant RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment to induce NHC-forming tautomerization of heterocycles possessing a single carbene-stabilizing heteroatom. Implications for the synthesis of benzodiazepines and related pharmacophores via C-H functionalization are discussed.

  5. Synthesis of a tricyclic mescaline analogue by catalytic C-H bond activation. (United States)

    Ahrendt, Kateri A; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A


    [reaction: see text] A tetrahydrobis(benzofuran) mescaline analogue has been prepared in six steps and 38% overall yield from (4'-O-methyl)methyl gallate. The key step in this synthesis is a tandem cyclization reaction via directed C[bond]H activation followed by olefin insertion.

  6. Lactamization of sp(2) C-H Bonds with CO2 : Transition-Metal-Free and Redox-Neutral. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liao, Li-Li; Yan, Si-Shun; Wang, Lei; He, Yun-Qi; Ye, Jian-Heng; Li, Jing; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Yu, Da-Gang


    The first direct use of carbon dioxide in the lactamization of alkenyl and heteroaryl C-H bonds to synthesize important 2-quinolinones and polyheterocycles in moderate to excellent yields is reported. Carbon dioxide, a nontoxic, inexpensive, and readily available greenhouse gas, acts as an ideal carbonyl source. Importantly, this transition-metal-free and redox-neutral process is eco-friendly and desirable for the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, these reactions feature a broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, facile scalability, and easy product derivatization. PMID:27095584

  7. Copper-Catalyzed Redox-Triggered Remote C-H Functionalization: Highly Selective Formation of C-CF3 and C-O Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taotao Li; Peng Yu; Jin-Shun Lin; Yonggang Zhi; Xin-Yuan Liu


    A Cu-catalyzed remote sp3 C-H/unactivated alkenes functionalization reaction for the concomitant construction ofC-CF3 and C-O bonds was described.An 1,5-H radical transfer involving an sp3 C-H bond adjacent to a nitrogen atom and an α-CF3-alkyl radical intermediate derived from unactivated alkenes was observed and demonstrated to proceed via the radical process.

  8. Exploring new avenues for Arene-Ruthenium complexes: coordination to [60]fullerene, hydrogen bonding assemblies and liquid-crystalline materials


    Appavoo-Gupta, Divambal; Deschenaux, Robert


    The thesis aims at using arene-ruthenium complexes as building blocks for the synthesis of diverse compounds to obtain potential mesomorphic and/or biological properties. The thesis consists of three main projects. The first project deals with supramolecular assemblies. New supramolecular di- and tetranuclear ruthenium arrangements, the latter bearing a cavity, were designed. H-bonding was the key interaction involved in the synthesis of the spacer ligands, which exist as dimers. Different s...

  9. Oxygen activation and intramolecular C-H bond activation by an amidate-bridged diiron(II) complex. (United States)

    Jones, Matthew B; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Hagen, Karl S; MacBeth, Cora E


    A diiron(II) complex containing two μ-1,3-(κN:κO)-amidate linkages has been synthesized using the 2,2',2''-tris(isobutyrylamido)triphenylamine (H(3)L(iPr)) ligand. The resulting diiron complex, 1, reacts with dioxygen (or iodosylbenzene) to effect intramolecular C-H bond activation at the methine position of the ligand isopropyl group. The ligand-activated product, 2, has been isolated and characterized by a variety of methods including X-ray crystallography. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy of 2 prepared from(18)O(2) was used to confirm that the oxygen atom incorporated into the ligand framework is derived from molecular oxygen.

  10. Tetra-substituted olefin synthesis using palladium-catalysed C-H activation


    Lopez Suarez, Laura; Suarez, Laura Lopez


    In an effort to obtain more efficient and greener chemical transformations, a substantial amount of research interest has been directed towards the use of arene C-H bonds as functional groups. Hydroarylation of alkynes through direct functionalisation of C-H bonds has been studied in recent years leading to the development of high-yielding metal-mediated processes. The main aim of the current work is the addition of a third component in the hydroarylation of alkynes trough C-H activation, in ...

  11. Manganese-Substituted Myoglobin: Characterization and Reactivity of an Oxidizing Intermediate towards a Weak C-H Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L. Stone


    Full Text Available Metal-substituted hemoproteins have been examined by biochemists for decades, but their potential for diverse functionalities has not been thoroughly investigated. By replacing hemoproteins with non-native metals, heme-containing proteins could be capable of performing a range of chemistries not allowed for in the native protein. The metal within the heme of the oxygen-carrying hemoprotein, myoglobin, can readily be replaced with other first row transition metals such as cobalt, chromium and manganese. Upon oxidation with two-electron oxidants (ex. meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, an oxidizing intermediate is produced in manganese-substituted myoglobin. Electron paramagnetic resonance analyses confirm the oxidation of Mn(III to Mn(IV. With the addition of weak C-H bonds of 1,4 cyclohexadiene, hydrogen atom abstraction is exhibited by the oxidizing intermediate that displays a second-order rate constant of 2.79 +/− 0.22 M−1 s−1 by the metal-oxo species. The replacement of the iron ion with a manganese ion at the active site of myoglobin displays oxidative capabilities that are not shown in native myoglobin.

  12. O-H...π(arene) intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the structure of 1,1,2-triphenylethanol


    Ferguson, George; Gallagher, John F.; Glidewell, Christopher; Zakaria, Choudhury M.


    The 1,1,2-triphenylethanol molecule, Ph2(PhCH2)COH (I), forms centrosymmetric dimers in the solid state. The shortest O-..O separation, 5.837 (3)A,, is too long for any O--H..-O hydrogen-bond formation. Instead, there are O--H~..π(arene) interactions between the hydroxyl group of one molecule and a phenyl group of a centrosymmetrically related molecule. The O...C and H-..C distances between the hydroxyl group and the closest phenyl-ring C atom are 3.525 (4) and 2.73 (4...

  13. AgNO2-mediated direct nitration of the quinoxaline tertiary benzylic C-H bond and direct conversion of 2-methyl quinoxalines into related nitriles. (United States)

    Wu, Degui; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Jianhai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yunkui


    A unique method for AgNO2-mediated direct nitration of the quinoxaline tertiary C-H bond and direct conversion of 2-methyl quinoxalines into 2-quinoxaline nitriles under oxidative conditions has been developed. This protocol provides an efficient way to access quinoxaline containing nitroalkanes and nitriles depending on different substrate selection.

  14. Cobalt-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H/C-H Cross-Coupling between Two Heteroarenes. (United States)

    Tan, Guangying; He, Shuang; Huang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xingrong; Cheng, Yangyang; You, Jingsong


    The first example of cobalt-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling between two heteroarenes is reported, which exhibits a broad substrate scope and a high tolerance level for sensitive functional groups. When the amount of Co(OAc)2 ⋅4 H2 O is reduced from 6.0 to 0.5 mol %, an excellent yield is still obtained at an elevated temperature with a prolonged reaction time. The method can be extended to the reaction between an arene and a heteroarene. It is worth noting that the Ag2 CO3 oxidant is renewable. Preliminary mechanistic studies by radical trapping experiments, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments, kinetic isotope effect, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) suggest that a single electron transfer (SET) pathway is operative, which is distinctly different from the dual C-H bond activation pathway that the well-described oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling reactions between two heteroarenes typically undergo.

  15. Cobalt-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H/C-H Cross-Coupling between Two Heteroarenes. (United States)

    Tan, Guangying; He, Shuang; Huang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xingrong; Cheng, Yangyang; You, Jingsong


    The first example of cobalt-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling between two heteroarenes is reported, which exhibits a broad substrate scope and a high tolerance level for sensitive functional groups. When the amount of Co(OAc)2 ⋅4 H2 O is reduced from 6.0 to 0.5 mol %, an excellent yield is still obtained at an elevated temperature with a prolonged reaction time. The method can be extended to the reaction between an arene and a heteroarene. It is worth noting that the Ag2 CO3 oxidant is renewable. Preliminary mechanistic studies by radical trapping experiments, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments, kinetic isotope effect, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) suggest that a single electron transfer (SET) pathway is operative, which is distinctly different from the dual C-H bond activation pathway that the well-described oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling reactions between two heteroarenes typically undergo. PMID:27460406

  16. Intramolecular C-H bond activation and redox isomerization across two-electron mixed valence diiridium cores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esswein, A. J.; Veige, A. S.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Nocera, D. G.; MIT


    Metal-metal cooperativity enables the reaction of carbon-based substrates at diiridium two-electron mixed valence centers. Arylation of Ir{sub 2}{sup 0,II}(tfepma){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} (1) (tfepma = bis[(bistrifluoroethoxy)phosphino]methylamine) with RMgBr (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and C{sub 6}D{sub 5}) is followed by C-H bond activation to furnish the bridging benzyne complex Ir{sub 2}II,II(tfepma){sub 3}({mu}-C{sub 6}H4)(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})H (2), as the kinetic product. At ambient temperature, 2 isomerizes to Ir{sub 2}{sup I,III}(tfepma){sub 3}({mu}-C{sub 6}H4)(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})H (3) (k{sub obs} = 9.57 {+-} 0.10 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} at 31.8 C, {Delta}H{sup {+-}} = 21.7 {+-} 0.3 kcal/mol, {Delta}S{sup {+-}} = -7.4 {+-} 0.9 eu), in which the benzyne moiety is conserved and the Ir{sup III} center is ligated by terminal hydride and phenyl groups. The same reaction course is observed for arylation of 1 with C{sub 6}D{sub 5}MgBr to produce 2-d{sub 10} and 3-d{sub 10} accompanied by an inverse isotope effect, k{sub h}/k{sub d} = 0.44 (k{sub obs} = 2.17 {+-} 0.10 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} in C{sub 6}D{sub 6} solution at 31.8 C, {Delta}H{sup {+-}} = 24.9 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol, {Delta}S{sup {+-}} = -6.4 {+-} 2.4 eu). 2 reacts swiftly with hydrogen to provide Ir{sub 2}{sup II,II}(tfepma){sub 3}H{sub 4} as both the syn and anti isomers (4-syn and 4-anti, respectively). The hydrides of 4-syn were directly located by neutron diffraction analysis. X-ray crystallographic examination of 2, 2-d{sub 10}, 3, and 4-syn indicates that cooperative reactivity at the bimetallic diiridium core is facilitated by the ability of the two-electron mixed valence framework to accommodate the oxidation state changes and ligand rearrangements attendant to the reaction of the substrate.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed Cs2CO3-promoted arylation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds by (diacetoxyiodo)arenes: shifting the reactivity of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes from acetoxylation to arylation. (United States)

    Gou, Quan; Zhang, Zhao-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Qin, Jun


    PdCl2(CH3CN)2-catalyzed arylation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds using (diacetoxyiodo)arenes as arylation reagents is reported. The reactivity of (diacetoxyiodo)arenes as arylation reagents is enabled in the presence of Cs2CO3 under the reaction conditions. This arylation method is highly efficient and occurs without the use of silver salt. The reaction tolerates a broad substrate scope that was not demonstrated by other silver salt-free C(sp(3))-H bond arylation conditions. The synthetic utility of the method is further illustrated in the synthesis of the psychotropic drug phenibut. A detailed mechanism study has been conducted to understand the reaction pathway. PMID:25763683

  18. Hydrogen-bonded 1D and 2D Assemblies of Tetra- iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene in the Crystalline State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang; LIU Yu-Jie; ZHANG Qian-Feng


    X-ray crystal structures of co-crystals involving tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene 1 with both acetone and acetonitrile solvents were reported. The component 1(2(CH3)2CO 2 assembles such that the resorcin[4]arene adopts a C2v conformation and the acetone serves as hydrogen bond acceptors, forming a 1D hydrogen-bonded polymer. 2 (C50H68O10) crystallizes in the triclinic, space group P with a = 10.0440(7), b = 13.7498(9), c = 17.6374(12) (A), α = 77.726(2), β = 86.733(2), γ = 88.634(2)°, V = 2376.1(3) (A)3, Dc = 1.159 g/cm3, and Z = 2. The assembly process of component 1(2CH3CN(H2O 3 yields a 2D hydrogen-bonded polymer formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds between resorcin[4]arene and water molecules. In the case of component 3, the acetonitrile molecule serves as guest inside the bowl of resorcin[4]arene host. 3 (C48H64N2O9) crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P2/n with a = 13.7570(18), b = 9.0961(12), c = 19.453(3) (A), β = 103.017(3)°, V = 2371.7(5) (A)3, Dc = 1.138 g/cm3, and Z = 2.

  19. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculation studies of C H⋯O hydrogen bondings and thermal behavior of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (United States)

    Sato, Harumi; Dybal, Jiří; Murakami, Rumi; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    This review paper reports infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculation studies of C-H⋯O hydrogen bondings and thermal behavior of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates. IR and Raman spectra were measured for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and a new type of bacterial copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3-hydroxyhexanoate), P(HB- co-HHx) (HHx=12 mol%) over a temperature range of 20 °C to higher temperatures (PHB, 200 °C; HHx=12 mol%, 140 °C) to explore their structure and thermal behavior. One of bands due to the CH 3 asymmetric stretching modes appears near 3010 cm -1 in the IR and Raman spectra of PHB and P(HB- co-HHx) at 20 °C. These frequencies of IR and Raman CH 3 asymmetric stretching bands are much higher than usual. These anomalous frequencies of the CH 3 asymmetric stretching bands together with the X-ray crystallographic structure of PHB have suggested that there is an inter- or intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond between the C dbnd6 O group in one helical structure and the CH 3 group in the other helical structure in PHB and P(HB- co-HHx). The quantum chemical calculation of model compounds of PHB also has suggested the existence of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds in PHB and P(HB- co-HHx). It is very likely that a chain of C-H⋯O hydrogen bond pairs link two parallel helical structures in the crystalline parts. The temperature-dependent IR and Raman spectral variations have revealed that the crystallinity of P(HB- co-HHx) (HHx=12 mol%) decreases gradually from a fairly low temperature (about 60 °C), while the crystallinity of PHB remains almost unchanged until just below its melting temperature. It has also been found from the IR and Raman studies that for both PHB and P(HB- co-HHx) the weakening of the C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds starts from just above room temperature, but the deformation of helical structures occurs after the weakening of the C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds advances to some extent.

  20. Synthesis of Indole-2-carboxylate Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Amination of Aryl C-H Bonds. (United States)

    Clagg, Kyle; Hou, Haiyun; Weinstein, Adam B; Russell, David; Stahl, Shannon S; Koenig, Stefan G


    A direct oxidative C-H amination affording 1-acetyl indolecarboxylates starting from 2-acetamido-3-arylacrylates has been achieved. Indole-2-carboxylates can be targeted with a straightforward deacetylation of the initial reaction products. The C-H amination reaction is carried out using a catalytic Pd(II) source with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The scope and application of this chemistry is demonstrated with good to high yields for numerous electron-rich and electron-poor substrates. Further reaction of selected products via Suzuki arylation and deacetylation provides access to highly functionalized indole structures. PMID:27404018

  1. Activation of C-H Bonds in Pt(+) + x CH4 Reactions, where x = 1-4: Identification of the Platinum Dimethyl Cation. (United States)

    Wheeler, Oscar W; Salem, Michelle; Gao, Amanda; Bakker, Joost M; Armentrout, P B


    Activation of C-H bonds in the sequential reactions of Pt(+) + x(CH4/CD4), where x = 1-4, have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. Pt(+) cations are formed by laser ablation and exposed to controlled amounts of CH4/CD4 leading to [Pt,xC,(4x-2)H/D](+) dehydrogenation products. Irradiation of these products in the 400-2100 cm(-1) range leads to CH4/CD4 loss from the x = 3 and 4 products, whereas PtCH2(+)/PtCD2(+) products do not decompose at all, and x = 2 products dissociate only when formed from a higher order product. The structures of these complexes were explored theoretically at several levels of theory with three different basis sets. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical results indicate that the species formed have a Pt(CH3)2(+)(CH4)x-2/Pt(CD3)2(+)(CD4)x-2 binding motif for x = 2-4. Thus, reaction of Pt(+) with methane occurs by C-H bond activation to form PtCH2(+), which reacts with an additional methane molecule by C-H bond activation to form the platinum dimethyl cation. This proposed reaction mechanism is consistent with theoretical explorations of the potential energy surface for reactions of Pt(+) with one and two methane molecules.

  2. Promotional effects of chemisorbed oxygen and hydroxide in the activation of C-H and O-H bonds over transition metal surfaces (United States)

    Hibbitts, David; Neurock, Matthew


    Electronegative coadsorbates such as atomic oxygen (O*) and hydroxide (OH*) can act as Brønsted bases when bound to Group 11 as well as particular Group 8-10 metal surfaces and aid in the activation of X-H bonds. First-principle density functional theory calculations were carried out to systematically explore the reactivity of the C-H bonds of methane and surface methyl intermediates as well as the O-H bond of methanol directly and with the assistance of coadsorbed O* and OH* intermediates over Group 11 (Cu, Ag, and Au) and Group 8-10 transition metal (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt) surfaces. C-H as well as O-H bond activation over the metal proceeds via a classic oxidative addition type mechanism involving the insertion of the metal center into the C-H or O-H bond. O* and OH* assist C-H and O-H activation over particular Group 11 and Group 8-10 metal surfaces via a σ-bond metathesis type mechanism involving the oxidative addition of the C-H or O-H bond to the metal along with a reductive deprotonation of the acidic C-H and O-H bond over the M-O* or M-OH* site pair. The O*- and OH*-assisted C-H activation paths are energetically preferred over the direct metal catalyzed C-H scission for all Group 11 metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) with barriers that are 0.4-1.5 eV lower than those for the unassisted routes. The barriers for O*- and OH*-assisted C-H activation of CH4 on the Group 8-10 transition metals, however, are higher than those over the bare transition metal surfaces by as much as 1.4 eV. The C-H activation of adsorbed methyl species show very similar trends to those for CH4 despite the differences in structure between the weakly bound methane and the covalently adsorbed methyl intermediates. The activation of the O-H bond of methanol is significantly promoted by O* as well as OH* intermediates over both the Group 11 metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) as well as on all Group 8-10 metals studied (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt). The O*- and OH*-assisted CH3O-H barriers are 0.6 to 2

  3. Unified view of oxidative C-H bond cleavage and sulfoxidation by a nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex via Lewis acid-promoted electron transfer. (United States)

    Park, Jiyun; Morimoto, Yuma; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi


    Oxidative C-H bond cleavage of toluene derivatives and sulfoxidation of thioanisole derivatives by a nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex, [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine), were remarkably enhanced by the presence of triflic acid (HOTf) and Sc(OTf)3 in acetonitrile at 298 K. All the logarithms of the observed second-order rate constants of both the oxidative C-H bond cleavage and sulfoxidation reactions exhibit remarkably unified correlations with the driving forces of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET) in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer when the differences in the formation constants of precursor complexes between PCET and MCET were taken into account, respectively. Thus, the mechanisms of both the oxidative C-H bond cleavage of toluene derivatives and sulfoxidation of thioanisole derivatives by [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) in the presence of HOTf and Sc(OTf)3 have been unified as the rate-determining electron transfer, which is coupled with binding of [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) by proton (PCET) and Sc(OTf)3 (MCET). There was no deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) on the oxidative C-H bond cleavage of toluene via the PCET pathway, whereas a large KIE value was observed with Sc(OTf)3, which exhibited no acceleration of the oxidative C-H bond cleavage of toluene. When HOTf was replaced by DOTf, an inverse KIE (0.4) was observed for PCET from both toluene and [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) (bpy =2,2'-bipyridine) to [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+). The PCET and MCET reactivities of [(N4Py)Fe(IV)(O)](2+) with Brønsted acids and various metal triflates have also been unified as a single correlation with a quantitative measure of the Lewis acidity. PMID:24605985

  4. Direct Synthesis of Protoberberine Alkaloids by Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation as the Key Step. (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jayachandran; Cheng, Chien-Hong


    A one-pot reaction of substituted benzaldehydes with alkyne-amines by a Rh-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation to afford various natural and unnatural protoberberine alkaloids is reported. This reaction provides a convenient route for the generation of a compound library of protoberberine salts, which recently have attracted great attention because of their diverse biological activities. In addition, pyridinium salt derivatives can also be formed in good yields from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and amino-alkynes. This reaction proceeds with excellent regioselectivity and good functional group compatibility under mild reaction conditions by using O2 as the oxidant. PMID:26689172

  5. Olefin cis-Dihydroxylation and Aliphatic C-H Bond Oxygenation by a Dioxygen-Derived Electrophilic Iron-Oxygen Oxidant. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti


    Many iron-containing enzymes involve metal-oxygen oxidants to carry out O2-dependent transformation reactions. However, the selective oxidation of C-H and C=C bonds by biomimetic complexes using O2 remains a major challenge in bioinspired catalysis. The reactivity of iron-oxygen oxidants generated from an Fe(II)-benzilate complex of a facial N3 ligand were thus investigated. The complex reacted with O2 to form a nucleophilic oxidant, whereas an electrophilic oxidant, intercepted by external substrates, was generated in the presence of a Lewis acid. Based on the mechanistic studies, a nucleophilic Fe(II)-hydroperoxo species is proposed to form from the benzilate complex, which undergoes heterolytic O-O bond cleavage in the presence of a Lewis acid to generate an Fe(IV)-oxo-hydroxo oxidant. The electrophilic iron-oxygen oxidant selectively oxidizes sulfides to sulfoxides, alkenes to cis-diols, and it hydroxylates the C-H bonds of alkanes, including that of cyclohexane.

  6. Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed synthesis of pyrrole- and indole-fused isocoumarins by C-H bond activation in DMF and water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Sawant, S.G.; Dixneuf, P.H.

    : ChemCatChem, vol.8(6); 2016; 1046-1050 Ruthenium(II) catalysed synthesis of pyrrole and indole fused isocoumarins via C-H bond activation in DMF and water† Keisham S. Singh*,a Sneha G. Sawanta, Pierre H. Dixneuf*,b Abstract: Pyrrole and indole... isocoumarins from simple 1-methyl pyrrole-2- carboxylic acid and 1-methylindole-3-carboxylic acid via annulation with alkyne in the presence ruthenium(II) catalyst based on [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and Cu(OAc)2.H2O as oxidant in DMF. This ruthenium(II) catalysed...

  7. A Cobalt(I) Pincer Complex with an η(2) -C(aryl)-H Agostic Bond: Facile C-H Bond Cleavage through Deprotonation, Radical Abstraction, and Oxidative Addition. (United States)

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl


    The synthesis and reactivity of a Co(I) pincer complex [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) featuring an η(2)-C(aryl)-H agostic bond is described. This complex was obtained by protonation of the Co(I) complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2]. The Co(III) hydride complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2(H)](+) was obtained upon protonation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)2]. Three ways to cleave the agostic C-H bond are presented. First, owing to the acidity of the agostic proton, treatment with pyridine results in facile deprotonation (C-H bond cleavage) and reformation of [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2]. Second, C-H bond cleavage is achieved upon exposure of [Co(ϰ(3)P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) to oxygen or TEMPO to yield the paramagnetic Co(II) PCP complex [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+). Finally, replacement of one CO ligand in [Co(ϰ(3) P,CH,P-P(CH)P(NMe) -iPr)(CO)2](+) by CNtBu promotes the rapid oxidative addition of the agostic η(2) -C(aryl)-H bond to give two isomeric hydride complexes of the type [Co(PCP(NMe) -iPr)(CNtBu)(CO)(H)](+).

  8. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization (United States)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias


    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Desilylative Acyloxylation of Silicon-Carbon Bonds on (Trimethylsilyl)arenes: Synthesis of Phenol Derivatives from Trimethylsilylarenes. (United States)

    Gondo, Keisuke; Oyamada, Juzo; Kitamura, Tsugio


    A strategy for desilylative acetoxylation of (trimethylsilyl)arenes has been developed in which (trimethylsilyl)arenes are converted into acetoxyarenes. The direct acetoxylation is performed in the presence of 5 mol % of Pd(OAc)2 and PhI(OCOCF3)2 (1.5 equiv) in AcOH at 80 °C for 17 h. The acetoxyarenes are obtained in good to high yields (67-98%). The synthetic utility is demonstrated with a one-pot transformation of (trimethylsilyl)arenes to phenols by successive acetoxylation and hydrolysis. Furthermore, desilylative acyloxylation of 2-(trimethylsilyl)naphthalene using several carboxylic acids has been conducted. PMID:26401835

  10. Exceptional sensitivity of metal-aryl bond energies to ortho-fluorine substituents: influence of the metal, the coordination sphere, and the spectator ligands on M-C/H-C bond energy correlations. (United States)

    Clot, Eric; Mégret, Claire; Eisenstein, Odile; Perutz, Robin N


    DFT calculations are reported of the energetics of C-H oxidative addition of benzene and fluorinated benzenes, Ar(F)H (Ar(F) = C(6)F(n)H(5-n), n = 0-5) at ZrCp(2) (Cp = eta(5)-C(5)H(5)), TaCp(2)H, TaCp(2)Cl, WCp(2), ReCp(CO)(2), ReCp(CO)(PH(3)), ReCp(PH(3))(2), RhCp(PH(3)), RhCp(CO), IrCp(PH(3)), IrCp(CO), Ni(H(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PH(2)), Pt(H(2)PCH(2)CH(2)PH(2)). The change in M-C bond energy of the products fits a linear function of the number of fluorine substituents, with different coefficients corresponding to ortho-, meta-, and para-fluorine. The values of the ortho-coefficient range from 20 to 32 kJ mol(-1), greatly exceeding the values for the meta- and para-coefficients (2.0-4.5 kJ mol(-1)). Similarly, the H-C bond energies of Ar(F)H yield ortho- and para-coefficients of 10.4 and 3.4 kJ mol(-1), respectively, and a negligible meta-coefficient. These results indicate a large increase in the M-C bond energy with ortho-fluorine substitution on the aryl ring. Plots of D(M-C) vs D(H-C) yield slopes R(M-C/H-C) that vary from 1.93 to 3.05 with metal fragment, all in excess of values of 1.1-1.3 reported with other hydrocarbyl groups. Replacement of PH(3) by CO decreases R(M-C/H-C) significantly. For a given ligand set and metals in the same group of the periodic table, the value of R(M-C/H-C) does not increase with the strength of the M-C bond. Calculations of the charge on the aryl ring show that variations in ionicity of the M-C bonds correlate with variations in M-C bond energy. This strengthening of metal-aryl bonds accounts for numerous experimental results that indicate a preference for ortho-fluorine substituents. PMID:19453181


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Yu-hong Ma; Jing-yi Xie; Wan-tai Yang


    A one-step process to introduce both the aromatic and aliphatic primary amino groups with high chemoselectivity was developed.Triplet state acetone abstracts the hydrogen atoms from both the C--H bond of the polymeric film substrate and the OH bond of phenol which is the building block and the amino group carrier.As a result,two kinds of free radicals,confined carbon-centered chain radicals of the polymer substrate and mobile oxygen-centered phenoxy radicals,were generated.Then the C-O bonds were formed by the coupling reaction between these two kinds of free radicals,p-Tyramine and p-aminophenol were used as amino carriers.The successful introduction of amino groups onto LDPE,BOPP and PET film substrates was demonstrated by measurements of water contract angle (CA),ultraviolet spectra (UV),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescent microscopy.The processing factors,such as the UV-light intensity and irradiation time,concentrations of p-tyramine and p-aminophenol,and the ratio of acetone/water were investigated.The optimized process parameters are as follows:UV light intensity 9500 μW/cm2; irradiation time 18 min for BOPP and LDPE,22 rmin for PET; the ratio of acetone/water =1; and concentration ofp-tyramine and p-aminophenol 15% for BOPP and LDPE,1% for PET.Based on the UV absorbance,the amino groups on the polymeric substrates were estimated to be in the range of 6.3 x 10-6-9.5 x 10-6 mmol/mm2.

  12. One-dimensional Hydrogen-bonded Polymer Based on Tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene and 2,6-Diacetylpyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书群; 姚文锐; 张千峰


    The co-crystallization of tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene 1 and 2,6-diacetyl- pyridine (Ac2py) from MeCN/CH2Cl2 yielded a multi-component complex 1(Ac2py(2H2O(0.5Me-CN 2, in which the upper rim of 1 is extended supramolecularly by way of hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 (C52H66.5N1.5O14) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/m with a = 10.845(9), b = 20.805(17), c = 12.881(11) (A), β = 103.884(19)o, V = 2821(4) (A)3, Dc = 1.102 g/cm3 and Z = 2. The molecular structure shows that the two adjacent double-stranded arrays as well as linear and zigzag chains generated from Ac2py and water bridging to two resorcin[4] arene molecules, respectively, facilitate self-inclusion of one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymer.

  13. The Molybdenum Active Site of Formate Dehydrogenase Is Capable of Catalyzing C-H Bond Cleavage and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    Hartmann, Tobias; Schrapers, Peer; Utesch, Tillmann; Nimtz, Manfred; Rippers, Yvonne; Dau, Holger; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Haumann, Michael; Leimkühler, Silke


    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are capable of performing the reversible oxidation of formate and are enzymes of great interest for fuel cell applications and for the production of reduced carbon compounds as energy sources from CO2. Metal-containing FDHs in general contain a highly conserved active site, comprising a molybdenum (or tungsten) center coordinated by two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide molecules, a sulfido and a (seleno-)cysteine ligand, in addition to a histidine and arginine residue in the second coordination sphere. So far, the role of these amino acids in catalysis has not been studied in detail, because of the lack of suitable expression systems and the lability or oxygen sensitivity of the enzymes. Here, the roles of these active site residues is revealed using the Mo-containing FDH from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Our results show that the cysteine ligand at the Mo ion is displaced by the formate substrate during the reaction, the arginine has a direct role in substrate binding and stabilization, and the histidine elevates the pKa of the active site cysteine. We further found that in addition to reversible formate oxidation, the enzyme is further capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite. We propose a mechanistic scheme that combines both functionalities and provides important insights into the distinct mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage and oxygen atom transfer catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase. PMID:27054466

  14. Carbon dioxide as a carbon source in organic transformation: carbon-carbon bond forming reactions by transition-metal catalysts.


    Tsuji, Yasushi; Fujihara, Tetsuaki


    Recent carbon-carbon bond forming reactions of carbon dioxide with alkenes, alkynes, dienes, aryl zinc compounds, aryl boronic esters, aryl halides, and arenes having acidic C-H bonds are reviewed in which transition-metal catalysts play an important role.

  15. Strength of C-H Bonds at Nitrogen a-Position: Implication for Metabolic Stability of Nitrogen-containing Drug Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-Ming; ZOU Lu-Feng; XIE Miao; FU Yao


    The available experimental αC-H BDEs of a variety of amine-containing molecules were examined by using the G3B3 and CBS-Q methods. The verified values were employed to benchmark and calibrate the density functional theory methods. It was found that the (U)BHandH/6-311++G(2df, 2p)//(U)B3LYP/6-31G(d) method was a fast and accurate method for calculating C-H BDEs at nitrogen a-positions. By using the newly benchmarked BHandH method, the aC-H BDEs in a number of nitrogen-containing drug molecules were calculated, where a dramatic variation of the αC-H BDEs was discovered. To understand this variation, the effects of mono- and double-substitution at both carbon and nitrogen atoms on the aC-H BDEs were systematically studied. The origin of the substitution effects was thoroughly discussed in terms of four categories of substituents.

  16. A study on aromatic C-H⋯X (X = N, O) hydrogen bonds in 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene clusters using infrared spectroscopy and ab initio calculations (United States)

    Venkatesan, V.; Fujii, A.; Mikami, N.


    The (1:1) clusters of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene (TFB) with CH 3CN, CH 3OCH 3, and NH 3 were studied both experimentally and computationally. Using fluorescence-detected infrared (FDIR) spectroscopy, the aromatic C-H⋯X (X = N, O) hydrogen bond formation in the clusters was directly evidenced by a low-frequency shift and intensity enhancement of the aromatic C-H stretching vibration in the TFB moiety. The molecular structures, stabilization energies, and vibrational frequencies of the clusters were computed at the MP2/6-31+G* level. The observed low-frequency shifts of the aromatic C-H stretch in the clusters correlate with the proton affinities of the acceptor molecules.

  17. A regioselective synthesis of benzopinacolones through aerobic dehydrogenative α-arylation of the tertiary sp3 C-H bond of 1,1-diphenylketones with aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. (United States)

    More, Nagnath Yadav; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    A regioselective synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical benzopinacolones through aerobic dehydrogenative α-arylation at the tertiary sp(3) C-H bond of substituted 1,1-diphenylketones with aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, in the presence of K2S2O8 in CF3COOH at room temperature, is described. The reaction is proposed to go via a carbocation intermediate, which could be generated directly from cleavage of the sp(3) C-H bond of 1,1-diphenylketone. Subsequent α-arylation was achieved at the methene sp(3) carbon atom of the substituted ketone. A variety of substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds were compatible with this reaction. In addition, benzopinacolones were converted into sterically hindered, tetrasubstituted alkenes and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  18. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie


    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27441527

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of silyl ruthenium complexes: the importance of trans effects in C-H activation, Si-C bond formation, and dehydrogenative coupling of silanes. (United States)

    Dioumaev, Vladimir K; Procopio, Leo J; Carroll, Patrick J; Berry, Donald H


    with PMe(3) or PMe(3)-d(9) - is also regioselective (1a-d(9)() is predominantly produced with PMe(3)-d(9) trans to Si), but is very unfavorable. At 70 degrees C, a slower but irreversible SiH elimination also occurs and furnishes (PMe(3))(4)RuH(2). The structure of 4a exhibits a tetrahedral P(3)Si environment around the metal with the three hydrides adjacent to silicon and capping the P(2)Si faces. Although strong Si...HRu interactions are not indicated in the structure or by IR, the HSi distances (2.13-2.23(5) A) suggest some degree of nonclassical SiH bonding in the H(3)SiR(3) fragment. Thermolysis of 1a in C(6)D(6) at 45-55 degrees C leads to an intermolecular CD activation of C(6)D(6). Extensive H/D exchange into the hydride, SiMe(3), and PMe(3) ligands is observed, followed by much slower formation of cis-(PMe(3))(4)Ru(D)(Ph-d(5)). In an even slower intramolecular CH activation process, (PMe(3))(3)Ru(eta(2)-CH(2)PMe(2))H (5) is also produced. The structure of intermediates, mechanisms, and aptitudes for PMe(3) dissociation and addition/elimination of H-H, Si-H, C-Si, and C-H bonds in these systems are discussed with a special emphasis on the trans effect and trans influence of silicon and ramifications for SiC coupling catalysis. PMID:12823028

  20. An elusive hydridoaluminum(I) complex for facile C-H and C-O bond activation of ethers and access to its isolable hydridogallium(I) analogue: syntheses, structures, and theoretical studies. (United States)

    Tan, Gengwen; Szilvási, Tibor; Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Blom, Burgert; Driess, Matthias


    The reaction of AlBr3 with 1 molar equiv of the chelating bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligand bis(N-Dipp-imidazole-2-ylidene)methylene (bisNHC, 1) affords [(bisNHC)AlBr2](+)Br(-) (2) as an ion pair in high yield, representing the first example of a bisNHC-Al(III) complex. Debromination of the latter with 1 molar equiv of K2Fe(CO)4 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) furnishes smoothly, in a redox reaction, the (bisNHC)(Br)Al[Fe(CO)4] complex 3, in which the Al(I) center is stabilized by the Fe(CO)4 moiety through Al(I):→Fe(0) coordination. Strikingly, the Br/H ligand exchange reactions of 3 using potassium hydride as a hydride source in THF or tetrahydropyran (THP) do not yield the anticipated hydridoaluminum(I) complex (bisNHC)Al(H)[Fe(CO)4] (4a) but instead lead to (bisNHC)Al(2-cyclo-OC4H7)[Fe(CO)4] (4) and (bisNHC)Al(2-cyclo-OC5H9)[Fe(CO)4] (5), respectively. The latter are generated via C-H bond activation at the α-carbon positions of THF and THP, respectively, in good yields with concomitant elimination of dihydrogen. This is the first example whereby a low-valent main-group hydrido complex facilitates metalation of sp(3) C-H bonds. Interestingly, when K[BHR3] (R = Et, sBu) is employed as a hydride source to react with 3 in THF, the reaction affords (bisNHC)Al(OnBu)[Fe(CO)4] (6) as the sole product through C-O bond activation and ring opening of THF. The mechanisms for these novel C-H and C-O bond activations mediated by the elusive hydridoaluminum(I) complex 4a were elucidated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In contrast, the analogous hydridogallium(I) complex (bisNHC)Ga(H)[Fe(CO)4] (9) can be obtained directly in high yield by the reaction of the (bisNHC)Ga(Cl)[Fe(CO)4] precursor 8 with 1 molar equiv of K[BHR3] (R = Et, sBu) in THF at room temperature. The isolation of 9 and its inertness toward cyclic ethers might be attributed to the higher electronegativity of gallium versus aluminum. The stronger Ga(I)-H bond, in turn, hampers α-C-H metalation

  1. Positioning a Carbon-Fluorine Bond over the π Cloud of an Aromatic Ring: A Different Type of Arene Activation. (United States)

    Holl, Maxwell Gargiulo; Struble, Mark D; Singal, Prakhar; Siegler, Maxime A; Lectka, Thomas


    It is known that the fluoro group has only a small effect on the rates of electrophilic aromatic substitutions. Imagine instead a carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond positioned tightly over the π cloud of an aryl ring-such an orthogonal, noncovalent arrangement could instead stabilize a positively charged arene intermediate or transition state, giving rise to novel electrophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of molecule 1, containing a rigid C-F⋅⋅⋅Ar interaction that plays a prominent role in both its reaction chemistry and spectroscopy. For example, we established that the C-F⋅⋅⋅Ar interaction can bring about a >1500 fold increase in the relative rate of an aromatic nitration reaction, affording functionalization on the activated ring exclusively. Overall, these results establish fluoro as a through-space directing/activating group that complements the traditional role of fluorine as a slightly deactivating aryl substituent in nitrations. PMID:27145463

  2. Réactions de cycloisomérisation d'ènynes en présence de complexes d'or, de platine et d'ions halogéniums - Approche combinatoire en présence de complexes de platine. Réactions d'acyloxylation par activation C-H d'aromatiques en présence de complexes d'or.


    Pradal, Alexandre


    This manuscript concerns the development of electrophilic systems, involving gold and platinum π-Lewis acids or halogenium ions and their involvement in C-C triple bond (stereoselective enyne cycloisomerization reactions in the presence or in the absence of an external nucleophile and halocarbocyclization reactions) and C-H bond (acyloxylation reactions of hindered arenes) activation processes. The use of a catalytic system which consists in a binuclear gold (I) complex possessing the diphosp...

  3. Crystal structures of two thiacalix[4]arene derivatives anchoring four thiadiazole groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bang-Tun Zhao; Zhen Zhou; Zhen-Ning Yan


    The crystal structures of two thiacalixarene derivatives anchoring thiadiazole functional groups at lower rim, C60H72O4S12N8 (1), C64H80O4S12N8 (2), have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thiacalix[4]arene framework in both 1 and 2 adopts the 1,3-alternate conformation. Compound 1 forms a 1-D chain by weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$N) interactions between two thiadiazole groups in two different molecules. The chains are further connected to form a 2-D network through sulfur-sulfur (S$\\cdots$S) interactions. The lattice water molecules which exist as dimers by forming hydrogen bonds (O-H$\\cdots$O) promote a 3-D supramolecular structure through weak hydrogen bonding (O-H$\\cdots$S) interactions between the lattice water dimers and the 2-D networks. On the other hand, compound 2, based on dimer which is formed by weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$S) interactions, is extended to a 1-D chain through sulfur-sulfur (S$\\cdots$S) interactions. The dimers of lattice methanol molecules linked by hydrogen bonds (O-H$\\cdots$O) act as bridges to link the 1-D chains into a 2-D network through weak hydrogen bonding (C-H$\\cdots$N) interactions.

  4. Water as a green solvent for efficient synthesis of isocoumarins through microwave-accelerated and Rh/Cu-catalyzed C-H/O-H bond functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiu; Yan, Yunnan; Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Binwei; Tang, Xiaobo; Shi, JingJing; Xu, H. Eric; Yi, Wei [Shenyang; (Gannan); (Van Andel); (UST - China); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)


    Green chemistry that uses water as a solvent has recently received great attention in organic synthesis. Here we report an efficient synthesis of biologically important isocoumarins through direct cleavage of C–H/O–H bonds by microwave-accelerated and Rh/Cu-catalyzed oxidative annulation of various substituted benzoic acids, where water is used as the only solvent in the reactions. The remarkable features of this “green” methodology include high product yields, wide tolerance of various functional groups as substrates, and excellent region-/site-specificities, thus rendering this methodology a highly versatile and eco-friendly alternative to the existing methods for synthesizing isocoumarins and other biologically important derivatives such as isoquinolones.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed iodination of remote ortho-C−H bonds of arenes: Synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines (United States)

    Nack, William A; Wang, Xinmou; Wang, Bo


    Summary A new palladium-catalyzed picolinamide (PA)-directed ortho-iodination reaction of ε-C(sp2)−H bonds of γ-arylpropylamine substrates is reported. This reaction proceeds selectively with a variety of γ-arylpropylamines bearing strongly electron-donating or withdrawing substituents, complementing our previously reported PA-directed electrophilic aromatic substitution approach to this transformation. As demonstrated herein, a three step sequence of Pd-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)−H arylation, Pd-catalyzed ε-C(sp2)−H iodination, and Cu-catalyzed C−N cyclization enables a streamlined synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines bearing diverse substitution patterns. PMID:27559375

  6. Haptotropic Migration of Metal Templates on Arene Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.H.Dtz; H.C.Jahr; J.Bennewitz; J.Dubarle-offner


    1 Results The chromium-templated benzannulation of arylcarbenes by alkynes provides a direct regio- and diastereoselective access to densely functionalized chromium arenes[1]. The chromium fragment undergoes a haptotropic migration along the π-face of the fused arenes which can be controlled by thermodynamics,by the substitution pattern of the arene and by the metal coligand sphere(See Scheme 1).The controlled regioselective labeling of benzene rings can be exploited in diastereoselective C-C bond forma...

  7. Palladium Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelin, Casper Junker; Fristrup, Peter


    The atom-efficiency of one of the most widely used catalytic reactions for forging C-C bonds, the Tsuji-Trost reaction, is limited by the need of preoxidized reagents. This limitation can be overcome by utilization of the recently discovered palladium-catalyzed C-H activation, the allylic C...

  8. Seven organic salts assembled from hydrogen-bonds of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O between acidic compounds and bis(benzimidazole) (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xin Jun; Lin, Zhanghui; Chen, Guqing; Wang, Daqi


    Seven crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from 1,4-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)butane/1,2-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)-1,2-ethanediol and acidic components (picric acid, 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, oxalic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) were prepared and characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the seven compounds are organic salts involving proton transfer from the acidic components to the bis(benzimidazole). For the salt 3, although a competing carboxyl group is present, it has been observed that only the proton at the -SO3H group is deprotonized rather than the H at the COOH. While in the salt 7, both COOH and SO3H were ionized to exhibit a valence number of -2. For 4, the oxalic acid existed as unionized molecule, monoanion, and dianion simultaneously in one compound. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1-7 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. Since the potentially hydrogen bonding phenol group is present in the ortho position to the carboxyl group in 2, 3, and 7, it forms the more facile intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  9. Highly Efficient C--N Bond Forming Reactions in Water Catalyzed by Copper(I) Iodide with Calix[4]arene Supported Amino Acid Ionic Liquid%Highly Efficient C--N Bond Forming Reactions in Water Catalyzed by Copper(I) Iodide with Calix[4]arene Supported Amino Acid Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利; 金灿; 苏为科


    A novel and effective protocol has been developed for the Ullmann-type C--N coupling reaction catalyzed by calix[4]arene supported amino acid ionic liquid and copper(I) iodide in water under microwave irradiation condition The protocol uses ealix[4]arene supported amino acid ionic liquid as double function of the ligand and phase-transfer catalyst, and shows good tolerance in good to excellent yields.

  10. Gas-phase chemistry of Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} with alkenes: Activation of allylic C-H bonds by a d{sup 0} system and the migratory insertion of C=C bonds into Sc{sup +}-CH{sub 3} bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongqing; Hill, Y.D.; Freiser, B.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others


    The gas-phase chemistry of Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} with alkenes was studied by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The metal center on Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} is d{sup 0}, providing an opportunity to study alternative mechanisms of C-C or C-H activation other than the most common one involving oxidative addition. The elimination of H{sub 2} is observed in the reaction of Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} with ethylene, and the product ScC{sub 4}H{sub 8}{sup +} and ScC{sub 6}H{sub 10}{sup +} ions have a metal(methyl)(allyl) and metal-bisallyl structure, respectively, consistent with a proposed reaction mechanism involving the consecutive migratory insertion of ethylenes into the scandium-methyl bonds. In addition, theoretical calculations indicate that the metal(methyl)(allyl) structure is between 10 and 20 kcal/mol more stable than the metal(1-butene) isomer. Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} reacts with propene to form predominantly ScC{sub 4}H{sub 8}{sup +} by loss of CH{sub 4}, with minor amounts of ScC{sub 3}H{sub 4}{sup +} and ScC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +} also observed. ScC{sub 4}H{sub 6}{sup +} is formed as either the exclusive or the predominant product ion in the reactions of Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} with butenes. Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} reacts with cyclopentene to form predominantly ScC{sub 6}H{sub 8}{sup +} by losing CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Isotope labeling studies with Sc(CD{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} and other structure studies indicate that all of the alkenes studied, with the exception of ethylene, react with Sc(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} via a multicentered {sigma}-bond metathesis mechanism to activate allylic C-H bonds. Finally, the dehydrogenation reactions of Sc{sup +} with n-butane and neopentane were revisited, and a new mechanism is proposed for such chemistry in light of the new results from this study. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Aromatic C-H Bond Functionalization Induced by Electrochemically in Situ Generated Tris(p-bromophenyl)aminium Radical Cation: Cationic Chain Reactions of Electron-Rich Aromatics with Enamides. (United States)

    Li, Long-Ji; Jiang, Yang-Ye; Lam, Chiu Marco; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Hu, Li-Ming; Little, R Daniel


    An effective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of electron-rich aromatics with N-vinylamides, induced by electrochemically in situ-generated TBPA radical cation, has been developed; the resulting adducts are produced in good to excellent yields. In the "ex-cell" type electrolysis, TBPA is transformed to its oxidized form in situ and subsequently employed as an electron transfer reagent to initiate a cationic chain reaction. An easily recoverable and reusable polymeric ionic liquid-carbon black (PIL-CB) composite was also utilized as a supporting electrolyte for the electrochemical generation of TBPA cation radical, without sacrificing efficiency or stability after four electrolyses. Cyclic voltammetry analysis and the results of control experiments demonstrate that the reaction of electron-rich aromatics and N-vinylamides occurs via a cationic chain reaction, which takes place though an oxidative activation of a C-H bond of electron-rich aromatics instead of oxidation of the N-vinylamide as previously assumed.

  12. Iron-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization Processes. (United States)

    Cera, Gianpiero; Ackermann, Lutz


    Iron-catalyzed C-H activation has recently emerged as an increasingly powerful tool for the step-economical transformation of unreactive C-H bonds. Particularly, the recent development of low-valent iron catalysis has set the stage for novel C-H activation strategies via chelation assistance. The low-cost, natural abundance, and low toxicity of iron prompted its very recent application in organometallic C-H activation catalysis. An overview of the use of iron catalysis in C-H activation processes is summarized herein up to May 2016. PMID:27573499

  13. Arene ruthenium chemistry


    Bates, Richard Simon


    This thesis describes the synthesis and reactivity studies of new arene-ruthenium(II) and arene-ruthenium(O) complexes. Ultrasound has been investigated as an alternative energy source, with the overall aim of synthesising arene ruthenium clusters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction and summary of the known arene ruthenium chemistry reported to date. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis of (CGH6)Ru(C2H4)2 and (MeC6H4CHMe2)Ru(C2H4)2. Low temperature protonation studies generated (C6H6)Ru(H)(CZH4...

  14. Nickel-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Functionalization. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Muto, Kei; Itami, Kenichiro


    Catalytic C-H functionalization using transition metals has received significant interest from organic chemists because it provides a new strategy to construct carbon-carbon bonds and carbon-heteroatom bonds in highly functionalized, complex molecules without pre-functionalization. Recently, inexpensive catalysts based on transition metals such as copper, iron, cobalt, and nickel have seen more use in the laboratory. This review describes recent progress in nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization reactions classified by reaction types and reaction partners. Furthermore, some reaction mechanisms are described and cutting-edge syntheses of natural products and pharmaceuticals using nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization are presented. PMID:27573407

  15. 7-Amino-5-methyl-2-phenyl-6-(phenyl­diazenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine crystallizes with Z′ = 2: pseudosymmetry and the formation of complex sheets built from N—H⋯N and C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds


    Portilla, Jaime; Estupiñan, Diego; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher


    The title compound, C19H16N6, crystallizes with Z′ = 2 in the space group P21/n. The two mol­ecules in the selected asym­metric unit are approximate mirror images of one another; most corresponding pairs of atoms are related by an approximate half-cell translation along [100]. Each mol­ecule contains an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond and the mol­ecules are linked into complex sheets by a combination of two inter­molecular N—H⋯N and four C—H⋯π(arene) hydrogen bonds. Comparisons are made w...

  16. Free-Radical Triggered Ordered Domino Reaction: An Approach to C-C Bond Formation via Selective Functionalization of α-Hydroxyl-(sp(3))C-H in Fluorinated Alcohols. (United States)

    Xu, Zhengbao; Hang, Zhaojia; Liu, Zhong-Quan


    A free-radical mediated highly ordered radical addition/cyclization/(sp(3))C-C(sp(3)) formation domino reaction is developed. Three new C-C bonds are formed one by one in a mixed system. Furthermore, it represents the first example of cascade C-C bond formation via selective functionalization of α-hydroxyl-C(sp(3))-H in fluorinated alcohols.

  17. Photoinduced C-C Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Inert Arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Wang


    Full Text Available Here we report a facile, efficient, and catalyst-free method to realize C-C cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and inert arenes under UV light irradiation. The aryl radical upon homolytic cleavage of C-Cl bond initiated the nucleophilic substitution reaction with inert arenes to give biaryl products. This mild reaction mode can also be applied to other synthetic reactions, such as the construction of C-N bonds and trifluoromethylated compounds.

  18. Arene ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents


    Süss-Fink, Georg


    Neutral or cationic arene ruthenium complexes providing both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic properties due to the robustness of the ruthenium–arene unit hold a high potential for the development of metal-based anticancer drugs. Mononuclear arene ruthenium complexes containing P- or N-donor ligands or N,N-, N,O- or O,O-chelating ligands, dinuclear arene ruthenium systems with adjustable organic linkers, trinuclear arene ruthenium clusters containing an oxo cap, tetranuclear arene ruthenium...

  19. Enzyme catalysis: C-H activation is a Reiske business (United States)

    Bruner, Steven D.


    Enzymes that selectively oxidize unactivated C-H bonds are capable of constructing complex molecules with high efficiency. A new member of this enzyme family is RedG, a Reiske-type oxygenase that catalyses chemically challenging cyclizations in the biosynthesis of prodiginine natural products.

  20. Spatially Directional Resorcin[4]arene Cavitand Glycoconjugates for Organic Catalysis. (United States)

    Husain, Ali A; Maknenko, Arthur M; Bisht, Kirpal S


    The synthesis of novel spatially directional multivalent resorcin[4]arene cavitand glycoconjugates (RCGs) and their ability to catalyze organic reactions is reported. The β-d-glucopyranoside moieties on the upper rim of the "bowl"-shaped resorcin[4]arene cavitand core are capable of multiple hydrogen-bond interactions resulting in a pseudo-cavity, which has been investigated for organic transformations in aqueous media. The RCGs have been demonstrated to catalyze thiazole formation, thiocyanation, copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), and Mannich reactions; they impart stereoselectivity in the three-component Mannich reaction. Thermodynamic values obtained from (1) H diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments suggest that the upper saccharide cavity of the RCG and not the resorcin[4]arene cavity is the site of the complexation event.

  1. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation (United States)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.


    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  2. Radical C-H arylations of (hetero)arenes catalysed by gallic acid. (United States)

    Perretti, Marcelle D; Monzón, Diego M; Crisóstomo, Fernando P; Martín, Víctor S; Carrillo, Romen


    Gallic acid efficiently catalyses radical arylations in water-acetone at room temperature. This methodology proved to be versatile and scalable. Therefore, it constitutes a greener alternative to arylation. Moreover, considering that gallic acid is an abundant vegetable tannin, this work also unleashes an alternative method for the reutilisation of bio-wastes. PMID:26804947

  3. Arene C(sp(2))-H Metalation at Ni(II) Modeled with a Reactive PONCPh Ligand. (United States)

    Jongbloed, Linda S; García-López, Diego; van Heck, Richard; Siegler, Maxime A; Carbó, Jorge J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar


    Coordination of the reactive phosphinitopyridylphenyl PONCPh ligand L(H) to NiBr2 initially yields paramagnetic brown NiBr2(L(H)) (1), but addition of triethylamine results in fast and facile cyclometalation at Ni(II), giving NiBr(κ(3)-P,N,C-L) (2) as well-defined species. This is a rare example of direct cyclometalation at Ni(II) from a C-H bond in a ligand structure other than encumbering ligands (e.g., ECE pincers). Diamagnetic yellow complex 2 reacts instantaneously with HBF4 to give purple [NiBr(κ(3)-P,N-L(H))]BF4 (3). A very unusual (an)agostic Ni(CPh-H) interaction in the solid-state structure of 3 was unequivocally demonstrated using single-crystal X-ray crystallography and was interpreted by density functional theory calculations (quantum theory of atoms in molecules and electron localization function analysis). These compounds may be viewed as models for key intermediates in the Ni-catalyzed C-H functionalization of arenes. PMID:27479533

  4. Removal of chromate and phosphate anion from aqueous solutions using calix[4]aren receptors containing proton switchable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertul, Seref; Bayrakci, Mevluet [University of Selcuk, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42031 Campus, Konya (Turkey); Yilmaz, Mustafa, E-mail: [University of Selcuk, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42031 Campus, Konya (Turkey)


    In the present study four new calix[4]arene amide ionophores (4-7) have been prepared by aminolysis of calix[4]arene diester (3) and investigated their extraction ability toward phosphate and dichromate anions at different pH. The {sup 1}H NMR data showed that the synthesized compounds exist in the cone conformation. Liquid-liquid extraction experiments have been performed to evaluate the dichromate and phosphate anions extraction efficiency of both calix[4]arene bearing amide-pyridinium units (4-7) and the calix[4]arene derivative bearing aminomethyl pyridinium units (8, 9). It was observed that, compounds 4-7 exhibited lower affinity toward phosphate ions than the calix[4]arene derivative bearing amine pyridinium units (8, 9). The extraction of phosphate and dichromate anions by these compounds indicates that the partially protonated pyridyl or amino groups play the major role for the formation of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions.

  5. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation. (United States)

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng


    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  6. Synthetic Transformations through Alkynoxy-Palladium Interactions and C-H Activation. (United States)

    Minami, Yasunori; Hiyama, Tamejiro


    Organic synthesis based on straightforward transformations is essential for environmentally benign manufacturing for the invention of novel pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and organoelectronic materials in order to ultimately realize a sustainable society. Metal-catalyzed C-H bond-cleaving functionalization has become a promising method for achieving the above goal. For site-selective C-H bond cleavage, so-called directing groups, i.e., ligands attached to substrates, are employed. Commonly utilized directing groups are carbonyls, imines, carboxyls, amides, and pyridyls, which σ-donate electron pairs to metals. On the other hand, unsaturated substrates such as alkenes and alkynes, which participate largely as reactants in organic synthesis, are prepared readily by a wide variety of synthetic transformations and are also employed as reactants in organometallic chemistry. Moreover, such unsaturated groups form complexes with some metals by ligation of their p orbitals via donation and back-donation. However, the use of unsaturated bonds as directing groups has not been studied extensively. We have been involved in the development of methods for the cleavage of C-H bonds by means of transition-metal catalysts to achieve new carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and incidentally came to focus on the alkynoxy group (-OC≡C-), which shows a ketene-like resonance structure. We expected the alkynoxy group to interact electrophilically with a low-valent transition-metal complex in order to cleave adjacent C-H bonds. In this Account, we summarize our recent achievements on C-H activation based on interactions of palladium with the alkynoxy group in alkynyl aryl ethers. The alkynoxy group plays two roles in the transformation: as a directing group for adjacent C-H bond activation and as an acceptor for the carbon and hydrogen fragments. A typical example is palladium-catalyzed ortho-C-H bond activation in alkynoxyarenes followed by sequential insertion/annulation with

  7. Advances in the development of catalytic tethering directing groups for C-H functionalization reactions. (United States)

    Sun, Huan; Guimond, Nicolas; Huang, Yong


    Transition metal-catalyzed C-H bond insertion is one of the most straightforward strategies to introduce functionalities within a hydrocarbon microenvironment. For the past two decades, selective activation and functionalization of certain inert C-H bonds have been made possible with the help of directing groups (DGs). Despite the enormous advances in the field, an overwhelming majority of systems require two extra steps from their simple precursors: installation and removal of the DGs. Recently, traceless and multitasking groups were invented as a partial solution to DG release. However, installation remains largely unsolved. Ideally, a transient, catalytic DG would circumvent this problem and increase the step- and atom-economy of C-H functionalization processes. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the transient tethering strategy for C-H activation reactions. PMID:27506568

  8. Effects of lithium-implantation on the hydrogen retention in both a-C:H and a-Si C:H materials submitted to deuterium bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, G.; Chevarier, N.; Chevarier, A. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 -Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Ross, G.G.; El Khakani, M.A. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, PQ (Canada)


    The hydrogen release in plasma facing materials is a challenging problem for the hydrogen recycling. The hydrogen desorption from a-C:H and a-SiC:H materials induced by deuterium bombardment has been investigated. Prior to the deuterium bombardment, both materials were implanted with different fluences of lithium ions. Before and after each irradiation, depth profiles of H, Li and deuterium were determined by nuclear microanalysis. After deuterium bombardment, il is shown that the retention of the initial hydrogen in both materials was enhanced by increasing the total dose of the implanted Li. For the a-C:H samples, the hydrogen desorption under deuterium bombardment was strongly reduced by lithium implantation. This effect was also evidenced in a-SiC:H samples, even though it is less spectacular that in a-C:H. Also, nuclear analyses showed that the retained dose of deuterium decreases when the lithium concentration increases. This could be a result of the formation of Li-H bonds which occurs to the detriment of deuterium retention in both a-C:H and a-SiC:H materials. Preliminary results of both materials exposed to TdeV tokamak discharges confirms the role of Li in hydrogen retention, already observed in deuterium bombardment exposure. (author).

  9. Theoretical indications on the relationship between pyrogallol[4]arenes dynamics of assembling and geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Cazar


    Full Text Available Pyrogallol[4]arenes are macrocycles with high potential as building blocks for nanocapsules. We theoretically studied the dimeric precursors of 2,8,14,20-tetramethylpyrogallol[4]arene and 2,8,10,14-tetraphenylpyrogallol[4] arene to understand the dynamics of assembly of these compounds, and calculated the potential energy curves along the torsion angle of the (R-pyrogallolCH–(R-pyrogallol dimeric bond at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p level of theory. We found that the energy barriers for free rotation around the selected bond are 0.00133 Hartrees for the alkyl-substituted dimer and 0.77879 Hartrees for the aryl-substituted dimer. These values imply that the free rotation around the selected bond exists for the first dimer but not for the second one. Because the orientation of the substituent and the pyrogallol ring around this bond are likely to determine the geometry of the final structure, we propose that the alkyl-substituted compound will most likely adopt a crown-shaped geometry whereas the aryl-substituted compound will adopt a chair-shaped geometry. These predictions concur with experimental evidence, which shows that the geometry of pyrogallol[4]arenes depends on the substituents attached to them.

  10. Upper rim {alpha}-hydroxy-or {alpha}-amino phosphonic acid derivatives of calix (4) ARENES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovsky, L.N.; Kalchenko, V.I.; Solovyov, A.V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Failla, S.; Atamas, L.I.; Consiglio, G.; Tsymbal, I.F. [Institute of Organic Chemistry National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine)


    The synthesis and some stereochemical peculiarities of calix (4) arenes bearing at the upper rim of macrocycle alpha-hydroxy or alpha-amino phosphonic acid dialkyl ester fragments are described. The formation of the dimeric associates induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonds CH-OH...O=P has been also studied. (Author) 24 refs.

  11. Characterization of two alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C homologs alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C_H1 and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C_H2 in Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee-Kyung; Cha; Yoo-Jeen; Bae; Kyu-Jeong; Kim; Byung-Joon; Park; Il-Han; Kim


    AIM: To identify alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C(AhpC) homologs in Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis) and to characterize their structural and biochemical properties. AhpC is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in bacteria.METHODS: Two AhpC homologs(AhpC_H1 and AhpC_H2) were identified by searching the B. subtilis database; these were then cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. AhpC mutants carrying substitutions of catalytically important Cys residues(C37S, C47 S, C166 S, C37/47 S, C37/166 S, C47/166 S, and C37/47/166 S for AhpC_H1; C52 S, C169 S, and C52/169 S for AhpC_H2) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis and purified, and their structure-function relationship was analyzed. The B. subtilis ahp C genes were disrupted by the short flanking homology method, and the phenotypes of the resulting AhpC-deficient bacteria were examined.RESULTS: Comparative characterization of AhpC homologs indicates that AhpC_H1 contains an extra C37, which forms a disulfide bond with the peroxidatic C47, and behaves like an atypical 2-Cys AhpC, while AhpC_H2 functions like a typical 2-Cys AhpC. Tryptic digestion analysis demonstrated the presence of intramolecular Cys37-Cys47 linkage, which could be reduced by thioredoxin, resulting in the association of the dimer into higher-molecular-mass complexes. Peroxidase activity analysis of Cys→Ser mutants indicated that three Cys residues were involved in the catalysis. AhpC_H1 was resistant to inactivation by peroxide substrates, but had lower activity at physiological H2O2 concentrations compared to AhpC_H2, suggesting that in B. subtilis, the enzymes may be physiologically functional at different substrate concentrations. The exposure to organic peroxides induced AhpC_H1 expression, while AhpC_H1-deficient mutants exhibited growth retardation in the stationary phase, suggesting the role of AhpC_H1 as an antioxidant scavenger of lipid hydroperoxides and a stress-response factor in B. subtilis

  12. Double Heteroatom Functionalization of Arenes Using Benzyne Three‐Component Coupling† (United States)

    García‐López, José‐Antonio; Çetin, Meliha


    Abstract Arynes participate in three‐component coupling reactions with N, S, P, and Se functionalities to yield 1,2‐heteroatom‐difunctionalized arenes. Using 2‐iodophenyl arylsulfonates as benzyne precursors, we could effectively add magnesiated S‐, Se‐, and N‐nucleophilic components to the strained triple bond. In the same pot, addition of electrophilic N, S, or P reagents and a copper(I) catalyst trapped the intermediate aryl Grignard to produce a variety of 1,2‐difunctionalized arenes. PMID:25580700

  13. Brønsted Acid-Promoted Formation of Stabilized Silylium Ions for Catalytic Friedel-Crafts C-H Silylation. (United States)

    Chen, Qing-An; Klare, Hendrik F T; Oestreich, Martin


    A counterintuitive approach to electrophilic aromatic substitution with silicon electrophiles is disclosed. A strong Brønsted acid that would usually promote the reverse reaction, i.e., protodesilylation, was found to initiate the C-H silylation of electron-rich (hetero)arenes with hydrosilanes. Protonation of the hydrosilane followed by liberation of dihydrogen is key to success, fulfilling two purposes: to generate the stabilized silylium ion and to remove the proton released from the Wheland intermediate. PMID:27303857

  14. Metal-Free sp(2)-C-H Borylation as a Common Reactivity Pattern of Frustrated 2-Aminophenylboranes. (United States)

    Chernichenko, Konstantin; Lindqvist, Markus; Kótai, Bianka; Nieger, Martin; Sorochkina, Kristina; Pápai, Imre; Repo, Timo


    C-H borylation is a powerful and atom-efficient method for converting affordable and abundant chemicals into versatile organic reagents used in the production of fine chemicals and functional materials. Herein we report a facile C-H borylation of aromatic and olefinic C-H bonds with 2-aminophenylboranes. Computational and experimental studies reveal that the metal-free C-H insertion proceeds via a frustrated Lewis pair mechanism involving heterolytic splitting of the C-H bond by cooperative action of the amine and boryl groups. The adapted geometry of the reactive B and N centers results in an unprecedentently low kinetic barrier for both insertion into the sp(2)-C-H bond and intramolecular protonation of the sp(2)-C-B bond in 2-ammoniophenyl(aryl)- or -(alkenyl)borates. This common reactivity pattern serves as a platform for various catalytic reactions such as C-H borylation and hydrogenation of alkynes. In particular, we demonstrate that simple 2-aminopyridinium salts efficiently catalyze the C-H borylation of hetarenes with catecholborane. This reaction is presumably mediated by a borenium species isoelectronic to 2-aminophenylboranes.

  15. Cp*Co(III)-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Allylation of 6-Arylpurines and Aromatic Amides Using Allyl Alcohols in Fluorinated Alcohols. (United States)

    Bunno, Youka; Murakami, Nanami; Suzuki, Yudai; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki


    Cp*Co(III)-catalyzed C-H allylation of various aromatic C-H bonds using allyl alcohols as allylating reagents is described. Improved reaction conditions using fluorinated alcohol solvents afforded efficient directed C-H allylation of 6-arylpurines, benzamides, and a synthetically useful Weinreb amide with good functional group compatibility.

  16. Iridium-bipyridine periodic mesoporous organosilica catalyzed direct C-H borylation using a pinacolborane. (United States)

    Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji


    Heterogeneous catalysis for direct C-H borylation of arenes and heteroarenes in the combination of iridium (Ir) complex fixed on periodic mesoporous organosilica containing bipyridine ligands within the framework (Ir-BPy-PMO) and pinacolborane (HBpin) is reported. Ir-BPy-PMO showed higher catalytic activity toward the borylation of benzene with inexpensive HBpin compared to expensive bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2). The precatalyst could be handled without the use of a glove box. The catalyst was easily recovered from reaction mixtures by simple filtration under air. The recovered catalyst still showed good catalytic activity for at least three more times for the borylation of benzene. A variety of arenes and heteroarenes were successfully borylated with high boron efficiency by Ir-BPy-PMO using HBpin, whereas almost no activity was observed for borylation of some heteroarenes with B2pin2. The system using Ir-BPy-PMO and HBpin was also utilized in syntheses of multi-boronated thiophene-based building blocks containing ladder-, acenefused-, and fused-thiophene skeletons. The combination of a stable and reusable solid catalyst and inexpensive HBpin is expected to be superior to conventional approaches for the development of industrial applications. PMID:25748945

  17. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines (United States)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Cabrera, Pablo J.; Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.


    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline.

  18. X-ray guided 1H NMR analysis of pinched cone calix[4]arenes (United States)

    Rashatasakhon, Paitoon; Jaiyu, Arisa; Rojanathanes, Rojrit; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Chaichit, Narongsak; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol


    The analysis of structural parameters of azobenzene- and stilbene-bridged calix[4]arene obtained from AM1 calculation are in good agreement with those obtained from X-ray crystallography. The bridge longer than 9.0 Å such as p,p- trans-azobenzene and p,p- trans-stilbene cannot be constructed over the narrow rim of calix[4]arene through two ethylene oxide linkers. The m,m-stilbene bridge is the most promising photo switch because its shorter cis stereoisomer (5.85 Å) allows calix[4]arene to assume the perfect cone conformation, whilst its longer trans stereoisomer (8.00 Å) forces calix[4]arene to adapt a pinched cone conformation. The pinched cone conformation has longer distances between the neighbouring phenoxyl groups causing the weaker intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the upfield shifts of the phenolic proton signals to below 7.00 ppm. This upfield shift is useful for quick identification of pinched cone conformation of new calix[4]arene compounds.

  19. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols (United States)

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W.; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J.


    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  20. Mild metal-catalyzed C-H activation: examples and concepts. (United States)

    Gensch, T; Hopkinson, M N; Glorius, F; Wencel-Delord, J


    Organic reactions that involve the direct functionalization of non-activated C-H bonds represent an attractive class of transformations which maximize atom- and step-economy, and simplify chemical synthesis. Due to the high stability of C-H bonds, these processes, however, have most often required harsh reaction conditions, which has drastically limited their use as tools for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Following the increased understanding of mechanistic aspects of C-H activation gained over recent years, great strides have been taken to design and develop new protocols that proceed efficiently under mild conditions and duly benefit from improved functional group tolerance and selectivity. In this review, we present the current state of the art in this field and detail C-H activation transformations reported since 2011 that proceed either at or below ambient temperature, in the absence of strongly acidic or basic additives or without strong oxidants. Furthermore, by identifying and discussing the major strategies that have led to these improvements, we hope that this review will serve as a useful conceptual overview and inspire the next generation of mild C-H transformations. PMID:27072661

  1. Extraction Capability of Calix[4]/arene-R14 Extraction Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>In order to partition effectively 137Cs from high-level radioactive sample by extraction chromato- graphy, a kind of macroporous silica-based polymeric materials, Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO2-P were used. A

  2. Spectroscopic Evidence for the Two C-H-Cleaving Intermediates of Aspergillus nidulans Isopenicillin N Synthase. (United States)

    Tamanaha, Esta; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Yisong; Chang, Wei-Chen; Barr, Eric W; Xing, Gang; St Clair, Jennifer; Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten


    The enzyme isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-Cys-d-Val (ACV) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. A classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by Baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring second. Each phase requires cleavage of an aliphatic C-H bond of the substrate: the pro-S-CCys,β-H bond for closure of the β-lactam ring, and the CVal,β-H bond for installation of the thiazolidine ring. IPNS uses a mononuclear non-heme-iron(II) cofactor and dioxygen as cosubstrate to cleave these C-H bonds and direct the ring closures. Despite the intense scrutiny to which the enzyme has been subjected, the identities of the oxidized iron intermediates that cleave the C-H bonds have been addressed only computationally; no experimental insight into their geometric or electronic structures has been reported. In this work, we have employed a combination of transient-state-kinetic and spectroscopic methods, together with the specifically deuterium-labeled substrates, A[d2-C]V and AC[d8-V], to identify both C-H-cleaving intermediates. The results show that they are high-spin Fe(III)-superoxo and high-spin Fe(IV)-oxo complexes, respectively, in agreement with published mechanistic proposals derived computationally from Baldwin's founding work.

  3. A New Efficient Synthesis of p-Nitrocalix[4]arene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Jia Song WANG; Qi WANG; De Shan LI


    A new efficient synthesis of p-nitrocalix[4]arene from calix[4]arene by using nitrogen dioxide is described. The compound is an useful intermediates for the introduction of other functional groups to obtain N containing substituted calix[4]arene.The reaction mechanism is briefly discussed.

  4. Aromatic Cyanoalkylation through Double C-H Activation Mediated by Ni(III). (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Zheng, Shuai; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M


    Herein we report an atom- and step-economic aromatic cyanoalkylation reaction that employs nitriles as building blocks and proceeds through Csp(2)-H and Csp(3)-H bond activation steps mediated by Ni(III). In addition to cyanomethylation with MeCN, regioselective α-cyanoalkylation was observed with various nitrile substrates to generate secondary and tertiary nitriles. Importantly, to the best of our knowledge these are the first examples of C-H bond activation reactions occurring at a Ni(III) center, which may exhibit different reactivity and selectivity profiles than those corresponding to analogous Ni(II) centers. These studies provide guiding principles to design catalytic C-H activation and functionalization reactions involving high-valent Ni species. PMID:27120207

  5. Self-assembled arene-ruthenium-based rectangles for the selective sensing of multi-carboxylate anions. (United States)

    Vajpayee, Vaishali; Song, Young Ho; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Hyunuk; Wang, Ming; Stang, Peter J; Chi, Ki-Whan


    Novel arene-ruthenium [2+2] metalla-rectangles 4 and 5 have been synthesized by self-assembly using dipyridyl amide ligand 3 and arene-ruthenium acceptors (arene: benzoquinone (1), naphthacenedione (2)) and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The solid-state structure of 5 was determined by X-ray diffraction and shows encapsulated diethyl ether molecule in the rectangular cavity of 5. The luminescent 5 was further used for anion sensing with the amidic linkage serving as a hydrogen-bond donor site for anions and the ruthenium moiety serving as a signaling unit. A UV/Vis titration study demonstrated that although 5 interacts very weakly with common monoanions as well as with flexible dicarboxylate anions such as malonate and succinate, it displays significant binding affinity (K>10(3) in MeOH) for rigid multi-carboxylate anions such as oxalate, citrate, and tartrate, exhibiting a 1:1 stoichiometry. It has been suggested that 1:1 bidentate hydrogen bonding assisted by appropriate geometrical complementarity is mainly responsible for the increased affinity of 5 towards such anions. A fluorescence titration study revealed a large fluorescence enhancement of 5 upon binding to multi-carboxylate anions, which can be attributed to the blocking of the photoinduced electron-transfer process from the arene-Ru moiety to the amidic donor in 5 as a result of hydrogen bonding between the donor and the anion.

  6. Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation (United States)

    Banerjee, Aanindeeta; Dick, Graham R.; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanan, Matthew W.


    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO32-) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)—a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO32--promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.

  7. Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C-H carboxylation. (United States)

    Banerjee, Aanindeeta; Dick, Graham R; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanan, Matthew W


    Using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for commodity synthesis is an attractive means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a possible stepping-stone towards renewable synthetic fuels. A major impediment to synthesizing compounds from CO2 is the difficulty of forming carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds efficiently: although CO2 reacts readily with carbon-centred nucleophiles, generating these intermediates requires high-energy reagents (such as highly reducing metals or strong organic bases), carbon-heteroatom bonds or relatively acidic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds. These requirements negate the environmental benefit of using CO2 as a substrate and limit the chemistry to low-volume targets. Here we show that intermediate-temperature (200 to 350 degrees Celsius) molten salts containing caesium or potassium cations enable carbonate ions (CO3(2-)) to deprotonate very weakly acidic C-H bonds (pKa > 40), generating carbon-centred nucleophiles that react with CO2 to form carboxylates. To illustrate a potential application, we use C-H carboxylation followed by protonation to convert 2-furoic acid into furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA)--a highly desirable bio-based feedstock with numerous applications, including the synthesis of polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is a potential large-scale substitute for petroleum-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2-furoic acid can readily be made from lignocellulose, CO3(2-)-promoted C-H carboxylation thus reveals a way to transform inedible biomass and CO2 into a valuable feedstock chemical. Our results provide a new strategy for using CO2 in the synthesis of multi-carbon compounds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afni Evalia


    Full Text Available Aren is a type of palm that has a highly potential economic value. Lareh Sago Sub-district is the largest producer in the District of Lima Puluh Kota; however, it is only processed to produce wine and molded sugar. This study aimed to formulate a strategy for the sugar palm sugar agro-industrial development in Lareh Sagohalaban. The research method was a case study in the form of quantitative descriptive, and the data were processed using IFE/EFE, SWOT and AHP. The values obtained from IFE and EFE matrixes were 2.646 and 2.298 respectively. From the SWOT analysis, alternative strategies were obtained, namely, SO Strategy: Strengthening the R & D to develop market-based sugar processing for commercial scale and diversification of palm downstream products; WO Strategy: Improving upstream subsystem to develop nursery based on palm local seed varieties and providing institutional assistance; ST Strategy: Determining agro-technopark for palm industrialization, providing assistance in the form of appropriate packaging technology accordance with the standards, and WT Strategy: increasing commitment and cooperation among stakeholders in strengthening palm agro-industry, increasing marketing and promotion for the expansion and sanction policy for any company selling Aren in the form of wine. From the result of AHP analysis, the determinant factors in developing the business include Technology (0.439, the Government as the actor (0.577, and product diversification as the strategy (0.388.Keyword: Aren (palm, cluster- agro technopark, IFE/EFE matrixes, SWOT analysis, AHPABSTRAKAren (Arenga pinnata Merr adalah jenis palma yang memiliki potensi nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Kecamatan Lareh sago halaban merupakan penghasil Aren terbesar di Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota, namun dalam pengolahannya masih mengolah menjadi gula cetak dan lebih banyak dalam bentuk tuak. Penelitian ini bertujuan merumuskan strategi pengembangan agroindustri gula semut aren di Kecamatan

  9. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene (United States)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne


    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  10. Highly selective hydrogenation of arenes using nanostructured ruthenium catalysts modified with a carbon–nitrogen matrix (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Surkus, Annette-Enrica; Junge, Kathrin; Topf, Christoph; Radnik, Jörg; Kreyenschulte, Carsten; Beller, Matthias


    Selective hydrogenations of (hetero)arenes represent essential processes in the chemical industry, especially for the production of polymer intermediates and a multitude of fine chemicals. Herein, we describe a new type of well-dispersed Ru nanoparticles supported on a nitrogen-doped carbon material obtained from ruthenium chloride and dicyanamide in a facile and scalable method. These novel catalysts are stable and display both excellent activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of aromatic ethers, phenols as well as other functionalized substrates to the corresponding alicyclic reaction products. Furthermore, reduction of the aromatic core is preferred over hydrogenolysis of the C–O bond in the case of ether substrates. The selective hydrogenation of biomass-derived arenes, such as lignin building blocks, plays a pivotal role in the exploitation of novel sustainable feedstocks for chemical production and represents a notoriously difficult transformation up to now. PMID:27113087

  11. Bis-tert-Alcohol-Functionalized Crown-6-Calix[4]arene: An Organic Promoter for Nucleophilic Fluorination. (United States)

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Choi, Wonsil; Lee, Sung-Sik; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Dong Wook


    A bis-tert-alcohol-functionalized crown-6-calix[4]arene (BACCA) was designed and prepared as a multifunctional organic promoter for nucleophilic fluorinations with CsF. By formation of a CsF/BACCA complex, BACCA could release a significantly active and selective fluoride source for SN2 fluorination reactions. The origin of the promoting effects of BACCA was studied by quantum chemical methods. The role of BACCA was revealed to be separation of the metal fluoride to a large distance (>8 Å), thereby producing an essentially "free" F(-). The synergistic actions of the crown-6-calix[4]arene subunit (whose O atoms coordinate the counter-cation Cs(+)) and the terminal tert-alcohol OH groups (forming controlled hydrogen bonds with F(-)) of BACCA led to tremendous efficiency in SN2 fluorination of base-sensitive substrates.

  12. Polyketide Construction via Hydrohydroxyalkylation and Related Alcohol C-H Functionalizations: Reinventing the Chemistry of Carbonyl Addition


    Dechert-Schmitt, Anne-Marie R.; Schmitt, Daniel C.; Xin GAO; Itoh, Takahiko; Krische, Michael J.


    Despite the longstanding importance of polyketide natural products in human medicine, nearly all commercial polyketide-based drugs are prepared through fermentation or semi-synthesis. The paucity of manufacturing routes involving de novo chemical synthesis reflects the inability of current methods to concisely address the preparation of these complex structures. Direct alcohol C-H bond functionalization via “C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation” provides a powerful, new means of constructi...

  13. Amidines for Versatile Cobalt(III)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Isoquinolines through C-H Functionalization with Diazo Compounds. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tang, Mengyao; Zang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhao; Ackermann, Lutz


    A cobalt(III)-catalyzed C-H/N-H bond functionalization for the synthesis of 1-aminoisoquinolines from aryl amidines and diazo compounds has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions, obviates the need for oxidants, produces only N2 and H2O as the byproducts, and features a broad substrate scope. PMID:27219713

  14. Selective Synthesis of Isoquinolines by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H/N-H Functionalization with α-Substituted Ketones. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhao; Tang, Mengyao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Jin, Jian


    A rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H/N-H bond functionalization for the synthesis of 1-aminoisoquinolines from aryl amidines and α-MsO/TsO/Cl ketones was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Thus, this approach provides a practical method for the site-selective synthesis of various synthetically valuable isoquinolines with wide functional group tolerance. PMID:27441726

  15. Synthesis of (p-Formylphenyl)azo Calix[4]arenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI,Zhu(柏祝); YU,Lei(俞磊); LU,Guo-Yuan(陆国元); GUO,Xun(郭勋)


    Five novel azo calix[4]arenes were reported.The p-aminobenzaldehyde was diazotized with sodium nitrite in aqueous hydrochloride solution.Mono-,bis-,tris- and tetrakis(p-formylphenyl)azo calix[4]arenes (including proximal and distal isomers) were obtained respectively by diazo-coupling in different molar ratio to calix[4]arene (1) under pH=7.5-8.5 at 0-5℃.All (p-formylphenyl)azo calix[4]arenes were characterized by 1H NMR,13C NMR,IR,MS (ESIMS) spectroscopies and elemental analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mody Lempang


    Full Text Available Fermentation is a natural process that happen in fresh-sweet sap of aren trees (Arenga pinnata Merr., because many kinds of microorganism stay and life in this substance e.g. bakteria (Acetobacter acetic and yeast (Saccharomyces tuac. Species of yeast from genus of Saccharomyses, e.g. Saccharomyses serivisae is wellknown as microorganism that can ferment sugar (glucose into alchohol and CO2. This natural process as well happen in aren sap, so that this substance potencially using as a swollen agent of bread or cake dough. This research objective is to recognize the effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough. Fermentation duration of bread dough was one hour by using swollen agent of fresh, 10 hours old and 20 hours old of aren sap. Daily yield of sap tapped from aren trees in Maros district, South Sulawesi province was 7 litre (4-5 litre collected in the morning and 2-3 litre colected in the afternoon. Aren sap containt some of nutritions e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C and mineral. Sweet taste of aren sap caused by it’s charbohydrate content of 11.18%. The effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough is lower than instant (commercial yeast. The older of aren sap the lower of it’s effectiveness as a swollen agent of dough and kuality of bread yield.    Keywords : Sap, Arenga pinnata, swollen agent, bread dough

  17. Arene Ruthenium Cages: Boxes Full of Surprises


    Therrien, Bruno


    Self-assembly of polypyridyl ligands with dinuclear arene ruthenium building blocks bridged by chlorido, oxalato or benzoquinonato ligands has allowed the construction of a wide range of cationic metalla complexes possessing different architectures and functionalities: (i) metalla-rectangles showing host-guest possibilities and allowing intramolecular template-controlled photochemical [2 + 2] dimerisation reactions; (ii) metalla-prisms allowing encapsulation of molecules and giving rise to po...

  18. Pyrogallo4arenes: a synthetic investigation


    Griffin, Pauline


    The first part of this work involved the study of the acid condensation of pyrogallol with acataldehyde. The product formed, pyrogallol[4]arene, is present as a mixture of two isomers, the rccc cone and the rctt flattened partial cone conformations, which could be separated using an extractiodreprecipitation procedure. A series of studies was undertaken to determine if these two isomers could be interconverted. We found that both the rctt flattened partial cone and rccc cone isomers could not...

  19. Conformational preferences of heterochiral peptides. Crystal structures of heterochiral peptides Boc-(D) Val-(D) Ala-Leu-Ala-OMe and Boc-Val-Ala-Leu-(D) Ala-OMe--enhanced stability of beta-sheet through C-H...O hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Fabiola, G F; Bobde, V; Damodharan, L; Pattabhi, V; Durani, S


    The crystal structures of Boc-(D) Val-(D) Ala-Leu-Ala-OMe (vaLA) and Boc-Val-Ala-Leu-(D) Ala-OMe (VALa) have been determined. vaLA crystallises in space group P2(1),2(1),2(1), with a = 9.401 (4), b = 17.253 (5), c = 36.276 (9)A. V = 5,884 (3) A3, Z = 8, R = 0.086. VALa crystallises in space group P2(1) with a = 9.683 (9), b = 17.355 (7), c = 18.187 (9) A, beta = 95.84 (8) degrees , V = 3,040(4) A3, Z = 4, R = 0.125. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit in antiparallel beta-sheet arrangement in both the structures. Several of the Calpha hydrogens are in hydrogen bonding contact with the carbonyl oxygen in the adjacent strand. An analysis of the observed conformational feature of D-chiral amino acid residues in oligopeptides, using coordinates of 123 crystal structures selected from the 1998 release of CSD has been carried out. This shows that all the residues except D-isoleucine prefer both extended and alphaL conformation though the frequence of occurence may not be equal. In addition to this, D-leucine, valine, proline and phenylalanine have assumed alphaR conformations in solid state. D-leucine has a strong preference for helical conformation in linear peptides whereas they prefer an extended conformation in cyclic peptides. PMID:11245253

  20. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT for grant DE-FG02-93ER14353 "Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Functionalization Catalyzed by Transition Metal Systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Alan S


    Alkanes are our most abundant organic resource but are highly resistant to selective chemical transformations. Alkenes (olefins) by contrast are the single most versatile class of molecules for selective transformations, and are intermediates in virtually every petrochemical process as well as a vast range of commodity and fine chemical processes. Over the course of this project we have developed the most efficient catalysts to date for the selective conversion of alkanes to give olefins, and have applied these catalysts to other dehydrogenation reactions. We have also developed some of the first efficient catalysts for carbonylation of alkanes and arenes to give aldehydes. The development of these catalysts has been accompanied by elucidation of the mechanism of their operation and the factors controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of C-H bond activation and other individual steps of the catalytic cycles. This fundamental understanding will allow the further improvement of these catalysts, as well as the development of the next generation of catalysts for the functionalization of alkanes and other molecules containing C-H bonds.

  1. Synthesis and self-assembly of thio derivatives of calix[4]arene on noble metal surfaces. (United States)

    Genorio, Bostjan; He, Tao; Meden, Anton; Polanc, Slovenko; Jamnik, Janko; Tour, James M


    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provide a simple route to functionalize electrode surfaces with organic molecules. Herein we use cavity-containing derivatives of calix[4]arenes in SAMs. Bound to noble metal surface, the assembled molecules are candidates to serve as molecular sieves for H 2 molecules and H (+) ions, which could have relevance for fuel cell applications. Tetra- O-alkylated calix[4]arenes with thiolacetate and thiolamide wide-rim anchoring groups in cone and partial-cone conformations were designed, synthesized and self-assembled onto Au, Pt, and Pd surfaces. The resulting SAMs were systematically examined. Single crystal X-ray diffraction of 5,11,17,23-tetrakis(thioacetyl)-25,26,27,28-tetra- i-propoxycalix[4]arene confirmed the cone conformation and revealed the cavity dimensions of the SAMs that were formed by immersing noble metal substrates (Au, Pt and Pd deposited on Si-wafers) in solutions of calix[4]arenes. Surface characterization techniques including ellipsometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used, indicating that the metal surface is terminated with a monomolecular layer. Experimental thicknesses obtained from the ellipsometry are consistent with the calculated values. CV results showed 50 to 80% physical passivation against the Fe(CN) 6 (3-/4-) couple, implying an overall relatively low concentration of defects and pinholes in the films. The binding energies of the S2p core level in the XPS were consistent with the literature values and revealed that up to 3.2 out of four anchoring groups were bonded to the noble metal surface.

  2. New Neutral Receptors for Fluoride Based on Calix[4]arene Bearing Thiourea and Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺英; 徐括喜; 何永炳; 秦海娟; 孟令芝


    Two-armed neutral anion receptors (4,5), calix[4]arenes beating thiourea and amide binding sites, were prepared and examined their anion-binding ability by the UV-vis spectra. The results of non-linear curve fitting and Job plot indicate that 4 or 5 forms 1:1 stoichiometry complex with fluoride by hydrogen bonding interactions. Receptors 4 and 5 have an excellent selectivity for fluoride but have no binding ability with acetate, dihydrogen phosphate and the halogen anions (Cl-,Br-,I-).

  3. Olefin Metathesis With Ruthenium-Arene Catalysts Bearing N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands (United States)

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    In this chapter, we summarize the main results of our investigations on the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene catalyzed by various ruthenium (Ru)-arene complexes bearing imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin- 2-ylidene, or triazolin-5-ylidene ligands. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, we underscored the intervention of a photochemical activation step due to visible light illumination. Second, we established that the presence of an endocyclic double bond in the carbene ligand central heterocycle was not crucial to achieve high catalytic efficiencies. Third, we demonstrated that ortho-metallation of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand by the Ru center led to inactive catalysts.

  4. Toward Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Alkylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Fristrup, Peter


    Recent breakthroughs have proved that direct palladium (II)-catalyzed allylic C-H alkylation can be achieved. This new procedure shows that the inherent requirement for a leaving group in the Tsuji-Trost palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation can be lifted. These initial reports hold great promise...

  5. Properties of a-C:H:O plasma polymer films deposited from acetone vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabik, M., E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Celma, C. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Kousal, J.; Biederman, H. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Macromolecular Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Hegemann, D. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)


    To gain insight into the deposition and stability of oxygen-containing plasma polymer films, the properties of amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (a-C:H:O) plasma polymer coatings deposited from acetone vapors under various experimental conditions are investigated. Apart from the discharge power, the influence of the reactive carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas on the structure of the resulting films is studied. It is found by characterization using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that the experimental conditions particularly influence the amount of oxygen in the deposited a-C:H:O plasma polymer films. The O/C elemental ratio increases with increasing amount of CO{sub 2} in the working gas mixture (up to 0.2 for 24 sccm of CO{sub 2} at 30 W) and decreases with increasing RF discharge power (down to 0.17 for 50 W). Furthermore, the nature of bonds between the oxygen and carbon atoms has been examined. Only low amounts of double and triple bonded carbon are observed. This has a particular influence on the aging of the plasma polymer films which is studied both in ambient air and in distilled water for up to 4 months. Overall, stable a-C:H:O plasma polymer films are deposited comprising low amounts (up to about 5%) of ester/carboxyl groups. - Highlights: • Hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with variable oxygen content can be prepared. • Stable oxygenated hydrocarbon plasma polymers contain max 5% of ester/carboxyl groups. • Acetone-derived plasma polymer films can be used as permanent hydrophilic surfaces.

  6. Synthesis of isoquinolines via Rh-catalyzed C-H activation/C-N cyclization with diazodiesters or diazoketoesters as a C2 source. (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zha, Shanke; Chen, Kehao; Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Jin


    Synthesis of isoquinolines based on efficient C-C and C-N bond formation through Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation and subsequent intramolecular cyclization is reported. Diazodiesters serving as a C2 source in the newly formed heterocycles are first demonstrated. Additionally, the Rh(iii)-catalyzed direct C-H activation/cyclization of benzimidates with diazoketoesters is also described. PMID:27146107



    Nur Afni Evalia


    Aren is a type of palm that has a highly potential economic value. Lareh Sago Sub-district is the largest producer in the District of Lima Puluh Kota; however, it is only processed to produce wine and molded sugar. This study aimed to formulate a strategy for the sugar palm sugar agro-industrial development in Lareh Sagohalaban. The research method was a case study in the form of quantitative descriptive, and the data were processed using IFE/EFE, SWOT and AHP. The values obtained from IFE an...

  8. High growth rate of a-SiC:H films using ethane carbon source by HW-CVD method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahesh M Kamble; Vaishali S Waman; Sanjay S Ghosh; Azam Mayabadi; Vasant G Sathe; T Shripathi; Habib M Pathan; Sandesh R Jadkar


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) thin films were prepared using pure silane (SiH4) and ethane (C2H6), a novel carbon source, without hydrogen dilution using hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HW-CVD) method at low substrate temperature (200 °C) and at reasonably higher deposition rate (19.5 Å/s < d < 35.2 Å/s). Formation of a-SiC:H films has been confirmed from FTIR, Raman and XPS analysis. Influence of deposition pressure on compositional, structural, optical and electrical properties has been investigated. FTIR spectroscopy analysis revealed that there is decrease in C–H and Si–H bond densities while, Si–C bond density increases with increase in deposition pressure. Total hydrogen content drops from 22.6 to 14.4 at.% when deposition pressure is increased. Raman spectra show increase in structural disorder with increase in deposition pressure. It also confirms the formation of nearly stoichiometric a-SiC:H films. Bandgap calculated using both Tauc’s formulation and absorption at 104 cm-1 shows decreasing trend with increase in deposition pressure. Decrease in refractive index and increase in Urbach energy suggests increase in structural disorder and microvoid density in the films. Finally, it has been concluded that C2H6 can be used as an effective carbon source in HW-CVD method to prepare stoichiometric a-SiC:H films.

  9. Iron-Catalyzed Ortho C-H Methylation of Aromatics Bearing a Simple Carbonyl Group with Methylaluminum and Tridentate Phosphine Ligand. (United States)

    Shang, Rui; Ilies, Laurean; Nakamura, Eiichi


    Iron-catalyzed C-H functionalization of aromatics has attracted widespread attention from chemists in recent years, while the requirement of an elaborate directing group on the substrate has so far hampered the use of simple aromatic carbonyl compounds such as benzoic acid and ketones, much reducing its synthetic utility. We describe here a combination of a mildly reactive methylaluminum reagent and a new tridentate phosphine ligand for metal catalysis, 4-(bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl)phosphanyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (Me2N-TP), that allows us to convert an ortho C-H bond to a C-CH3 bond in aromatics and heteroaromatics bearing simple carbonyl groups under mild oxidative conditions. The reaction is powerful enough to methylate all four ortho C-H bonds in benzophenone. The reaction tolerates a variety of functional groups, such as boronic ester, halide, sulfide, heterocycles, and enolizable ketones.

  10. Thermodynamic assessement of the Fe-C-H-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, A.N.; Estrada, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.A. [Instituto Tecnologico Morelia (Mexico)


    The computation of phase stability diagrams to represent the formation of iron oxides, iron carbides and metallic iron involving the simultaneous effect of pressure (101.3 mbar to 101.3 bar), temperature (477 - 727 C) and reactant gas composition (C-H-O-based gas mixtures), has been carried out. It is proposed to employ ternary diagrams to include all process variables to represent the Fe-C-H-O system. The results can be used in a practical way to define operational conditions to reduce iron oxides into metallic iron as well as to carbidise the solid reactant to produce iron carbide, however, in this case, it has been found that the phase field for iron carbide is located in a region supersaturated with respect to carbon in the gas phase, consequently, if equilibrium prevails, the final solid products will include both iron carbide and free carbon. (orig.)

  11. Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

  12. Iron catalyzed oxidation chemistry: from C-H bond activation to DNA cleavag


    Berg, Tieme Adriaan van den


    The synthetic iron complex Fe(N4Py) can be employed as a catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of DNA. The resulting oxidized DNA strand is rather unstable and results in cleavage of the DNA strand into two pieces. As for now, it was only possible with Fe(N4Py) or other synthetic iron complexes as catalyst to cut only one DNA strand at the same time. The covalent linking of two Fe(N4Py) complexes together results in a new dinuclear complex, which is capable of addressing both DNA stands at the sa...

  13. Iron catalyzed oxidation chemistry : from C-H bond activation to DNA cleavag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Tieme Adriaan van den


    The synthetic iron complex Fe(N4Py) can be employed as a catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of DNA. The resulting oxidized DNA strand is rather unstable and results in cleavage of the DNA strand into two pieces. As for now, it was only possible with Fe(N4Py) or other synthetic iron complexes as catal

  14. Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H/N-O bond functionalization: green isoquinolone syntheses in water.


    Ackermann, Lutz; Fenner, Sabine


    Ruthenium-catalyzed isoquinolone syntheses with ample scope were accomplished through carboxylate assistance in environmentally benign water as a reaction medium. The high chemoselectivity of the ruthenium(II) carboxylate complex also set the stage for the direct use of free hydroxamic acids for annulations of alkynes.

  15. Synthesis of Schiff Base Calix[4]arene Crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This letter reports the synthesis of Schiff base calix[4]arene crowns containing m-xylylene phenol subunit, in which calix[4]arene Schiff base crowns 2a, 2b and 2c were formed by 1:1 condensation of calix[4]arene diamine 1 with dialdehydes (2, 6-diformyl-4-chlorophenol 3a, 2, 6-diformyl-4-methylphenol 3b, 2, 6-diformyl-4-tert-butylphenol 3c) under high dilute condition in refluxing anhydrous ethanol in 65-70% yield.

  16. Heteroatom-free arene-cobalt and arene-iron catalysts for hydrogenations. (United States)

    Gärtner, Dominik; Welther, Alice; Rad, Babak Rezaei; Wolf, Robert; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel


    75 years after the discovery of hydroformylation, cobalt catalysts are now undergoing a renaissance in hydrogenation reactions. We have evaluated arene metalates in which the low-valent metal species is--conceptually different from heteroatom-based ligands--stabilized by π coordination to hydrocarbons. Potassium bis(anthracene)cobaltate 1 and -ferrate 2 can be viewed as synthetic precursors of quasi-"naked" anionic metal species; their aggregation is effectively impeded by (labile) coordination to the various π acceptors present in the hydrogenation reactions of unsaturated molecules (alkenes, arenes, carbonyl compounds). Kinetic studies, NMR spectroscopy, and poisoning studies of alkene hydrogenations support the formation of a homogeneous catalyst derived from 1 which is stabilized by the coordination of alkenes. This catalyst concept complements the use of complexes with heteroatom donor ligands for reductive processes. PMID:24616276

  17. Functioned Calix[4]arenes as Artificial Enzymes Catalyze Aldol Condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aldolase models derived from calix[4]arene were designed and synthesized. The aldol condensation of p-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone was catalyzed by the synthetic enzymes proceeded under mild conditions to offer chiefly aldol-type product in good yield.

  18. Separation of Salbutamol by Nano-baskets of Calix[4]arene Bearing Sulfonyl-carboxamides in Partial-cone Conformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Salbutamol,which increases the muscle mass and decreases the adipose tissue,is misused as nutrient repartitioning agent in the livestock.The novelty of this work is the determination of salbutamol in the livestock meat via new bonded-phases bearing eight derivatives ofp-tert-calix[4]arene in partial-cone conformation.The new synthesized bonded-phases were characterized and optimized.The bonding interactions of solute and stationary-phases were examined and the main interactions were reported.The salbutamol levels in six samples of livestock meat were analyzed and the results reveal that for the best bonded-phases,the limit of detection(LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.06 μg/mL,respectively.

  19. Synthesis of a New Type Tetraamides Bridged Calix[4]arene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two new tetraamides bridged calix[4]arenes were synthesized by the condensation reaction of 1,3-bis-chlorocarbonylmethyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with 1,2-bis (2,-amino- 2,-methylpropanamido)benzene or 1,2-bis (2,-amino-2,- methylpropanamido) -4,5- dichloro benzene, respectively. The new compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, MS-FAB, and elemental analysis; macrocyclic polyamine.

  20. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cottet


    Full Text Available Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described.

  1. Calix[4]arenes in the 1,3-alternate conformation


    Dordea, Crenguta


    Calix[4]arenes fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation offer an interesting platform for the attachment of further functionalities which has been less frequently used than the cone conformer. Several synthetic strategies were developed to attach four amino functions to the narrow rim, to the wide rim and to both rims of the calix[4]arene fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Using different precursor groups (nitrile/phthalimide or nitro/phthalimide) which can be independently converted int...

  2. Chiral Supramolecular Chemistry of Basket Resorc[4]arenes


    Calcaterra, Andrea


    Chiral Basket Resorc[4]arenes are well known chiral solvating agents that can induce enantiodiscrimination towards aminoacids, peptides and nucleosides. We synthesized both enantiomer of some basket resorc[4]arenes capable of forming stable diasteromeric host-guest complexes with some nucleosides like cytidine and cytarabine. The reactivity and the structures of the complexes were investigated in gas-phase (ESI-IRMPD, ESI-FT-ICR) and in solution (DOSY, ROESY). Different "in" and "out" struct...

  3. New arene ruthenium complexes with planar chirality


    Therrien, Bruno; Süss-Fink, Georg


    1,2,4-Trimethyl-cyclohexadiene reacts with RuCl3 • nH2O in refluxing ethanol to afford quantitatively [RuCl2(1,2,4-C6H3Me3)]2 (1), the coordination of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene to the ruthenium atom introducing planar chirality at the η6-arene ligand. The dinuclear complex 1 reacts with two equivalents of triphenylphosphine (PPh3) to give quantitatively, as a racemic mixture of enantiomers, [RuCl2(1,2,4-C6H3Me3)(PPh3)] (2), the structure of which has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray str...

  4. Annelation of furan rings to arenes (United States)

    Omelchuk, O. A.; Tikhomirov, A. S.; Shchekotikhin, A. E.


    Benzo[b]furans have been used in various fields of chemistry and technology due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. It is primarily a wide range of biological activities of natural and synthetic benzo[b]furan derivatives and their polyfused analogues (naphthofurans, anthrafurans, etc.) that attracts a significant scientific interest in the context of using these heterocycles as privileged scaffolds in drug design. This survey covers those methods for the annelation of a furan ring to arenes that have been developed mostly during the last decade. We also analyze trends in synthetic methods of benzo[b]furans. Some synthetic schemes are highly efficient in the synthesis of polyfunctionalized furan derivatives. The bibliography includes 110 references.

  5. Investigation of the structure and properties of a-C:H coatings with metal and silicon containing interlayers (United States)

    Nöthe, M.; Breuer, U.; Koch, F.; Penkalla, H. J.; Rehbach, W. P.; Bolt, H.


    The structure of the interface of a-C:H coatings deposited with metal and Si-containing interlayers has been studied. Carbide forming metals (Al, Ti, Cr) can improve the chemical bonding compared with a substrate material which does not form carbides extensively by itself. In addition, a graded transition zone enlarges the interface between the carbon layer and the interlayer metal. In the present work the metal atoms were evaporated and ionized into a dense Ar plasma and deposited onto Si (100) substrates. A graded interface between the metal interlayer and the a-C:H coating was produced by introducing C 2H 2 with increasing amount into the Ar/He plasma during the PAPVD metal deposition process. The PACVD a-C:H deposition process was continued after the termination of metal evaporation to produce the pure a-C:H top layer. Further to Al-, Cr-, Ti- and Cu-interlayers, Si-containing interlayers were investigated. The Si-containing interlayers were deposited by a PACVD process using tetraethoxysilane Si(OC 2H 5) 4 (TEOS) and tetramethylsilane Si(CH 3) 4 (TMS). The characterization of the deposited layer systems was performed by SIMS, SNMS and XPS analyses as well as SEM and analytical TEM methods.

  6. Fundamental reactivity of the Metal-Carbon bond in cyclometalated PNC-complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S. Jongbloed


    The activation of C-H bonds by transition metals and the reactivity of the corresponding metal-carbon bond are interesting research topics form different point of views. Catalytic C-H bond functionalization has emerged as a highly active research area for the development of green construction of Car

  7. Deciphering Noncovalent Interactions Accompanying 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane Encapsulation within Biphene[n]arenes: Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shifts Approach. (United States)

    Lande, Dipali N; Rao, Soniya S; Gejji, Shridhar P


    Binding of novel biphene[n]arene hosts to antiaromatic 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) are investigated by DFT. Biphene[4]arene favors the inclusion complex through noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, C-H⋅⋅⋅π, and C-H⋅⋅⋅H-C dihydrogen bonding. Donor-acceptor complexation renders aromatic character to the guest through charge transfer. The formation of TCNQ anionic radicals through supramolecular π stacking significantly influences its chemical and photophysical behavior. Electron density reorganization consequent to encapsulation of TCNQ reflects in the shift of characteristic vibrations in the IR spectra. The accompanying aromaticities arising from the induced ring currents are analyzed by employing nucleus-independent chemical shifts based profiles. PMID:27028656

  8. From Pillar[n]arene Scaffolds for the Preparation of Nanomaterials to Pillar[5]arene-containing Rotaxanes. (United States)

    Nierengarten, Iwona; Deschenaux, Robert; Nierengarten, Jean-François


    Pillar[n]arenes are a new class of macrocycles that are efficiently prepared from readily available building blocks. In this particular field, our research teams became interested in the use of a pillar[5]arene core as a compact scaffold for the synthesis of nanomaterials with a controlled distribution of functional groups on both rims of the macrocyclic framework. Such compounds have found applications in biology as multivalent ligands for specific lectines or as polycationic compounds for gene delivery. Liquid-crystalline derivatives have been prepared by grafting mesogenic subunits on the pillar[5]arene core. On the other hand, we also became interested in the preparation of pillar[5]arene-containing [2]rotaxanes. In particular, we have shown that pillar[5] arene-based [2]rotaxanes can be obtained from the reaction of amine stoppers with pseudo-rotaxanes resulting from the association of a pillar[5]arene derivative with a diacyl chloride reagent. Finally, amphiphilic [2]rotaxanes have been prepared and incorporated in thin ordered films at the air-water interface. PMID:26931219

  9. C-H activation reactions by yttrium and lutetium hydride complexes : H/D exchange vs metalation of hydrocarbons. Importance of the hybridization state at the α carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, Berth-Jan; Teuben, Jan H.; Macgregor, Stuart A.; Eisenstein, Odile


    Extended Hückel (EHT) calculations have been used to discuss the two alternative σ-bond C-H metathesis reactions which occur with organo-lanthanide (Ln = Y, Lu) compounds. The two reactions lead either to H/H (H/D) exchange or to metalation and have been modelled by studying the interaction of a Cp2

  10. Catalytic C-H imidation of aromatic cores of functional molecules: ligand-accelerated Cu catalysis and application to materials- and biology-oriented aromatics. (United States)

    Kawakami, Takahiro; Murakami, Kei; Itami, Kenichiro


    Versatile imidation of aromatic C-H bonds was accomplished. In the presence of copper bromide and 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl, a range of aromatics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic bowls, porphyrins, heteroaromatics, and natural products, can be imidated by N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide. A dramatic ligand-accelerated copper catalysis and an interesting kinetic profile were uncovered.

  11. Theoretical Studies on the Intermolecular Interactions of Aza-calix[2]arene[2]-triazines with RDX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Mei; SHI Wen-Jing; ZHAO Shu-Sen; REN Fu-De; CAO Duan-Lin


    Six fully optimized structures of the aza-calix[2]arene[2]-triazines/RDX supramolecular complexes have been obtained at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311++G** level, and the corresponding intermolecular interactions have been investigated using the B3LYP, mPWPW91 and MP2 methods at the 6-311++G** level, respectively. The natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analyses have been performed to reveal the origin of interactions. To our interest, the result indicates that the strongest interaction is up to -22.34 kJ/mol after basis set superposition error (BSSE) and zero point energy (ZPE) correction at the MP2/6-311++G** level. Furthermore, the intermolecular interactions between aza-calix[2]arene[2]-triazines with the substituted amidos and RDX are stronger than those of other complexes. Thus, the complexes with amidos can be used as the candidates to increase the stability of explosive and eliminate the explosive wastewater.

  12. Study: Ex-NFL Players Aren't At Greater Risk for Suicide (United States)

    ... NFL Players Aren't at Greater Risk for Suicide Rate was lower than would be expected among ... football players aren't at greater risk of suicide than the general U.S. population, federal health officials ...

  13. Negative ion gas-phase chemistry of arenes. (United States)

    Danikiewicz, Witold; Zimnicka, Magdalena


    Reactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds involving anions are of great importance in organic synthesis. Some of these reactions have been studied in the gas phase and are occasionally mentioned in reviews devoted to gas-phase negative ion chemistry, but no reviews exist that collect all existing information about these reactions. This work is intended to fill this gap. In the first part of this review, methods for generating arene anions in the gas phase and studying their physicochemical properties and fragmentation reactions are presented. The main topics in this part are as follows: processes in which gas-phase arene anions are formed, measurements and calculations of the proton affinities of arene anions, proton exchange reactions, and fragmentation processes of substituted arene anions, especially phenide ions. The second part is devoted to gas-phase reactions of arene anions. The most important of these are reactions with electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and related compounds (Michael acceptors). Other reactions including oxidation of arene anions and halogenophilic reactions are also presented. In the last part of the review, reactions of electrophilic arenes with nucleophiles are discussed. The best known of these is the aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SN Ar) reaction; however, other processes that lead to the substitution of a hydrogen atom in the aromatic ring are also very important. Aromatic substrates in these reactions are usually but not always nitroarenes bearing other substituents in the ring. The first step in these reactions is the formation of an anionic σ-adduct, which, depending on the substituents in the aromatic ring and the structure of the attacking nucleophile, is either an intermediate or a transition state in the reaction path. In the present review, we attempted to collect the results of both experimental and computational studies of the aforementioned reactions conducted since the

  14. Ortho-Functionalized Aryltetrazines by Direct Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Halogenation: Application to Fast Electrophilic Fluorination Reactions. (United States)

    Testa, Christelle; Gigot, Élodie; Genc, Semra; Decréau, Richard; Roger, Julien; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille


    A general catalyzed direct C-H functionalization of s-tetrazines is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, N-directed ortho-C-H activation of tetrazines allows the introduction of various functional groups, thus forming carbon-heteroatom bonds: C-X (X=I, Br, Cl) and C-O. Based on this methodology, we developed electrophilic mono- and poly-ortho-fluorination of tetrazines. Microwave irradiation was optimized to afford fluorinated s-aryltetrazines, with satisfactory selectivity, within only ten minutes. This work provides an efficient and practical entry for further accessing highly substituted tetrazine derivatives (iodo, bromo, chloro, fluoro, and acetate precursors). It gives access to ortho-functionalized aryltetrazines which are difficult to obtain by classical Pinner-like syntheses. PMID:27010438

  15. Two-State Reactivity in Low-Valent Iron-Mediated C-H Activation and the Implications for Other First-Row Transition Metals. (United States)

    Sun, Yihua; Tang, Hao; Chen, Kejuan; Hu, Lianrui; Yao, Jiannian; Shaik, Sason; Chen, Hui


    C-H bond activation/functionalization promoted by low-valent iron complexes has recently emerged as a promising approach for the utilization of earth-abundant first-row transition metals to carry out this difficult transformation. Herein we use extensive density functional theory and high-level ab initio coupled cluster calculations to shed light on the mechanism of these intriguing reactions. Our key mechanistic discovery for C-H arylation reactions reveals a two-state reactivity (TSR) scenario in which the low-spin Fe(II) singlet state, which is initially an excited state, crosses over the high-spin ground state and promotes C-H bond cleavage. Subsequently, aryl transmetalation occurs, followed by oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in a single-electron transfer (SET) step in which dichloroalkane serves as an oxidant, thus promoting the final C-C coupling and finalizing the C-H functionalization. Regeneration of the Fe(II) catalyst for the next round of C-H activation involves SET oxidation of the Fe(I) species generated after the C-C bond coupling. The ligand sphere of iron is found to play a crucial role in the TSR mechanism by stabilization of the reactive low-spin state that mediates the C-H activation. This is the first time that the successful TSR concept conceived for high-valent iron chemistry is shown to successfully rationalize the reactivity for a reaction promoted by low-valent iron complexes. A comparative study involving other divalent middle and late first-row transition metals implicates iron as the optimum metal in this TSR mechanism for C-H activation. It is predicted that stabilization of low-spin Mn(II) using an appropriate ligand sphere should produce another promising candidate for efficient C-H bond activation. This new TSR scenario therefore emerges as a new strategy for using low-valent first-row transition metals for C-H activation reactions.

  16. Theoretical investigation on the molecular inclusion process of prilocaine into p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene (United States)

    de Sousa, Sara M. R.; Fernandes, Sergio A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Guimarães, Luciana; Abranches, Paula A. S.; Varejão, Eduardo V. V.; Nascimento, Clebio S., Jr.


    The present letter reports, for the first time, results from a theoretical analysis of the inclusion process involving the prilocaine into the p-sulfonic acid calix[6]arene. Structure and stabilization energies were calculated, in both gas and aqueous phases, using a sequential methodology based on semiempirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. From the results, a qualitative structure property relationship could be established with some main structural features being relevant for inclusion complex stabilization: (i) the hydrogen bonds established between guest and host molecules, (ii) the dispersion effect and (iii) the inclusion mode of guest molecule into the host cavity.

  17. Insights into the Intramolecular Properties of η6-Arene-Ru-Based Anticancer Complexes Using Quantum Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi


    Full Text Available The factors that determine the stability and the effects of noncovalent interaction on the η6-arene ruthenium anticancer complexes are determined using DFT method. The intramolecular and intra-atomic properties were computed for two models of these half-sandwich ruthenium anticancer complexes and their respective hydrated forms. The results showed that the stability of these complexes depends largely on the network of hydrogen bonds (HB, strong nature of charge transfer, polarizability, and electrostatic energies that exist within the complexes. The hydrogen bonds strength was found to be related to the reported anticancer activities and the activation of the complexes by hydration. The metal–ligand bonds were found to be closed shell systems that are characterised by high positive Laplacian values of electron density. Two of the complexes are found to be predominantly characterised by LMCT while the other two are predominately characterised by MLCT.

  18. Rapid Construction of a Benzo-Fused Indoxamycin Core Enabled by Site-Selective C-H Functionalizations. (United States)

    Bedell, T Aaron; Hone, Graham A B; Valette, Damien; Yu, Jin-Quan; Davies, Huw M L; Sorensen, Erik J


    Methods for functionalizing carbon-hydrogen bonds are featured in a new synthesis of the tricyclic core architecture that characterizes the indoxamycin family of secondary metabolites. A unique collaboration between three laboratories has engendered a design for synthesis featuring two sequential C-H functionalization reactions, namely a diastereoselective dirhodium carbene insertion followed by an ester-directed oxidative Heck cyclization, to rapidly assemble the congested tricyclic core of the indoxamycins. This project exemplifies how multi-laboratory collaborations can foster conceptually novel approaches to challenging problems in chemical synthesis. PMID:27206223

  19. An asymmetric trihydrido-bridged arene ruthenium complex


    Vieille-Petit, Ludovic; Therrien, Bruno; Süss-Fink, Georg


    Reaction of [Ru(η6-indane)(H2O)3]2+ and [Ru(η6-C6Me6)(H2O)3]2+ with NaBH4 in water gives a mixture of three triple hydrido-bridged arene ruthenium cations [(η6-arene)Ru(μ-H)3Ru(η6-arene′)]+ (arene=indane and hexamethylbenzene; arene′=indane and hexamethylbenzene). After treatment with NaBF4, the three complexes are separated by column chromatography and the asymmetrical [(η6-indane)Ru(μ-H)3Ru(η6-C6Me6)][BF4] (cation 1a) can be isolated in moderate yield. 1a decomposes in solution to give the ...

  20. An Efficient Ag+ Ionophore Based on Thiacalix[4]arene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiong; GONG Shu-Ling; YANG Wei-Ping; CHEN Yuan-Yin


    A novel Ag+ ionophore, p-tert-butyi-tetrakis(hydrazinocarbonylmethoxy)thiacalix[4]arene in 1,3-alternate conformation (thiacalix[4]arene tetrahydrazide, 1) was synthesized. Its binding properties towards alkali and transition metal cations were studied by noncompetitive liquid-liquid extraction of alkali metal (Li+, Na+, K+ and Cs+)and transition metal (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ag+) picrates. It was found that the thiacalix[4]arene tetrahydrazide exhibited high extractability towards Ag+, lower percent extraction towards Cu2+, and little or no extraction ability towards the others. The selectivity towards Ag+ was further evaluated by competitive Ag+ extraction experiments in the mixture of the above-mentioned nine cations, the concentration of which was monitored with ICP-OES. 1HNMR titration experiments and ESI-MS proved the stoichiometry of 1 to Ag+ was 1 : 1, and the 'N-Ag+' interaction with the assistance of thiacalixarene skeleton was primarily involved in the complexation.

  1. Molecular Recognition of Natural Products by Resorc[4]arene Receptors. (United States)

    D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Ghirga, Francesca; Quaglio, Deborah; Cerreto, Antonella; Ingallina, Cinzia; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno


    This review is aimed at providing an overview of the up-to-now published literature on resorc[4]arene macrocycles exploited as artificial receptors for the molecular recognition of some classes of natural products. A concise illustration of the main synthetic strategies developed to afford the resorc[4]arene scaffold is followed by a report on the principles of the gas-phase investigation of recognition phenomena by mass spectrometry (MS). Emphasis is placed on gas-phase studies of diastereoisomeric complexes generated inside a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by resorc[4]arene receptors towards a series of natural products, namely amino acids, amphetamine, ethanolamine neurotransmitters, dipeptides, vinca alkaloids and nucleosides. The literature outcomes discussed here, taken largely from our own revisited work, have been completed by references to other studies, in order to draw a broader picture of this rapidly evolving field of research. PMID:26654589

  2. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study. (United States)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen


    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN ((1)Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC ((1)Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn](+) composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn(+) ((2)Σ) and HCNZn(+) ((2)Σ).

  3. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Antonio; Vega-Vega, Álvaro; Barrientos, Carmen, E-mail: [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN ({sup 1}Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC ({sup 1}Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn]{sup +} composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ) and HCNZn{sup +} ({sup 2}Σ)

  4. Structure and spectroscopic properties of neutral and cationic tetratomic [C,H,N,Zn] isomers: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and spectroscopic parameters of the most relevant [C,H,N,Zn] isomers have been studied employing high-level quantum chemical methods. For each isomer, we provide predictions for their molecular structure, thermodynamic stabilities as well as vibrational and rotational spectroscopic parameters which could eventually help in their experimental detection. In addition, we have carried out a detailed study of the bonding situations by means of a topological analysis of the electron density in the framework of the Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The analysis of the relative stabilities and spectroscopic parameters suggests two linear isomers of the neutral [C,H,N,Zn] composition, namely, cyanidehydridezinc HZnCN (1Σ) and hydrideisocyanidezinc HZnNC (1Σ), as possible candidates for experimental detections. For the cationic [C,H,N,Zn]+ composition, the most stable isomers are the ion-molecule complexes arising from the direct interaction of the zinc cation with either the nitrogen or carbon atom of either hydrogen cyanide or hydrogen isocyanide, namely, HCNZn+ (2Σ) and HCNZn+ (2Σ)

  5. Proposal of an Amide-Directed Carbocupration Mechanism for Copper-Catalyzed meta-Selective C-H Arylation of Acetanilides by Diaryliodonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-lin Zhang; Yu-qiang Ding


    We examined the puzzling mechanism for Cu-catalyzed meta-C-H arylation reaction of anilides by diaryliodonium salts through systematic theoretical analysis.The previously proposed anti-oxy-cupration mechanism featuring anti- 1,2- or anti- 1,4-addition of cuprate and oxygen to the phenyl ring generating a meta-cuprated intermediate was excluded due to the large activation barriers.Alternatively,a new amide-directed carbocupration mechanism was proposed which involves a critical rate- and regio-determining step of amide-directed addition of the Cu(III)-aryl bond across the phenyl C2=C3 double bond to form an orthocuprated,meta-arylated intermediate.This mechanism is kinetically the most favored among several possible mechanisms such as ortho- or para-cupration/migration mechanism,direct meta C-H bond cleavage mediated by Cu(III) or Cu(I),and Cu(III)-catalyzed ortho-directed C-H bond activation mechanism.Furthermore,the predicted regioselectivity based on this mechanism has been shown to favor the meta-arylation that is consistent with the experimental observations.

  6. Interatomic potentials for the Be-C-H system. (United States)

    Björkas, C; Juslin, N; Timko, H; Vörtler, K; Nordlund, K; Henriksson, K; Erhart, P


    Analytical bond-order potentials for beryllium, beryllium carbide and beryllium hydride are presented. The reactive nature of the formalism makes the potentials suitable for simulations of non-equilibrium processes such as plasma-wall interactions in fusion reactors. The Be and Be-C potentials were fitted to ab initio calculations as well as to experimental data of several different atomic configurations and Be-H molecule and defect data were used in determining the Be-H parameter set. Among other tests, sputtering, melting and quenching simulations were performed in order to check the transferability of the potentials. The antifluorite Be(2)C structure is well described by the Be-C potential and the hydrocarbon interactions are modelled by the established Brenner potentials. PMID:21832461

  7. Interatomic potentials for the Be-C-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkas, C; Juslin, N; Timko, H; Voertler, K; Nordlund, K [EURATOM-Tekes, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Henriksson, K [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, PO Box 55, FI-00014 (Finland); Erhart, P, E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.f [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Chemistry, Materials, Environmental, and Life Sciences Directorate, L-367, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    Analytical bond-order potentials for beryllium, beryllium carbide and beryllium hydride are presented. The reactive nature of the formalism makes the potentials suitable for simulations of non-equilibrium processes such as plasma-wall interactions in fusion reactors. The Be and Be-C potentials were fitted to ab initio calculations as well as to experimental data of several different atomic configurations and Be-H molecule and defect data were used in determining the Be-H parameter set. Among other tests, sputtering, melting and quenching simulations were performed in order to check the transferability of the potentials. The antifluorite Be{sub 2}C structure is well described by the Be-C potential and the hydrocarbon interactions are modelled by the established Brenner potentials.

  8. Self-inclusion of a New Calix[4]arene Derivative via Associated Acetonitrile: X-ray Diffraction and Density Functional Theory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高升; 缪韧; 李一志; 金晨; 洪瑾; 郭子建; 朱龙根


    A new calix[4]arene derivative, 11,23-bis(hydroxyiminomethyl)-25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-di-n-propoxycalix[4]-arene (B), was synthesized and a compound, with composition of Bo2CH3CN, was fully characterized. 1H NMR showed that B in the B*2CH3CN adopts a cone conformation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the conformation found in solution. In the crystal network, self-inclusion phenomenon is present in a dimeric unit of B*2CH3CN via embedding each other. The noncovalent interaction energies were calculated at B3LYP/6-311G(d) level and corrected by basis set superposition error (BSSE). In half a dimeric unit, one CH3CN is stabilized via hydrogen bonding formed between nitrogen atom of the acetonitrile and one hydroxyimino group, with bonding energy of -5.02 kJ·mol-1, and the other one stabilized by hydrogen bonding formed between nitrogen atom of the acetonitrile and the other hydroxyimino group, with bonding energy of - 14.23 kJ·mol-1, and by inclusion to hydrophobiccavity of the other half of the dimeric unit via C-H…π interaction, with bonding energy of -3.77 kJ·mol-1 doubling of which is a driving force for embedding two B*2CH3CN together.

  9. Kinetics and mechanism studies on scandium calix[6]arene complex initiating ring-opening polymerization of 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Scandium p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene complex has been synthesized from scandium isopropoxide and p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene and used as a single component initiator for the first time. The polymerization of 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC) using this complex can proceed under mild conditions. Poly (2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate) (PolyDTC) with weight-average molecular weight of 33700 and molecular weight distribution of 1.21 can be prepared. Kinetics study indicates that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to both monomer and initiator concentrations, and the apparent activation energy of the polymerization is 22.7 kJ/mol. 1H NMR spectrum of the polymer reveals that the monomer ring opens via acyl-oxygen bond cleavage leading to an active center of Sc-O.

  10. Formation of a Ruthenium-Arene Complex, Cyclometallation with a Substituted Benzylamine, and Insertion of an Alkyne (United States)

    Chetcuti, Michael J.; Ritleng, Vincent


    The three step synthesis is presented to allow the functionalization of an aromatic amine by forming new C-C and C-N bonds via an intramolecular C-H activation under mild conditions. The reactions are stoichiometric and allow the students to isolate the different organometallic intermediates.

  11. Intramolecular cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions with metal carbenoids generated from cyclopropenes. (United States)

    Archambeau, Alexis; Miege, Frédéric; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine


    Activation of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds by means of transition metal catalysts is an exceptionally active research field in organic synthesis. In this context, due to their high ring strain, cyclopropenes constitute an interesting class of substrates that displays a versatile reactivity in the presence of transition metal catalysts. Metal complexes of vinyl carbenes are involved as key intermediates in a wide variety of transition metal-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropenes. Most of the reported transformations rely on intermolecular or intramolecular addition of nucleophiles to these latter reactive species. This Account focuses specifically on the reactivity of carbenoids resulting from the ring-opening of cyclopropenes in cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions, which are arguably two of the most representative transformations of metal complexes of carbenes. Compared with the more conventional α-diazo carbonyl compounds, the use of cyclopropenes as precursors of metal carbenoids in intramolecular cyclopropanation or C-H insertion reactions has been largely underexploited. One of the challenges is to devise appropriately substituted and readily available cyclopropenes that would not only undergo regioselective ring-opening under mild conditions but also trigger the subsequent desired transformations with a high level of chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. These goals were met by considering several substrates derived from the readily available 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinols or 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinyl amines. In the case of 1,6-cyclopropene-enes, highly efficient and diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed ring-opening/intramolecular cyclopropanations were developed as a route to diversely substituted heterocycles and carbocycles possessing a bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane framework. The use of rhodium(II) catalysts enabled us to widen the scope of this transformation for the synthesis of medium-sized heterocyclic scaffolds

  12. Valge villa / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Krista Aren, Emil Urbel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-


    Villa (623 m² + kelder) Merirahu elamurajoonis Tallinnas. Arhitektid: Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark (AB Emil Urbel OÜ). Sisearhitektid: Krista Aren, Mati Veermets. Inseneriosad: AS Meistri Projekt. Haljastaja: Piret Kukk. Projekt: 2005-2008, valmis: 2009. Villa madalamat osa katab murtud pinnaga graniit, kõrgemat valge krohv

  13. The rate of intramolecular vibrational energy relaxation of the fundamental C-H stretch in (CF3)3C-C [equivalent] C-H (United States)

    Gambogi, Joan E.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Pate, Brooks H.; Scoles, Giacinto; Yang, Xueming


    The high resolution spectrum of the fundamental C-H stretch in (CF3)3C-C≡C-H has been measured using optothermal detection of a collimated molecular beam. Only the Q branch was resolvable and was fit to a Lorentzian with a full width at half maximum of 2.76 GHz, corresponding to an IVR lifetime of 60 ps. The decrease in lifetime in comparison to (CH3)3C-C≡C-H is thought to be due to strong mixing between the C-F stretches and bends and the backbone C-C stretches and bends.

  14. Properties of a-C:H:Si thin films deposited by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Wang, Yubao; Du, Jinfang; Yang, Hua; Hao, Junying


    The silicon doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:Si) films were prepared on silicon substrates by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering silicon target in an argon and methane gas mixture atmosphere. The deposition rate, chemical composition, structure, surface properties, stress, hardness and tribological properties in the ambient air of the films were systemically investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation and tribological tester. The results show that doped silicon content in the films is controlled in the wide range from 39.7 at.% to 0.2 at.% by various methane gas flow rate, and methane flow rate affects not only the silicon content but also its chemical bonding structure in the films due to the transformation of sputtering modes. Meanwhile, the sp3 carbon component in the films linearly increases with increasing of methane flow rate. The film deposited at moderate methane flow rate of 40-60 sccm exhibits the very smooth surface (RMS roughness 0.4 nm), low stress (0.42 GPa), high hardness (21.1 GPa), as well as low friction coefficient (0.038) and wear rate (1.6 × 10-7 mm3/Nm). The superior tribological performance of the films could be attributed to the formation and integral covering of the transfer materials on the sliding surface and their high hardness.

  15. Impacts of hydrogen dilution on growth and optical properties of a-SiC:H films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Zhihua; LIAO; Xianbo; DIAO; Hongwei; KONG; Guanglin; Z


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon (a-SiC:H) films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a fixed methane to silane ratio ([CH4]/[SiH4]) of 1.2 and a wide range of hydrogen dilution (RH=[H2]/[SiH4 + CH4]) values of 12, 22, 33, 102 and 135. The impacts of RH on the structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by using UV-VIS transmission, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) measur- ements. The effects of high temperature annealing on the films were also probed. It is found that with increasing hydrogen dilution, the optical band gap increases, and the PL peak blueshifts from ~1.43 to 1.62 Ev. In annealed state, the room temperature PL peak for the low RH samples disappears, while the PL peak for the high RH samples appears at ~2.08 Ev, which is attributed to nanocrystalline Si particles confined by Si-C and Si-O bonds.

  16. The Stabilized Cation Pool Method: Metal- and Oxidant-Free Benzylic C-H/Aromatic C-H Cross-Coupling. (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryutaro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi


    Electrochemical oxidation of toluene derivatives in the presence of a sulfilimine gave benzylaminosulfonium ions as stabilized benzyl cation pools, which reacted with subsequently added aromatic nucleophiles to give the corresponding cross-coupling products. The transformation serves as a powerful metal- and chemical-oxidant-free method for benzylic C-H/aromatic C-H cross-coupling. The method has been successfully applied to synthesis of TP27, an inhibitor of PTPase. PMID:27341676

  17. Effect of deposition temperature and thermal annealing on the dry etch rate of a-C: H films for the dry etch hard process of semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Moo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Nongseo-Dong, Kiheung-Ku, Yongin-Si, Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jaihyung [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Nongseo-Dong, Kiheung-Ku, Yongin-Si, Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Soyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se Jun; Choi, Jongsik; Kim, Jeongtae; Lee, Hyeondeok [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Nongseo-Dong, Kiheung-Ku, Yongin-Si, Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Dongjin, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Sungbook-Ku, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    The effect of deposition and thermal annealing temperatures on the dry etch rate of a-C:H films was investigated to increase our fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermal annealing and dry etch rate and to obtain a low dry etch rate hard mask. The hydrocarbon contents and hydrogen concentration were decreased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures. The I(D)/I(G) intensity ratio and extinction coefficient of the a-C:H films were increased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures because of the increase of sp{sup 2} bonds in the a-C:H films. There was no relationship between the density of the unpaired electrons and the deposition temperature, or between the density of the unpaired electrons and the annealing temperature. However, the thermally annealed a-C:H films had fewer unpaired electrons compared with the as-deposited ones. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the absence of any crystallographic change after thermal annealing. The density of the as-deposited films was increased with increasing deposition temperature. The density of the 600 Degree-Sign C annealed a-C:H films deposited under 450 Degree-Sign C was decreased but at 550 Degree-Sign C was increased, and the density of all 800 Degree-Sign C annealed films was increased. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited a-C:H films was negatively correlated with the deposition temperature. The dry etch rate of the 600 Degree-Sign C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 Degree-Sign C and 450 Degree-Sign C was faster than that of the as-deposited film and that of the 800 Degree-Sign C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 Degree-Sign C and 450 Degree-Sign C was 17% faster than that of the as-deposited film. However, the dry etch rate of the 550 Degree-Sign C deposited a-C:H film was decreased after annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited films was decreased with increasing density but that of the annealed

  18. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Calix [8] arene Ester Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaQiangYUAN; RuJiWANG; 等


    The synthesis and crystal structure of a novel calix[8] arene ester are reported herein. The calix [8] arene ester derivative has been characterized by IR,NMR and X-ray crystal analysis. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the 8 phenolic hydroxy groups of the calix [8] arene have been substituted by 4 diethyl dibromomalonate molecules with each two adjacent hydroxy oxygen atoms attached to a bridge diethyl malonate.

  19. Molecular recognition study of Carbamazepine, antiseizure drug, by p-t-butyl calix(8)arene (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.


    The formation of inclusion complex of Carbamazepine, a antiseizure drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene was the host molecule and Carbamazepine was the guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to study the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with Carbamazepine. The stochiometry of the host-guest complex and the binding constant were determined.

  20. Nanoscaled carborane ruthenium(II)-arene complex inducing lung cancer cells apoptosis


    Yan Hong; Ye Hongde; Wu Chunhui; Zhang Gen; Wang Xuemei


    Abstract Background The new ruthenium(II)-arene complex, which bearing a carborane unit, ruthenium and ferrocenyl functional groups, has a novel versatile synthetic chemistry and unique properties of the respective material at the nanoscale level. The ruthenium(II)-arene complex shows significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells and tumor-inhibiting properties. However, ruthenium(II)-arene complex of mechanism of anticancer activity are scarcely explored. Therefore, it is necessary to explore rut...

  1. Self-assembled monolayers of calix[4]arene derivatives on gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Bart-Hendrik; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    Dialkylsulfide substituted calix[4]arenes were synthesized and adsorbed onto gold substrates. Infrared spectroscopy, thickness, and wettability studies revealed that well-ordered monolayers were formed.

  2. Separation of uranium from aqueous solutions using calix[6]arenes in liquid-liquid extraction as well as solid phase extraction; Abtrennung von Uran aus waessriger Loesung durch Calix[6]arene mittels Fluessig-Fluessig-Extraktion sowie Festphasen-Extraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, K.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.


    The suitability of different calyx[n] arene types for uranyl extraction from liquid solutions was examined by means of liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous phases and organic solvents of varying compositions. It was found that COOH-derivatised calyx[6] arenes have good extraction properties and can even be used in the acid pH range. The use of calixarene-modified fleeces for the separation of uranyl from aqueous phases was examined in batch experiments with pH and uranyl concentration as variables and in the presence or absence of competing ions. The results showed that calixarene-modified fleeces can be used for uranium separation starting from pH 4. At pH 5, up to a maximum of 7.6 x 10{sup -7} mol uranium can be bound per 1 g of calixarene-modified fleece. The separation of uranyl from synthetic pit waters was examined as a means of testing the separation capacity of calixarene-modified fleeces in environmentally sensitive waters. Studies on the reversibility of uranium bonding to calixarene-treated polyester fleeces have shown that under environmentally realistic conditions (neutral pH range) the uranium is firmly bound to the calixarene-modified fleeces and cannot be mobilised. By contrast, in acidic environments calixarene-modified fleeces are capable of near-complete regeneration. Such regenerated textile filter materials can then be used for further uranium separation cycles. [German] Die Eignung verschiedener Calix[n]aren-Typen fuer die Uranylextraktion aus waessriger Loesung wurde mittels Fluessig-Fluessig-Extraktion unter Variation der Zusammensetzung der waessrigen Phase und des organischen Loesungsmittels untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass COOH-derivatisierte Calix[6]arene gute Extraktionseigenschaften aufweisen und selbst im sauren pH-Bereich angewendet werden koennen. Die Uranylabtrennung aus waessriger Loesung durch calixarenmodifizierte Vliese wurde in Abhaengigkeit des pH-Wertes und der Uranylkonzentration in Abwesenheit und Gegenwart von

  3. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) obtained through chemical vapor deposition assisted by plasma; Peliculas delgadas de carbono amorfo hidrogenado (a-C:H) obtenidas mediante deposito quimico de vapores asistido por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia H, J.A.; Camps C, E.E.; Escobar A, L.; Romero H, S.; Chirino O, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Muhl S, S. [IIM-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) were deposited using one source of microwave plasma with magnetic field (type ECR), using mixtures of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in relationship of 80/20 and 95/05 as precursory gases, with work pressures of 4X10{sup -4} to 6x10{sup -4} Torr and an incident power of the discharge of microwaves with a constant value of 400 W. It was analyzed the influence among the properties of the films, as the deposit rate, the composition and the bonding types, and the deposit conditions, such as the flow rates of the precursory gases and the polarization voltage of the sample holders. (Author)

  4. Self-lubrication and wear behavior of TiC/a-C : H nanocomposite coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Huizenga, P.; Galvan, D.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Chandra, T; Tsuzaki, K; Militzer, M; Ravindran, C


    Advanced TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been produced via reactive deposition in a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. In this paper, we report on the tribological behavior of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings in which ultra-low friction is tailored with superior wear resistan

  5. Advanced TiC/a-C : H nanocomposite coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Strondl, C.


    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron Sputtering. They consist of 2-5 nm TiC nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. A transition from a Columnar to a glassy microstructure has been observed in the nanocomposite coatings with increasing subs

  6. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings (United States)

    Bachmann, Svenja; Schulze, Marcus; Morasch, Jan; Hesse, Sabine; Hussein, Laith; Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann; Stark, Robert W.; Narayan, Suman


    Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H2 plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C are not stable on long-term and are influenced by the environmental conditions.

  7. Calix[4]arene-Based New Neutral Sensors for Fluoride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Shun-Ying; MENG,Ling-Zhi; LIU,Xin; HE,Yong-Bing


    @@ The development of new receptors which can recognize neutral and charged species has attracted considerable interest in the recent past.[1] Anions such as fluoride, chloride, phosphate and carboxylate play crucial roles in a range of biological phenomena and are implicated in many disease states.[2] Investigations on molecular and/or ionic recognition by calixarenes and their derivatives as synthetic receptors have attracted increasing attention in supramolecular chemistry because of their modifiable structure.[3] However, calix[4]arenes-based neutral receptors containing thiourea and amide groups are still rare. In this paper, we report fluoride selective optical chemosensors 4 and 5, based on calix[4]arene thiourea and amide derivatives, which only show a remarkable absorption change in the presence of fluoride ions, while have no any change upon addition of other anions (Cl- Br-, I-, AcO- and H2PO4-). The association constants are 947 and 2883 mol·L-1, respectively. The synthesis of calix[4]arene derivatives 4 and 5 is outlined in the following Scheme 1.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C


    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  9. Tagging the Untaggable: A Difluoroalkyl-Sulfinate Ketone-Based Reagent for Direct C-H Functionalization of Bioactive Heteroarenes. (United States)

    Gnaim, Samer; Scomparin, Anna; Li, Xiuling; Baran, Phil S; Rader, Christoph; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Shabat, Doron


    We have developed a new difluoroalkyl ketal sulfinate salt reagent suitable for direct derivatization of heteroarene C-H bonds. The reagent is capable of introducing a ketone functional group on heteroarene bioactive compounds via a one-pot reaction. Remarkably, in three examples the ketone analog and its parent drug had almost identical cytotoxicity. In a representative example, the ketone analog was bioconjugated with a delivery vehicle via an acid-labile semicarbazone linkage and with a photolabile protecting group to produce the corresponding prodrug. Controlled release of the drug-ketone analog was demonstrated in vitro for both systems. This study provides a general approach to obtain taggable ketone analogs directly from bioactive heteroarene compounds with limited options for conjugation. We anticipate that this sodium ketal-sulfinate reagent will be useful for derivatization of other heteroarene-based drugs to obtain ketone-taggable analogs with retained efficacy. PMID:27494153

  10. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations; Interactions entre cations metalliques et derives des oxacalix[4]arenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellah, B


    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) {sup 1}H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} were noted. (author)

  11. Inventarisasi dan Pemanfaatan Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr) oleh Masyarakat Sekitar Hutan (Studi Kasus Desa Sihombu, Kecamatan Tarabintang,


    Damanik, Rionaldo


    Aren (A. pinnata) are included in the arecaceae (areca nut) and are included in the inclosed seed plants (angiospermae). Aren is a forest plant that has many benefits but is not yet used by forest communities widely. The purpose of this study is to elevate the potential, distribution and utilization of aren. This research was using compartment sampling with compartment strip technique. The result showed that optimal growth of aren in elevate 550-560 mdpl and the utilization ...

  12. Calix[4]arene Based Single-Molecule Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karotsis, Georgios; Teat, Simon J.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Piligkos, Stergios; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Brechin, Euan K.


    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been the subject of much interest in recent years because their molecular nature and inherent physical properties allow the crossover between classical and quantum physics to be observed. The macroscopic observation of quantum phenomena - tunneling between different spin states, quantum interference between tunnel paths - not only allows scientists to study quantum mechanical laws in great detail, but also provides model systems with which to investigate the possible implementation of spin-based solid state qubits and molecular spintronics. The isolation of small, simple SMMs is therefore an exciting prospect. To date almost all SMMs have been made via the self-assembly of 3d metal ions in the presence of bridging/chelating organic ligands. However, very recently an exciting new class of SMMs, based on 3d metal clusters (or single lanthanide ions) housed within polyoxometalates, has appeared. These types of molecule, in which the SMM is completely encapsulated within (or shrouded by) a 'protective' organic or inorganic sheath have much potential for design and manipulation: for example, for the removal of unwanted dipolar interactions, the introduction of redox activity, or to simply aid functionalization for surface grafting. Calix[4]arenes are cyclic (typically bowl-shaped) polyphenols that have been used extensively in the formation of versatile self-assembled supramolecular structures. Although many have been reported, p-{sup t}But-calix[4]arene and calix[4]arene (TBC4 and C4 respectively, Figure 1A) are frequently encountered due to (a) synthetic accessibility, and (b) vast potential for alteration at either the upper or lower rim of the macrocyclic framework. Within the field of supramolecular chemistry, TBC4 is well known for interesting polymorphic behavior and phase transformations within anti-parallel bi-layer arrays, while C4 often forms self-included trimers. The polyphenolic nature of calix[n]arenes (where

  13. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G


    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  14. Bond Issues. (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.


    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  15. Study of the hydrogen behavior in amorphous hydrogenated materials of type a - C:H and a - SiC:H facing fusion reactor plasma; Etude du comportament de l`hydrogene dans des materiaux amorphes hydrogenes de type a - C:H et a - SiC:H devant faire face au plasma des reacteurs a fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, G. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire


    Plasma facing components of controlled fusion test devices (tokamaks) are submitted to several constraints (irradiation, high temperatures). The erosion (physical sputtering and chemical erosion) and the hydrogen recycling (retention and desorption) of these materials influence many plasma parameters and thus affect drastically the tokamak running. First, we will describe the different plasma-material interactions. It will be pointed out, how erosion and hydrogen recycling are strongly related to both chemical and physical properties of the material. In order to reduce these interactions, we have selected two amorphous hydrogenated materials (a-C:H and a-SiC:H), which are known for their good thermal and chemical qualities. Some samples have been then implanted with lithium ions at different fluences. Our materials have been then irradiated with deuterium ions at low energy. From our results, it is shown that both the lithium implantation and the use of an a - SiC:H substrate can be beneficial in enhancing the hydrogen retention. These results were completed with thermal desorption studies of these materials. It was evidenced that the hydrogen fixation was more efficient in a-SiC:H than in a-C:H substrate. Results in good agreement with those described above have been obtained by exposing a - C:H and a - SiC:H samples to the scrape off layer of the tokamak of Varennes (TdeV, Canada). A modelling of hydrogen diffusion under irradiation has been also proposed. (author) 176 refs.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory of crystalline β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β CL-20) in the region of its C-H stretching vibrations (United States)

    Behler, K. D.; Pesce-Rodriguez, R.; Cabalo, J.; Sausa, R.


    Molecular vibrational spectroscopy provides a useful tool for material characterization and model verification. We examine the CH stretching fundamental and overtones of energetic material β-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaaziosowurtzitane (β-CL-20) by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Laser Photoacoustic Overtone Spectroscopy, and utilize Density Functional Theory to calculate the C-H bond energy of β-CL-20 in a crystal. The spectra reveal four intense and distinct features, whose analysis yields C-H stretching fundamental frequencies and anharmonicity values that range from 3137 to 3170 cm-1 and 53.8 to 58.8 cm-1, respectively. From these data, we estimate an average value of 42,700 cm-1 (5.29 eV) for the C-H bond energy, a value that agrees with our quantum mechanical calculations.

  17. Studies on the Synthesis and Property of A New Podand-armed Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new ligand 25, 26, 27, 28-tetrakis[2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethoxy]calix[4]arene 3 was synthesized by direct base-strength-driven O-alkylation of calix[4]arene 1.3 has been used as ionophore for cesium selective PVC membrane electrode.The extraction for cesium and sodium with 3 have been also studied.

  18. Versatile coordination of cyclopentadienyl-arene ligands and its role in titanium-catalyzed ethylene trimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Edwin; Batinas, Aurora A.; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart


    Cationic titanium(IV) complexes with ansa-(eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl,eta(6)-arene) ligands were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The strength of the metal-arene interaction in these systems was studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. Complexes with a C, bridge between

  19. Arylative Desulfonation of Diarylmethyl Phenyl Sulfone with Arenes Catalyzed by Scandium Triflate. (United States)

    Nambo, Masakazu; Ariki, Zachary T; Canseco-Gonzalez, Daniel; Beattie, D Dawson; Crudden, Cathleen M


    A scandium-triflate-catalyzed arylative desulfonation of diarylmethyl phenyl sulfones with arenes and heteroarenes was established. A variety of both sulfone and arene substrates were reacted to afford symmetric and nonsymmetric triarylmethanes in good yields. Further transformations of the resulting triarylmethanes and application to the concise synthesis of a bactericidal agent analogue were also demonstrated. PMID:27124389

  20. Synthesis of deep-cavity fluorous calix[4]arenes as molecular recognition scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Several lower-rim perfluoroalkylated (fluorous calix[4]arenes have been synthesized by O-alkylation of the parent calix[4]arene. The compounds are formed in the cone conformation. They are soluble in several fluorous solvents and show promise for use in sensing, selective extractions and other applications.

  1. Buchner and Beyond: Arene Cyclopropanation as Applied to Natural Product Total Synthesis


    Reisman, Sarah E.; Nani, Roger R.; Levin, Sergiy


    Buchner and Curtius first reported the cyclopropanation of arenes in 1885. Since the initial discovery, the Buchner reaction has been the subject of significant research by both physical and synthetic organic chemists. Described herein is a brief overview of the Buchner reaction and related arene cyclopropanation processes, with an emphasis on their application to natural product total synthesis.

  2. Cellular delivery of pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes by a water-soluble arene ruthenium metalla-cage. (United States)

    Furrer, Mona Anca; Schmitt, Frédéric; Wiederkehr, Michaël; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Therrien, Bruno


    Three pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(1)-M(3)) of the general formula [Ru(η(6)-arene-pyrenyl)Cl(2)(pta)] (pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) have been synthesised and characterised. Prior to the coordination to ruthenium, pyrene was connected to the arene ligand via an alkane chain containing different functional groups: ester (L(1)), ether (L(2)) and amide (L(3)), respectively. Furthermore, the pyrenyl moieties of the M(n) complexes were encapsulated within the hydrophobic cavity of the water soluble metalla-cage, [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) (tpt = 2,4,6-tri-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine; donq = 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphthoquinonato), while the arene ruthenium end was pointing out of the cage, thus giving rise to the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+) ([M(n)⊂cage](6+)). The antitumor activity of the pyrenyl-arene ruthenium complexes (M(n)) and the corresponding host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage][CF(3)SO(3)](6) were evaluated in vitro in different types of human cancer cell lines (A549, A2780, A2780cisR, Me300 and HeLa). Complex M(2), which contains an ether group within the alkane chain, demonstrated at least a 10 times higher cytotoxicity than the reference compound [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(2)(pta)] (RAPTA-C). All host-guest systems [M(n)⊂cage](6+) showed good anticancer activity with IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 8 μM after 72 h exposure. The fluorescence of the pyrenyl moiety allowed the monitoring of the cellular uptake and revealed an increase of uptake by a factor two of the M(2) complex when encapsulated in the metalla-cage [Ru(6)(η(6)-p-cymene)(6)(tpt)(2)(donq)(3)](6+). PMID:22506276

  3. Opportunities and challenges for direct C-H functionalization of piperazines. (United States)

    Ye, Zhishi; Gettys, Kristen E; Dai, Mingji


    Piperazine ranks within the top three most utilized N-heterocyclic moieties in FDA-approved small-molecule pharmaceuticals. Herein we summarize the current synthetic methods available to perform C-H functionalization on piperazines in order to lend structural diversity to this privileged drug scaffold. Multiple approaches such as those involving α-lithiation trapping, transition-metal-catalyzed α-C-H functionalizations, and photoredox catalysis are discussed. We also highlight the difficulties experienced when successful methods for α-C-H functionalization of acyclic amines and saturated mono-nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (such as piperidines and pyrrolidines) were applied to piperazine substrates. PMID:27340462


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Extended Huckel (EHT) calculations have been used to discuss the two alternative sigma-bond C-H metathesis reactions which occur with organo-lanthanide (Ln = Y, Lu) compounds. The two reactions lead either to H/H (H/D) exchange or to metalation and have been modelled by studying the interaction of a

  5. Red-Shifting versus Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bonds: Perspective from Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory. (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Weng, Xinzhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong


    Both proper, red-shifting and improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bonds have been well-recognized with enormous experimental and computational studies. The current consensus is that there is no difference in nature between these two kinds of hydrogen bonds, where the electrostatic interaction dominates. Since most if not all the computational studies are based on molecular orbital theory, it would be interesting to gain insight into the hydrogen bonds with modern valence bond (VB) theory. In this work, we performed ab initio VBSCF computations on a series of hydrogen-bonding systems, where the sole hydrogen bond donor CF3H interacts with ten hydrogen bond acceptors Y (═NH2CH3, NH3, NH2Cl, OH(-), H2O, CH3OH, (CH3)2O, F(-), HF, or CH3F). This series includes four red-shifting and six blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. Consistent with existing findings in literature, VB-based energy decomposition analyses show that electrostatic interaction plays the dominating role and polarization plays the secondary role in all these hydrogen-bonding systems, and the charge transfer interaction, which denotes the hyperconjugation effect, contributes only slightly to the total interaction energy. As VB theory describes any real chemical bond in terms of pure covalent and ionic structures, our fragment interaction analysis reveals that with the approaching of a hydrogen bond acceptor Y, the covalent state of the F3C-H bond tends to blue-shift, due to the strong repulsion between the hydrogen atom and Y. In contrast, the ionic state F3C(-) H(+) leads to the red-shifting of the C-H vibrational frequency, owing to the attraction between the proton and Y. Thus, the relative weights of the covalent and ionic structures essentially determine the direction of frequency change. Indeed, we find the correlation between the structural weights and vibrational frequency changes. PMID:27074500

  6. Synthesis and Structure of Novel Double Flexible Spacer BridgedBiscalix [4] arenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG, Xian-Shun; WENG, Lin-Hong; CHEN,Lang-Xing; JU, Hong-Fang; LENG, Xue-Bing; HE, Xi-Wen


    25,25′ ,27,27′-Bis ( 1,3-dioxypropane ) -bis (5,11,17,23-tetratert-butylcalix[4]arene-26,28-diol) (4) and 25,25′,27,27′-bis( 1, 4-dioxybutane)-bis (5, 11, 17, 23-tetra-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-26,28-diol) (5) were synthesized by the reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (1) with preorganized 25,27-bis(3-bromoproxyl)calix[4]arene-26,27-diol (2) and 25,27-bis(3-bromobutoxyl)calix[4]arene-26,27-diol (3) in the presence of K2CO3 and KI. Compounds 4 and 5 were characterized with X-ray analysis and the selectivity of 4 and 5 to ward K + over other alkali metal ions, alkaline metal ions as well as NH4 + were investigated with an ion-selective electrode.

  7. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.


    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  8. Synthesis of Dihydropyridines and Pyridines from Imines and Alkynes via C-H Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellman, Jonathan A.; Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert


    A convenient one-pot C-H alkenylation/electrocyclization/aromatization sequence has been developed for the synthesis of highly substituted pyridine derivatives from alkynes and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated N-benzyl aldimines and ketimines that proceeds through dihydropyridine intermediates. A new class of ligands for C-H activation was developed, providing broader scope for the alkenylation step than could be achieved with previously reported ligands. Substantial information was obtained about the mechanism of the reaction. This included the isolation of a C-H activated complex and its structure determination by X-ray analysis; in addition, kinetic simulations using the Copasi software were employed to determine rate constants for this transformation, implicating facile C-H oxidative addition and slow reductive elimination steps.

  9. Elemental (C, H, N) composition of zooplankton from north Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, K.L.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Zooplankton samples collected from north Arabian Sea during March 1992 were analysed for elemental (C,H,N) composition. Estimated carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen concentrations displayed variations among different groups but their ratios were nearly...

  10. Short Synthesis of Sulfur Analogues of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons through Three Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylations. (United States)

    Hagui, Wided; Besbes, Néji; Srasra, Ezzeddine; Roisnel, Thierry; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri


    An expeditious synthesis of a wide range of phenanthro[9,10-b]thiophene derivatives, which are a class of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a sulfur atom, is reported. The synthetic scheme involves only two operations from commercially available thiophenes, 2-bromobenzenesulfonyl chlorides and aryl bromides. In the first step, palladium-catalyzed desulfitative arylation using 2-bromobenzenesulfonyl chlorides allows the synthesis of thiophene derivatives, which are substituted at the C4 position by an aryl group containing an ortho-bromo substituent. Then, a palladium-catalyzed one-pot cascade intermolecular C5-arylation of thiophene using aryl bromides followed by intramolecular arylation led to the corresponding phenanthro[9,10-b]thiophenes in a single operation. In addition, PAHs containing two or three sulfur atoms, as well as both sulfur and nitrogen atoms, were also designed by this strategy. PMID:27550151

  11. Initial Stages in the Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation of Primary Alcohols in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.; Monsted, L.; Monsted, O.;


    The mechanism of the catalytic HID exchange in primary alcohol substrates derived from aldopentoses, promoted by a macrocyclic rhodium(III) complex, has been shown to occur by a reversible redox reaction that gives aldehyde and a rhodium hydride complex. Hydride exchange in the latter complex pro...

  12. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Arylation of Heterocycles via C-H Bond Activation: Expanded Scope Through Mechanistic Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Berman, Ashley; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    A practical, functional group tolerant method for the Rh-catalyzed direct arylation of a variety of pharmaceutically important azoles with aryl bromides is described. Many of the successful azole and aryl bromide coupling partners are not compatible with methods for the direct arylation of heterocycles using Pd(0) or Cu(I) catalysts. The readily prepared, low molecular weight ligand, Z-1-tert-butyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrophosphepine, which coordinates to Rh in a bidentate P-olefin fashion to provide a highly active yet thermally stable arylation catalyst, is essential to the success of this method. By using the tetrafluoroborate salt of the corresponding phosphonium, the reactions can be assembled outside of a glove box without purification of reagents or solvent. The reactions are also conducted in THF or dioxane, which greatly simplifies product isolation relative to most other methods for direct arylation of azoles employing high-boiling amide solvents. The reactions are performed with heating in a microwave reactor to obtain excellent product yields in two hours.

  13. Tuning the reactivity of an actor ligand for tandem CO2 and C-H activations: from spectator metals to metal-free. (United States)

    Annibale, Vincent T; Dalessandro, Daniel A; Song, Datong


    The 4,5-diazafluorenide ligand (L(-)) serves as an actor ligand in the formal insertion of CO2 into a C-H bond remote from the metal center. With the Ru(II) complex of L(-) as the starting point, Rh(III), Rh(I), and Cu(I) were used as spectator metal centers to tune the reactivity of the actor ligand toward CO2. In the case of Rh(III)-diazafluorenide a room temperature reversible activation of CO2 was observed, similar to the isoelectronic Ru(II) analogue. In the case of Rh(I)- and Cu(I)-diazafluorenide CO2 is trapped by the formation of dinuclear carboxylate complexes and diazafluorene (LH). The spectator metal center could even be replaced entirely with an organic group allowing for the first metal-free reversible tandem CO2 and C-H activation.

  14. J.C.H. de Meijere (1866-1947), een voorzichtig geneticus en evolutiebioloog


    Schoor, W.J. van der


    J.C.H. de Meijere (1866-1947), a cautious geneticist and evolutionary biologist

    After the success of Hugo de Vries' 'mutationism' during the socalled 'Eclipse of Darwinism' (see Bowler, 1983), Dutch biologists in the 20's and 30's had little interest in evolutionary theory. A remarkable exception was the entomologist J.C.H. de Meijere, who thought technical zoology and (1921-1936) genetics at Amsterdam...

  15. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H Amination of Tetrahydrofuran with Indole/Carbazole Derivatives. (United States)

    Yang, Qingjing; Choy, Pui Ying; Fu, Wai Chung; Fan, Baomin; Kwong, Fuk Yee


    A simple α-C-H amination of cyclic ether with indole/carbazole derivatives has been accomplished by employing copper(II) chloride/bipy as the catalyst system. In the presence of the di-tert-butyl peroxide oxidant, cyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, and tetrahydropyran successfully undergo C-H/N-H cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) with various carbazole or indole derivatives in good-to-excellent yields. PMID:26485515

  16. Structure and Friction Behavior of CrNx/a-C:H Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunlin Shang


    Full Text Available CrN and CrNx/a-C:H nanocomposite films were deposited on Si substrates by the magnetron sputtering technique. The structure, chemical state, and friction behavior of the CrNx/a-C:H films prepared at various CH4 content were studied systematically. The CrN film shows strong (111 and (220 orientation, while the CrNx/a-C:H films consist of the nanocrystalline CrNx or Cr particles embedded in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H matrix and show weak diffraction peaks, which is in accordance with the XPS analysis results. The typical Raman D and G peaks are observed, indicating that the separated amorphous carbon or CNx phase appears in the CrNx/a-C:H films. However, no chromium carbide was observed in all the as-deposited samples. From the SEM graphs, all the deposited films depicted a dense and compact microstructure with well-attached interface with the substrate. The average friction coefficient of the CrNx/a-C:H films largely decreased with increasing CH4 content.

  17. Biocompatible polyurethane/thiacalix[4]arenes functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites: Synthesis and properties. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Barikani, Mehdi; Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour


    In this study, a series of magnetic polyurethane/Fe3O4 elastomer nanocomposites were prepared by covalently embedding novel thiacalix[4]arenes (TC4As) functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (TC4As-Fe3O4) which contain macrocycles with reactive hydroxyl groups. Surface functionalization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with TC4As macrocycles as unique reactive surface modifier not only gives specific characteristics to Fe3O4 nanoparticles but also improves the interphase interaction between nanoparticles and the polyurethane matrices through covalent attachment of polymer chains to nanoparticle surfaces. The novel synthesized TC4As-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, VSM and SEM analysis. Furthermore, the effect of functionalization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the various properties of resulting nanocomposites was studied by XRD, TGA, DMTA, SEM, and a universal tensile tester. It was found that the functionalization of nanoparticles with TC4As affords better mechanical and thermal properties to polyurethane nanocomposites in comparison with unmodified nanoparticles. The SEM analysis showed finer dispersion of TC4As-Fe3O4 nanoparticles than unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the polyurethane matrices, which arising from formation of covalent bonding between TC4As functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and polyurethane matrices. Moreover, the investigation of in vitro biocompatibility of novel nanocomposites showed that these samples are excellent candidate for biomedical use. PMID:27207044

  18. Copper-mediated C-H activation/C-S cross-coupling of heterocycles with thiols

    KAUST Repository

    Ranjit, Sadananda


    We report the synthesis of a series of aryl- or alkyl-substituted 2-mercaptobenzothiazoles by direct thiolation of benzothiazoles with aryl or alkyl thiols via copper-mediated aerobic C-H bond activation in the presence of stoichiometric CuI, 2,2′-bipyridine and Na 2CO 3. We also show that the approach can be extended to thiazole, benzimidazole, and indole substrates. In addition, we present detailed mechanistic investigations on the Cu(I)-mediated direct thiolation reactions. Both computational studies and experimental results reveal that the copper-thiolate complex [(L)Cu(SR)] (L: nitrogen-based bidentate ligand such as 2,2′-bipyridine; R: aryl or alkyl group) is the first reactive intermediate responsible for the observed organic transformation. Furthermore, our computational studies suggest a stepwise reaction mechanism based on a hydrogen atom abstraction pathway, which is more energetically feasible than many other possible pathways including β-hydride elimination, single electron transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, oxidative addition/reductive elimination, and σ-bond metathesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.



    Beran, Mirna; Mioč, Boro; Barać, Zdravko; Vnučec, Ivan; Prpić, Zvonimir; Pavić, Vesna; Kasap, A.


    Hrvatska šarena koza je autohtona pasmina koja je nastala i uzgaja se na području hrvatskoga krša. Uglavnom je namijenjena za proizvodnju mesa, ponajviše visokokvalitetnih jarećih trupova. S obzirom da je reprodukcija osnova proizvodnje mesa, cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi određene reprodukcijske odlike hrvatske šarene koze (plodnost koza, veličinu legla, porodnu masu jaradi, omjer spolova) kao preduvjete učinkovitosti pasmine u proizvodnji mesa. Predmetno istraživanje obuhvaćalo je u...

  20. Relationship Between Structures and Reactivity of Polycyclic Arenes Toward Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪中海; 张丽芳; 袁新华; 宗志敏; 魏贤勇


    Hydrogenation reactions of polycyclic arenes (Pas) were car ried out in the presence of Ni and sulfur at 300 ℃ to examine the structuralef fect of Pas on their reactivities toward hydrogenation. Hydrogen was observed to be transferred preferentially to some fixed positions in Pas and different Pas displayed some difference in hydrogenation reactivity. The results can be inte rpreted on the hydrogen-accepting ability of carbon atoms from different positi ons in Pas and the resonance stability of aryl radicals resulting from H-atom a ddition as well as the adsorption strength of Pas on catalyst surface.

  1. Nanoscaled carborane ruthenium(II-arene complex inducing lung cancer cells apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new ruthenium(II-arene complex, which bearing a carborane unit, ruthenium and ferrocenyl functional groups, has a novel versatile synthetic chemistry and unique properties of the respective material at the nanoscale level. The ruthenium(II-arene complex shows significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells and tumor-inhibiting properties. However, ruthenium(II-arene complex of mechanism of anticancer activity are scarcely explored. Therefore, it is necessary to explore ruthenium(II-arene complex mechanism of anticancer activity for application in this area. Results In this study, the ruthenium(II-arene complex could significantly induce apoptosis in human lung cancer HCC827 cell line. At the concentration range of 5 μM-100 μM, ruthenium(II-arene complex had obvious cell cytotoxicity effect on HCC827 cells with IC50 values ranging 19.6 ± 5.3 μM. Additionally, our observations demonstrate that the ruthenium(II-arene complex can readily induce apoptosis in HCC827 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V-FITC, nuclear fragmentation as well as DNA fragmentation. Treatment of HCC827 cells with the ruthenium(II-arene complex resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by high cleaved Caspase-8,9 ratio. Besides ruthenium(II-arene complex caused a rapid induction of cleaved Caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion In this study, the ruthenium(II-arene complex could significantly induce apoptosis in human lung cancer HCC827 cell line. Treatment of HCC827 cells with the ruthenium(II-arene complex resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by high cleaved Caspase-8,9 ratio. Besides ruthenium(II-arene complex caused a rapid induction of cleaved Caspase-3 activity and stimulated proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that ruthenium(II-arene complex could be a candidate for further

  2. Thermal Modification of a-SiC:H Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition from CH4+SiH4 Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉学; 王宁会; 刘益春; 申德振; 范希武; 李灵燮


    The effects of thermal annealing on photoluminescence (PL) and structural properties of a-Si1-xCx :H films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from CH4+SiH4 mixtures are studied by using infrared, PL and transmittance-reflectance spectra. In a-SiC:H network, high-temperature annealing gives rise to the effusion of hydrogen from strongly bonded hydrogen in SiH, SiH2, (SiH2)n, SiCHn and CHn configurations and the break of weak C-C, Si-Si and C-Si bonds. A structural rearrangement will occur, which causes a significant correlation of the position and intensity of the PL signal with the annealing temperature. The redshift of the PL peak is related to the destruction of the confining power of barriers. However, the PL intensity does not have a significant correlation with the annealing temperature for a C-rich a-SiC:H network, which refers to the formation of π-bond cluster as increasing carbon content. It is indicated that the thermal stability of C-rich a-Si1-xCx:H films is better than that of Si-like a-Si1-xCx :H films.

  3. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock


    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  4. Los peligros volcánicos del Arenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöbohm Castillo, Linda Marie


    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con el fin de establecer los riesgos asociados al volcán Arenal y la realización y utilización de los mapas de peligros volcánicos en la planificación de las áreas circundantes. Contiene información histórica de la actividad del volcán. Presenta los objetivos fundamentales de la producción de los mapas. Identifica los tipos de peligros que presenta el volcán en la actualidad y finalmente, informa sobre la construcción de los mapas de peligros volcánicos, tanto el de corto plazo como el de largo plazo This study was developed with the purpose of establishing the risks related to the Arenal Volcano and the development and use of volcanic danger maps in the planning of the areas around. It includes historic information about the volcano activity. It presents the main objective of doing the maps. It identifies the types of dangers the volcano presents in these days. Finally, it informs about the development of volcanic dangers maps, at short and long term

  5. C-H activation reactions by yttrium and lutetium hydride complexes: H/D exchange vs metalation of hydrocarbons. Importance of the hybridization state at the α carbon


    Deelman, Berth-Jan; Teuben, Jan H.; Macgregor, Stuart A.; Eisenstein, Odile


    Extended Hückel (EHT) calculations have been used to discuss the two alternative σ-bond C-H metathesis reactions which occur with organo-lanthanide (Ln = Y, Lu) compounds. The two reactions lead either to H/H (H/D) exchange or to metalation and have been modelled by studying the interaction of a Cp2Ln+ fragment with [H-R-H]- and [R-H-H]- respectively. It is shown that the metallic fragment interacts in a similar way with the two organic fragments and that the preference for one of the two pat...

  6. Regioselective and Stepwise Syntheses of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions and Direct C-H Arylations. (United States)

    Feng, Zeya; Jiao, Lijuan; Feng, Yuanmei; Yu, Changjiang; Chen, Na; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Hao, Erhong


    Regioselective and stepwise syntheses of a series of functionalized BODIPY dyes through palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and direct C-H arylations have been developed. In particular, this method allows the straightforward synthesis of 2,6-dibromo-3,5-diarylBODIPYs and 2-bromo-3-arylBODIPYs from polybrominated BODIPYs. The X-ray structure of intermediates 5a-c indicated that the palladium was first inserted into the C-Br bonds at 3,5-positions of brominated BODIPYs. The resulting 2,6-dibromo-substituted BODIPYs are potential long wavelength photosensitizers which are not easily accessible using previous methods. PMID:27362954

  7. Odd-numbered oxacalix[n]arenes (n = 5, 7): synthesis and solid-state structures. (United States)

    Van Rossom, Wim; Robeyns, Koen; Ovaere, Magriet; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dehaen, Wim; Maes, Wouter


    The critical synthetic access to odd-numbered calix[n]arenes has evidently resulted in less attention for these macrocycles, although specific molecular recognition phenomena have been observed for some of them. A straightforward fragment coupling approach has been designed, applying kinetically controlled nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction conditions, affording odd-numbered oxacalix[n]arenes (n = 5, 7) selectively in high yields. The solid-state conformational behavior and the oxacalix[n]arene cavity size were explored by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  8. Formation of upper rim acylated calix[4]arenes using a sacrifici al zinc anode


    Louati, Alain; Vataj, Rame; Gabelica, Valérie; Lejeune, Manuel; MATT, DOMINIQUE


    A straightforward electrosynthetic method is described, which allows upper rim acylation of non-p-halogenated calix[4]-arenes. For example, a solution of tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene 4 was electrolysed in the presence of ZnBr2, in an undivided cell fitted with a sacrificial zinc anode using pure acetonitrile as solvent, yielding an organozinc species, which was then treated with acetyl chloride in the presence of a palladium catalyst to afford 5,11-diacety1-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene ...

  9. Compositional, structural and mechanical characteristics of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films, with an unusual combination of superhardness, high elastic modulus and high elastic recovery, are prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique using the C2H2 gas as the precursor. The effects of filter coil current on compositional, structural and mechanical properties of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microindentation and tribotester measurements. XPS and Raman analyses show that composition and nanostructure of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films can be changed by varying the filter coil current. By selecting the proper value of filter coil current, 2.5 A, one can remarkably enhance the mechanical properties of films such as superhardness (43.6 GPa). The superhardness can be ascribed to the phase variation and the nanostructure.

  10. Modeling study of oxygenated fuels on diesel combustion: Effects of oxygen concentration, cetane number and C/H ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effects of oxygenated fuels on diesel combustion are extensively investigated. • CO and soot emissions are reduced with the increase of oxygen concentration. • The C–O bond in the oxygenated fuels inhibits the formation of soot precursor C2H2. • Small intermediates such as C2H4 and C2H6 are significantly reduced. • Oxygen concentration seems to be the dominating factor affecting the emissions. - Abstract: The present modeling study aims to gain better insights on the effects of oxygenated fuels on the diesel oxidation and emission formation processes under realistic engine operating conditions. To do that, various blend fuels formulated from diesel, biodiesel, ethanol and DMC fuels were obtained with different oxygen concentrations, cetane numbers and C/H ratios. Simulations were conducted using the coupled KIVA–CHEMKIN code on a light duty diesel engine at a fixed engine speed of 2400 rpm under full load conditions. Constructed numerical simulation models integrated with detailed chemical kinetics were validated against the experimental results with reliable accuracies. Simulation results revealed that as the overall oxygen concentration of the blend fuel increased, significant beneficial effects were shown with reduced NOx, CO and soot emissions. Particularly, with the increase of oxygen concentration, the peak CO concentration and its final emission level were found to be remarkably reduced due to the fuel borne oxygen, reduced carbon influx as well as the possibility accelerated CO oxidation rate. More tangible reductions were shown on the soot emissions probably because the C–O bond in the oxygenated blend fuels had played an important role in inhibiting the carbon atoms from soot formation. Furthermore, as oxygenated fuels were added, the peak concentration of the soot precursor C2H2 species and small hydrocarbon intermediates such as C2H4 and C2H6 were also significantly reduced. In general, it was found that compared to the

  11. Development of a Direct Photocatalytic C-H Fluorination for the Preparative Synthesis of Odanacatib. (United States)

    Halperin, Shira D; Kwon, Daniel; Holmes, Michael; Regalado, Erik L; Campeau, Louis-Charles; DiRocco, Daniel A; Britton, Robert


    Late-stage C-H fluorination is an appealing reaction for medicinal chemistry. However, the application of this strategy to process research appears less attractive due to the formation and necessary purification of mixtures of organofluorines. Here we demonstrate that γ-fluoroleucine methyl ester, an intermediate critical to the large-scale synthesis of odanacatib, can be accessed directly from leucine methyl ester using a combination of the decatungstate photocatalyst and N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide in flow. This efficient C-H fluorination reaction compares favorably with several generations of classical γ-fluoroleucine process syntheses. PMID:26484983

  12. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C-H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel


    Natural products have a venerable history of, and enduring potential for the discovery of useful biological activity. To fully exploit this, the development of chemical methodology that can functionalize unique sites within these complex structures is highly desirable. Here, we describe the use of rhodium(II)-catalysed C-H amination reactions developed by Du Bois to carry out simultaneous structure-activity relationship studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions. Allylic and benzylic C-H bonds in the natural products undergo amination while olefins undergo aziridination, and tertiary amine-containing natural products are converted to amidines by a C-H amination-oxidation sequence or to hydrazine sulfamate zwitterions by an unusual N-amination. The alkynylated derivatives are ready for conversion into cellular probes that can be used for mechanism-of-action studies. Chemo- and site-selectivity was studied with a diverse library of natural products. For one of these—the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate—quantitative proteome profiling led to the identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, suggesting a polypharmacological mode of action.

  13. Gas Concentration Mapping of Arenal Volcano Using AVEMS (United States)

    Diaz, J. Andres; Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Conejo, Elian; Heinrich, Kristel; Soto, Carlomagno


    The Airborne Volcanic Emissions Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) System developed by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and deployed in collaboration with the National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT) and the University of Costa Rica was used for mapping the volcanic plume of Arenal Volcano, the most active volcano in Costa Rica. The measurements were conducted as part of the second CARTA (Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Application) mission conducted in March 2005. The CARTA 2005 mission, involving multiple sensors and agencies, consisted of three different planes collecting data over all of Costa Rica. The WB-57F from NASA collected ground data with a digital camera, an analog photogrametric camera (RC-30), a multispectral scanner (MASTER) and a hyperspectral sensor (HYMAP). The second aircraft, a King Air 200 from DoE, mounted with a LIDAR based instrument, targeted topography mapping and forest density measurements. A smaller third aircraft, a Navajo from Costa Rica, integrated with the AVEMS instrument and designed for real-time measurements of air pollutants from both natural and anthropogenic sources, was flown over the volcanoes. The improved AVEMS system is designed for deployment via aircraft, car or hand-transport. The 85 pound system employs a 200 Da quadrupole mass analyzer, has a volume of 92,000 cubic cm, requires 350 W of power at steady state, can operate up to an altitude of 41,000 feet above sea level (-65 C; 50 torr). The system uses on-board gas bottles on-site calibration and is capable of monitoring and quantifying up to 16 gases simultaneously. The in-situ gas data in this work, consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and acetone, was acquired in conjunction of GPS data which was plotted with the ground imagery, topography and remote sensing data collected by the other instruments, allowing the 3 dimensional visualization of the volcanic plume at Arenal Volcano. The modeling of possible scenarios of Arenal s activity and its

  14. Bimetallic ruthenium–tin chemistry: Synthesis and molecular structure of arene ruthenium complexes containing trichlorostannyl ligands


    Therrien, Bruno; Thai, Trieu-Tien; Freudenreich, Julien; Süss-Fink, Georg; Shapovalov, Sergey S.; Pasynskii, Alexandr A.; Plasseraud, Laurent


    A series of neutral, anionic and cationic arene ruthenium complexes containing the trichlorostannyl ligand have been synthesised from SnCl2 and the corresponding arene ruthenium dichloride dimers [(η6-arene)Ru(μ2-Cl)Cl]2 (arene = C6H6, PriC6H4Me). While the reaction with triphenylphosphine and stannous chloride only gives the neutral mono(trichlorostannyl) complexes [(η6-C6H6)Ru(PPh3)(SnCl3)Cl] (1) and [(η6-PriC6H4Me)Ru(PPh3)(SnCl3)Cl] (2), the neutral di(trichlorostannyl) complex [(η6-PriC6H...

  15. Functionalized O6-Corona[6]arenes: Synthesis, Structure, and Fullerene Complexation Property. (United States)

    Ren, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang


    The synthesis, structure, and fullerene complexation property of novel and functionalized On-corona[n]arenes were reported. Based on the fragment coupling strategy, ester-containing On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) were obtained readily starting from 1,4-hydroquinone and diethyl 2,5-difluoroterephthalate. Reduction of esters with LiAlH4 produced almost quantitatively hydroxymethylated On-corona[n]arenes, which underwent etherification with MeI to afford methoxymethyl-substituted On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) in good yields. The macrocycles adopt unique corona-type conformation with a large cylindroid cavity. They are strong macrocyclic host molecules to form 1:1 complexes with fullerenes C60 and C70 in toluene with an associate constant up to (1.59 ± 0.04) × 10(5) M(-1). PMID:27324274

  16. Functionalized O6-Corona[6]arenes: Synthesis, Structure, and Fullerene Complexation Property. (United States)

    Ren, Wen-Sheng; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang


    The synthesis, structure, and fullerene complexation property of novel and functionalized On-corona[n]arenes were reported. Based on the fragment coupling strategy, ester-containing On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) were obtained readily starting from 1,4-hydroquinone and diethyl 2,5-difluoroterephthalate. Reduction of esters with LiAlH4 produced almost quantitatively hydroxymethylated On-corona[n]arenes, which underwent etherification with MeI to afford methoxymethyl-substituted On-corona[n]arenes (n = 6, 8) in good yields. The macrocycles adopt unique corona-type conformation with a large cylindroid cavity. They are strong macrocyclic host molecules to form 1:1 complexes with fullerenes C60 and C70 in toluene with an associate constant up to (1.59 ± 0.04) × 10(5) M(-1).

  17. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen, and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time. How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the ShanghaiSecuritiesJournal. Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen,and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time.How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  19. a-C(:H) and a-C(:H){sub Z}r coatings deposited on biomedical Ti-based substrates: Tribological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudeiro, A., E-mail: [SEG-CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Polcar, T. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology (nCATS), School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Department of Control Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)


    Amorphous carbon (a-C) based coatings are possible candidates as a surface treatment for various biocompatible materials used in medicine. In this study, the carbon coatings co-sputtered with Zr, deposited by dc unbalanced magnetron sputtering in Ar (non-hydrogenated, i.e. a-C/Zr) and Ar + CH{sub 4} (hydrogenated, i.e. a-C:H/Zr) discharges, were investigated and compared with pure carbon films. Polished pure commercial Ti grade 2 and Ti grade 5 ELI (Ti6Al4V) discs were used as substrates. To improve the coating/substrate adhesion, a gradient Ti-based interlayer was deposited (∼ 450 nm). The coating structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; the chemical composition was measured by electron probe microanalysis. The adhesion was evaluated by scratch-test and the hardness was measured by nanoindentation. Tribological testing of the coatings was carried out using unidirectional pin-on-disc experiments; pure titanium balls were used as counterparts. The wear rate of the coatings was negligible except for the films with the highest Zr content deposited on Ti grade 2 substrates. - Highlights: ► The incorporation of Zr led to formation of nanocrystalline ZrC embedded into C-matrix. ► a-C:(H)-Zr coatings significantly improved the wear resistance of Ti-based alloys. ► Substrate plastic deformation led to lower coating adhesion on Ti grade 2.

  20. Mechanistic Insights into C-H Oxidations by Ruthenium(III)-Pterin Complexes: Impact of Basicity of the Pterin Ligand and Electron Acceptability of the Metal Center on the Transition States. (United States)

    Mitome, Hiroumi; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kojima, Takahiko


    A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(dmdmp)Cl(MeBPA)] (2) (Hdmdmp = N,N-dimethyl-6,7-dimethylpterin, MeBPA = N-methyl-N,N-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine), having a pterin derivative as a proton-accepting ligand, was synthesized and characterized. Complex 2 shows higher basicity than that of a previously reported Ru(II)-pterin complex, [Ru(dmdmp) (TPA)](+) (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). On the other hand, 1e(-)-oxidized species of 1 (1OX) exhibits higher electron-acceptability than that of 1e(-)-oxidized 2 (2OX). Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the two Ru(II) complexes having Hdmdmp as a ligand in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) to generate 1OX and 2OX were calculated to be 85 kcal mol(-1) for 1OX and 78 kcal mol(-1) for 2OX. The BDE values are large enough to perform H atom transfer from C-H bonds of organic molecules to the 1e(-)-oxidized complexes through PCET. The second-order rate constants (k) of PCET oxidation reactions were determined for 1OX and 2OX. The logarithms of normalized k values were proportional to the BDE values of C-H bonds of the substrates with slopes of -0.27 for 1OX and -0.44 for 2OX. The difference between 1OX and 2OX in the slopes suggests that the transition states in PCET oxidations of substrates by the two complexes bear different polarization, as reflection of difference in the electron acceptability and basicity of 1OX and 2OX. The more basic 2OX attracts a proton from a C-H bond via a more polarized transition state than that of 1OX; on the contrary, the more electron-deficient 1OX forms less polarized transition states in PCET oxidation reactions of C-H bonds.

  1. Mechanistic Insights into C-H Oxidations by Ruthenium(III)-Pterin Complexes: Impact of Basicity of the Pterin Ligand and Electron Acceptability of the Metal Center on the Transition States. (United States)

    Mitome, Hiroumi; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kojima, Takahiko


    A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(dmdmp)Cl(MeBPA)] (2) (Hdmdmp = N,N-dimethyl-6,7-dimethylpterin, MeBPA = N-methyl-N,N-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine), having a pterin derivative as a proton-accepting ligand, was synthesized and characterized. Complex 2 shows higher basicity than that of a previously reported Ru(II)-pterin complex, [Ru(dmdmp) (TPA)](+) (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). On the other hand, 1e(-)-oxidized species of 1 (1OX) exhibits higher electron-acceptability than that of 1e(-)-oxidized 2 (2OX). Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the two Ru(II) complexes having Hdmdmp as a ligand in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) to generate 1OX and 2OX were calculated to be 85 kcal mol(-1) for 1OX and 78 kcal mol(-1) for 2OX. The BDE values are large enough to perform H atom transfer from C-H bonds of organic molecules to the 1e(-)-oxidized complexes through PCET. The second-order rate constants (k) of PCET oxidation reactions were determined for 1OX and 2OX. The logarithms of normalized k values were proportional to the BDE values of C-H bonds of the substrates with slopes of -0.27 for 1OX and -0.44 for 2OX. The difference between 1OX and 2OX in the slopes suggests that the transition states in PCET oxidations of substrates by the two complexes bear different polarization, as reflection of difference in the electron acceptability and basicity of 1OX and 2OX. The more basic 2OX attracts a proton from a C-H bond via a more polarized transition state than that of 1OX; on the contrary, the more electron-deficient 1OX forms less polarized transition states in PCET oxidation reactions of C-H bonds. PMID:27403587

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana M. Alahmadi


    Full Text Available This work reports a new method to covalently attach calix[4]arene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calix[4]arene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene Derivatives


    Sana M. Alahmadi; Mohamad, Sharifah; Maah, Mohd Jamil


    This work reports a new method to covalently attach calix[4]arene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calix[4]arene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen ads...

  4. Optical, electrical and sensing properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echabaane, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Rouis, A. [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Bonnamour, I. [Institut de Chimie and Biochimie Moléculaires and Supramoléculaires (ICBMS), UMR CNRS 5246, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)


    Optical, electrical and ion sensing properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene thin films have been investigated. These calix[4]arene derivative films exhibit absorption spectra with a resolved electronic structure in the UV–vis and the energy gap was found to be 3.65 eV. Electrical properties of ITO/β-ketoimine calix[4]arene/Al devices have been investigated by I–V characteristics and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The conduction is governed by space-charge-limited current (SCLC) mechanism. The impedance spectroscopy study showed a hopping transport process, a typical behavior of disordered materials. The device was modeled by a single parallel resistor and capacitor network in series with a resistance. The β-ketoimine calix[4]arene was used for the conception of the novel optical chemical sensor and the detection of Cu{sup 2+} ions was monitored by UV–visible spectroscopy. The linear dynamic range for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} has been 10{sup −5}–10{sup −3.7} M with a detection limit of 10{sup −5} M. The characteristics of this optode such as regeneration, repeatability, reproducibility, short-term stability, life time and ion selectivity have been discussed. - Highlights: • We examine optical properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene ligand. • We investigate the electric properties of ITO/β-ketoimine calix[4]arene/Al device. • We study the sensing properties of optode films for the detection of copper (II)

  5. Red- and blue-shifted hydrogen bonds in the cis-trans noncyclic formic acid dimer. (United States)

    Zhou, Pan-Pan; Qiu, Wen-Yuan


    The cis-trans noncyclic formic acid dimer was studied by means of MP2 method with 6-31G(d,p), 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. It exhibits simultaneously red-shifted O-H...O and blue-shifted C-H...O hydrogen bonds. AIM and NBO analyses are performed at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) level to explore their properties and origins. AIM analysis provides the evidence that the O-H bond becomes weaker and the C-H bond becomes stronger upon the hydrogen bond formations. Intermolecular and intramolecular hyperconjugations have important influence on the electron densities in the X-H (X = O, C) sigma bonding orbital and its sigma* antibonding orbital. The electron densities in the two orbitals are closely connected with the X-H (X = O, C) bond length, and they are used to quantitatively estimate the bond length variation. The larger amount of charge transfer in the red-shifted O-H...O hydrogen bond is due to its favorable H...O electron channel, whereas the H...O electron channel in the blue-shifted C-H...O hydrogen bond is weaker. Structural reorganization effects shorten the C-H bond by approximately 30% when compared to the C-H bond contraction upon the dimerization. Strikingly, it leads to a small elongation and a slight red shift of the O-H bond. Both rehybridization and repolarization result in the X-H (X = O, C) bond contraction, but their effects on the O-H bond do not hold a dominant position. The hydrogen-bonding processes go through the electrostatic attractions, van der Waals interactions, charge-transfer interactions, hydrogen-bonding interactions and electrostatic repulsions. Electrostatic attractions are of great importance on the origin of the red-shifted O-H...O hydrogen bond, especially the strong H(delta+)...O(delta-) attraction. For the blue-shifted C-H...O hydrogen bond, the considerable nucleus-nucleus repulsion between H and O atoms caused by the strong electrostatic attraction between C and O atoms is a possible reason for the C-H bond contraction and

  6. Late-stage diversification of biologically active pyridazinones via a direct C-H functionalization strategy. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Zhoulong; Geng, Kaijun; Xu, Youjun; Zhang, Ao


    Divergent C-H functionalization reactions (arylation, carboxylation, olefination, thiolation, acetoxylation, halogenation, naphthylation) using a pyridazinone moiety as an internal directing group were successfully established. This approach offers a late-stage, ortho-selective diversification of a biologically active pyridazinone scaffold. Seven series of novel pyridazinone analogues were synthesized conveniently as the synthetic precursors of potential sortase A (SrtA) inhibitors.

  7. C$^+$/H$_2$ Gas in Star-Forming Clouds and Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nordon, Raanan


    We present analytic theory for the total column density of singly ionized carbon (C$^+$) in the optically thick photon dominated regions (PDRs) of far-UV irradiated (star-forming) molecular clouds. We derive a simple formula for the C$^+$ column as a function of the cloud (hydrogen) density, the far-UV field intensity, and metallicity, encompassing the wide range of galaxy conditions. We verify our analysis with detailed numerical PDR models. For optically thick gas, most of the C$^+$ column is mixed with hydrogen that is primarily molecular (H$_2$), and this "C$^+$/H$_2$" gas layer accounts for almost all of the `CO-dark' molecular gas in PDRs. The C$^+$/H$_2$ column density is limited by dust shielding and is inversely proportional to the metallicity down to $\\sim$0.1 solar. At lower metallicities, H$_2$ line blocking dominates and the C$^+$/H$_2$ column saturates. Applying our theory to CO surveys in low redshift spirals we estimate the fraction of C$^+$/H$_2$ gas out of the total molecular gas to be typic...

  8. Allylic and benzylic sp3 C-H oxidation in water. (United States)

    Ang, Wei Jie; Lam, Yulin


    A copper-catalyzed method for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic sp(3) C-H by aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (T-Hydro) in water using a recyclable fluorous ligand has been developed. The reaction procedure is tolerant to additional functional groups and the fluorous ligand could be reused with little loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25412371

  9. Preparation and comparison of a-C:H coatings using reactive sputter techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keunecke, M., E-mail: martin.keunecke@ist.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, K.; Bewilogua, K. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Braunschweig (Germany); Cremer, R.; Fuss, H.-G. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)


    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings are widely used in several industrial applications. These coatings commonly will be prepared by plasma activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). The main method used to prepare a-C:H coating in industrial scale is based on a glow discharge in a hydrocarbon gas like acetylene or methane using a substrate electrode powered with medium frequency (m.f. - some 10 to 300 kHz). Some aims of further development are adhesion improvement, increase of hardness and high coating quality on complex geometries. A relatively new and promising technique to fulfil these requirements is the deposition of a-C:H coatings by a reactive d.c. magnetron sputter deposition from a graphite target with acetylene as reactive gas. An advancement of this technique is the deposition in a pulsed magnetron sputter process. Using these three mentioned techniques a-C:H coatings were prepared in the same deposition machine. For adhesion improvement different interlayer systems were applied. The effect of different substrate bias voltages (d.c. and d.c. pulse) was investigated. By applying the magnetron sputter technique in the d.c. pulse mode, plastic hardness values up to 40 GPa could be reached. Besides hardness other mechanical properties like resistance against abrasive wear were measured and compared. Cross sectional SEM images showed the growth structure of the coatings.

  10. Cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatics with unactivated alkenes. (United States)

    Manoharan, Ramasamy; Sivakumar, Ganesan; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    A cobalt-catalyzed C-H olefination of aromatic and heteroaromatic amides with unactivated alkenes, allyl acetates and allyl alcohols is described. This method offers an efficient route for the synthesis of vinyl and allyl benzamides in a highly stereoselective manner. It is observed that the ortho substituent on the benzamide moiety is crucial for the observation of allylated products in unactivated alkenes.

  11. Aqua(μ-cone-26,28-dibutoxy-25,27-bis{N-[5-(dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]carbamoylmethoxy}-5,11,17,23-tetrakis(1,1-dimethylethylcalix[4]arene(2−disodium acetonitrile tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogisego Dinake


    Full Text Available The structure of the title complex, [Na2(C80H98N4O10S2(H2O]·4CH3CN, obtained after crystallization from acetonitrile, contains two formula units in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2 and an estimated four molecules of acetonitrile per calixarene moiety. It is unusual for two Na+ ions to occupy the lower rims of the cone calix[4]arene, as in this case, with one Na+ ion forming two O→ Na+ coordinate bonds with the two butoxy groups and four such bonds with the two N-dansyl carboxamide groups, forming six dative bonds between Na+ and O. On the other hand, the other Na+ ion forms only five O→Na+ coordinate bonds on the far end of the calix[4]arene lower rim, bringing the two dansyl groups in close proximity with each other. There also appears to be an O→Na+ coordination coming from a dangling water molecule. The structure contained both resolved and poorly resolved solvent molecules. The latter were treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  12. C+/H2 gas in star-forming clouds and galaxies (United States)

    Nordon, Raanan; Sternberg, Amiel


    We present analytic theory for the total column density of singly ionized carbon (C+) in the optically thick photon dominated regions (PDRs) of far-UV irradiated (star-forming) molecular clouds. We derive a simple formula for the C+ column as a function of the cloud (hydrogen) density, the far-UV field intensity, and metallicity, encompassing the wide range of galaxy conditions. When assuming the typical relation between UV and density in the cold neutral medium, the C+ column becomes a function of the metallicity alone. We verify our analysis with detailed numerical PDR models. For optically thick gas, most of the C+ column is mixed with hydrogen that is primarily molecular (H2), and this `C+/H2' gas layer accounts for almost all of the `CO-dark' molecular gas in PDRs. The C+/H2 column density is limited by dust shielding and is inversely proportional to the metallicity down to ˜0.1 solar. At lower metallicities, H2 line blocking dominates and the C+/H2 column saturates. Applying our theory to CO surveys in low-redshift spirals, we estimate the fraction of C+/H2 gas out of the total molecular gas to be typically ˜0.4. At redshifts 1 < z < 3 in massive disc galaxies the C+/H2 gas represents a very small fraction of the total molecular gas (≲ 0.16). This small fraction at high redshifts is due to the high gas surface densities when compared to local galaxies.

  13. Computations between metallocalix(4)arene host and a series of four oil-based fuel pollutant guests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations using PM3 and mechanics methods on metallocalix(4)arene hosts (1-10) and substituted dibenzothiophene guests (A-D), which are generally known as oil-based fuel pollutants, show that host-guest formation is energetically favored. Calculations have been carried out for both 1/1 and 1/4 ratios of host/guest. There is no direct bonding between the metal center of the host and the sulfur of the guest in the host-guest complex. Sterically hundered dibenzothiophene guests show similar energies to the unhindered analogs. For calix(4)arenas (5-10) in partial cone conformations and having hydrogen rather than p-tert-butyl groups on the wide rim, host-guest formation occurs within the narrow rim rather than the wide rim. Host-guest association appears to occur via Pie-Pie interactions between host and guest phenyl groups rather than via metal-sulfur bonding. The study has importance especially in oil refining to obtain environmentally safe fuel oils and help supramolecular chemists in designing and synthesizing more sophisticated host molecules for the removal of sulfur from crude oil / refinery oil. (author)

  14. Investigation of the inclusion behavior between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene and norfloxacin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host-guest complexation between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene (SC8A) and norfloxacin (NFLX) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Strong fluorescence intensity of the NFLX aqueous solution alone and obvious fluorescence quenching of NFLX solution in the presence of SC8A were observed. The fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined and the effect of temperature on SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex was studied. The static quenching of the inclusion was obtained, that is the SC8A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX. As the results show, the combined ratio (n) was 1:1 and association constant K was 1.17x105 L/mol. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of the inclusion complex was explored. The space matching, electrostatic force and hydrogen bond play important effects in the inclusion process. Subsequently, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution led to the recovery of fluorescence intensity. It is indicated that BSA can liberate the NFLX into the solution by destructing the SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex. Hence SC8A may be used for controlled-release drug delivery in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: → Fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined. → Mechanism of the SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex was explored. → It is proved that SC8A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX.

  15. Deposition of a-C:H films on a nanotrench pattern by bipolar PBII&D (United States)

    Hirata, Yuki; Nakahara, Yuya; Nagato, Keisuke; Choi, Junho


    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on a nanotrench pattern (300 nm pitch, aspect ratio: 2.0) by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition technique (bipolar PBII&D), and the effects of bipolar pulse on the film properties were investigated. Moreover, the behaviour of ions and radicals surrounding the nanotrench was analyzed to clarify the coating mechanism and properties of the a-C:H films on the nanotrench. Further, thermal nanoimprint lithography was carried out using the nanotrench pattern coated with a-C:H films as the mold, and the mold release properties were evaluated. All nanotrench surfaces were successfully coated with the a-C:H films, but the film thickness on the top, sidewall, and bottom surfaces of the trench were not uniform. The surface roughness of the a-C:H films was found to decrease at a higher positive voltage; this happens due to the higher electron temperature around the nanotrench because of the surface migration of plasma particles arrived on the trench. The effects of the negative voltage on the behaviour of ions and radicals near the sidewall of the nanotrench are quite similar to those near the microtrench reported previously (Park et al 2014 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 335306). However, the positive pulse voltage was also found to affect the behaviour of ions and radicals near the sidewall surface. The incident angles of ions on the sidewall surface increased with the positive pulse voltage because the energy of incoming ions on the trench decreases with increasing positive voltage. Moreover, the incident ion flux on the sidewall is affected by the positive voltage history. Further, the radical flux decreases with increasing positive voltage. It can be concluded that a higher positive voltage at a lower negative voltage condition is good to obtain better film properties and higher film thickness on the sidewall surface. Pattern transfer properties for the nanoimprint formed by

  16. Silver- and gold-mediated nucleobase bonding. (United States)

    Acioli, Paulo H; Srinivas, Sudha


    We report the results of a density functional theory investigation of the bonding of nucleobases mediated by silver and gold atoms in the gas phase. Our calculations use the Becke exchange and Perdew-Wang correlation functional (BPW91) combined with the Stuttgart effective core potentials to represent the valence electrons of gold, silver, and platinum, and the all-electron DGTZVP basis set for C, H, N, and O. This combination was chosen based on tests on the metal atoms and tautomers of adenine, cytosine, and guanine. To establish a benchmark to understand the metal-mediated bonding, we calculated the binding energy of each of the base pairs in their canonical forms. Our calculations show rather strong bonds between the Watson-Crick base pairs when compared with typical values for N-H-N and N-H-O hydrogen bonds. The neutral metal atoms tend to bond near the nitrogen atoms. The effect of the metal atoms on the bonding of nucleobases differs depending on whether or not the metal atoms bond to one of the hydrogen-bonding sites. When the silver or gold atoms bond to a non-hydrogen-bonding site, the effect is a slight enhancement of the cytosine-guanine bonding, but there is almost no effect on the adenine-thymine pairing. The metal atoms can block one of the hydrogen-bonding sites, thus preventing the normal cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine pairings. We also find that both silver and gold can bond to consecutive guanines in a similar fashion to platinum, albeit with a significantly lower binding energy.

  17. Platinum containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/Pt) thin films as selective solar absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Yung-Hsiang; Brahma, Sanjaya [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Y.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ting, Jyh-Ming, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)


    We have investigated a double-cermet structured thin film in which an a-C:H thin film was used as an anti-reflective (AR) layer and two platinum-containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/Pt) thin films were used as the double cermet layers. A reactive co-sputter deposition method was used to prepare both the anti-reflective and cermet layers. Effects of the target power and heat treatment were studied. The obtained films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The optical absorptance and emittance of the as deposited and annealed films were determined using UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. We show that the optical absorptance of the resulting double-cermet structured thin film is as high as 96% and remains to be 91% after heat treatment at 400 °C, indicating the thermal stability of the film.

  18. Top Quark Flavor Changing Decay t → cH0 in Little Higgs Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshid Tabbakh; LIU Jing-Jing; MA Wen-Gan; ZHANG Ren-You; HOU Hong-Sheng


    We study theoretically the quantum effects of the littlest Higgs model (LH) mediated by flavor changing one-loop Feynman diagrams on the rare decay process t → cH0. The comparison of the decay width in the LH model with that in the standard model (SM) is made. We find that the decay branch ratio of t → cH0 in the LH model is at most of the order ~ 10-12, which is two order larger than in the SM. The numerical results show that the difference between the branch ratios in the LH model and the SM is generally sensitive to the LH model parameters, such as symmetry breaking scale f, Higgs boson mass mH0, and x = v'4f /v2 in our chosen parameter space, but relatively insensitive to the value choice of the cosine of the mixing angle c and the ratio λ1/λ2.

  19. Deposition of a-C:H films on UHMWPE substrate and its wear-resistance (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Liu, Hengjun; Deng, Xingrui; Leng, Y. X.; Huang, Nan


    In prosthetic hip replacements, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear debris is identified as the main factor limiting the lifetime of the artificial joints. Especially UHMWPE debris from the joint can induce tissue reactions and bone resorption that may lead to the joint loosening. The diamond like carbon (DLC) film has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years mainly because of its excellent tribological property, biocompatibility and chemically inert property. In order to improve the wear-resistance of UHMWPE, a-C:H films were deposited on UHMWPE substrate by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) technology. During deposition, the working gases were argon and acetylene, the microwave power was set to 800 W, the biased pulsed voltage was set to -200 V (frequency 15 kHz, duty ratio 20%), the pressure in vacuum chamber was set to 0.5 Pa, and the process time was 60 min. The films were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, nano-indentation, anti-scratch and wear test. The results showed that a typical amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film was successfully deposited on UHMWPE with thickness up to 2 μm. The nano-hardness of the UHMWPE coated with a-C:H films, measured at an applied load of 200 μN, was increased from 10 MPa (untreated UHMWPE) to 139 MPa. The wear test was carried out using a ball (Ø 6 mm, SiC) on disk tribometer with an applied load of 1 N for 10000 cycles, and the results showed a reduction of worn cross-sectional area from 193 μm 2 of untreated UHMWPE to 26 μm 2 of DLC coated sample. In addition the influence of argon/acetylene gas flow ratio on the growth of a-C:H films was studied.

  20. Iodine(III)-Mediated Selective Intermolecular C-H Amination for the Chemical Diversification of Tryptamines. (United States)

    Bosnidou, Alexandra E; Millán, Alba; Ceballos, Javier; Martínez, Claudio; Muñiz, Kilian


    Defined hypervalent iodine reagents of the general structure PhI[N(SO2R)(SO2R')]2 promote the selective direct C-H-amination of the indole core of various tryptamines. Starting from a general C2-amination strategy, subsequent transformations enable a variety of site-selective functionalizations, which proceed with noteworthy high chemoselectivity and provide an overall access to structurally diversified products.

  1. Krista Aren & Raul Vaiksoo : Krista Aren : "Ühtegi tööd pole võimalik teha natuke" / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte


    Disainieriala lõpetanud Krista Aren kodu sisekujundamisest, klientidest, ehitajatest. Krista Arenist (sünd. 1961), tema töödest. Raul Vaiksoost (sünd. 1955), tema töödest. 1989. a. asutas R. Vaiksoo arhitektuuribüroo R. Projekt, kus töötab peaarhitektina. Ill.: foto K. Arenist ja R. Vaiksoost

  2. (η5-Cyclopentadienyl)(2-naphthylethynyl)(triphenylphosphine-κP)nickel(II)


    Butler, Peter; Gallagher, John F.; Lough, Alan J.; Manning, Anthony R.


    The title compound, [Ni(C₅H₅)(C₁₂H₇)(C₁₈H₁₅P)], does not contain strong hydrogen-bond donors or acceptors and the primary interactions are limited to those of the weak C-H...π(arene) type and mainly involving the arene rings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  4. Microstructure characterization of advanced protective Cr/CrN+a-C:H/a-C:H:Cr multilayer coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC). (United States)

    Major, L; Janusz, M; Lackner, J M; Kot, M; Major, B


    Studies of advanced protective chromium-based coatings on the carbon fibre composite (CFC) were performed. Multidisciplinary examinations were carried out comprising: microstructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HREM) studies, micromechanical analysis and wear resistance. Coatings were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique with application of high-purity chromium and carbon (graphite) targets deposited on the CFC substrate. Selection of the CFC for surface modification in respect to irregularities on the surface making the CFC surface more smooth was performed. Deposited coatings consisted of two parts. The inner part was responsible for the residual stress compensation and cracking initiation as well as resistance at elevated temperatures occurring namely during surgical tools sterilization process. The outer part was responsible for wear resistance properties and biocompatibility. Experimental studies revealed that irregularities on the substrate surface had a negative influence on the crystallites growth direction. Chromium implanted into the a-C:H structure reacted with carbon forming the cubic nanocrystal chromium carbides of the Cr23 C6 type. The cracking was initiated at the coating/substrate interface and the energy of brittle cracking was reduced because of the plastic deformation at each Cr interlayer interface. The wear mechanism and cracking process was described in micro- and nanoscale by means of transmission electron microscope studies. Examined materials of coated CFC type would find applications in advanced surgical tools.

  5. Diffusion bonding (United States)

    Anderson, Robert C.


    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  6. The azomethine ylide route to amine C-H functionalization: redox-versions of classic reactions and a pathway to new transformations. (United States)

    Seidel, Daniel


    Conspectus Redox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C-H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C-H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts. Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet-Spengler, and Kabachnik-Fields reactions, Friedel-Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C-H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct. Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic processes, have been

  7. Palladium(ii)-catalyzed C-C and C-O bond formation for the synthesis of C1-benzoyl isoquinolines from isoquinoline N-oxides and nitroalkenes. (United States)

    Li, Jiu-Ling; Li, Wei-Ze; Wang, Ying-Chun; Ren, Qiu; Wang, Heng-Shan; Pan, Ying-Ming


    C1-Benzoyl isoquinolines can be generated via a palladium(ii)-catalyzed C-C and C-O coupling of isoquinoline N-oxides with aromatic nitroalkenes. The reaction proceeds through remote C-H bond activation and subsequent intramolecular oxygen atom transfer (OAT). In this reaction, the N-O bond was designed as a directing group in the C-H bond activation as well as the source of an oxygen atom. PMID:27443150

  8. Diarylindenotetracenes via a selective cross-coupling/C-H functionalization: electron donors for organic photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Gu, Xingxian; Luhman, Wade A; Yagodkin, Elisey; Holmes, Russell J; Douglas, Christopher J


    A direct synthesis of new donor materials for organic photovoltaic cells is reported. Diaryindenotetracenes were synthesized utilizing a Kumada-Tamao-Corriu cross-coupling of peri-substituted tetrachlorotetracene with spontaneous indene annulation via C-H activation. Vacuum deposited planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells incorporating these molecules as electron donors exhibit power conversion efficiencies exceeding 1.5% with open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 V when coupled with C(60) as an electron acceptor.

  9. Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Benzylic C-H Amination for the Synthesis of Isoindolinones. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki; Takamatsu, Kazutaka; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro


    A copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination occurs at the benzylic C-H of 2-methylbenzamides to deliver the corresponding isoindolinones of great interest in medicinal chemistry. The mild and abundant MnO2 works well as a terminal oxidant, and the reaction proceeds smoothly under potentially explosive organic peroxide-free conditions. Additionally, the directing-group-dependent divergent mechanisms are proposed: 8-aminoquinoline-containing benzamides include a Cu-mediated organometallic pathway whereas an aminyl radical-promoted Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag (HLF)-type mechanism can be operative in the case of N-naphthyl-substituted substrates. PMID:27504671

  10. Effect of the charge localization in the C+-H+ fragmentation pathway of the ethyne dication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C+-H+ channel in the fragmentation of the ethyne dication following inner-shell ionization has been studied by Auger electron-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The ion-ion coincidence map shows a peculiar feature which corresponds to the emission of both the H+ and C+ ions in the same direction. The analysis of the data, complemented by ab initio calculations, suggests an interpretation in terms of a two-step, asynchronous concerted reaction, in which the charge of the ethynyl intermediate ion localizes on the terminal carbon atom.

  11. Production of iron carbide using the metastable Fe-C-H-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, A.N.; Estrada, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.A. [Instituto Tecnologico Morelia (Mexico)


    The production of iron carbide without the formation of free carbon was explored using a metastable thermodynamic approach. Phase stability diagrams, at constant pressure and constant temperature, indicating the phase fields for the condensed phases in total equilibrium with a reactant gas phase were employed as the initial point analysis of the present study. With the aid of this information it was possible to identify the phase fields corresponding to metastable iron carbide in a ternary diagram (C-H-O). Experimental evidence confirms the validity of this information. The metastable diagrams are proposed to be used as a method to control the production of iron carbide in the industrial practice. (orig.)

  12. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.


    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. The effect of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene on radiation degradation of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene(PP) containing cyclic phenolic antioxidant, p-tert-butylcalix[4] arene as additive was irradiated with γ-ray in air or in vacuum at ambient temperature. The mechanical properties, variation of IR spectra and decomposition temperature by thermal analysis were measured for the irradiated PP sheets. Compared with BHT, p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene showed radiation stabilization towards PP during and after irradiation, especially at a high dose. By means of ESR spectra and other spectra of formation of the stable calix[4]arene radical was confirmed. No decomposition species of the calixarene was observed with the dose≤1000 kGy and the dose rate of 6.5 x 103 kGy/h indicating the higher radiation-resistance of the calixarene structure

  14. Highly selective fluorescent chemosensor for Na+ based on pyrene-modified calix[4]arene derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG KeRang; GUO DongSheng; JIANG BangPing; LIU Yu


    A novel calix[4]arene derivative with pyrene fluorophores at the upper rim and tetraester ionophores at the lower rim was synthesized in six steps, and its structure was proved by NMR and ESi-MS spectro-scopies. Furthermore, the chemosensing behavior of the host compound for alkali and alkaline earth metal ions was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the calix-arene host can selectively bind sodium ion with the complexation stability constant of 2190 mol-1.L. The complexation with sodium ion can pronouncedly induce the excimer emission to decrease and the monomer emission to increase, whereas the addition of the other alkali and alkaline earth metal ions does not cause appreciable changes in the fluorescence spectrum of the host compound. The present calix[4]arene derivative displays potential application as fluorescent chemosensor for sodium ion.

  15. Molecular recognition study of ethosuximide by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenakshi, C., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Shri Meenakshi Government College for Women (Autonomous), Madurai 625002 (India); Sangeetha, P.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Department of Laser Studies, School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)


    The supramolecule, p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene, forms inclusion complex with the antiseizure drug molecule, ethosuximide. This feature is explained on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy. Here p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene is the host molecule and ethosuximide is the guest molecule. The stoichiometry of the host–guest complex and the binding constant has been determined using Benesi–Hildebrand plot. Based on the result obtained the structure of the inclusion complex has been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Third generation supramolecule, t-butyl calix (8) arene, is used as a host molecule. ► Anti seizure drug molecule is used as a guest molecule. ► Inclusion complex is formed between the host and guest molecule.

  16. Molecular recognition study of ethosuximide by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supramolecule, p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene, forms inclusion complex with the antiseizure drug molecule, ethosuximide. This feature is explained on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy. Here p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene is the host molecule and ethosuximide is the guest molecule. The stoichiometry of the host–guest complex and the binding constant has been determined using Benesi–Hildebrand plot. Based on the result obtained the structure of the inclusion complex has been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Third generation supramolecule, t-butyl calix (8) arene, is used as a host molecule. ► Anti seizure drug molecule is used as a guest molecule. ► Inclusion complex is formed between the host and guest molecule

  17. Highly selective fluorescent chemosensor for Na~+ based on pyrene-modified calix[4]arene derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel calix[4]arene derivative with pyrene fluorophores at the upper rim and tetraester ionophores at the lower rim was synthesized in six steps,and its structure was proved by NMR and ESI-MS spectro-scopies. Furthermore,the chemosensing behavior of the host compound for alkali and alkaline earth metal ions was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the calix-arene host can selectively bind sodium ion with the complexation stability constant of 2190 mol-1.L. The complexation with sodium ion can pronouncedly induce the excimer emission to decrease and the monomer emission to increase,whereas the addition of the other alkali and alkaline earth metal ions does not cause appreciable changes in the fluorescence spectrum of the host compound. The present calix[4]arene derivative displays potential application as fluorescent chemosensor for sodium ion.

  18. Comparison of hydration reactions for "piano-stool" RAPTA-B and [Ru(η6- arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes: Density functional theory computational study (United States)

    Chval, Zdeněk; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V.


    The hydration process for two Ru(II) representative half-sandwich complexes: Ru(arene)(pta)Cl2 (from the RAPTA family) and [Ru(arene)(en)Cl]+ (further labeled as Ru_en) were compared with analogous reaction of cisplatin. In the study, quantum chemical methods were employed. All the complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using Conductor Polarizable Continuum Model (CPCM) solvent continuum model and single-point (SP) energy calculations and determination of electronic properties were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/CPCM level. It was found that the hydration model works fairly well for the replacement of the first chloride by water where an acceptable agreement for both Gibbs free energies and rate constants was obtained. However, in the second hydration step worse agreement of the experimental and calculated values was achieved. In agreement with experimental values, the rate constants for the first step can be ordered as RAPTA-B > Ru_en > cisplatin. The rate constants correlate well with binding energies (BEs) of the Pt/Ru-Cl bond in the reactant complexes. Substitution reactions on Ru_en and cisplatin complexes proceed only via pseudoassociative (associative interchange) mechanism. On the other hand in the case of RAPTA there is also possible a competitive dissociation mechanism with metastable pentacoordinated intermediate. The first hydration step is slightly endothermic for all three complexes by 3-5 kcal/mol. Estimated BEs confirm that the benzene ligand is relatively weakly bonded assuming the fact that it occupies three coordination positions of the Ru(II) cation.

  19. C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400 °C) and high voltage (500 V) operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarada, H., E-mail: [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Material Science and Technology, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, A. [Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)


    By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400 °C (673 K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600 V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 μm. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD} > 100 V/μm. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450 °C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400 °C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400 °C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

  20. Sub-micro a-C:H patterning of silicon surfaces assisted by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Boileau, Alexis; Gries, Thomas; Noël, Cédric; Perito Cardoso, Rodrigo; Belmonte, Thierry


    Micro and nano-patterning of surfaces is an increasingly popular challenge in the field of the miniaturization of devices assembled via top-down approaches. This study demonstrates the possibility of depositing sub-micrometric localized coatings—spots, lines or even more complex shapes—made of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thanks to a moving XY stage. Deposition was performed on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition assisted by an argon atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. Acetylene was injected into the post-discharge region as a precursor by means of a glass capillary with a sub-micrometric diameter. A parametric study was carried out to study the influence of the geometric configurations (capillary diameter and capillary-plasma distance) on the deposited coating. Thus, the patterns formed were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of large coated areas was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy according to the chosen atmospheric environment. The observed chemical bonds show that reactions of the gaseous precursor in the discharge region and both chemical and morphological stability of the patterns after treatment are strongly dependent on the surrounding gas. Various sub-micrometric a-C:H shapes were successfully deposited under controlled atmospheric conditions using argon as inerting gas. Overall, this new process of micro-scale additive manufacturing by atmospheric plasma offers unusually high-resolution at low cost.

  1. Two lanthanum(III) complexes containing η2-pyrazolate and η2-1,2,4-triazolate ligands: intramolecular C-H...N/O interactions and coordination geometries. (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Long; Feng, Meng; Tao, Xian; Tang, Qing-Yun; Shen, Ying-Zhong


    The lanthanum(III) complexes tris(3,5-diphenylpyrazolato-κ(2)N,N')tris(tetrahydrofuran-κO)lanthanum(III) tetrahydrofuran monosolvate, [La(C(15)H(11)N(2))(3)(C(4)H(8)O)(3)]·C(4)H(8)O, (I), and tris(3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolato-κ(2)N(1),N(2))tris(tetrahydrofuran-κO)lanthanum(III), [La(C(14)H(10)N(3))(3)(C(4)H(8)O)(3)], (II), both contain La(III) atoms coordinated by three heterocyclic ligands and three tetrahydrofuran ligands, but their coordination geometries differ. Complex (I) has a mer-distorted octahedral geometry, while complex (II) has a fac-distorted configuration. The difference in the coordination geometries and the existence of asymmetric La-N bonding in the two complexes is associated with intramolecular C-H...N/O interactions between the ligands.

  2. Heterogeneously porous γ-MnO₂-catalyzed direct oxidative amination of benzoxazole through C-H activation in the presence of O₂. (United States)

    Pal, Provas; Giri, Arnab Kanti; Singh, Harshvardhan; Ghosh, Subhash Chandra; Panda, Asit Baran


    Oxidative amination of azoles through catalytic C-H bond activation is a very important reaction due to the presence of 2-aminoazoles in several biologically active compounds. However, most of the reported methods are performed under homogeneous reaction conditions using excess reagents and additives. Herein, we report the heterogeneous, porous γ-MnO2-catalyzed direct amination of benzoxazole with wide range of primary and secondary amines. The amination was carried under mild reaction conditions and using molecular oxygen as a green oxidant, without any additives. The catalyst can easily be separated by filtration and reused several times without a significant loss of its catalytic performance. Of note, the reaction tolerates a functional group such as alcohol, thus indicating the broad applicability of this reaction.

  3. Removal of uranyl ions by p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arene acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Ioana-Carmen [R and D National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources–ICPMRR, B-dul Carol I No.70, Sector 2, Bucharest 020917 (Romania); Petru, Filip [“C.D. Nenitescu” Institute of Organic Chemistry, Splaiul Independentei 202B, Sector 6, Bucharest 71141 (Romania); Humelnicu, Ionel [“Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, The Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. Carol-I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Mateescu, Marina [National R and D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Splaiul Independenţei No. 202, Bucharest 060021 (Romania); Militaru, Ecaterina [R and D National Institute for Metals and Radioactive Resources–ICPMRR, B-dul Carol I No.70, Sector 2, Bucharest 020917 (Romania); Humelnicu, Doina, E-mail: [“Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, The Faculty of Chemistry, Bd. Carol-I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania)


    Radioactive pollution is a significant threat for the people’s health. Therefore highly effective radioactive decontamination methods are required. Ion exchange, biotechnologies and phytoremediation in constructed wetlands have been used as radioactive decontamination technologies for uranium contaminated soil and water remediation. Recently, beside those classical methods the calix[n]arenic derivatives’ utilization as radioactive decontaminators has jogged attention. The present work aims to present the preliminary research results of uranyl ion sorption studies on the p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arenic acid. The effect of temperature, contact time, sorbent amount and uranyl concentration variation on sorption efficiency was investigated. Isotherm models revealed that the sorption process fit better Langmuir isotherm.

  4. Removal of uranyl ions by p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arene acid (United States)

    Popescu (Hoştuc), Ioana-Carmen; Petru, Filip; Humelnicu, Ionel; Mateescu, Marina; Militaru, Ecaterina; Humelnicu, Doina


    Radioactive pollution is a significant threat for the people’s health. Therefore highly effective radioactive decontamination methods are required. Ion exchange, biotechnologies and phytoremediation in constructed wetlands have been used as radioactive decontamination technologies for uranium contaminated soil and water remediation. Recently, beside those classical methods the calix[n]arenic derivatives’ utilization as radioactive decontaminators has jogged attention. The present work aims to present the preliminary research results of uranyl ion sorption studies on the p-hexasulfonated calyx[6]arenic acid. The effect of temperature, contact time, sorbent amount and uranyl concentration variation on sorption efficiency was investigated. Isotherm models revealed that the sorption process fit better Langmuir isotherm.

  5. The study of p-tert-butylcalix[n]arene on {gamma}-radiation stabilization of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wen; Yuan Lihua; Zheng Shiyou; Huang Guanglin [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China); Qiao Jinliang [Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing (China)


    The {gamma}-radiation effect of polyropylene was investigated in the presence of three kinds of p-tert-butylcalix[n]arene (n=4,6,8) in air or in vacuum at ambient temperature. The influence of radiation dose and store time upon the mechanical properties of the irradiated PP sheets were measured. The results showed that the radiation stabilization was reduced with the increase of the ring size of calixarenes. Based on the mass spectra and the analysis of post-irradiated product, the mechanism of radiation degradation of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene has been proposed. (author)

  6. Synthesis and Chiral Recognition of a New Type of Chiral Calix[4]arene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE,Yong-Bing; LI,Jian-Feng; XIAO,Yuan-Jing; WEI,Lan-Hua; WU,Xiao-Jun; MENG,Ling-Zhi


    Two new chiral calix[4] arenes bearing chiral pendants, which were from by-product of the antibiotic industry, were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, MS-FAB and elemental analysis. Studies of 1H NMR of the two calix [4] arene derivatives indicate that they exist in cone conformation in solution. Results of chiral recognition of the two chiral ligands 2a and 2b towards the tartaric acid derivative 3 show that ligand 2a exhibited good chiral recognition abilities compared to ligand 2b.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Two New p-tert-Butylcalix[4]-arene Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Taghvaee Ganjali


    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of two new Schiff bases of p-tertbuthylcalix[4]arene (H2L1 and HL2 is described. The synthesis of H2L1 and HL2 has been achieved by the condensation of salicylaldehyde with the amine group of upper rim monoamine p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene in ethanol. These compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data. Solvatochromicity and fluorescence properties were observed and measured for H2L1 and HL2. Solvatochromicity of these ligands indicates their potential for NLO applications.

  8. Arene-ruthenium(II) complexes with hydrophilic P-donor ligands: versatile catalysts in aqueous media. (United States)

    Crochet, Pascale; Cadierno, Victorio


    In the last few years there has been increasing interest in the use of water as a reaction medium for catalysis, and therefore in designing water-soluble transition-metal catalysts. Half-sandwich (η(6)-arene)-ruthenium(ii) complexes are a versatile and well-known family of ruthenium compounds that exhibit a rich catalytic and coordination chemistry. This Perspective article focuses on the catalytic applications in aqueous media of (η(6)-arene)-ruthenium(ii) complexes containing water-soluble phosphines, and related hydrophilic P-donor ligands.

  9. Encapsulation of chromen-4-one Schiff's bases by C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene and its structure (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sowrirajan; Enoch, Israel V. M. V.


    In this paper, we report the encapsulation of Chromen-4-one Schiff's base derivatives with the host molecule C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene. The stoichiometry, binding constant, and the mode of association of the guest molecules with C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene are investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, and two dimensional Rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser spectroscopic techniques. The stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes is 1:2. The binding constants of the complexes are of the order of 104. The structures of the host-guest complexes are proposed.

  10. Permanent Encapsulation or Host–Guest Behavior of Aromatic Molecules in Hexanuclear Arene Ruthenium Prisms


    Freudenreich, Julien; Barry, Nicolas P. E.; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno


    Cationic arene ruthenium metallaprisms of the general formula [Ru6(p-cymene)6(tpt)2(OO∩OO)3]6+ {tpt = 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine; OO∩OO = 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1,4-diolato [1]6+, 6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydronaphthacene-5,12-diolato [2]6+} have been obtained from the corresponding dinuclear arene ruthenium complexes [Ru2(p-cymene)2(OO∩OO)Cl2] by reaction with tpt and silver trifluoromethanesulfonate. Aromatic molecules (phenanthrene, pyrene, triphenylene, coronene) present dur...

  11. The synthesis and bioevaluation of the dicyclic arene-homospermidine conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Four novel dicyclic arene-homospermidine conjugates (6a-d) were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity in L1210, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) treated L1210, melanoma B 16, spermidine (SPD) treated B 16, and Hela cells. In the DFMO-treated L1210 experiments, 6a-d were more sensitive to DFMO than naphthalene-homospermidine (6e), suggesting that 6a-d can utilize the polyamine transporter (PAT) to enter the cells as well as 6e. The diminished cytotoxicity in the SPD/B 16 experiments also supported this conclusion. In summary, the homospermidine is an efficacious vector to ferry dicyclic arenes into cells via PAT.

  12. The role of C-H$\\ldots$ interaction in the stabilization of benzene and adamantane clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Mahesh Kumar; M Elango; R Parthasarathi; Dolly Vijay; V Subramanian


    In this investigation, a systematic attempt has been made to understand the interaction between adamantane and benzene using both ab initio and density functional theory methods. C-H$\\ldots$ type of interaction between C-H groups of adamantane and cloud of benzene is found as the important attraction for complex formation. The study also reveals that the methylene (-CH2) and methine (-CH) groups of adamantane interact with benzene resulting in different geometrical structures. And it is found that the former complex is stronger than the later. The diamondoid structure of adamantane enables it to interact with a maximum of four benzene molecules, each one along the four faces. The stability of the complex increases with increase in the number of benzene molecules. The energy decomposition analysis of adamantane-benzene complexes using DMA approach shows that the origin of the stability primarily arises from the dispersive interaction. The theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) supports the existence of weak interaction between the two systems. The electrostatic topography features provide clues for the mode of interaction of adamantane with benzene.

  13. C-H-Activated Direct Arylation of Strong Benzothiadiazole and Quinoxaline-Based Electron Acceptors. (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Parker, Timothy C; Chen, Wayne; Williams, LaRita; Khrustalev, Victor N; Jucov, Evgheni V; Barlow, Stephen; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Marder, Seth R


    Electron acceptors are important components of π-conjugated materials, but the strong electron-withdrawing properties of the required synthetic intermediates often make them poor substrates in synthetic schemes designed around conventional organometallic cross-coupling. Here, strong benzodiimine-based acceptors, including 5,6-difluoro[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole, 5,6-dicyano[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole, 5,6-dicyanobenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, 6,7-dicyanoquinoxaline, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline, are shown to undergo facile palladium-catalyzed C-H direct arylation with a variety of bromoarenes in moderate to high yields. The electrochemical characteristics of di-2-thienyl derivatives synthesized using this methodology are compared and suggest that, in an electron-transfer sense, 5,6-dicyano[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole is a comparably strong acceptor to benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole. The synthetic results suggest that high electron-withdrawing ability, which has traditionally limited reaction yields and structural variety in organic electronic materials, may be advantageous when employing C-H activated direct arylation in certain circumstances.

  14. Novel Stable Compounds in the C-H-O Ternary System at High Pressure. (United States)

    Saleh, Gabriele; Oganov, Artem R


    The chemistry of the elements is heavily altered by high pressure, with stabilization of many new and often unexpected compounds, the emergence of which can profoundly change models of planetary interiors, where high pressure reigns. The C-H-O system is one of the most important planet-forming systems, but its high-pressure chemistry is not well known. Here, using state-of-the-art variable-composition evolutionary searches combined with quantum-mechanical calculations, we explore the C-H-O system at pressures up to 400 GPa. Besides uncovering new stable polymorphs of high-pressure elements and known molecules, we predicted the formation of new compounds. A 2CH4:3H2 inclusion compound forms at low pressure and remains stable up to 215 GPa. Carbonic acid (H2CO3), highly unstable at ambient conditions, was predicted to form exothermically at mild pressure (about 1 GPa). As pressure rises, it polymerizes and, above 314 GPa, reacts with water to form orthocarbonic acid (H4CO4). This unexpected high-pressure chemistry is rationalized by analyzing charge density and electron localization function distributions, and implications for general chemistry and planetary science are also discussed. PMID:27580525

  15. Composite Ag/C:H:N films prepared by planar magnetron deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlidek, P. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic)], E-mail:; Hanus, J.; Biederman, H.; Slavinska, D.; Pesicka, J. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic)


    Composite Ag/C:H:N films were deposited by means of an unbalanced magnetron operated in a gas mixture of nitrogen and n-hexane. Composition of the films was controlled by electric power delivered to the magnetron and by ratio of nitrogen and n-hexane in the working gas mixture. The films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, by the absorption spectra in visible and near infrared regions and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immediately after film deposition and without breaking vacuum (in situ) corresponding vibration infrared spectra were scanned and their evolution during ageing of the films was monitored. Wettability as determined from water contact angle was improved with raising nitrogen contents, i.e. with increasing the electric power and the ratio of nitrogen/n-hexane in the working gas mixture. The increased wettability is likely caused by presence of NH{sub x} groups in Ag/C:H:N films. The incorporation of nitrogen effectively prevents the formation of carboxylate groups on the silver inclusions surfaces during the aging in the open air. In addition, the oxidation mechanism of the polymer matrix is modified.

  16. Surface-Wave Plasma Deposition of a-C:H Films for Field Emission (United States)

    Sano, Toru; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Takada, Noriharu; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sugai, Hideo; Guang, W. X.; Hirao, Takashi; Toyoda, Naoki


    Recently crystalline diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films prepared by the plasma enhanced CVD techniques have been widely studied as a new material of electron emitter for the next generation large-area field emission display. Among them, DLC films grown at low temperature are more attractive from an aspect of industrial manufacturing. In this study, we have carried out the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous carbon(a-C:H) films using a high density, low pressure surface-wave plasma (SWP). The SWP was produced in a 40cm-diameter vacuum chamber by introducing 2.45 GHz microwave through a quartz window via slot antennas. The a-C:H films were deposited on a silicon substrate immersed in He/CH4 plasma, under discharge conditions of 700 W microwave power and 200 mTorr total pressure. Excellent field emission characteristics were obtained: the threshold electric field defined at an emission current density of 1 μA/cm^2 was obtained to be 4 V/μm. Other film characteristics measured with the XPS and FT-IR are also presented. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan.

  17. Novel Stable Compounds in the C-H-O Ternary System at High Pressure (United States)

    Saleh, Gabriele; Oganov, Artem R.


    The chemistry of the elements is heavily altered by high pressure, with stabilization of many new and often unexpected compounds, the emergence of which can profoundly change models of planetary interiors, where high pressure reigns. The C-H-O system is one of the most important planet-forming systems, but its high-pressure chemistry is not well known. Here, using state-of-the-art variable-composition evolutionary searches combined with quantum-mechanical calculations, we explore the C-H-O system at pressures up to 400 GPa. Besides uncovering new stable polymorphs of high-pressure elements and known molecules, we predicted the formation of new compounds. A 2CH4:3H2 inclusion compound forms at low pressure and remains stable up to 215 GPa. Carbonic acid (H2CO3), highly unstable at ambient conditions, was predicted to form exothermically at mild pressure (about 1 GPa). As pressure rises, it polymerizes and, above 314 GPa, reacts with water to form orthocarbonic acid (H4CO4). This unexpected high-pressure chemistry is rationalized by analyzing charge density and electron localization function distributions, and implications for general chemistry and planetary science are also discussed.

  18. Excess C/O and C/H in outer protoplanetary disk gas

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I


    The compositions of nascent planets depend on the compositions of their birth disks. In particular, the elemental compositions of Gas Giant gaseous envelopes depend on the elemental composition of the disk gas from which the envelope is accreted. Previous models demonstrated that sequential freeze-out of O and C-bearing volatiles in disks will result in an supersolar C/O ratios and subsolar C/H ratios in the gas between water and CO snowlines. This result does not take into account, however, the expected grain growth and radial drift of pebbles in disks, and the accompanying re-distribution of volatiles from the outer to the inner disk. Using a toy model we demonstrate that when drift is considered, CO is enhanced between the water and CO snowline, resulting in both supersolar C/O and C/H ratios in the disk gas in the Gas Giant formation zone. This result appears robust to the details of the disk model as long as there is substantial pebble drift across the CO snowline, and the efficiency of CO vapor diffusio...

  19. On the Importance of C-H/π and C-H⋅⋅⋅H-C Interactions in the Solid State Structure of 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Based on Eugenol Derivatives. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Nikpour, Mohsen; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio


    In this manuscript the X-ray structures of two potent and known inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase, that is, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenyl-1-admantanecarboxylate (1) and allyl-2-methoxyphenyl-1-cyclohexanecarboxylate (2), are reported. Their solid-state architectures show that they have a strong ability to establish C-H/π and C-H⋅⋅⋅H-C interactions. For the former interaction, the adamantane or cyclohexane moieties are the C-H donors and the electron-rich methoxyphenyl ring is the π system. For the latter, the C-H bonds belong to the aliphatic rings of the inhibitors. Interestingly, the active site of lipoxygenase enzyme family is rich in isoleucine and leucine amino acids that participate in the binding of the unsaturated fatty acid substrate by means of multiple hydrophobic C-H⋅⋅⋅H-C interactions. By means of theoretical calculations, we analyze the ability of compounds 1 and 2 to establish C-H/π and C-H⋅⋅⋅H-C interactions in the solid state.

  20. Spectrofluorimetric determination of benzoimidazolic pesticides: Effect of p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene and cyclodextrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacioni, Natalia L.; Sueldo Occello, Valeria N. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Lazzarotto, Marcio [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGS, 15003 Porto Alegre, R.S. (Brazil); Veglia, Alicia V. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisico Quimica de Cordoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail:


    The effect of the addition of a macrocyclic host (H) such as p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene (C6S), native and modified cyclodextrins (CDs), on the fluorescence of benzoimidazolic fungicides (P), like Benomyl (BY) and Carbendazim (CZ), has been studied. The fluorescence of BY in water at pH 1.000 and 25.0 deg. C was increased in the presence of C6S, {alpha}CD and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-CD (HPCD). The association constants determined by fluorescence enhancement showed weak interactions (K{sub A} {approx} 10{sup 1} to 10{sup 2} M{sup -1}) between the fungicide with both CDs, whereas they were stronger with C6S (K{sub A} {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}). Molecular recognition of BY for C6S was mainly attributed to electrostatic interactions, and for CDs to the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bond formation. On the other hand, the fluorescent behaviour of CZ in the presence of C6S at pH 6.994 was interpreted as the formation of two complexes with 1:1 (P:H) and 1:2 (P:H{sub 2}) stoichiometry, the latter being less fluorescent than the free analyte. Relative fluorescence quantum yield ratios between the complexed and free BY ({phi}{sup P:H}/{phi}{sup P}) were 2.00 {+-} 0.05, 1.40 {+-} 0.03 and 2.8 {+-} 0.4 for C6S, {alpha}CD and HPCD, respectively. The analytical parameters improved in the presence of C6S and CDs. The best limit of detection (L{sub D}, ng mL{sup -1}) was 17.4 {+-} 0.8 with HPCD. The proposed method with C6S and HPCD was successfully applied to fortified samples of tap water and orange flesh extract with good recoveries (91-106%) and R.S.D. ({<=}2%) by triplicate analysis. The method is rapid, direct and simple and needs no previous degradation or derivatization reaction.

  1. Studies of morphological optical and electrical properties of the MEH-PPV/azo-calix[4]arene composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4 phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), 5,17-bis(4-nitrophenylazo)-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-di(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy) -calix[4]arene (azo-calix[4]arene) and MEH-PPV doped azo-calix[4]arene, with 30 wt% and 70 wt% doping ratios, were prepared from chloroform solution by spin coating technique on quartz and ITO substrates. Morphological and optical properties of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–visible spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Further, the charge carrier transport properties and conduction mechanism of the composite MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene thin films based junction were studied by using current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and dielectric spectroscopy technique. I–V characteristic of ITO/MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene/Al devices showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) dominates in the high voltage region. Moreover, frequency dependence of ac conductivity obeys Jonscher's universal power law. Finally, dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were investigated as function of amount of azo-calix[4]arene in the MEH-PPV polymer matrix

  2. Studies of morphological optical and electrical properties of the MEH-PPV/azo-calix[4]arene composite layers (United States)

    Rouis, A.; Davenas, J.; Bonnamour, I.; Ben Ouada, H.


    Thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4 phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), 5,17-bis(4-nitrophenylazo)-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-di(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy)-calix[4]arene (azo-calix[4]arene) and MEH-PPV doped azo-calix[4]arene, with 30 wt% and 70 wt% doping ratios, were prepared from chloroform solution by spin coating technique on quartz and ITO substrates. Morphological and optical properties of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-visible spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Further, the charge carrier transport properties and conduction mechanism of the composite MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene thin films based junction were studied by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and dielectric spectroscopy technique. I-V characteristic of ITO/MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene/Al devices showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) dominates in the high voltage region. Moreover, frequency dependence of ac conductivity obeys Jonscher's universal power law. Finally, dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (ε″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were investigated as function of amount of azo-calix[4]arene in the MEH-PPV polymer matrix.

  3. Studies of morphological optical and electrical properties of the MEH-PPV/azo-calix[4]arene composite layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouis, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Polymer Materials Engineering Laboratory IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bonnamour, I. [Institut de Chimie & Biochimie Moléculaires & Supramoléculaires (ICBMS), UMR CNRS 5246, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)


    Thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4 phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), 5,17-bis(4-nitrophenylazo)-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-di(ethoxycarbonylmethoxy) -calix[4]arene (azo-calix[4]arene) and MEH-PPV doped azo-calix[4]arene, with 30 wt% and 70 wt% doping ratios, were prepared from chloroform solution by spin coating technique on quartz and ITO substrates. Morphological and optical properties of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–visible spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Further, the charge carrier transport properties and conduction mechanism of the composite MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene thin films based junction were studied by using current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and dielectric spectroscopy technique. I–V characteristic of ITO/MEH-PPV:azo-calix[4]arene/Al devices showed that the space charge limited conduction (SCLC) dominates in the high voltage region. Moreover, frequency dependence of ac conductivity obeys Jonscher's universal power law. Finally, dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were investigated as function of amount of azo-calix[4]arene in the MEH-PPV polymer matrix.

  4. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future. (United States)

    Gill, Diane L


    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  5. Rapid thermal annealing of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon (a-C:H) films (United States)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Pouch, John J.; Warner, Joseph D.


    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on silicon and quartz substrates by a 30 kHz plasma discharge technique using methane. Rapid thermal processing of the films was accomplished in nitrogen gas using tungsten halogen light. The rapid thermal processing was done at several fixed temperatures (up to 600 C), as a function of time (up to 1800 sec). The films were characterized by optical absorption and by ellipsometry in the near UV and the visible. The bandgap, estimated from extrapolation of the linear part of a Tauc plot, decreases both with the annealing temperature and the annealing time, with the temperature dependence being the dominating factor. The density of states parameter increases up to 25 percent and the refractive index changes up to 20 percent with temperature increase. Possible explanations of the mechanisms involved in these processes are discussed.

  6. R.E.A.C.H. to Teach: Making Patient and Family Education "Stick". (United States)

    Cutilli, Carolyn Crane


    Healthcare professionals teach patients and families about their health every day. Regulatory and accreditation organizations mandate patient and family education to promote better health outcomes. And recently, financial rewards for healthcare organizations are being tied to patient satisfaction (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems-HCAHPS). A University of Pennsylvania Health System group of staff and patients, devoted to excellence in patient and family education, developed the graphic "R.E.A.C.H. to Teach." The purpose of the graphic is to make evidence-based practice (EBP) for patient and family education "stick" with staff. The group used concepts from the marketing book, Made to Stick, to demonstrate how to develop effective staff and patient and family education. Ideas (education) that survive ("stick") have the following attributes: simple, unexpected, concrete, credible, emotional, and narrative (story). This article demonstrates how to apply these principles and EBP to patient and family education. PMID:27441879

  7. Studies of beauty baryon decays to $D^0 ph^-$ and $\\Lambda_c^+ h^-$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Adrover, Cosme; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dogaru, Marius; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; van Eijk, Daan; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garosi, Paola; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hicks, Emma; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Huse, Torkjell; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Li Gioi, Luigi; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Martynov, Aleksandr; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurice, Emilie; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Mous, Ivan; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nomerotski, Andrey; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander


    Decays of beauty baryons to the $D^0 p h^-$ and $\\Lambda_c^+ h^-$ final states (where $h$ indicates a pion or a kaon) are studied using a data sample of $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector. The Cabibbo-suppressed decays $\\Lambda_b^0\\to D^0 p K^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ K^-$ are observed and their branching fractions are measured with respect to the decays $\\Lambda_b^0\\to D^0 p \\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-$. In addition, the first observation is reported of the decay of the neutral beauty-strange baryon $\\Xi_b^0$ to the $D^0 p K^-$ final state, and a measurement of the $\\Xi_b^0$ mass is performed. Evidence of the $\\Xi_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ K^-$ decay is also reported.

  8. Drift mobility measurements in a-C:H films by time-resolved electroluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulani, A


    Carrier transport mechanism has been studied in thin insulating hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films. The layers were prepared by plasma polymerization of methane (CH{sub 4}) at a frequency of 20 kHz. Electron mobility was derived from time-resolved luminescence experiments. Between the application of a rectangular voltage pulse and the first appearance of electroluminescence (EL) a time lag exists, which depends on the pulse height. Transit times are in the order of 10{sup -3} to {approx}10{sup -6} s in a voltage rabetween 10 and 25 V. And the estimated electron mobility varies accordingly from 8x10{sup -8} to {approx}10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/(V s). The field dependence of the carriers mobility is characteristic of Poole-Frenkel-detrapping conduction model, and thus confirms the results obtained by dc experimental data.

  9. 5-Position-selective C-H trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinoline derivatives. (United States)

    Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Nishi, Mitsumi; Kanai, Motomu


    We developed a copper-catalyzed 5-position-selective C-H trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinoline derivatives. The reaction proceeded with high functional group tolerance under mild conditions. In the case of quinolines with an amide, carbamate, urea, or sulfonamide group at the 8-position of quinoline moieties, a radical scavenger experiment indicated that the reaction proceeded via a radical pathway. The protecting group of an 8-amidoquinoline derivative could be removed by hydrolysis. On the other hand, the trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinolines was also promoted by other Lewis acids as well as a copper catalyst and proceeded even in the presence of a radical scavenger. These results indicated that the trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinolines proceeded via a Friedel-Crafts-type reaction. Interestingly, the copper salt works as either a catalyst for the formation of a CF3 radical or a Lewis acid to promote a Friedel-Crafts-type reaction, depending on the substrate. PMID:27506919

  10. Recommended Thermal Rate Coefficients for the C + H$_3^+$ Reaction and Some Astrochemical Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Vissapragada, S; Miller, K A; O'Connor, A P; de Ruette, N; Urbain, X; Savin, D W


    We have incorporated our experimentally derived thermal rate coefficients for C + H$_3^+$ forming CH$^+$ and CH$_2^+$ into a commonly used astrochemical model. We find that the Arrhenius-Kooij equation typically used in chemical models does not accurately fit our data and use instead a more versatile fitting formula. At a temperature of 10 K and a density of 10$^4$ cm$^{-3}$, we find no significant differences in the predicted chemical abundances, but at higher temperatures of 50, 100, and 300 K we find up to factor of 2 changes. Additionally, we find that the relatively small error on our thermal rate coefficients, $\\sim15\\%$, significantly reduces the uncertainties on the predicted abundances compared to those obtained using the currently implemented Langevin rate coefficient with its estimated factor of 2 uncertainty.

  11. Erosion of a-C:H in the afterglow of ammonia plasma (United States)

    Drenik, Aleksander; Mourkas, Angelos; Zaplotnik, Rok; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Panjan, Peter; Alegre, Daniel; Tabarés, Francisco L.


    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) deposits were eroded in the afterglow of a NH3 plasma, created with an inductively coupled RF generator in pure NH3 at the gas pressure of 50 Pa. The plasma system was characterised by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and the erosion process was monitored in-situ with a laser interferometry system. Based on the mass spectrometry measurements, the degree of dissociation of the NH3 molecules was estimated at 90% at the highest generator forward power in the discharge region, however the densities of N and H atoms were significantly smaller at the location of the sample holder. The erosion rates were found to increase with surface temperature and forward generator power. In the high dissociation regime, the composition of the afterglow and the reaction products highlight the role of N atoms in the erosion process.

  12. Accurate NMR determination of C-H or N-H distances for unlabeled molecules. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Y; Malon, M; Potrzebowski, M J; Paluch, P; Amoureux, J P


    Cross-Polarization with Variable Contact-time (CP-VC) is very efficient at ultra-fast MAS (νR ≥ 60 kHz) to measure accurately the dipolar interactions corresponding to C-H or N-H short distances, which are very useful for resonance assignment and for analysis of dynamics. Here, we demonstrate the CP-VC experiment with (1)H detection. In the case of C-H distances, we compare the CP-VC signals with direct ((13)C) and indirect ((1)H) detection and find that the latter allows a S/N gain of ca. 2.5, which means a gain of ca. 6 in experimental time. The main powerful characteristics of CP-VC methods are related to the ultra-fast spinning speed and to the fact that most of the time only the value of the dipolar peak separation has to be used to obtain the information. As a result, CP-VC methods are: (i) easy to set up and to use, and robust with respect to (ii) rf-inhomogeneity thus allowing the use of full rotor samples, (iii) rf mismatch, and (iv) offsets and chemical shift anisotropies. It must be noted that the CP-VC 2D method with indirect (1)H detection requires the proton resolution and is thus mainly applicable to small or perdeuterated molecules. We also show that an analysis of the dynamics can even be performed, with a reasonable experimental time, on unlabeled samples with (13)C or even (15)N natural abundance. PMID:26169913

  13. Deposition of a-C:H films on inner surface of high-aspect-ratio microchannel (United States)

    Hirata, Yuki; Choi, Junho


    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared on inner surface of 100-μm-width microchannel by using a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition. The microchannel was fabricated using a silicon plate, and two kinds of microchannels were prepared, namely, with a bottom layer (open at one end) and without a bottom layer (open at both ends). The distribution of thickness and hardness of films was evaluated by SEM and nanoindentation measurements, respectively, and the microstructures of films were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to investigate the coating mechanism for the microchannel. It was found that the film thickness decreased as the depth of the coating position increased in the microchannels where it is open at one end. The uniformity of the film thickness improved by increasing the negative pulse voltage because ions can arrive at the deeper part of the microchannel. In addition, the hardness increased as the depth of the coating position increased. This is because the radicals do not arrive at the deeper part of the microchannel, and the incident proportion of ions relative to that of radicals increases, resulting in a high hardness due to the amorphization of the film. The opening area of the microchannel where the aspect ratio is very small, radicals dominate the incident flux, whereas ions prevail over radicals above an aspect ratio of about 7.5. On the other hand, in the microchannels that are open at both ends, there were great improvements in uniformity of the film thickness, hardness, and the film structure. The a-C:H films were successfully deposited on the entire inner surface of a microchannel with an aspect ratio of 20.

  14. Selective single crystal complexation of L- or D-leucine by p-sulfonatocalix[6]arene. (United States)

    Atwood, Jerry L; Dalgarno, Scott J; Hardie, Michaele J; Raston, Colin L


    p-Sulfonatocalix[6]arene, organised in the 'double cone' conformation, has multi-guest capability binding either L- or D-leucine in a single crystal in a bi-layer type arrangement from a racemic mixture of the amino acid. PMID:15645029

  15. Structural Effects on the Langmuir Monolayers of Calix[4]arene Induced by Lower Rim Aromatic Substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei-Jiang; QIU Lin; LI Jun-Bai; ZHANG Yu; GUO Zi-Jian; ZHU Long-Gen


    The Langmuir monolayer properties of lower rim aromatically substituted calix[4]arenes, 5,11,17,23-tetra-tertbutyl-25,27-bis(2-naphth-1'-ylacetylaminoethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxylcalix[4]arene (BNAEC), 5,11,17,23-tetra-tertbutyl-25,27-bis(2-benzoylamino ethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxylcalix[4]arene (BBAEC) and 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(2-cinnamoylaminoethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxylcalix[4]arene (BCAEC), have been studied. Film balance measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) observation demonstrate that all the compounds can form Langmuir monolayers with different molecular limiting areas. BNAEC or BBAEC monolayer is able to form condensed domains during compression, while BCAEC monolayer can never form condensed domain. BNAEC monolayer is more readily to form condensed domain than BBAEC monolayer. Moreover, BNAEC monolayer can form the total condensed phase during compression even when T=28 ℃, while BBAEC monolayer can not when T> 10 ℃. The results imply that different lower rim aromatic substitutions affect essentially the intermolecular interaction and molecular packing in the monolayer at air/water interface.

  16. Interconnective host-guest complexation of ß-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugler, Jürgen; Sommerdijk, Nico A.J.M.; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Hoek, van Arie; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    The two ß-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples 1 and 2 were prepared as sensing molecules for the detection of organic analytes in water. Compounds 1 and 2 are amphiphilic in nature and form aggregates in aqueous solution. Compound 1 forms vesicles both in the absence and in the presence of guest spec

  17. η6-Arene complexes of ruthenium and osmium with pendant donor functionalities

    KAUST Repository

    Reiner, Thomas


    Conversion of 4′-(2,5-dihydrophenyl)butanol or N-trifluoroacetyl-2,5- dihydrobenzylamine with MCl3·n H2O (M = Ru, Os) affords the corresponding dimeric η6-arene complexes in good to excellent yields. Under similar reaction conditions, the amine functionalized arene precursor 2,5-dihydrobenzylamine yields the corresponding Ru(II) complex. For osmium, HCl induced oxidation leads to formation of [OsCl6] 2- salts. However, under optimized reaction conditions, conversion of the precursor 2,5-dihydrobenzylamine chloride results in clean formation of η6-arene Os(II) complex. X-ray structures of [(η6- benzyl ammonium)(dmso)RuCl2] and (2,5-dihydrobenzyl ammonium) 4[OsCl6]2confirm the spectroscopic data. High stability towards air and acid as well as enhanced solubility in water is observed for all η6-arene complexes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to Each Other? Some Reasons for Hope. (United States)

    Ellett, Frederick S., Jr.


    Responds to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" noting complexities that complicate the answer and suggesting that they are indeed communicating if one accepts a broader definition of philosophers and educators. The essay asserts that little educational research and theory has had much influence on…

  19. Thiacalix(4)arene derivatives as radium ionophores: a study on the requirements for Ra2+ extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Fijs W.B.; Beijleveld, Hans; Velders, Aldrik H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.


    The synthesis and NOE-based structural characterization is described of thiacalix[4]arene tricarboxylic acid ( 7), thiacalix[4]crown-5 and -6 monocarboxylic acids ( 2 and 5), and the bis(N-methylsulfonyl)thiacalix[4]crowns-5 and -6 ( 4a,b). The 226Ra2+ selectivity coefficients, log(KRaex/KMex), of t

  20. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations. (United States)

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei


    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature. PMID:26955919

  1. Benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfCl4/HfO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi Zhang; Xin Qin Gao; Jiang Hua Zhang; Xiao Jun Peng


    A highly efficient benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfC14/HfO2 has been developed. Broad scope of benzylation reagents have been used in this process with high yields under mild condition. Additionally, the HfO2 can be re-used after the reaction.

  2. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with oligocationic triarylphosphine ligands: synthesis, DNA interactions and in vitro properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, D.J.M.; Casini, A.; Edafe, F.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Dyson, P.J.


    The synthesis, DNA binding properties and cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)-arene complexes containing oligocationic ammonium-functionalized triarylphosphines, of the type Ru(p-cymene)Cl2(L) (L ¼ oligocationic phosphine), are reported. The complexes are highly charged (the overall charge states bei

  3. One-pot synthesis of arene-fused 2-acylcyclohexenones from propargylic carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    From readily available propargylic carboxylates, two sequential transformations―gold-catalyzed tandem reactions and Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed cyclization―in a one-pot process led to the formation of 2-acylcyclohexenones with an electron-rich arene ring fused at the 4,5-positions.

  4. One-pot synthesis of arene-fused 2-acylcyclohexenones from propargylic carboxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO SanSan; ZHANG LiMing


    From readily available propargylic carboxylates,two sequential transformations-gold-catalyzed tandem reactions and ScOTf3-catalyzed cyclization-in a one-pot process led to the formation of 2-acylcyclohexenones with an electron-rich arene ring fused at the 4,5-positions.

  5. Calix[4]arene supported clusters: a dimer of [Mn(III)Mn(II)] dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M;


    Phosphinate ligands allow for the transformation of a calix[4]arene supported [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(2)] tetramer cluster motif into an unusual [Mn(III)Mn(II)](2) dimer of dimers; the clusters self-assemble in the crystal to form bi-layer arrays reminiscent of the typical packing of calixarene solvates....

  6. Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes as ionophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowska, Elz˙bieta; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    Silver selective electrodes based on thioether functionalized calix[4]arenes 1 and 2 as ionophores were investigated. For both ionophores the selectivity coefficients (log kAg,M) were lower than −2.2 for Hg(II) and lower than −4.6 for other cations tested. The best results were obtained with membran

  7. Lead selective electrodes based on thioamide functionalized calix[4]arenes as ionophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowska, Elz˙bieta; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    Lead selective electrodes based on a di- and tetrathioamide functionalized calix [4] arene as ionophores were investigated. The Pb(II)-response functions exhibited almost theoretical Nernstian slopes in the activity range 10¿6¿10¿2M of lead ions. For both ionophores a preference for lead over other

  8. Transition metal cations extraction by ester and ketone derivatives of chromogenic azocalix[4]arenes. (United States)

    Ak, Metin; Taban, Deniz; Deligöz, Hasalettin


    The molecule of azocalix[n]arene is a macrocyclic used effectively in the complexation of the heavy metal pollutants (like silver and mercury). In this work, our main aim is to prepare new chromogenic azocalix[n]arene molecules to elaborate an extractant with high extractant selectivity for metal ions able to detect this type of pollutant. The solvent extraction properties of four acetyls, four methyl ketones and four benzoyls derivatives from azocalix[4]arenes which were prepared by linking 4-ethyl, 4-n-butyl, 4-acetamid anilin and 2-aminothiazol to calix[4]arene through a diazo-coupling reaction, the alkaline earth (Sr2+) and the transition (Ag+, Hg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cr3+) metal cations have been determined by extraction studies with metal picrates. Both ketones are better extractants than esters, and show a strong preference for Ag+, while Cu2+ and Cr3+ are the most extracted cation with the esters. Both acetyl and benzoyl esters are good carriers for Ag+ and Hg2+.

  9. Microwave-assisted facile and rapid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of arenes catalysed by bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phoung Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pham, Thuy Than;


    The catalytic activity of metal triflates was investigated in Friedel–Crafts benzoylation under microwave irradiation. Friedel–Crafts benzoylation with benzoyl chloride of a variety of arenes containing electron-rich and electron-poor rings using bismuth triflate under microwave irradiation is...

  10. Ru-catalysed C-H silylation of unprotected gramines, tryptamines and their congeners. (United States)

    Devaraj, K; Sollert, C; Juds, C; Gates, P J; Pilarski, L T


    Selective Ru-catalysed C2-H silylation of heteroarenes is presented. The transformation works with or without directing group assistance and requires no protecting groups. Gramines and tryptamines may be converted efficiently whilst avoiding deleterious elimination side-reactions. Mechanistic studies reveal an unusual activation of the indole C4-H bond by an electron-rich metal. PMID:27050747

  11. Convergent Synthesis of Diverse Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Conjugate Addition/Cyclization Reactions. (United States)

    Weinstein, Adam B; Ellman, Jonathan A


    The development of Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H conjugate addition/cyclization reactions that provide access to synthetically useful fused bi- and tricyclic nitrogen heterocycles is reported. A broad scope of C-H functionalization substrates and electrophilic olefin coupling partners is effective, and depending on the nature of the directing group, cyclic imide, amide, or heteroaromatic products are obtained. An efficient synthesis of a pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloid natural product, oxoassoanine, highlights the utility of this method. PMID:27337641

  12. Enantioselective Allylic C-H Oxidation of Terminal Olefins to Isochromans by Palladium(II)/Chiral Sulfoxide Catalysis. (United States)

    Ammann, Stephen E; Liu, Wei; White, M Christina


    The enantioselective synthesis of isochroman motifs has been accomplished by palladium(II)-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation from terminal olefin precursors. Critical to the success of this goal was the development and utilization of a novel chiral aryl sulfoxide-oxazoline (ArSOX) ligand. The allylic C-H oxidation reaction proceeds with the broadest scope and highest levels of asymmetric induction reported to date (avg. 92 % ee, 13 examples with greater than 90 % ee). PMID:27376625

  13. The C--H Stretching Features at 3.2--3.5 Micrometer of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejuan; Glaser, Rainer; Zhong, Jianxin


    The so-called unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical regions. The UIE features are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretching feature is often accompanied by a weaker feature at 3.4 micrometer. The latter is often thought to result from the C--H stretch of aliphatic groups attached to the aromatic systems. The ratio of the observed intensity of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H feature to that of the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H feature allows one to estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers, provided that the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretch (A3.3) and the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H stretch (A3.4) are known. While previous studies on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers were mostly based on the A3.4...

  14. Triply Hydrogen-Bond-Directed Enantioselective Assembly of Pyrrolobenzo-1,4-diazine Skeletons with Quaternary Stereocenters. (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongtao; Wu, Tiandi; Mao, Zhenjun; Lin, Xufeng


    Highly efficient synthesis of optically enriched pyrrolobenzo-1,4-diazines bearing quaternary stereocenters has been realized through the chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reaction of 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)anilines and α-ketoamides in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities. Computational studies suggest an unprecedented phenomenon whereby the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst employs attractive arene C-H⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bonding to activate the substrate and induce chirality through a triple hydrogen-bonding interaction. PMID:25965054

  15. Rare earth (Eu3+, Tb3+) mesoporous hybrids with calix[4]arene derivative covalently linking MCM-41: Physical characterization and photoluminescence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCM-41 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with two kinds of macrocylic calixarene derivatives Calix[4] and Calix[4]Br (Calix[4]=P-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, Calix[4]Br=5.11,17.23-tetra-tert-butyl-25.27-bihydroxy- 26.28-bibromopropoxycalix[4]arene) through condensation approach of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as a template. Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid containing RE3+ (Eu3+, Tb3+) complexes covalently attached to the functionalized ordered mesoporous MCM-41, which are designated as RE-Calix[4]-MCM-41 and RE-Calix[4]Br-MCM-41, respectively, are obtained by sol-gel process. It is found that they all have high surface area, uniform in the mesostructure and good crystallinity. Measurement of the photoluminescence properties show the mesoporous material covalently bonded Tb3+ complexes (Tb-Calix[4]-MCM-41 and Tb-Calix[4]Br-MCM-41) exhibit the stronger characteristic emission of Tb3+ and longer lifetime than the corresponding Eu-containing materials Eu-Calix[4]-MCM-41 and Eu-Calix[4]Br-MCM-41 due to the triplet state energy of modified organic ligands Calix[4]-Si and Calix[4]Br-Si match with the emissive energy level of Tb3+ very well. - Graphical abstract: MCM-41 mesoporous silica is functionalized with two kinds of macrocylic calixarene derivatives and luminescent organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrids containing Ln3+ complexes covalently attached to the functionalized ordered mesoporous MCM-41. Highlights: → Novel linkages of functionalized calixarene derivative. → New rare earth mesoporous hybrids. → Luminescence in visible region.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyimide Containing Calix[4]arenes in the Polymer Backbone with Transport Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; XIAN Chun-ying; ZHENG Li-min


    New polyimide containing cvalix[4]arene moieties on the polymer backbone was successfully synthesized in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone(NMP) by polycondensations of 3,3', 4, 4'- oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) with the diaminocalix[4]arene monomer using 3,3'-dimethyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane(DADPM) as a third comononmer.The polyimide prepared is soluble in common solvents, such as NMP, DMAc, DMF and chloroform. The polyimide films obtained have excellent thermal stability and mechanical property. At the same time, the liquid membrane transport of potassimn ions by the new polyimide was investigated, which testified that compared to ODPA-DADPM polyimide, the polyimide containing calix[4] arenes has the transport ability to metal ions in regard to bulky, cone-like calix [4] arene moieties.

  17. Arene ruthenium complexes with monoanionic carborane ligand [9-SMe2-7,8-C2B9H10]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cation ruthenium complexes [(η-arene)Ru(η-9-SMe2-7,8-C2B9H10)]+ (arene = C6H6 (1), 1, 3, 5 - C6H3Me3 (2), Me = methyl), containing carborane ligand, were prepared with the yield of ∼ 50% by interaction between salt Na[9-SMe2-7,8-C2B9H10] and complexes [(η - arene)RuCl2]2. Products of the reactions were characterized by the methods of elementary analysis and 1H, 11B NMR. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data complex cation 1 has a sandwich structure. Distances from ruthenium atom to plane C2B3 in carborane ligand and to plane C6 of arene make up 1.630 and 1.732 A, respectively

  18. Derivation of structure-activity relationships from the anticancer properties of ruthenium(II) arene complexes with 2-aryldiazole ligands. (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Marta; Busto, Natalia; Jalón, Félix A; Manzano, Blanca R; Leal, José M; Rodríguez, Ana M; García, Begoña; Espino, Gustavo


    The ligands 2-pyridin-2-yl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(1)), 1-methyl-2-pyridin-2-ylbenzimidazole (HL(2)), and 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (HL(3)) and the proligand 2-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole (HL(4)) have been used to prepare five different types of new ruthenium(II) arene compounds: (i) monocationic complexes with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-HL)]Y [HL = HL(1), HL(2), or HL(3); Y = Cl or BF4; arene = 2-phenoxyethanol (phoxet), benzene (bz), or p-cymene (p-cym)]; (ii) dicationic aqua complexes of the formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(OH2)(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))](Y)2 (Y = Cl or TfO; arene = phoxet, bz, or p-cym); (iii) the nucleobase derivative [(η(6)-arene)Ru(9-MeG)(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))](PF6)2 (9-MeG = 9-methylguanine); (iv) neutral complexes consistent with the formulation [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-L(1))] (arene = bz or p-cym); (v) the neutral cyclometalated complex [(η(6)-p-cym)RuCl(κ(2)-N,C-L(4))]. The cytototoxic activity of the new ruthenium(II) arene compounds has been evaluated in several cell lines (MCR-5, MCF-7, A2780, and A2780cis) in order to establish structure-activity relationships. Three of the compounds with the general formula [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(κ(2)-N,N-HL(1))]Cl differing in the arene moiety have been studied in depth in terms of thermodynamic dissociation constants, aquation kinetic constants, and DNA binding measurements. The biologically most active compound is the p-cym derivative, which strongly destabilizes the DNA double helix, whereas those with bz and phoxet have only a small effect on the stability of the DNA double helix. Moreover, the inhibitory activity of several compounds toward CDK1 has also been evaluated. The DNA binding ability of some of the studied compounds and their CDK1 inhibitory effect suggest a multitarget mechanism for their biological activity. PMID:25302401

  19. Control of the rheological properties of clay nanosheet hydrogels with a guanidinium-attached calix[4]arene binder. (United States)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Kim, Chaelin; Jung, Jong Hwa


    A 1,3-alternate calix[4]arene derivative 1 possessing four guanidinium moieties was synthesized as a molecular binder. The clay nanosheet (CNS) hydrogels were prepared upon addition of 1 and sodium polyacrylate (ASSP), and their mechanical properties were measured by rheometry. CNS hydrogels prepared by combining calix[4]arene 1 with dispersed CNSs surrounded by ASSPs showed an enhancement of mechanical properties such as viscosity and elasticity. PMID:26327603

  20. The Use of a Flexible Calix[4]arene Template to Stabilize a Cyclooctatetraindiyl Samarium-Potassium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Guillemot


    Full Text Available A sandwich compound of cyclooctatetraendiyl (COT2− samarium-potassium was synthesized and analyzed using a flexible calix[4]arene dianion. This compound, [p-tBu-calix[4]-(OMe2(O2]arenediyl-samarium-(η8-cyclooctatetraendiyl-potassium (tetrahydrofurane3, is constructed as a linear sequence L-Sm--K-, where L, , and are specific ligands with L = O,O-dimethyl-calix[4]arene2−, = cyclo-octatetraendiyl, and = tetrahydrofurane templates.

  1. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene (United States)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.


    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  2. Synthesis and properties of calix[4]arene telluropodant ethers as Ag+ selective sensors and Ag+, Hg2+ extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu


    Full Text Available Three novel phenyltelluroalkoxyl functionalized tweezer-like calix[4]arenes 6–8 and two monophenyltelluropropoxyl functionalized calix[4]arenes 10 (cone conformer and 12 (partial cone conformer were synthesized and characterized. They are good Ag+-selective ionophores in ion-selective electrodes evaluated by electromotive force measurements of polymer membrane electrodes. The tweezer-like ionophores 6–8 showed excellent extraction ability towards Ag+ and Hg2+.

  3. First synthesis of a '1,2-diquinone-calix[4]arene'. Interaction of its reduced form with Ag+


    Vataj, Rame; Ridaoui, Hassan; Louati, Alain; Gabelica, Valérie; Steyer, Stéphane; MATT, DOMINIQUE


    Electrochemical oxidation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)-27,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene (3), a calixarene with two phosphoryl units appended on proximal positions, affords the corresponding '1,2-diquinonecalix[4]arene' (4). The formation of 4 results from nucleophilic attack of residual water on anodically generated diphenoxylium. cations. Preliminary voltammetric experiments in CH3CN on a platinum electrode showed that 4 is suitable for electrochemical det...

  4. Studies of beauty baryon decays to D0ph- and Λc+h- final states (United States)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorosz, P.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Martynov, A.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; LHCb Collaboration


    Decays of beauty baryons to the D0ph- and Λc+h- final states (where h indicates a pion or a kaon) are studied using a data sample of pp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1, collected by the LHCb detector. The Cabibbo-suppressed decays Λb0→D0pK- and Λb0→Λc+K- are observed, and their branching fractions are measured with respect to the decays Λb0→D0pπ- and Λb0→Λc+π-. In addition, the first observation is reported of the decay of the neutral beauty-strange baryon Ξb0 to the D0pK- final state, and a measurement of the Ξb0 mass is performed. Evidence of the Ξb0→Λc+K- decay is also reported.

  5. Structural features and thermal stability of molecular complexes of 25,26,27,28-Tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene with solvents (United States)

    Surov, O. V.; Voronova, M. I.; Plevina, E. V.; Barannikov, V. P.; Smirnov, P. R.; Mamardashvili, N. Zh.


    A single crystal of the complex 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene with hexane is grown via slow evaporation of a solution, and its full structure is determined. A molecular complex of 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene with toluene is prepared for the first time, and its thermal stability is studied. The kinetic curves of the sorption of saturated vapors of acetone, acetonitrile, n-hexane, and toluene on 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene are experimentally obtained. It is shown that the sorption of acetonitrile vapors on 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene is characterized by a pronounced maximum corresponding to a stoichiometry of 1: 1. It is assumed that the structural reorganization of 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene results in the transport of acetonitrile molecules within the molecular crystal, followed by complexation to form a thermodynamically stable hexagonal structure. The high thermal stability of solvates of 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene is found to be due to the strict proportionality of the form and size of a guest molecule to those of the cavity of a host molecule.

  6. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;


    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  7. H2 formation via the UV photo-processing of a-C:H nano-particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A P


    Context. The photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbon, a-C(:H), dust by UV photon-irradiation in the laboratory leads to the release of H2 as well as other molecules and radicals. This same process is also likely to be important in the interstellar medium. Aims. To investigate molecule formation arising from the photo-dissociatively-driven, regenerative processing of a-C(:H) dust. Methods. We explore the mechanism of a-C(:H) grain photolysis leading to the formation of H2 and other molecules/radicals. Results. The rate constant for the photon-driven formation of H2 from a-C(:H) grains is estimated to be 2x10^-17 cm^3 s^-1. In intense radiation fields photon-driven grain decomposition will lead to fragmentation into daughter species rather than H2 formation. Conclusions. The cyclic re-structuring of arophatic a-C(:H) nano-particles appears to be a viable route to formation of H2 for low to moderate radiation field intensities (1 < G_0 < 10^2), even when the dust is warm (T ~ 50 - 100 K).

  8. Iridium-mediated C-S bond activation and transformation: organoiridium(III) thioether, thiolato, sulfinato and thiyl radical compounds. Synthesis, mechanistic, spectral, electrochemical and theoretical aspects. (United States)

    Das, Ujjwal; Ghorui, Tapas; Adhikari, Basab; Roy, Sima; Pramanik, Shuvam; Pramanik, Kausikisankar


    An attractive methodology, single-electron transfer (SET) reductive cleavage of the C-S bond mediated by a metal in the presence of the external stimuli PPh3, has been applied to the kinetically inert IrCl3 in order to synthesize the thiolato complex [Ir(III)(L(S))Cl(PPh3)2] 3 from precursor thioether complexes [Ir(III)(L(SR))Cl2(PPh3)] (R = alkyl) 2. The aforesaid cleavage process in association with (arene)C-H activation furnishes a new class of organosulfur compounds of iridium(III). The thiolato chelate 3 displays a reversible oxidative wave at 0.75 V vs. Ag/AgCl signifying its remarkable nucleophilic character. The high electron density on the thiolato-S vis-à-vis superior nucleophilicity can be envisaged through the formation of a number of S-centered derivatives. This observation has been corroborated with the nature of HOMO in 3, which assumes 49% of S(3p). Notably, the facile oxidative nature of 3 makes it an apposite precursor for metal-stabilized thiyl radical species. Indeed, iridium(III)-stabilized 3˙(+) can be generated by chemical/electrochemical means. The axial EPR spectra with g ∼ 2.0 along with theoretical analysis of SOMO (S(3p) 24% + Ph(π) 43% + d(yz) 15%) and spin density (ρ(S) = +0.543, ρ(Ph) = +0.315, ρ(Ir) = +0.151) of one-electron oxidized 3˙(+) validate the iridium-stabilized thiyl radical description. This observation suggests that the CNS coordination mode in thiophenolato complex 3 is redox-active. Complex 3 is very prone to S-centered oxidation under normal aerobic conditions to yield metallosulfoxide [Ir(III)(L(SO2))Cl(PPh3)2] 4. The enhanced nucleophilicity of thiolato-S can also be manifested via the smooth S-C bond making process with alkyl halides (R'X, R' = Me and allyl; X = Br, I) and subsequent formation of thioether complexes of type [Ir(III)(L(SR'))ClX(PPh3)] 5. The organosulfur compounds of iridium(III) exhibit rich spectral properties including luminescence and the origin of these transitions is scrutinized with

  9. Isostructural Heteronuclear (K+/M2+: M = Ni, Co, and Zn) One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers of Thiacalix[4]arene Tetraacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assembly of 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]arene potassium tetraacetate with three transition metal salts afforded an isostructural metal-mediated heteronuclear coordination polymers. The present results illustrate how the appropriate modification of the 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]arene derivative works as an approach in preparing desired metallosupra molecular networks. Further exploration of the synthesis and physical properties of novel metallosupra molecular network species based on the modification of the thiacalix[4]arene derivatives is underway

  10. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G


    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  11. First principles DFT study of weak C-H…O bonds in crystalline amino acids under pressure-alanine (United States)

    Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Kamal, C.; Sikka, S. K.


    Many crystalline solids containing C-H…O hydrogen bonds display blue shifting of the C-H stretching frequency under pressure. No agreed explanation is available for this. Here, we use first principles density functional theory, to determine the hydrogen atom positions to understand the cause of this blue shift. No neutron diffraction is feasible due to flux limitations for this purpose. As a first case, we have taken up the study of the amino acid, alanine. We find that the C_H_…O bond in it no longer remain isolated under compression as is case at ambient pressure. The hydrogen atom in the bond has now repulsive contacts with other atoms. This results in contraction of the C-H bond length and consequently to blue shifting as is found experimentally.

  12. Effects of 200cH medications on mice bone marrow cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorly de F. Buchi


    Full Text Available Paracelsus once wrote: "All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous." Latter Hahnemann formulated the law of similars, preparations which cause certain symptoms in healthy individuals if given in diluted form to patients exhibiting similar symptoms will cure it. Highly diluted natural complexes prepared according to Hahnemann’s ancient techniques may represent a new form of immunomodulatory therapy. The lack of scientific research with highly diluted products led us to investigate the in vivo and in vitro actions of commonly used medications. Here we describe the results of experimental studies aimed at verifying the effects of Mercurius solubilis, Atropa Belladonna, Lachesis muta and Bryonia alba. All medications were at 200cH dilution. Animals were maintained for 7 days and were allowed to drink the medications, which were prepared in a way that the final dilution and agitation (200cH was performed in drinking water. The medication bottle was changed and sucussed every afternoon. Co-culture of non treated mice bone marrow cells and in vitro treated peritoneal macrophages were also performed. After animal treatment the bone marrow cells were immunophenotyped with hematopoietic lineage markers on a flow cytometer. We have determined CD11b levels on bone marrow cells after culture and co-culture with treated macrophages and these macrophages were processed to scanning electron microscopy. We have observed by morphological changes that macrophages were activated after all treatments. Mercurius solubilis treated mice showed an increase in CD3 expression and in CD11b on nonadherent bone marrow cells after co-culture with in vitro treatment. Atropa Belladonna increased CD45R and decreased Ly-6G expression on bone marrow cells after animal treatment. Lachesis muta increased CD3, CD45R and, CD11c expression and decreased CD11b ex vivo and in nonadherent cells from co

  13. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Direct and Selective C-H Cyanation of N-(Hetero)aryl-7-azaindoles. (United States)

    Mishra, Aniket; Vats, Tripta Kumari; Deb, Indubhusan


    An efficient, highly regioselective, and scalable ruthenium-catalyzed o-aryl C-H mono-cyanation of N-aryl-7-azaindoles to form N-(2-cyanoaryl)-7-azaindoles has been developed through N-directed ortho C-H activation using N-cyano-N-phenyl-p-toluenesulfonamide as cyanating reagent in the presence of AgOTf and NaOAc in DCE. A range of substrates has furnished cyanated azaindoles in good to excellent yields under the simple reaction conditions. Involvement of C-H metalation has been supported by a kinetic study. This methodology provides easy access to a class of pharmaceutically significant molecules and their precursors. PMID:27408980

  14. Nickel-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H/N-H Isocyanide Insertion: An Efficient Synthesis of Iminoisoindolinone Derivatives. (United States)

    Hao, Wenyan; Tian, Jun; Li, Wu; Shi, Renyi; Huang, Zhiliang; Lei, Aiwen


    Transition metal-catalyzed isocyanide insertion has served as a fundamental and important chemical transformation. Classical isocyanide insertion usually occurs between organohalides and nucleophiles, which normally involves tedious and non-atom-economical prefunctionalization processes. However, oxidative C-H/N-H isocyanide insertion offers an efficient and green alternative. Herein, a nickel-catayzed oxidative C-H/N-H isocyanide insertion of aminoquinoline benzamides has been developed. Different kinds of iminoisoindolinone derivatives could be synthesized in good yields by utilizing Ni(acac)2 as the catalyst. In this transformation, isocyanide serves as an efficient C1 connector, which further inserted into two simple nucleophiles (C-H/N-H), representing an effective way to construct heterocycles.

  15. Structural and mechanical properties of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite film prepared by dual plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H film, with an unusual combination of superhardness, high elastic modulus and high elastic recovery, are prepared by using the dual plasma technique. The effects of the filter coil current on the compositional, structural and mechanical properties of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman analyses show that deposition rate, composition and nanostructure of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films could be changed by varying the filter coil current. Fortunately, by selecting the proper value for the filter coil current, 2.5 A, one could remarkably enhance mechanical properties of films such as the superhardness (66.4 GPa), the high elastic modulus (510 GPa) and the high elastic recovery (83.3%)

  16. Study on the HPHT synthetic diamond crystal from Fe-C(H)system and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Investigations of crystal habit,micro-topographic imaging,micro-composition and micro-structural analysis of HPHT synthetic diamonds from the Fe-C(H)system indicate that most of them have an octahedral habit.The crystals grow mainly layer-to-layer from center to periphery.HPHT synthetic diamond is smaller in size than naturel diamond because it only goes through nucleation and growth in the early stage.In the middle and late stages,due to the coalescence of diamond grains related to differences of surface energy,the growth of HPHT synthetic diamond iS limited.The active energy (E) of transforming single nitrogen into a nitrogen-pair is lowered and the time of transforming single nitrogen into a nitrogen-pair is shortened because of the existence of hydrogen.Therefore,aggregate nitrogen(A-centers)may exist in synthetic diamond from HPHT and explosive detonation processes.It needs further discussion on a worldwide view that the time of natural diamond formation extrectad from nitrogen aggregation is some hundred million years.Consideration of the way in which Surface energy influences the growth of diamond can help to understand some of the remaining issues(e.g.growth mechanism,etc.)in the HPHT synthetic process and effectively explain the formation of naturel diamond in terms of HPHT thermodynamic theory.Especially,it is important to pay more attention to the influence of hydrogen on surface energy in that hydrogen may be a"bridge"for explaining the formation of HPHT synthetic and natural diamond.

  17. 7,11,15,28-Tetrakis[(2-formylphenoxymethyl]-1,21,23,25-tetramethylresorcin[4]arene cavitand ethyl acetate clathrate at 173 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mc Kay


    Full Text Available The title compound, C68H56O16, was synthesized as a novel synthetic intermediate towards deeper and more elaborate resorcin[4]arene cavitands. The structure is the first reported example of a resorcin[4]arene cavitand bearing aromatic aldehyde functional groups at the extra-annular rim of the molecule. The 2-formylphenoxy residues are found to assume two different orientations above the molecular cavity. One half of the resorcin[4]arene cavitand molecule appears in the asymmetric unit; the complete resorcin[4]arene cavitand structure was generated across a mirror plane. In addition, a highly disordered ethyl acetate solvent molecule is present within the molecular cavity.

  18. Influence of energetic ion bombardment on W-C: H coatings deposited with W and WC targets


    Strondl, C.; Carvalho, NM; de Hosson, JTM; Krug, TG


    Tungsten containing diamond-like carbon (W-C:H) coatings have been produced by unbalanced magnetron sputtering using two different target materials. In the first series of coatings, W has been used as target material, and in the second series, WC has been used as target material. In both series of W-C:H coatings, the deposition energy has been varied by changing the ion current density and the bias voltage on the substrate. The aim of the investigation has been to study the changes in the mic...

  19. Gold-catalysed facile access to indene scaffolds via sequential C-H functionalization and 5-endo-dig carbocyclization. (United States)

    Ma, Ben; Wu, Ziang; Huang, Ben; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junliang


    A concise synthesis of functionalized indene derivatives via the gold(i)-catalysed cascade C-H functionalization/conia-ene type reaction of electron-rich aromatics with o-alkynylaryl α-diazoesters has been developed. In this transformation, the gold catalyst not only catalysed the formation of the zwitterionic intermediate via intermolecular C-H functionalization but promoted the subsequent intramolecular 5-endo-dig cyclization via activation of alkynes. The reaction is characterized by high chemo- and site-selectivity, readily available starting materials, nice functional-group tolerance and mild reaction conditions. PMID:27373228

  20. The magma budget of Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica from 1968 to 1980 (United States)

    Wadge, G.


    The magma volume emitted by Volcan Arenal, Costa Rica, has been calculated to be 304 x 10 to the 6th cu m. A near-continuous rise from very deep within the crust is proposed as an explanation for Arenal's magma supply, and the long-term seismic pattern is interpreted as individual batches of magma using previously fractured pathways. During a break in activity (1973) the effusion site moved from Crater A to Crater C, approximately 400 m higher. It is maintained that the steady downward tilting of the volcano's summit was caused by the loading of the volcano's western side by about 19 x 10 to the 6th cu m of lava. Also noted is the abrupt decrease in effusion rate compatible with the increased magmatic head needed to reach Crater C. It is concluded that the constancy of magma composition and effusion rate from 1974 to 1980 indicates a homogeneous magma reservoir.

  1. Characterization of an azo-calix[4]arene-based optical sensor for Europium (III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective and sensitive optical sensor membranes (optodes) were elaborated to detect cations in aqueous solutions. The sensing films are based on chromogenic calix[4]arene derivatives. The optode membranes were studied using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements. The sensitivity of the optode has been tested for Pb2+, Cd2+, Mg2+ and Eu3+ ions at pH 6.8. The results showed a good selectivity response towards Eu3+. Low selectivity coefficients were observed for Cd2+ and Mg2+ where Pb2+ can be considered as interfering ions. The characteristics of this optode such as response time, regeneration, reproducibility and lifetime are discussed. - Highlights: ► We report optical sensing studies of chromogenic calixarene derivatives. ► We investigate optical interaction between azo-calix[4]arene and Eu3+. ► We study sensitivity and selectivity of optode films. ► We describe characteristics of optode films for determination of europium traces.

  2. Interaction of acridine-calix[4]arene with DNA at the electrified liquid liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivlehan, Francine [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Lefoix, Myriam; Moynihan, Humphrey A. [Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Thompson, Damien; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.; Herzog, Gregoire [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W.M., E-mail: [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)


    The behaviour of an acridine-functionalised calix[4]arene at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) is reported. Molecular modelling showed that the acridine-calix[4]arene has regions of significant net positive charge spread throughout the protonated acridine moieties, consistent with it being able to function as an anion ionophore. The presence of this compound in the organic phase facilitated the transfer of aqueous phase electrolyte ions. Upon addition of double stranded DNA to the aqueous phase, the transfer of electrolyte anions was diminished, due to DNA binding to the acridine moiety at the ITIES. The behaviour provides a basis for DNA hybridization detection using electrochemistry at the ITIES.

  3. Mono- and Bimetallic Ruthenium—Arene Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis: A Survey (United States)

    Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, we summarize the main achievements of our group toward the development of easily accessible, highly efficient ruthenium—arene catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis. Major advances in this field are presented chronologically, with an emphasis on catalyst design and mechanistic details. The first part of this survey focuses on monometallic complexes with the general formula RuCl2(p-cymene)(L), where L is a phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ancillary ligand. In the second part, we disclose recent developments in the synthesis and catalytic applications of homobimetallic ruthenium—arene complexes of generic formula (p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)3RuCl(η2-C2H4)(L) and their derivatives resulting from the substitution of the labile ethylene moiety with vinylidene, allenylidene, or indenylidene units

  4. Intermolecular complexation thermodynamics between water-soluble calix[4]arenes and diazacycloalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetric titration experiments have been performed in pH 2.0 and 7.2 phosphate buffer solutions at 298.15 K to calculate the complex stability constants (K S) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG deg , ΔH deg , and TΔS deg ) for the stoichiometric 1:1 inclusion complexation of water-soluble calix[4]arene tetrasulfonate (CAS) and thiacalix[4]arene tetrasulfonate (TCAS) with some diazacycloalkane guests, i.e. piperazine (1), homopiperazine (2) and 1,5-diazacyclooctane (3). The results indicated that complexes of CAS and TCAS with diazacycloalkane guests were enthalpy-stabilized, and an acidic environment was more favorable to host-guest complexation than a neutral one. CAS forms more stable complexes with guest molecules than TCAS due to the more favorable enthalpic gain

  5. Host-guest interaction of flavanone and 7-aminoflavone with C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sowrirajan; Enoch, Israel V. M. V.


    In this paper, we report the structures of the host-guest complexes of flavanone and 7-aminoflavone (guests) with C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene (host). The study of the host-guest binding is carried out using UV-Visible absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, and 2D ROESY spectroscopy. The stoichiometry and the binding constant of the C-Hexylpyrogallol[4]arene-guest complexes are reported based on absorption and fluorescence titrations. Both flavanone and 7-aminoflavone form 1:1 complexes with the host with binding constant values of 1.71 × 104 mol-1 dm3 and 2.06 × 104 mol-1 dm3 respectively. Fluorescence quenching of the two flavonoids on complex formation occurs and the Stern-Volmer constants are reported. The mode of binding of flavanone and 7-aminoflavone with the host molecule is optimized with 2D ROESY and the structures of the inclusion complexes are proposed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Ge; Zhi-quan Shen; Yi-feng Zhang; Qiao-hong Huang


    Ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with a rare earth calixarene compound as catalyst has been studied for the first time. The effect of TMC/Nd (molar ratio) and polymerization conditions were investigated in detail. It was found that calix[8]arene-neodymium is a highly effective catalyst for the bulk polymerization of TMC and gives high molecular weight (Mv = 60,000) polymer. The optimum conditions of TMC polymerization were found to be as follows:TMC/Nd (molar ratio) = 2,000, 80℃, 16 h. The polymers were characterized by NMR, GPC and DSC. Studying the mechanism by NMR showed that the polymerization of TMC catalyzed by calix[8]arene-neodymium proceeds via a cationic mechanism.

  7. On Bond Portfolio Management


    Vladislav Kargin


    This paper describes a new method of bond portfolio optimization based on stochastic string models of correlation structure in bond returns. The paper shows how to approximate correlation function of bond returns, compute the optimal portfolio allocation using Wiener-Hopf factorization, and check whether a collection of bonds presents arbitrage opportunities.

  8. Metallic ruthenium nanoparticles derived from arene ruthenium complexes: synthesis, characterization and applications


    Khan, Farooq-Ahmad; Süss-Fink, Georg


    The present work deals with the preparation of ruthenium nanoparticles using an organometallic approach. In the first part, the synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles stabilized by mesogenic isonicotinic ester ligands is presented. We have been interested in the use of long-chain isonicotinic esters as lipohilic components in order to increase the anticancer activity of arene ruthenium complexes, while using them as stabilizers for ruthenium nanoparticles with the aim of exploring self-organiz...

  9. Porphyrinic supramolecular daisy chains incorporating pillar[5]arene-viologen host-guest interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fathalla, Maher


    A porphyrin functionalised with pillar[5]arene and a viologen at its 5- and 15-meso positions assembles in a head-to-tail manner, producing linear supramolecular daisy chains in dichloromethane. At high concentrations, it forms an organogel which has been investigated by electron microscopy and rheological measurements, paving the way for the preparation of other functional supramolecular assemblies which harness viologen"⊂" pillararene host-guest interactions.





    The Arene Candide Cave (Finale Ligure, Northern Italy) is considered one of the most important prehistoric site in Italy. The archaeological excavations conducted by the “Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana” of Rome revealed 3 different horizons: an upper horizon with Holocene human presence dated from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period, and two underlying Pleistocene horizons with Gravettian and Epigravettian lithic artefacts. The stratigraphical sequence of the upper Palaeolithic is...

  11. Synthesis and properties of novel calix[4]arene derivatives bearing fluorogenic coumarin units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wen Wang; Ya Qing Feng; Jin Qiang Xue; Chan Xiao


    Four novel calix[4]arene derivatives 5-8 bearing four fluorogenic coumarin units attached via imino group acting also as binding sites at the upper rim have been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and MS. Compounds 5-8 adopt a cone conformation. Their complexation properties to different heavy and transition metal ions have been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. Compounds 5, 6, 8 show selective recognition to Fe3+ and Cr3+.

  12. Molecular design of Calix[4]arene derivatives for uranyl ion extraction from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranyl ion extraction is an important part of nuclear waste reprocessing. Use of organic ligands having chelating property with uranyl ions is a promising tool in this area, because of the possibility to improve the selectivity and the affinity of the ligands towards uranyl ions. In this study, Calix[4]arene derivatives containing B, Al, C, Si, N, P, O and S elements in bridging positions were designed and their chelating energetics with uranyl cation are calculated by means of DFT methods.

  13. 杯[4]芳烃衍生物一维超分子的晶体结构研究%Crystal Structure of a Novel Supramolecular Calix[4]arene Derivative with 1D Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢彦军; 杜晨霞; 周稚仙; 吴养洁


    A new calix[4]arene derivative, 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-dihydroxy-26,28-bis[2-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyloxy]calix[4]arene was synthesized. The X-ray crystal structure of the title compound has been determined. It crystallizes in the monoclinic with space group C2/c, a=1.262 8(3) nm, b=2.535 0(5) nm, c=2.095 7(4) nm,  β=103.36(3)°, V=6.528(2) nm3, Z=4, Dc=1.203 g/cm3, F(000)=2 488, R=0.114 3, wR2=0.297 9, Δρmax=0.329×103 e/nm3, Δρmin=-0.256×103 e/nm3. The crystal structure of the title compound shows that in the molecule there are hydrogen bonds between proximal hydroxyl and ether functional groups [O(H)—O: 0.300 4 nm]. The benzoic ether site in the title molecule may be considered as a π-conjugated system, therefore, the intermolecular π-π interaction exists between two benzoic ether site of the adjacent molecules, which caused the formation of a one-dimensional saw-toothed supramolecule.

  14. Antiseptic properties of two calix[4]arenes derivatives on the human coronavirus 229E. (United States)

    Geller, C; Fontanay, S; Mourer, M; Dibama, H Massimba; Regnouf-de-Vains, J-B; Finance, C; Duval, R E


    Facing the lack in specific antiviral treatment, it is necessary to develop new means of prevention. In the case of the Coronaviridae this family is now recognized as including potent human pathogens causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections as well as nosocomial ones. Within the purpose of developing new antiseptics molecules, the antiseptic virucidal activity of two calix[4]arene derivatives, the tetra-para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (C[4]S) and the 1,3-bis(bithiazolyl)-tetra-para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (C[4]S-BTZ) were evaluated toward the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E). Comparing these results with some obtained previously with chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (i) these two calixarenes did not show any cytotoxicity contrary to chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (ii) C[4]S showed as did hexamidine, a very weak activity against HCoV 229E, and (iii) the C[4]S-BTZ showed a stronger activity than chlorhexidine, i.e. 2.7 and 1.4log₁₀ reduction in viral titer after 5min of contact with 10⁻³mol L⁻¹ solutions of C[4]S-BTZ and chlorhexidine, respectively. Thus, the C[4]S-BTZ appeared as a promising virucidal (antiseptic) molecule.

  15. NUV/VIS sensitive multicolor thin film detector based on a-SiC:H/a-Si:H/{mu}c-SiGeC:H alloys with an in-situ structured transparent conductive oxide front contact without etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablich, A., E-mail:; Boehm, M., E-mail:


    An innovative family of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) multicolor p-i-n photo sensors, sensitive in the VIS and the near UV spectrum, is presented. Typical values of the quantum efficiency at 350 nm and 580 nm are 5.4% and 54.7%, respectively, with - 0.4 V and - 12 V bias. Electro-optical studies were performed to explore the effect of combining linearly graded a-SiGe:H/{mu}c-SiGeC:H layers with linearly graded a-SiC:H-layers. The devices presented additionally contain a buried a-Si:H region. Low-reflective aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) back contacts improve the spectral color separation. {mu}{tau}-products and absorption coefficients of graded absorbers were determined. Discrete absorbers were substituted by a linear graded a-SiC:H absorption zone in the top structure, an interior a-Si:H region and a graded a-SiGe:H/a-SiC:H alloy combination. In this paper we demonstrate a reduction of interference fringes and operation at low bias voltages, combined with a highly precise adjustment of the spectral sensitivity, even in the near UV-spectrum. The device dynamic range exceeds 50 dB at 1000 lx white-light illumination. As the deposited upper layers adopt the roughness of {mu}c-SiGeC:H clusters in the rear absorber, we present an in-situ structured front contact without etching ZnO:Al. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structuring zinc oxide anode without etching Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV/VIS amorphous silicon sensor Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcrystalline narrow gap absorber Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant color separation improvement.

  16. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak


    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  17. An overview on the applications of `Doyle catalysts’ in asymmetric cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation and C-H insertion reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas J Colacot


    The chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidates are a unique class of chiral catalysts useful for asymmetric inter- and intramolecular cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation and C-H insertion reactions with excellent enantioselectivities. The broad applications of these catalysts in organic syntheses are briefly reviewed.

  18. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation/cyclization of oximes with alkenes for regioselective synthesis of isoquinolines. (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Qi, Jifeng; Mao, Zhenjun; Cui, Sunliang


    A Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation/cyclization of oximes and alkenes for facile and regioselective access to isoquinolines has been developed. This protocol features mild reaction conditions and easily accessible starting materials, and has been applied to the concise synthesis of moxaverine. A kinetic isotope effect study was conducted and a plausible mechanism was proposed. PMID:27273816

  19. Direct sp(3)C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinolines by merging photoredox catalysis with nucleophilic catalysis. (United States)

    Feng, Zhu-Jia; Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Ding, Wei; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zou, You-Quan; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing


    Sequence catalysis merging photoredox catalysis (PC) and nucleophilic catalysis (NC) has been realized for the direct sp(3) C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ). The reaction was performed under very mild conditions and afforded products in 50-91% yields. A catalytic asymmetric variant was proved to be successful with moderate enantioselectivities (up to 83 : 17 er).

  20. C-H functionalization of phenols using combined ruthenium and photoredox catalysis: in situ generation of the oxidant. (United States)

    Fabry, David C; Ronge, Meria A; Zoller, Jochen; Rueping, Magnus


    A combination of ruthenium and photoredox catalysis allowed the ortho olefination of phenols. Using visible light, the direct C-H functionalization of o-(2-pyridyl)phenols occurred, and diverse phenol ethers were obtained in good yields. The regeneration of the ruthenium catalyst was accomplished by a photoredox-catalyzed oxidative process.

  1. Simulation of the Efficiency of a-SiC:H/a-Si:H Tandem Multilayer Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Muminov, Khikmat Kh


    In this paper we carried out theoretical study of the general issues related to the efficiency of SiC:H/a-Si:H single- and multi-junction tandem solar cells. Implementation of numerical simulations by the use of AMPS-1D program of one-dimensional analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures for the analysis of hydrogenated silicon solar cells allowed us to formulate the optimal design of new kind of multi-junction tandem solar cells, providing its most efficient operation. The numerical analysis of SiC:H/a-Si:H single-junction solar cell whith doped i-layer used as the intermediate absorbing layer (a -Si: H) placed between layers of p-type (a-SiC: H) and n-type (a-Si: H) has been conducted. It has been established that after optimizing the solar cell parameters its highest efficiency of 19.62% is achieved at 500 nm thickness of i-layer. The optimization of the newly developed multi-junction structure of a-SiC:H/a-Si:H tandem solar cell has been conducted. It has been shown numerically that its highest ...

  2. 2-Chlorovinyl tellurium dihalides, (p-tol)Te[C(H)=C(Cl)Ph]X{sub 2} for X = Cl, Br and I: variable coordination environments, supramolecular structures and docking studies in cathepsin B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracelli, Ignez, E-mail: ignez@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Maganhi, Stella H., E-mail: julio@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cristalografia, Estereodinamica e Modelagem Molecular; Stefani, Helio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Farmacia; Guadagnin, Rafael [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Unifesp/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Tiekink, Edward R.T., E-mail: [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemistry


    Crystallography shows that the Te atom in each of (p-tol)Te[C(H)=C(Cl)Ph]X{sub 2}, for X = Cl (1), Br (2) and I (3), is within a distorted {Psi}-pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. An E configuration for the vinyl group in (1) precludes the formation of an intramolecular Te...Cl interaction so that an intramolecular Te{pi} interaction is found instead. The coordination environment features a linear Cl-Te-Cl arrangement with the pentagonal plane defined by the two C atoms of the organic substituents, an intermolecular TeCl contact, a Te{pi} interaction and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. In the X = Br (2) and I (3) structures, similar coordination geometries are found but the Te{pi} contact is replaced by an intramolecular TeCl contact owing to the adoption of a Z configuration about the vinyl bond. The differences in structure are readily explained in terms of electronic effects. Docking studies of cathepsin B with (1')-(3'), i.e. 1-3 less one Te-bound halide, show efficient binding through the agency of covalent Te-S{sub Cys29} bonds with stabilization afforded by a combination of N-H{pi}, C-H{pi} and Cl{sub vinyl} H interactions. These results comparable favorably with known inhibitors of cathepsin B suggesting the title compounds have potential biological activity. (author)

  3. Theoretical study of the mechanism for C-H bond activation in spin-forbidden reaction between Ti+ and C2H4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanism of the spin-forbidden reaction Ti+(4F, 3d24s1) + C2H4 → TiC2H2+ (2A2) + H2 on both doublet and quartet potential energy surfaces has been investigated at the B3LYP level of theory. Crossing points between the potential energy surfaces and the possible spin inversion process are discussed by means of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) calculations. The strength of the SOC between the low-lying quartet state and the doublet state is 59.3 cm-1 in the intermediate complex IM1-4B2. Thus, the changes of its spin multiplicity may occur from the quartet to the doublet surface to form IM1- 2A1, leading to a sig-nificant decrease in the barrier height on the quartet PES. After the insertion intermediate IM2, two dis-tinct reaction paths on the doublet PES have been found, i.e., a stepwise path and a concerted path. The latter is found to be the lowest energy path on the doublet PES to exothermic TiC2H2+ (2A2) + H2 products, with the active barrier of 4.52 kcal/mol. In other words, this reaction proceeds in the following way: Ti++C2H4 →4IC→IM1-4B2→4,2ISC→IM1- 2A1→[2TSins]→IM2→[2TSMCTS]→IM5→TiC2H2+(2A2)+H2.

  4. Indole cyanation via C-H bond activation under catalysis of Ru(Ⅲ)-exchanged NaY zeolite (RuY) as a recyclable catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Khorshidi


    Selective 3-cyanation of indoles was achieved under heterogeneous catalysis of Ru(Ⅲ)-exchanged NaY zeolite (RuY) as a recyclable catalyst,in combination with K4[Fe(CN)6] as a nontoxic,slow cyanide releasing agent.Under the aforementioned conditions,good yields of the desired products were obtained.

  5. A brief review of para-xylene oxidation to terephthalic acid as a model of primary C-H bond activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor Aqilah Mohd Fadzil; Mohd Hasbi Ab Rahim; Gaanty Pragas Maniam


    The oxidation of para-xylene to terephthalic acid has been commercialised as the AMOCO process (Co/Mn/Br) that uses a homogeneous catalyst of cobalt and manganese together with a corrosive bromide compound as a promoter. This process is conducted in acidic medium at a high tempera-ture (175-225 °C). Concerns over environmental and safety issues have driven studies to find mild-er oxidation reactions of para-xylene. This review discussed past and current progress in the oxida-tion of para-xylene process. The discussion concentrates on the approach of green chemistry in-cluding (1) using heterogeneous catalysts with promising high selectivity and mild reaction condi-tion, (2) application of carbon dioxide as a co-oxidant, and (3) application of alternative promoters. The optimisation of para-xylene oxidation was also outlined.

  6. Control of the intermolecular coupling of dibromotetracene on Cu(110) by the sequential activation of C-Br and C-H bonds. (United States)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Píš, Igor; Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Cattelan, Mattia; Nappini, Silvia; Basagni, Andrea; Parravicini, Matteo; Papagni, Antonio; Sedona, Francesco; Magnano, Elena; Bondino, Federica; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Agnoli, Stefano


    Dibromotetracene molecules are deposited on the Cu(110) surface at room temperature. The complex evolution of this system has been monitored at different temperatures (i.e., 298, 523, 673, and 723 K) by means of a variety of complementary techniques that range from STM and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) to high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). State-of-the-art density-functional calculations were used to determine the chemical processes that take place on the surface. After deposition at room temperature, the organic molecules are transformed into organometallic monomers through debromination and carbon-radical binding to copper adatoms. Organometallic dimers, trimers, or small oligomers, which present copper-bridged molecules, are formed by increasing the temperature. Surprisingly, further heating to 673 K causes the formation of elongated chains along the Cu(110) close-packed rows as a consequence of radical-site migration to the thermodynamically more stable molecule heads. Finally, massive dehydrogenation occurs at the highest temperature followed by ring condensation to nanographenic patches. This study is a paradigmatic example of how intermolecular coupling can be modulated by the stepwise control of a simple parameter, such as temperature, through a sequence of domino reactions. PMID:25711882

  7. Bipodal surface organometallic complexes with surface N-donor ligands and application to the catalytic cleavage of C-H and C-C bonds in n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa


    We present a new generation of "true vicinal" functions well-distributed on the inner surface of SBA15: [(Sî - Si-NH 2)(≡Si-OH)] (1) and [(≡Si-NH2)2] (2). From these amine-modified SBA15s, two new well-defined surface organometallic species [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)]Zr(CH2tBu) 2 (3) and [(≡Si-NH-)2]Zr(CH2tBu) 2 (4) have been obtained by reaction with Zr(CH2tBu) 4. The surfaces were characterized with 2D multiple-quantum 1H-1H NMR and infrared spectroscopies. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), mass balance, and elemental analysis unambiguously proved that Zr(CH2tBu)4 reacts with these vicinal amine-modified surfaces to give mainly bipodal bis(neopentyl)zirconium complexes (3) and (4), uniformly distributed in the channels of SBA15. (3) and (4) react with hydrogen to give the homologous hydrides (5) and (6). Hydrogenolysis of n-butane catalyzed by these hydrides was carried out at low temperature (100 C) and low pressure (1 atm). While (6) exhibits a bis(silylamido)zirconium bishydride, [(≡Si-NH-)2]Zr(H) 2 (6a) (60%), and a bis(silylamido)silyloxozirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-NH-)2(≡Si-O-)]ZrH (6b) (40%), (5) displays a new surface organometallic complex characterized by an 1H NMR signal at 14.46 ppm. The latter is assigned to a (silylimido)(silyloxo)zirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-Nî)(≡Si-O-)]ZrH (5b) (30%), coexistent with a (silylamido)(silyloxo)zirconium bishydride, [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)] Zr(H)2 (5a) (45%), and a silylamidobis(silyloxo)zirconium monohydride, [(≡Si-NH-)(≡Si-O-)2]ZrH (5c) (25%). Surprisingly, nitrogen surface ligands possess catalytic properties already encountered with silicon oxide surfaces, but interestingly, catalyst (5) with chelating [N,O] shows better activity than (6) with chelating [N,N]. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cyclization of N-Methoxy Benzamides with Alkynes using an Internal Oxidant through C-H/N-O Bond Activation. (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganesan; Vijeta, Arjun; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    The cyclization of substituted N-methoxy benzamides with alkynes in the presence of an easily affordable cobalt complex and NaOAc provides isoquinolone derivatives in good to excellent yields. The cyclization reaction is compatible with a range of functional group-substituted benzamides, as well as ester- and alcohol-substituted alkynes. The cobalt complex [Co(III) Cp*(OR)2 ] (R=Me or Ac) serves as an efficient catalyst for the cyclization reaction. Later, isoquinolone derivatives were converted into 1-chloro and 1-bromo substituted isoquinoline derivatives in excellent yields in the presence of POCl3 or PBr3 . PMID:26951887

  9. Active groups for oxidative activation of C-H bond in C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} paraffins on V-P-O catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazhigalov, V.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii


    For the first time in scientific literature, in our joint work with Dr. G. Ladwig in 1978 it was established phase portraite of the oxide vanadium-phosphorus system within wide range of P/V ratios from 0.5 to 3.2. Some later those data were confirmed. By investigation of the properties of individual vanadium-phosphorus phases it was also shown that the active component of such catalysts in n-butane oxidation was vanadyl pyrophosphate phase (VO){sub 2}Pr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. From then the conclusion has been evidenced by numerous publications and at present it has been out of doubt practically all over the world. It was hypothized that the unique properties of (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the reaction of n-butane oxidation could be explained by the presence of paired vanadyl groups and nearness of the distances between neighbouring vanadyl pairs and that between the first and fourth carbon atoms in n-butane molecule. The molecule activation occured at the latter atoms by proton abstraction. A comparison of the results on n-butane and butenes oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate allowed to conclude that the paraffin oxidation did not take place due to the molecule dehydrogenation process at the first stage of its conversion. Up to now, more than 100 papers related to paraffins oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate and the physico-chemical properties of the catalyst have been published. The process of n-butane oxidation is realized in practice. But still, the question about the nature of active sites of the catalyst and the reaction mechanism remains open and provokes further investigations. The present paper deals with our opinion about the problem and the experimental results supporting it. (orig.)

  10. C-H and H-H bond activation via ligand dearomatization/rearomatization of a PN³P-rhodium(I) complex. (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Zheng, Bin; Pan, Yupeng; Pan, Chengling; He, Lipeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei


    A neutral complex PN(3)P-Rh(I)Cl (2) was prepared from a reaction of the PN(3)P pincer ligand (1) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Upon treatment with a suitable base, H-H and C(sp(2))-H activation reactions can be achieved through the deprotonation/reprotonation of one of the N-H arms and dearomatization/rearomatization of the central pyridine ring with the oxidation state of Rh remaining I.

  11. C-H and H-H Bond Activation via Ligand Dearomatization/Rearomatization of a PN3P-Rhodium(I) Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei


    A neutral complex PN3P-Rh(I)Cl (2) was prepared from a reaction of the PN3P pincer ligand (1) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Upon treatment with a suitable base, H–H and Csp2–H activation reactions can be achieved through the deprotonation/reprotonation of one of the N–H arms and dearomatization/rearomatization of the central pyridine ring with the oxidation state of Rh remaining I.

  12. Density functional theory study of O-H and C-H bond scission of methanol catalyzed by a chemisorbed oxygen layer on Cu(111) (United States)

    Li, Jonathan; Zhou, Guangwen


    Using the density-functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, we have studied the partial oxidation of methanol on a Cu(111) surface covered with a chemisorbed oxygen layer that resembles a Cu2O layer. Adsorption energies and geometries were computed for methanol, methoxy, hydroxymethyl and formaldehyde on both clean Cu(111) and Cu2O/Cu(111) and electronic structures were computed for the reaction intermediates on Cu2O/Cu(111). We also calculated the energy barrier for partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde on Cu2O/Cu(111). These results show that the Cu2O monolayer slightly lowers the stability of each of the surface adsorbates and the oxygen strongly promotes hydrogen dissociation by lowering the energy barrier of methanol decomposition and causing the spontaneous dissociation of methanol into methoxy.

  13. Recoupled long-range C-H dipolar dephasing in solid-state NMR, and its use for spectral selection of fused aromatic rings (United States)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.


    This work introduces a simple new solid-state 13C NMR method for distinguishing various types of aromatic residues, e.g. those of lignin from fused rings of charcoal. It is based on long-range dipolar dephasing, which is achieved by recoupling of long-range C-H dipolar interactions, using two 1H 180° pulses per rotation period. This speeds up dephasing of unprotonated carbon signals approximately threefold compared to standard dipolar dephasing without recoupling and thus provides much more efficient differential dephasing. It also reduces the effects of spinning-speed dependent effective proton-proton dipolar couplings on the heteronuclear dephasing. Signals of unprotonated carbons with two or more protons at a two-bond distance dephase to wood charcoal, and even slower for inorganic carbonate. Direct 13C polarization is used on these structurally complex samples to prevent loss of the signals of interest, which by design originate from carbons that are distant from protons and therefore crosspolarize poorly. In natural organic matter such as humic acids, this combination of recoupled dipolar dephasing and direct polarization at 7-kHz MAS enables selective observation of signals from fused rings that are characteristic of charcoal.

  14. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhanting


    This book covers the advances in the studies of hydrogen-bonding-driven supramolecular systems  made over the past decade. It is divided into four parts, with the first introducing the basics of hydrogen bonding and important hydrogen bonding patterns in solution as well as in the solid state. The second part covers molecular recognition and supramolecular structures driven by hydrogen bonding. The third part introduces the formation of hollow and giant macrocycles directed by hydrogen bonding, while the last part summarizes hydrogen bonded supramolecular polymers. This book is designed to b

  15. Electronic structure, molecular electrostatic potential and spectral characteristics of pillar[6]arene hosts and their complexes with n-octyltriethylammonium ions. (United States)

    Peerannawar, Swarada R; Gejji, Shridhar P


    Electronic structure, charge distribution and (1)H NMR in pillar[6]arene (P6) conformers, their diisobutoxy derivatives and their host-guest complexes have been investigated by employing the density functional theory. It has been shown that a P6 conformer obtained by flipping of alternate hydroquinone units turns out to be of lowest energy, owing to the hydrogen bonded network at both rims of the host. As opposed to this, a conformer void of hydrogen bonding interactions has largely been destabilized. The O-HO interactions are analyzed using molecular electrostatic potential topography as a tool. Modification of a P6 host by substituting a diisobutoxy group at reactive phenols (DIBP6) renders rigid pillar-shape architecture to the host in which electron-rich regions are localized within the cavity and near portals. Complexation of n-octyltriethylammonium ions (n-OTEA) with P6 and DIBP6 reveals qualitatively different binding patterns. It has been shown that the conformer in which n-OTEA penetrates from the lower rim of the host and partially encapsulates within the P6 cavity turns out to be 1.4 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the complex showing complete guest encapsulation. Host-guest binding patterns, viz. encapsulation or portal interactions, can be distinguished from (1)H NMR chemical shifts. The shielding of ethyl and n-octyl chain protons in an n-OTEA⊂DIBP6 complex points to encapsulation of the guest which has been rationalized from natural bond orbital analyses. These inferences are in consonance with (1)H NMR experiments. PMID:22596047

  16. Consequences of Metal–Oxide Interconversion for C–H Bond Activation during CH₄ Reactions on Pd Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Ya-Huei; Buda, Corneliu; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique


    Mechanistic assessments based on kinetic and isotopic methods combined with density functional theory are used to probe the diverse pathways by which C-H bonds in CH₄ react on bare Pd clusters, Pd cluster surfaces saturated with chemisorbed oxygen (O*), and PdO clusters. C-H activation routes change from oxidative addition to Habstraction and then to σ-bond metathesis with increasing O-content, as active sites evolve from metal atom pairs (*-*) to oxygen atom (O*-O*) pairs and ultimately to Pd cationlattice oxygen pairs (Pd2+-O2-) in PdO. The charges in the CH₃ and H moieties along the reaction coordinate depend on the accessibility and chemical state of the Pd and O centers involved. Homolytic C-H dissociation prevails on bare (*-*) and O*- covered surfaces (O*-O*), while C-H bonds cleave heterolytically on Pd2+-O2- pairs at PdO surfaces. On bare surfaces, C-H bonds cleave via oxidative addition, involving Pd atom insertion into the C-H bond with electron backdonation from Pd to C-H antibonding states and the formation of tight three-center (H₃C···Pd···H)‡ transition states. On O*-saturated Pd surfaces, C-H bonds cleave homolytically on O*-O* pairs to form radical-like CH3 species and nearly formed O-H bonds at a transition state (O*···CH3 •···*OH)‡ that is looser and higher in enthalpy than on bare Pd surfaces. On PdO surfaces, site pairs consisting of exposed Pd2+ and vicinal O2-, Pdox-Oox, cleave C-H bonds heterolytically via σ-bond metathesis, with Pd2+ adding to the C-H bond, while O2- abstracts the H-atom to form a four-center (H3Cδ-···Pdox···Hδ+···Oox) transition state without detectable Pdox reduction. The latter is much more stable than transition states on *-* and O*-O* pairs and give rise to a large increase in CH₄ oxidation turnover rates at oxygen chemical

  17. Novel water-soluble b-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples as fluorescent sensor molecules for the detection of neutral analytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bügler, Jürgen; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    The synthesis and the host-guest chemistry of two novel fluorescent B-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples 1 and 2 is described. The compounds were prepared by coupling a B-cyclodextrin linked with an aminoxylyl spacer with two different calix[4]arene building blocks each bearing a fluorophore. The fl

  18. [Kinetics of inhibitory effect of calix[4]arene C-90 on activity of transporting plasma membrane Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase of smooth muscle cells]. (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Mazur, Iu Iu; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O


    In experiments on the suspension of myometrium cell plasma membrane, processed by 0.1% digitonin, the inhibitory action of calix[4]arene C-90 (5,11,17,23-tetra(threeftor)methyl(phenilsulphonilimino)-methylamino-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxy-calix[4]arene) on the activity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase was investigated. The authors also examined the influence of calix[4]arene in different concentration on affinity of enzyme (Ca2,Mg2+-ATPase) for the ATP and ions of Mg and Ca, and its influence on cooperative effect and maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis. It is shown that calix[4]arene does not influence the affinity of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase for the ATP, which means that these two compounds have different binding centers. Also calix[4]arene has no influence on affinity and cooperative effect of Ca ions, if it is used in concentration lower than 50 μM. Calix[4]arene slightly increases coefficient of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activation by magnesium chloride. In all three cases, where ATP, Mg and Ca ions are used to test the impact of calix[4]arene, maximum velocity of ATP hydrolysis significantly decreases. All these results clarify that calix[4]arene implements its inhibitory action through mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity.

  19. Synthesis, spectral and structural studies of water soluble arene ruthenium (II) complexes containing 2,2′-dipyridyl-N-alkylimine ligand

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Kaminsky, W.

    A series of water soluble complexes of general formula [(Eta sup(6)-arene) Ru ((C sub(5) H sub(4) N) sub(2) CNRi) Cl) PF sub(6) have been prepared by the reaction of [[(Eta sup(6)- arene) RuCl sub(2)) sub(2)) with appropriate 2,2’-dipyridyl...

  20. Microstructure of a-C:H films prepared on a microtrench and analysis of ions and radicals behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were prepared on a microtrench (4-μm pitch and 4-μm depth), and the uniformity of film thickness and microstructure of the films on the top, sidewall, and bottom surfaces of the microtrench were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The a-C:H films were prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII&D), and the negative pulse voltage, which is the main parameter dominating the film structure, was changed from −1.0 to −15 kV. Moreover, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to investigate the coating mechanism for the microtrench. The results reveal that the thickness uniformity of a-C:H films improves with decreasing negative pulse voltage due to the decreasing inertia of incoming ions from the trench mouth, although the film thickness on the sidewall tends to be much smaller than that on the top and bottom surfaces of the trench. The normalized flux and the film thickness show similar behavior, i.e., the normalized flux or thickness at the bottom surface increases at low negative pulse voltages and then saturates at a certain value, whereas at the sidewall it monotonically decreases with increasing negative voltage. The microstructure of a-C:H films on the sidewall surface is very different from that on the top and bottom surfaces. The film structure at a low negative pulse voltage shifts to more of a polymer-like carbon (PLC) structure due to the lower incident energy of ions. Although the radical flux on the sidewall increases slightly, the overall film structure is not significantly changed because this film formation at a low negative voltage is originally dominated by radicals. On the other hand, the flux of radicals is dominant on the sidewall in the case of high negative pulse voltage, resulting in a

  1. Hard TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using pulsed high energy density plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The energetic ions and electron beams are used to synthesize TiCx/SiC/a-C:H films. •As-deposited crystalline and hard nanocomposite TiCx/SiC/a-C:H films are synthesized. •Very high average deposition rates of 68 nm/shot are achieved using dense plasma focus. •The maximum hardness of 22 GPa is achieved at the surface of the film. -- Abstract: Thin films of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H were synthesized on Si substrates using a complex mix of high energy density plasmas and instability accelerated energetic ions of filling gas species, emanated from hot and dense pinched plasma column, in dense plasma focus device. The conventional hollow copper anode of Mather type plasma focus device was replaced by solid titanium anode for synthesis of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using CH4:Ar admixture of (1:9, 3:7 and 5:5) for fixed 20 focus shots as well as with different number of focus shots with fixed CH4:Ar admixture ratio 3:7. XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiCx/SiC phases for thin film synthesized using different number of focus shots with CH4:Ar admixture ratio fixed at 3:7. SEM results showed that the synthesized thin films consist of nanoparticle agglomerates and the size of agglomerates depended on the CH4:Ar admixture ratio as well as on the number of focus shots. Raman analysis showed the formation of polycrystalline/amorphous Si, SiC and a-C for different CH4:Ar ratio as well as for different number of focus shots. The XPS analysis confirmed the formation of TiCx/SiC/a-C:H composite thin film. Nanoindentation results showed that the hardness and elastic modulus values of composite thin films increased with increasing number of focus shots. Maximum values of hardness and elastic modulus at the surface of the composite thin film were found to be about 22 and 305 GPa, respectively for 30 focus shots confirming the successful synthesis of hard composite TiCx/SiC/a-C:H coatings

  2. Microstructure of a-C:H films prepared on a microtrench and analysis of ions and radicals behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yuki; Choi, Junho, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were prepared on a microtrench (4-μm pitch and 4-μm depth), and the uniformity of film thickness and microstructure of the films on the top, sidewall, and bottom surfaces of the microtrench were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The a-C:H films were prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII&D), and the negative pulse voltage, which is the main parameter dominating the film structure, was changed from −1.0 to −15 kV. Moreover, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to investigate the coating mechanism for the microtrench. The results reveal that the thickness uniformity of a-C:H films improves with decreasing negative pulse voltage due to the decreasing inertia of incoming ions from the trench mouth, although the film thickness on the sidewall tends to be much smaller than that on the top and bottom surfaces of the trench. The normalized flux and the film thickness show similar behavior, i.e., the normalized flux or thickness at the bottom surface increases at low negative pulse voltages and then saturates at a certain value, whereas at the sidewall it monotonically decreases with increasing negative voltage. The microstructure of a-C:H films on the sidewall surface is very different from that on the top and bottom surfaces. The film structure at a low negative pulse voltage shifts to more of a polymer-like carbon (PLC) structure due to the lower incident energy of ions. Although the radical flux on the sidewall increases slightly, the overall film structure is not significantly changed because this film formation at a low negative voltage is originally dominated by radicals. On the other hand, the flux of radicals is dominant on the sidewall in the case of high negative pulse voltage, resulting in a

  3. Deposition and characterisation of multilayer hard coatings. Ti/TiN delta/TiC sub x N sub y /(TiC) a-C H/(Ti) a-C H

    CERN Document Server

    Burinprakhon, T


    mixture. The top layer (Ti) a-C:H was found to contain approximately 10 atomic % nitrogen, due to N sub 2 contamination during deposition caused by low conductance of N sub 2 through the nominally closed valve of the mass flow controller. The change of the CH sub 4 concentration during deposition of the top layer (Ti) a-C:H, however, showed a strong influence on the hydrogen content. The comparison of the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra revealed that hydrogen-less (Ti) a-C:H was deposited at a CH sub 4 concentration of less than 50 % flow rate in Ar. The hardness and adhesion of the multilayer coated titanium substrates were assessed by using microindentation hardness and scratch tests, respectively. A simple hardness model containing parameters that assess the contributions from the coating and the substrate to the measured hardness was developed to describe hardness variation as a function of indentation size. This model allowed the determination of a coating hardness and an effective substrate...

  4. Organic chemistry. Functionalization of C(sp3)-H bonds using a transient directing group. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Lin; Hong, Kai; Li, Tuan-Jie; Park, Hojoon; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Proximity-driven metalation has been extensively exploited to achieve reactivity and selectivity in carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation. Despite the substantial improvement in developing more efficient and practical directing groups, their stoichiometric installation and removal limit efficiency and, often, applicability as well. Here we report the development of an amino acid reagent that reversibly reacts with aldehydes and ketones in situ via imine formation to serve as a transient directing group for activation of inert C-H bonds. Arylation of a wide range of aldehydes and ketones at the β or γ positions proceeds in the presence of a palladium catalyst and a catalytic amount of amino acid. The feasibility of achieving enantioselective C-H activation reactions using a chiral amino acid as the transient directing group is also demonstrated.

  5. Australia's Bond Home Bias


    Mishra, Anil V; Umaru B. Conteh


    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  6. Bond percolation in films (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.


    Bond percolation in films with simple cubic structure is considered. It is assumed that the probability of a bond being present between nearest-neighbor sites depends on the distances to surfaces. Based on the relation between the Potts model and the bond percolation model, and using the mean-field approximation, the phase diagram and profiles of the percolation probability have been obtained.

  7. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael


    to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...

  8. Hot reactions in the systems 11C/H2O(l), 11C/H2O-NH3(l) and 13N/H2O(g)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical reactions of hot 11C with liquid water and a water ammonia mixture of mass ratio 3:1 and of 13N with water vapour were studied at T = 295 K. 11C was generated by the nuclear processes 16O(p,α,pn)11C and 14N(p,α)11C. 13N was produced via the 16O(p,α)13N nuclear reaction. The proton radiation dose was varied from D* = 2.8x10-3 to 0.28 eV per target molecule for the system 11C/H2O(l), from D* = 2.2 to 32 eV for the system 11C/H2O-NH3(l) and from D* = 0.13 to 6.2 eV for the system 13N/H2O(g), in order to follow radiolytic changes of the reaction products. Products of the system 11C/H2O(l) were 11CO2 (98-100% radiochemical yield) and 11CO (max. 1.5%). For the system 11C/H2O-NH3(l) six products (11CO2, 11CO, H11COOH, 11CH2O, 11CH3OH and 11CH4) were observed at radiation doses up to D* = 32 eV. In the system 13N/H2O(g) five products were detected: 13NO2, 13NO, 13NN, 13NNO and some 13NH3. 13NO is the main product at lowest doses with radiochemical yields exceeding 45%. With increasing radiolysis 13NO is changed to 13NO2. At higher doses 13NN becomes the main product. The system 11C/H2O-NH3(l) seems to bear some importance for the production of labelled precursors for the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals. The interesting products 11CH2O and 11CH3OH are still formed under intensive irradiation which is necessary for the production of high radioactivities for nuclear medical application. (orig./RB)

  9. Performance of microstrip gas chambers with conductive surface coating of doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si:C:H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique involves the use of doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si:C:H) as a conductive surface coating in the fabrication of microstrip gas chambers, to eliminate the effect of charge accumulation on the substrate surface. The performance of these detectors made in this way has been tested, measuring gas gains with respect to several operating parameters such as time, anode voltage (Va), backplane voltage (Vb), and drift voltage (Vd). Doped a-Si:C:H film is a conductive surface coating that works well, and is an attractive alternative to other surface treatments of the substrate, because its resistivity can be easily controlled over a wide range by doping, it has a naturally good radiation hardness, and large areas can be coated at relatively low cost. (orig.)

  10. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot


    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  11. Sensitive fluorescence probes for dihydrogen phosphonate anion based on calix[4]arene bearing naphthol-hydrazone groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    t-Butyl and t-pentylcalix[4]arenes bearing two 2-naphthol-1-hydrazone groups at the lower rim were synthesized,and showed excited-state intermolecular proton transfer fluorescent signal with basic anion.They are more sensitive to dihydrogen phosphate anion than to fluoride anion,although the latter has stronger basicity.Compared with t-butylcalix[4]arene bearing two 2-naphthol-1-hydrazone groups,t-pentylcalix[4]arenes derivative has a larger fluorescent difference between dihydrogen phosphate and fluoride anion.This finding may be used to analyze dihydrogen phosphate anion in the presence of fluoride anion and provide a new approach for designing fluorescence probes that are highly selective for H2PO4-.

  12. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eHanif


    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  13. 25,26,27,28-Tetra­kis(3-bromo­benzyl­oxy)calix[4]arene


    Lee, Eunji; Moon, Suk-Hee; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Ki-Min


    In the title compound, C56H44Br4O4, the calix[4]arene unit displays the 1,2-alternate conformation with crystallograpically imposed inversion symmetry. The four phen­oxy rings of the calix[4]arene unit are twisted about the mean plane defined by the four methyl­ene C atoms bridging the benzene rings, with dihedral angles of 46.73 (6) and 66.11 (5)°. The dihedral angle between adjacent phen­oxy rings is 74.75 (7)°. The two pendant bromo­phenyl rings on the same side of the calix[4]arene unit a...

  14. Synthesis, Structure and Ion Extraction Properties of Novel Monooxa-diselkylene-1,ω-dioxy Substituted Calix[4]arene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Da-Bin; ZENG Xian-Shun; XU Feng-Bo; LI Qing-Shan; ZHANG Zheng-Zhi


    Novel macrocyclic monooxa-diselkylene-1,ω-dioxy substituted calix[4]arene derivatives 1a-5a were synthesized by the reaction of calix[4]arene dibromides 1-5 with the disodium salt of bis(2-selenylethyl)ether in the yields between 28% and 64%. Their structures were characterized by proton and carbon NMR spectra. X-Ray structure analysis of 1a further confirmed the cone conformation of compounds 1a-5a. An interesting host-guest complex of 1a with dichloromethane via CH/π and Cl/π interactions was elucidated. Extraction experiments showed that these novel monooxa-diselkylene-1,ω-dioxy substituted calix[4]arene derivatives 1a-5a had strong extraction ability towards mercury ion. The interaction of Hg2+with the calix ligand has also been investigated by 1H NMR titration.

  15. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.


    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  16. Tandem Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Amination/Annulation Reactions: Synthesis of Indoloquinoline Derivatives in Water. (United States)

    Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Baiquan


    An efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed synthetic method for indoloquinoline derivatives from readily available indoles and isoxazoles was developed. This annulation procedure undergoes tandem C-H activation, cyclization, and condensation steps. In this domino cyclization reaction, water is an efficient solvent. A catalytically competent five-membered rhodacycle has been isolated and characterized, thus revealing a key intermediate in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27266834

  17. Study of CaSO4-C-H2O System: Simulation Experiments and Thermodynamic Assessment%CaSO4-C-H2O体系研究:模拟实验与热力学探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁康乐; 罗跃; 单敬福; 关富佳; 王莎莎


    It has been traditionally believed that the TSR solid bitumens (pyrobitumen) are the direct product of thermochemical process and has less effect over the process of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) compared with hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In this study, thermochemical simulation experiment of the CaSO4-C-H2O system was conducted to investigate thermodynamic characteristics of STR in the CaSo4-C-H2O system using activated carbon (C) as a model compound of solid bitumen. The results show that CaSO4-C-H2O system initiated TSR process at the temperature of 300°C , generating products like CaCO3, H2S and CO2. The threshold temperature (300°C) is much lower than temperature range of the TSR simulation tests using hydrocarbons in both gaseous and aqueous states, and consistent with the result through thermodynamic calculations. Process simulation of TSR was conducted using the software of HSC Chemistry 5. 0. It was found that TSR in the CaSOf-C-H2O system initiated at reservoir temperatures of 25~200°C was completely controlled by kinetic factors and increasing pressure is unfavorable to initiation of TSR under a constant temperature. The intensity of TSR is likely associated with saturation concentration of CaSO4 in water: a small amount of water may contribute to better oxidizing conditions while excessive water likely restrains the process of TSR. Under the conditions of pH≤2 and certain temperature, amount of sulfate decreased with decreasing pH. However, for pH range (pH>4) formation water in sedimentary basins, effect of pH on TSR can be negligible. TSR in the system of CaSO4-C-H2O is an exothermic process, and the reaction heat increases with the increasing temperatures. It was established that reaction heat of TSR is about 12. 9-133 J/mol CaSO4 at 25~200°C. Thermodynamic studies and experimental results imply that solid bitumens (pyrobitumen) are much easily involved in TSR than gaseous or aqueous hydrocarbons.%传统认为TSR成因的固态沥青(焦

  18. C-H arylations of 1,2,3-triazoles by reusable heterogeneous palladium catalysts in biomass-derived γ-valerolactone. (United States)

    Tian, Xu; Yang, Fanzhi; Rasina, Dace; Bauer, Michaela; Warratz, Svenja; Ferlin, Francesco; Vaccaro, Luigi; Ackermann, Lutz


    C-H arylations were accomplished with a user-friendly heterogeneous palladium catalyst in the biomass-derived γ-valerolactone (GVL) as an environmentally-benign reaction medium. The user-friendly protocol was characterized by ample substrate scope and high functional group tolerance in the C-H arylation of 1,2,3-triazoles, and the palladium catalyst could be recycled and reused in the C-H activation process. PMID:27419251

  19. Hydrogen bonds in 1-indanone: Charge density analysis and simulation of the inelastic neutron scattering spectrum in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the intermolecular interactions on the vibrational dynamics of 1-indanone has been checked by simulating the INS spectrum from molecular and DFT periodic calculations, showing that, even in the case of weak hydrogen bonds, those modes associated with lower energy transfer are affected in the solid state. The electron charge distribution of solid 1-indanone has also been studied from a DFT periodic calculation. In order to obtain some insight into the intermolecular interactions Bader's atoms in molecules theory has been used. After a careful analysis of the topological properties of the calculated electron density, bond paths, critical points and other related properties, most of the C-H...π and C-H...O weak hydrogen bonds predicted in the experimental X-ray structure are confirmed. In addition some new H?H interactions were found. Furthermore, a natural bond orbital analysis was performed describing each hydrogen bond as donor-acceptor interactions

  20. Superhard nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H film fabricated by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superhard nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films, with an excellent combination of high elastic recovery, low friction coefficient and good H/E ratio, were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique using the C2H2 gas as the precursor. The effect of C2H2 flow rate on the microstructure, phase composition, mechanical and tribological properties of nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microindentation and tribotester measurements. It was observed that the C2H2 flow rate significantly affected the Ti content and hardness of films. Furthermore, by selecting the proper value for C2H2 flow rate, 20 sccm, one can deposit the nanocomposite film nc-TiC/a-C:H with excellent properties such as superhardness (66.4 GPa), high elastic recovery (83.3%) and high H/E ratio (0.13)

  1. Bonding thermoplastic polymers (United States)

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.


    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  2. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous catalyst for selective aerobic oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Shaabani; Mahmoud Borjian Boroujeni; Mona Hamidzad Sangachin


    A novel and biodegradable cobalt-chitosan as a magnetic heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized and characterized by XPS, FT-IR, EDX and TEM. Catalytic performance of cobalt- chitosan was tested by aerobic oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols. The results show that the catalyst exhibits excellent conversion for selective aerobic oxidation of various alkyl arenes, primary and secondary alcohols with air as the only oxidant. The catalyst can be easily separated by magnetic devices and reused for 5 runs without appreciable loss of activity.

  3. Catalytic, Interrupted Formal Homo-Nazarov Cyclization with (Hetero)arenes: Access to α-(Hetero)aryl Cyclohexanones. (United States)

    Williams, Corey W; Shenje, Raynold; France, Stefan


    The first examples of a Lewis-acid catalyzed (hetero)arene interrupted, formal homo-Nazarov cyclization have been disclosed. Using SnCl4 as the catalyst, alkenyl cyclopropyl ketones undergo ring-opening cyclization to form six-membered cyclic oxyallyl cations. Subsequent intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type arylation with various electron-rich arenes and heteroarenes provides functionalized α-(hetero)arylated cyclohexanones, a scaffold present in many natural products and bioactive compounds, in yields up to 88% and diastereomeric ratios up to 12:1. Regiospecific arylation occurs at the α-carbon of the oxyallyl cation due to polarization caused by the ester group. PMID:27529123

  4. A New Type of Dibenzoyl Tartaric Acid Selective Electrode Baded on Polymer Membrane Containing Calix[4] arene lonophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; Ling-zhi; Mei; Gong-xiong; 等


    A new type of dibenzoyl tartaric acid selective electrode has been developed. Three double-arm calix [4] arene derivatives were employed as the neutral ionophores. The poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing an amide derivative of calix [4] arene as the neutral carrier and a dibutyl phthalate as the plasticizer exhibited the highest sensitivity for dibenzoyl tartaric acid. The slope of linear portion was 27.8mV per concertration decade. The electrode has a fast response and a long lifetime.

  5. A New Type of Dibenzoyl Tartaric Acid Selective Electrode Based on Polymer Membrane Containing Calix[4]arene Ionophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Ling-zhi; Mei Gong-xiong; He Yong-bing; Li Jiang-feng


    A new type of dibenzoyl tartaric acid selective electrode has been developed. Three double-arm calix[4]arene derivatives were employed as the neutral ionophores. The poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing an amide derivative of calix[4]arene as the neutral carrier and a dibutyl phthalate as the plasticizer exhibited the highest sensitivity for dibenzoyl tartaric acid. The slope of linear portion was 27.8 mV per concertration decade. The electrode has a fast response and a long lifetime.

  6. Dual triggering of DNA binding and fluorescence via photoactivation of a dinuclear ruthenium(II) arene complex. (United States)

    Magennis, Steven W; Habtemariam, Abraha; Novakova, Olga; Henry, John B; Meier, Samuel; Parsons, Simon; Oswald, Iain D H; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J


    The dinuclear RuII arene complexes [{(eta6-arene)RuCl}2(mu-2,3-dpp)](PF6)2, arene=indan (1), benzene (2), p-cymene (3), or hexamethylbenzene (4) and 2,3-dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine, have been synthesized and characterized. Upon irradiation with UVA light, complexes 1 and 2 readily underwent arene loss, while complexes 3 and 4 did not. The photochemistry of 1 was studied in detail. In the X-ray structure of [{(eta6-indan)RuCl}2(mu-2,3-dpp)](PF6)2 (1), 2,3-dpp bridges two RuII centers 6.8529(6) A apart. In water, aquation of 1 in the dark occurs with replacement of chloride with biexponential kinetics and decay constants of 100+/-1 min-1 and 580+/-11 min-1. This aquation was suppressed by 0.1 M NaCl. UV or visible irradiation of 1 in aqueous or methanolic solution led to arene loss. The fluorescence of the unbound arene is approximately 40 times greater than when it is complexed. Irradiation of 1 also had a significant effect on its interactions with DNA. The DNA binding of 1 is increased after irradiation. The non-irradiated form of 1 preferentially formed DNA adducts that only weakly blocked RNA polymerase, while irradiation of 1 transformed the adducts into stronger blocks for RNA polymerase. The efficiency of irradiated 1 to form DNA interstrand cross-links was slightly greater than that of cisplatin in both 10 mM NaClO4 and 0.1 M NaCl. In contrast, the interstrand cross-linking efficiency of non-irradiated 1 in 10 mM NaClO4 was relatively low. An intermediate amount of cross-linking was observed when the sample of DNA already modified by non-irradiated 1 was irradiated. DNA unwinding measurements supported the conclusion that both mono- and bifunctional adducts with DNA can form. These results show that photoactivation of dinuclear RuII arene complexes can simultaneously produce a highly reactive ruthenium species that can bind to DNA and a fluorescent marker (the free arene). Importantly, the mechanism of photoreactivity is also independent of oxygen. These

  7. The synthesis of new amphiphilic p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arenes containing peptide fragments and their interaction with DNA. (United States)

    Padnya, Pavel L; Andreyko, Elena A; Mostovaya, Olga A; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Stoikov, Ivan I


    New water-soluble p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arenes containing peptide and quaternary ammonium fragments in cone and 1,3-alternate conformations were synthesized and characterized. The interaction of the macrocycles with DNA was studied by UV-spectroscopy, DLS and TEM. It was shown that the interaction of the self-associates based on p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arenes tetrasubstituted at the lower rim with glycine and quaternary ammonium fragments in cone and 1,3-alternate conformations with DNA led to the formation of particles of about 99-192 nm in size.

  8. Enantioselective Recognition of Calix [4] arene Derivative Bearing Bicyclic Guanidinium for D/L Amino Acid Zwitterions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 陆国元; 何卫江; 王震生; 朱龙根


    The p-tetra-tert-butyl calix[4]arene derivatives ( 3 and 4 )with(S,S) chiral bicyclic guanidinium, as the receptors of amino acid zwitterions, have been synthesized via a O-alkylation reaction of p-tetra-tert-rutyi calix [4] arene with chloromethly chiral bicyclic guanidinium 2 in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 in acetonitrile.The results obtained from liquid-liquid competitive extraction experiments indicate that the two receptors may selectively recognize L-aromatic amino acids, and that the enantioselective recognizability of the receptor 4 with two chiral bicyclic guanidinium units reachs up to about 90% for L-Phe.

  9. Synthesis and cationic selectivity studies of novel calix[4]arene derivatives containing heteroatom at the lower rim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of calixarene derivatives 2-5 containing heteroatom at the lower rim have been synthesized. 1H NMR studies and crystallographic structures demonstrated that the calix[4]arene derivatives adopted cone conformations. Their cationic binding abilities and selectivities towards heavy and transition metal ions have been evaluated by solvent extraction of aqueous metal picrates. The obtained results indicated that the introduction of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphor atoms to the calix[4]arene framework could effectively enhance their binding ability and selectivity for heavy and transition metal ions, such as Pb2+ or Ag+.

  10. Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks (HOFs): A New Class of Porous Crystalline Proton-Conducting Materials. (United States)

    Karmakar, Avishek; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Anothumakkool, Bihag; Sen, Arunabha; Samanta, Partha; Desai, Aamod V; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Sujit K


    Two porous hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) based on arene sulfonates and guanidinium ions are reported. As a result of the presence of ionic backbones appended with protonic source, the compounds exhibit ultra-high proton conduction values (σ) 0.75× 10(-2)  S cm(-1) and 1.8×10(-2)  S cm(-1) under humidified conditions. Also, they have very low activation energy values and the highest proton conductivity at ambient conditions (low humidity and at moderate temperature) among porous crystalline materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). These values are not only comparable to the conventionally used proton exchange membranes, such as Nafion used in fuel cell technologies, but is also the highest value reported in organic-based porous architectures. Notably, this report inaugurates the usage of crystalline hydrogen-bonded porous organic frameworks as solid-state proton conducting materials. PMID:27464784

  11. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of an Arene-ruthenium Complex [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-N3) (N3)]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang-Li; WU Fang-Hui; DUAN Tai-Ke; ZHANG Qian-Feng


    An arene-ruthenium dimeric complex, [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-N3) (N3)]21, was synthe-sized from the reaction of [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)(Cl)]2 with an excess NaN3 and charac-terized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P1 with a=8.2321(8), b=8.2155(8), c=9.9976(11) A,α=81.786(5), β=82.906(5), γ=77.134(5)°, V=649.46(11) A3, Z=1,Mr=638.68, Dc=1.633 g/cm3,μ(MoKd)=1.195 mm-1, F(000)=320, S=0.974, the final R=0.0282 and wR=0.0644 for 2363 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I) and 157 variables. The neutral molecule is dimeric with two azide ligands bridging two ruthenium atoms to adopt an octahedral coordination geometry. The average RuNt (terminal) and Ru-Nb (bridge) bond lengths are 2.092(3)and 2.147(2) A,, respectively.

  12. Study on Laccase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Disubstituted Ferrocene and π-arene-π-cyclopentadienyliron Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is studied that Rhus vernicifera laccase catalyzed oxidation of 26 disubstituted ferrocene and its metal complexes, π-arene-π-cyclopentadienyliron derivatives and metal meso-(tetra-4-sulfanatophenyl)porphyrin in the diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE)/phosphate buffer (V/V,1/5).It is found that 1,1'-bishydroxylmethy1 ferrocene etc 16 compounds are new substrates of laccase. The relation of structure and function of substrates is discussed. The affective factors of laccase-catalyzed oxidation of 1,1'-bishydroxylmethyl ferrocene--pH, temperature, substrate concentration, laccase quantity and surfactant were investigated further.

  13. Calix[4]arene based selective fluorescent chemosensor for organic acid recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runhe WANG; Jianhua BU; Junmin LIU; Shijun LIAO


    A novel calix[4]arene,based fluorescent chemosensor bearing a 2,aminopyridine moiety and a naphthalenic fluorophore was synthesized The chemical structure of the product was elucidated by FT,IR, MS,FAB, NMR and elemental analyses. Then, the properties and identification mechanism of the synthesized chemosensor were investigated. The results show that the chemosensor exhibits selective fluorescent quenching in the presence of aromatic organic acid in acetonitrile solution, and that the binding ability of the chemosensor with organic acid is in the order of p,cyanic,benzyl acid>p,chloric,benzyl acid>p,methoxyl,benzyl acid>benzyl acid.

  14. Benzylic Phosphates in Friedel-Crafts Reactions with Activated and Unactivated Arenes: Access to Polyarylated Alkanes. (United States)

    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravartya, Manab


    Easily reachable electron-poor/rich primary and secondary benzylic phosphates are suitably used as substrates for Friedel-Crafts benzylation reactions with only 1.2 equiv activated/deactivated arenes (no additional solvent) to access structurally and electronically diverse polyarylated alkanes with excellent yields and selectivities at room temperature. Specifically, diversely substituted di/triarylmethanes are generated within 2-30 min using this approach. A wide number of electron-poor polyarylated alkanes are easily accomplished through this route by just tuning the phosphates. PMID:26835977

  15. Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Synthesis of Axially Chiral Aromatic Amides. (United States)

    Fäseke, Vincent C; Sparr, Christof


    The increasing awareness of the importance of amide atropisomers prompts the development of novel strategies for their selective preparation. Described herein is a method for the enantioselective synthesis of atropisomeric aromatic amides by an amine-catalyzed arene-forming aldol condensation. The high reactivity of the glyoxylic amide substrates enables a remarkably efficient construction of a new aromatic ring, which proceeds within minutes at ambient temperature to afford products with excellent stereoselectivity. The high rotational barriers of the reduced products highlight the utility of this stable, spatially organized chiral scaffold. PMID:27166995

  16. Stereoselective Arene-Forming Aldol Condensation: Synthesis of Configurationally Stable Oligo-1,2-naphthylenes. (United States)

    Lotter, Dominik; Neuburger, Markus; Rickhaus, Michel; Häussinger, Daniel; Sparr, Christof


    Structurally well-defined oligomers are fundamental for the functionality of natural molecular systems and key for the design of synthetic counterparts. Herein, we describe a strategy for the efficient synthesis of individual stereoisomers of 1,2-naphthylene oligomers by iterative building block additions and consecutive stereoselective arene-forming aldol condensation reactions. The catalyst-controlled atropoenantioselective and the substrate-controlled atropodiastereoselective aldol condensation reaction provide structurally distinct ter- and quaternaphthalene stereoisomers, which represent configurationally stable analogues of otherwise stereodynamic, helically shaped ortho-phenylenes. PMID:26799152

  17. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with Calix[4]arene Derivative for the Recognition of Acetanilide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU, Chun-Yang(卢春阳); HE, Hai-Cheng(何海成); HE, Xi-Wen(何锡文); ZENG, Xian-Shun(曾宪顺)


    Two molecularly imprinted polymers binding to analgesic acetanilide were prepared using either dual functional monomers of calix[4]arene derivative and acrylamide or single monomer acrylamide, respectively. The polymers were ground, sieved and investigated by equilibrium binding experiment to evaluate their recognition properties for the template and other substrates. Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous recognition sites were formed in the imprinted polymer matrix. Our results demonstrated that the polymer using two functional monomers exhibited better selectivity for the template. This study may open new frontiers for the development and application of imprinted polymers, such as drug separation and purification.

  18. Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Encapsulation Complexes of Calix[4]arene


    Kaneko, Shohei; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    The complexes between the host calix[4]arene (C4A) and various guest molecules such as NH3, N2, CH4, and C2H2 have been investigated via experimental and theoretical methods. The S1-S0 electronic spectra of these guest-host complexes are observed by mass-selected resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The infrared (IR) spectra of the complexes formed in molecular beams are obtained by IR-UV double resonance (IR-UV DR) and IR photodissociation ...

  19. Biological activity of ruthenium and osmium arene complexes with modified paullones in human cancer cells


    Mühlgassner, Gerhard; Bartel, Caroline; Schmid, Wolfgang F.; Jakupec, Michael A.; Arion, Vladimir B; BERNHARD K. KEPPLER


    In an attempt to combine the ability of indolobenzazepines (paullones) to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and that of platinum-group metal ions to interact with proteins and DNA, ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with paullones were prepared, expecting synergies and an increase of solubility of paullones. Complexes with the general formula [MIICl(η 6-p-cymene)L]Cl, where M = Ru (1, 3) or Os (2, 4), and L = L 1 (1, 2) or L 2 (3, 4), L 1  = N-(9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d...

  20. Weak bond screening system (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  1. Synthesis and Structure of an Octopus-like Octapropargyl Tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang; LIU Yu-Jie; ZHANG Qian-Feng


    Treatment of tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene 1 with propargyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 as base gave an octopus-like octapropargyl tetra-iso-butyl-resorcin[4]arene 2 (C68H72O8, Mr = 1017.26) in a quantitative yield.Single-crystal structure of 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography.2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a =13.3247(6), b = 24.7929(11), c = 19.1810(9)(。A), β= 109.272(1)°, V= 5981.5(5)(。A)3, Dc.= 1.130 g/cm3, μ = 0.073 mm-1, F(000) = 2176 and Z = 4.Overall structure of 2 reveals an octopus-like resorcinarene with eight propargyl groups in different directions.The resorcinarene adopts the boat conformation where the iso-butyl residues act as four-legged piano stool.The two opposite aryl rings of the macrocyclic framework are almost coplanar, and the two others facing each other are perpendicular to this plane.

  2. Thin-skinned mass-wasting responsible for edifice-wide deformation at Arenal Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Kathryn Ebmeier


    Full Text Available The shape and stability of a volcano’s edifice depends on the relationship between eruption rate and the loss or redistribution of material due to erosion, mass-wasting or deformation. This work provides measurements of deformation and shallow mass-wasting at a stratovolcano immediately after an extended period of growth, and demonstrates that high rates of deformation can be associated with shallow edifice processes. We measure displacements and surface property changes on the upper flanks of Arenal, Costa Rica, after a ~40 year period of edifice growth. We present high-resolution satellite radar imagery of the 2011-2013 period that provides evidence of frequent rockfalls and of at least 16 slow-moving, shallow landslides (estimated to be 5-11 m thick, total volume = 2.4×107 m3 DRE. The 2012 Nicoya Earthquake (Mw 7.4 had no measurable impact on the velocities of sliding units at Arenal, but did result in an increase in the area affected by rockfall.

  3. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes (United States)

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, MJ; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, CR; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, PJ; Sharma, RA


    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5–10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:26867983

  4. Cadmium-sensitive electrode based on tetracetone derivatives of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernane, C. [Université de Jijel, Laboratoire de Matériaux: Elaborations-Propriétés-Applications, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Zazoua, A., E-mail: [Université de Jijel, Laboratoire de Matériaux: Elaborations-Propriétés-Applications, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Kazane, I. [Université de Jijel, Laboratoire de Matériaux: Elaborations-Propriétés-Applications, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [Université de Lyon, LSA-UMR 5180 CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)


    The performance of a cadmium-sensitive electrode based on the tetracetone derivatives of p-tert butylcalix[8]arene was investigated. The ion-sensitivity of the calix[8]arene was examined via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, UV/Vis spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The sensitive membrane containing the active ionophore was cast onto the surface of a gold electrode. The electrode exhibited a linear relationship between the charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) and the logarithm of the detected ion concentration. The cathodic peak at a potential of 0.56 V increased linearly as the Cd{sup 2+} ion concentration increased. The detection limit of the device reached 10{sup −7} M with high sensitivity toward cadmium. - Highlights: • The performances of cadmium-sensitive electrode were investigated. • The sensitive membrane was casted on the surface of a gold electrode. • The electrode showed a linear relationship between the R{sub ct} and the ion concentration. • The detection limit of the device was 10{sup −7} M with high sensitivity toward cadmium.

  5. Characterization of an azo-calix[4]arene-based optical sensor for Europium (III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echabaane, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire d' interfaces et Materiaux Avances (LIMA) Faculte des sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Rouis, A. [Laboratoire d' interfaces et Materiaux Avances (LIMA) Faculte des sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Bonnamour, I. [Institut de Chimie and Biochimie Moleculaires and Supramoleculaires (ICBMS), UMR CNRS 5246, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ouada, H. Ben [Laboratoire d' interfaces et Materiaux Avances (LIMA) Faculte des sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)


    Selective and sensitive optical sensor membranes (optodes) were elaborated to detect cations in aqueous solutions. The sensing films are based on chromogenic calix[4]arene derivatives. The optode membranes were studied using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements. The sensitivity of the optode has been tested for Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions at pH 6.8. The results showed a good selectivity response towards Eu{sup 3+}. Low selectivity coefficients were observed for Cd{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} where Pb{sup 2+} can be considered as interfering ions. The characteristics of this optode such as response time, regeneration, reproducibility and lifetime are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report optical sensing studies of chromogenic calixarene derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate optical interaction between azo-calix[4]arene and Eu{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study sensitivity and selectivity of optode films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe characteristics of optode films for determination of europium traces.

  6. XPS study of target poisoning during the plasma assisted deposition of a-C:H/Au thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) study of the target poisoning during the deposition of a-C:H/Au using combined radio frequency (RF) powered magnetron sputtering at 100 W and plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) with a mass flow ratio of 0.5 between CH4 and at is made by Gampp. In this paper we extend this study to both RF and bipolar pulsed (BPP) powered magnetron sputtering in gas mixtures of different values of CH4/Ar mass flow ratio. Elemental compositions of deposited a-C:H/Au layers have been determined by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To determine the elemental content of a sample, the integration over Au 4f7/2, C 1s and 0 1s core level signals (oxygen shows up as an impurity of max. 1 at.%) was used. One may generally conclude that the character of target poisoning process is steep and step-like in time regardless of the type of magnetron power supply, i.e. that it is inherent to the deposition of a-C:H/Au using present deposition setup. Therefore, in the attempts to obtain stable and reproducible deposition conditions and homogeneous coatings, the target had to be driven to the certain degree of poisoning. This is done by conditioning in pure CH4 (covering) and in pure Ar plasma (cleaning) subsequently and alternatively, until the desired Au content is reached. Then, for deposition purposes, a CH4/Ar gas mixture was selected so that steady state of target covering and cleaning is sustained

  7. Carbene vs olefin products of C-H activation on ruthenium via competing alpha- and beta-H elimination. (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir F; Abdur-Rashid, Kamaluddin; Lough, Alan J; Gusev, Dmitry G


    Bulky pincer complexes of ruthenium are capable of C-H activation and H-elimination from the pincer ligand backbone to produce mixtures of olefin and carbene products. To characterize the products and determine the mechanisms of the C-H cleavage, reactions of [RuCl(2)(p-cymene)](2) with N,N'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-1,3-diaminopropane (L1) and 1,3-bis(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)cyclohexane (L2) were studied using a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and DFT computational techniques. The reaction of L1 afforded a mixture of an alkylidene, a Fischer carbene, and two olefin isomers of the 16-e monohydride RuHCl[(t)Bu(2)PNHC(3)H(4)NHPBu(t)(2)] (2), whereas the reaction of L2 gave two olefin and two alkylidene isomers of 16-e RuHCl[2,6-(CH(2)PBu(t)(2))(2)C(6)H(8)] (3), all resulting from dehydrogenations of the ligand backbone of L1 and L2. The key intermediates implicated in the C-H activation reactions were identified as 14-electron paramagnetic species RuCl(PCP), where PCP = cyclometalated L1 or L2. Thus the alpha- and beta-H elimination reactions of RuCl(PCP) involved spin change and were formally spin-forbidden. Hydrogenation of 2 and 3 afforded 16-electron dihydrides RuH(2)Cl(PCP) distinguished by a large quantum exchange coupling between the hydrides. PMID:17076513

  8. C H Rautenbach, P S Dreyer en C K Oberholzer: Hulle nalatenskap en die pad vorentoe1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Beukes


    Full Text Available C H Rautenbach, P S Dreyer and C K Oberholzer: Their legacy and the way ahead. This article explores the legacy of three early philosophers at the University of Pretoria (1939-1987, who contributed substantially to the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk's perspectives on the relation between (modern theology and (modern philosophy. The authors consider their legacy to be an essentially Kantian stabilisation of the complex and problematic relationship between reason and faith, church and society, and theology and philosophy. The article then proceeds to interpret the changes in these relationships that were brought about by the postmodern discourse.

  9. Non-Pincer-Type Mononuclear Scandium Alkylidene Complexes: Synthesis, Bonding, and Reactivity. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhou, Jiliang; Zhao, Xuefei; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng


    The first non-pincer-type mononuclear scandium alkylidene complexes were synthesized and structurally characterized. These complexes exhibited short Sc-C bond lengths and even one of the shortest reported to date (2.1134(18) Å). The multiple character of the Sc-C bond was highlighted by a DFT calculation. This was confirmed by experimental reactivity study where the complex underwent [2+1] cycloaddition with elemental selenium and [2+2] cycloaddition with imine. DFT calculation also revealed a strong nucleophilic behavior of the alkylidene complex that was experimentally demonstrated by the C-H bond activation of phenylacetylene. PMID:26617412

  10. Ligand-Promoted Borylation of C(sp(3))-H Bonds with Palladium(II) Catalysts. (United States)

    He, Jian; Jiang, Heng; Takise, Ryosuke; Zhu, Ru-Yi; Chen, Gang; Dai, Hui-Xiong; Dhar, T G Murali; Shi, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Peter T W; Yu, Jin-Quan


    A quinoline-based ligand effectively promotes the palladium-catalyzed borylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds. Primary β-C(sp(3))-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives as well as secondary C(sp(3))-H bonds in a variety of carbocyclic rings, including cyclopropanes, cyclobutanes, cyclopentanes, cyclohexanes, and cycloheptanes, can thus be borylated. This directed borylation method complements existing iridium(I)- and rhodium(I)-catalyzed C-H borylation reactions in terms of scope and operational conditions. PMID:26611496

  11. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujit Roy; Susmita Podder; Joyanta Choudhury


    A catalytic combination of [Ir(COD)Cl]2-SnCl4 efficiently promotes the reactions of arenes and heteroarenes with 1°/2°/3° benzyl alcohols as the alkylating agents to afford the corresponding diarylmethane and triarylmethane derivatives in high yields. The scope and limitation of the reaction with respect to catalyst and substrates variation has been studied in detail.

  12. Complexation of uranium with 1, 3, 5-trimethoxy 2, 4, 6-tricarboxymethoxy-P-tert-butyl calix(6) arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation behaviour of UO22+ with 1,3,5-trimethoxy 2,4,6-tricarboxymethoxy-p-tert-butyl calix[6]arene under varying conditions of pH and acetate ion concentration has been studied. These studies indicate that extraction mechanism of uranium is influenced by the presence of Na+ ion. (author)

  13. A New Strategy for Architecture of Robust Monolayer Based on Binuclear Palladium (II) Complex of Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A monolayer which is formed by a binuclear palladium complex of low rim methionine-disubstituted calix[4]arene exhibits extraordinary cohesiveness. Cohesiveness measurement and Brewster Angle Microscopy observation show that the monolayer is uniform and robust. This film is probably formed by self-assembly of precursor complex through strong chloride ion bridge between palladium centers.

  14. Para-ter-butyl of calix(4)arene with acetamide-ether as inorganic-organic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new functionalized calix(4)arene was designed and constructed with predetrmined properties to form lanthanides complexes and to sensibilize its luminescent properties. This, in addition to sensibilize that photophysical property and once formed the complex resulted a good receiver of organic molecules as it is demonstrated the crystal structure of the lutetium complex. (Author)

  15. Sequential FRET processes in calix[4]arene-linked orange-red-green perylene bisimide dye zigzag arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hippius; I.H.M. van Stokkum; M. Gsänger; M.M. Groeneveld; R.M. Williams; F. Würthner


    Perylene bisimide-calix[4]arene arrays composed of up to three different types of perylene bisimide chromophores (orange, red, and green PBIs) have been synthesized. Within these arrays, the individual chromophoric building blocks are positioned in defined spatial orientation and are easily replacea

  16. Ground- and excited-state pinched cone equilibria in calix[4]arenes bearing two perylene bisimide dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hippius; I.H.M. van Stokkum; E. Zangrando; R.M. Williams; M. Wykes; D. Beljonne; F. Würthner


    We report oil a series of bis-chromophoric compounds o2c, g2c, and r2c, afforded by linking two identical orange, green, or red perylene bisimide (PBI) units, respectively, through a calix[4]arene spacer unit. The PBI units are characterized by their increasing sterical demand from a planar conforma

  17. Self-assembly of amphiphilic anionic calix[4]arenes and encapsulation of poorly soluble naproxen and flurbiprofen. (United States)

    Barbera, Lucia; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Kohnke, Franz H; Notti, Anna; Pappalardo, Sebastiano; Parisi, Melchiorre F; Pisagatti, Ilenia; Patanè, Salvatore; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina


    Supramolecular aggregates formed through the association of an amphiphilic tetra-O-butylsulfonate calix[4]arene 1 were investigated in aqueous solution by a combination of different techniques (NMR, DLS and AFM). The ability of the micellar aggregates of calixarene 1 to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs was studied.

  18. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G


    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  19. Equilibrium CO bond lengths (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.


    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  20. The Bond Market's q


    Thomas Philippon


    I propose an implementation of the q-theory of investment using bond prices instead of equity prices. Credit risk makes corporate bond prices sensitive to future asset values, and q can be inferred from bond prices. The bond market's q performs much better than the usual measure in standard investment equations. With aggregate data, the fit is three times better, cash flows are driven out and the implied adjustment costs are reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The new measure also imp...

  1. CMPO-substituted calix[6]- and calix[8]arene extractants for the separation of An{sup 3+}/Ln{sup 3+} from radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco [Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Universita di Parma, V.le G. P. Usberti 17/A, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Boehmer, Volker; Saadioui, Mohamed [Fachbereich Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften, Abteilung Lehramt Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Liger, Karine; Dozol, Jean-Fran is [CEA/DEN Cadarache, DED/SEP/LCD, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)


    Three calix[6]arene derivatives (1a-c) and two calix[8]arene derivatives (2a,b), with six and eight CMPO residues, respectively, attached to the narrow/lower rim via ether links, were synthesised. Preliminary liquid-liquid extraction studies for Eu(III) and Ann(III) from aqueous nitric acid to o-nitrophenyl-hexyl ether reveal remarkable properties with respect to efficiency and selectivity, especially for the tert-butyl-calix[6]arene derivative with a -(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-spacer. (authors)

  2. Two-dimensional supramolecular networks via C-H$\\cdots$Cl and N-H$\\cdots$Cl interactions utilizing bidentate neutral pyridine amide coordinated MnIICl2 tectons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wilson Jacob; Rabindranath Mukherjee


    Reaction of -(phenyl)-2-pyridinecarboxamide (HL1) and -(-tolyl)-2-pyridinecarboxamide (HL2) ligands with MnCl2.4H2O affords complexes [(HL1)2MnCl2] 1 and [(HL2)2MnCl2] 2. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by three-dimensional X-ray crystallography revealing that the MnII ions assume distorted octahedral geometry with coordination by two HL1/HL2 ligands providing two pyridine N and two amide O and two chloride ions. Notably, secondary interactions [C-H$\\cdots$Cl (pyridine 3-H hydrogen) and N-H$\\cdots$Cl (amide NH hydrogen)] triggered by MnII-coordinated chloride ions acting as hydrogen bonding acceptors generate self-complementary dimeric tectons, which lead to 2D supramolecular architectures.

  3. Comparison of Gold Bonding with Mercury Bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter


    Nine AuX molecules (X = H, O, S, Se, Te, F, Cl, Br, I), their isoelectronic HgX(+) analogues, and the corresponding neutral HgX diatomics have been investigated using NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) and B3LYP theory to determine relativistic effects for bond dissociation energie

  4. Coupled valence bond theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, R.W.A.


    In this Letter, the formulation and implementation of a parallel response property code for non-orthogonal, valence bond wave-functions are described. Test calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene show that the polarisability and magnetisability tensors obtained using valence bond theory are compa

  5. Bonded labour in Pakistan


    Ercelawn, Aly; Nauman, Muhammad


    Examines the continuing prevalence of debt bondage in the 1990s despite the introduction of national legislation banning the practice. Makes recommendations to the Government and the international community for actions to be taken to eliminate bonded labour and provide rehabilitation for freed workers. Includes texts of Land Reforms Regulations, 1972, the Sindh Tenancy Act, 1950 and the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1992.

  6. Hydrogen bonding in polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahceci, S. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)); Toppare, L. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)); Yurtsever, E. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey))


    Hydrogen bonding between poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) and polyaniline (PAn) is analyzed using semi-empirical quantum methodology. Fully optimized AM1 molecular orbital calculations are reported for various aniline structures (monomer, dimer and trimer), the monomer of the PC and the hydrogen-bonded model of PAn-PC oligomer. ((orig.))

  7. The dissociative bond. (United States)

    Gordon, Nirit


    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  8. The samurai bond market


    Frank Packer; Elizabeth Reynolds


    Issuance in the samurai bond market has more than tripled over the past several years. Some observers have attributed this growth to a systematic underestimation of credit risk in the market. A detailed review of credit quality, ratings differences, and initial issue pricing in the samurai bond market, however, turns up little evidence to support this concern.

  9. Weak C-H$\\cdots$F-C interactions in carboxylate anion binding: Synthesis, spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies of [Co(phen)2CO3]2 (C7H3O2FCl)Cl$\\cdots$11H2O and [Co(phen)2CO3](C7H3NO4Cl)$\\cdot$6H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh; R P Sharma; T Aree; P Venugopalan


    Two new complex salts containing 2,5-substituted benzoate ions, [Co(phen)2CO3]2 (C7H3O2FCl)Cl$\\cdot$11H2O (1) and [Co(phen)2CO3](C7H3NO4Cl)$\\cdot$6H2O (2) (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, C7H3O2FCl = 2-chloro-5-fluorobenzoate (cfbz) and C7H3NO4Cl = 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate(cnbz)) were synthesized by reacting carbonatobis(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride with appropriate salts in aqueous medium. A detailed packing analysis has been undertaken to delineate the role of second sphere C-H$\\cdots$F and C-H$\\cdots$O interactions amid other heteroatom interactions. The complex salts have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/Visible, multinuclear NMR), conductance and solubility product measurements. Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed ionic structures of both the complex salts having discrete ions along with lattice water molecules. Crystal lattice is stabilized by a variety of hydrogen bonding interactions, i.e. O-H$\\cdots$O, C-H$\\cdots$O and C-H$\\cdots$F involving second sphere coordination besides - interaction. Furthermore, packing analyses reveal that C-H…F interactions can manifest even in the presence of a large number of heteroatom interactions.

  10. Wood Bond Testing (United States)


    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  11. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Martin


    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  12. The problem of dose in homeopaty: evaluation of the effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album 30cH on rats intoxicasted with arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Lima Montebelo


    Full Text Available Background: Although scientific studies have confirmed the action of homeopathic high dilutions in living organisms an endless debate on the choice of the most fitting dilution, the frequency of administration and the dose (amount of medicine still remains. Aims: This study sought to assess the in vivo effect of 2 different concentrations of Arsenicum album 30cH in order to elucidate some problems in the homeopathic notion of dose. Methods: Male Wistar rats previously intoxicated with sodium arsenate by peritoneal injection were treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution administered by oral route. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the levels of arsenic retained in the animals as well as the amounts eliminated through urine. Urine samples were collected before and after and during treatment. A positive control group (intoxicated animals and negative control group (non-intoxicated animals were administered only the vehicle used to prepare the medicine (ethanol. Results: The groups treated with undiluted Ars 30cH and Ars 30cH in 1% solution eliminated significant amounts of arsenic through urine when compared to the control groups. The group treated with undiluted Ars 30cH eliminated significantly higher amounts of arsenic than the group treated with the same medicine in 1% solution. Conclusion: These results suggest that undiluted Ars 30cH was more effective than in 1% solution in this experimental model.

  13. Opto-electronic properties of P-doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H thin films as foundation layer for all-Si solar cells in superstrate configuration (United States)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti


    With the advent of nc-Si solar cells having improved stability, the efficient growth of nc-Si i-layer of the top cell of an efficient all-Si solar cell in the superstrate configuration prefers nc-Si n-layer as its substrate. Accordingly, a wide band gap and high conducting nc-Si alloy material is a basic requirement at the n-layer. Present investigation deals with the development of phosphorous doped n-type nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H) hetero-structure films, wherein the optical band gap can be widened by the presence of Si-C bonds in the amorphous matrix and the embedded high density tiny nc-Si-QDs could provide high electrical conductivity, particularly in P-doped condition. The nc-Si-QDs simultaneously facilitate further widening of the optical band gap by virtue of the associated quantum confinement effect. A complete investigation has been made on the electrical transport phenomena involving charge transfer by tunneling and thermionic emission prevailing in n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H thin films. Their correlation with different phases of the specific heterostructure has been carried out for detailed understanding of the material, in order to improve its device applicability. The n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H films exhibit a thermally activated electrical transport above room temperature and multi-phonon hopping (MPH) below room temperature, involving defects in the amorphous phase and the grain-boundary region. The n-type nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H films grown at ˜300 °C, demonstrating wide optical gap ˜1.86-1.96 eV and corresponding high electrical conductivity ˜4.5 × 10-1-1.4 × 10-2 S cm-1, deserve to be an effective foundation layer for the top nc-Si sub-cell of all-Si solar cells in n-i-p structure with superstrate configuration.

  14. Complex behavior and source model of the tremor at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica (United States)

    Lesage, Philippe; Mora, Mauricio M.; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Pacheco, Javier; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe


    Typical records of volcanic tremor and explosion quakes at Arenal volcano are analyzed with a high-resolution time-frequency method. The main characteristics of these seismic signals are: (1) numerous regularly spaced spectral peaks including both odd and even overtones; (2) frequency gliding in the range [0.9-2] Hz of the fundamental peak; (3) frequency jumps with either positive or negative increments; (4) tremor episodes with two simultaneous systems of spectral peaks affected by independent frequency gliding; (5) progressive transitions between spasmodic tremor and harmonic tremor; (6) lack of clear and systematic relationship between the occurrence of explosions and tremor. Some examples of alternation between two states of oscillation characterized by different fundamental frequencies are also observed. Some tremor and explosion codas are characterized by acoustic and seismic waves with identical spectral content and frequency gliding, which suggests a common excitation process. We propose a source model for the tremor at Arenal in which intermittent gas flow through fractures produces repetitive pressure pulses. The repeating period of the pulses is stabilized by a feedback mechanism associated with standing or traveling waves in the magmatic conduit. The pressure pulses generate acoustic waves in the atmosphere and act as excitation of the interface waves in the conduit. When the repeating period of the pulses is stable enough, they produce regularly spaced spectral peaks by the Dirac comb effect and hence harmonic tremor. When the period stability is lost, because of failures in the feedback mechanism, the tremor becomes spasmodic. The proposed source model of tremor is similar to the sound emission process of a clarinet. Fractures in the solid or viscous layer capping the lava pool in the crater act as the clarinet reed, and the conduit filled with low velocity bubbly magma is equivalent to the pipe of the musical instrument. The frequency gliding is



    Fadeyev, Y. M.; Snurnikova, O. V.; Lukyanenko, O. P.; Alyeksyeyeva, O. O.; Rusakova, N. V.


    p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene derivatives modified with carboxylic, phthalimide and aminoethoxy-groups on the lower rim as well as their lanthanide (ytterbium and lutetium) complexes were synthesized. Spectral-luminescent properties of obtained compounds were analyzed.

  16. Study on the inclusion interaction of p-sulfonated calix[ n]arenes with Vitamin K 3 using methylene blue as a spectral probe (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Gu, Jiashan; Yu, Huapeng; Liu, Chun; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Yunyou


    The characteristics of host-guest complexation between p-sulfonated calix[ n]arene ( SCnA, n = 4, 6) and Vitamin K 3 ( VK3) were investigated by fluorescence spectrometry and absorption spectrometry using methylene blue ( MB) as a probe. Interaction with MB and SCnA led to an obvious decrease in fluorescence intensity of MB, accompanying with shifts of emission peaks. Absorption peaks also showed interesting changes; however, when VK3 was added, fluorescence intensity and absorbance recovered and a slight and slow red shift was observed. The obtained results showed that the inclusion ability of p-sulphonated calix[ n]arenes towards VK3 was the order: p-sulphonated calix[6]arene ( SC6A) > p-sulphonated calix[4]arene ( SC4A). Relative mechanism was proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  17. Surface Morphology and Coordination Chemistry of 4-Isopropylcalix[4]Arene as an Ionophore with Chromium (III) in Fabrication of Cr3+ Selective Membrane Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with a poly (vinyl chloride) based selective membrane incorporating 4-Isopropylcalix[4]arene as an ionophore which has been prepared and explored as Cr3+ cation selective sensor. The strengths of the ion-ionophore (Cr3+ - 4- Isopropylcalix[4]arene) interactions and the role of ionophore on membrane performance has been studied. The ligand coordination with the ion investigated via IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. (author)

  18. FT-IR Spectra Of The C=O And C-H Stretching Vibration Of Lauric Acid (United States)

    Shifu, Weng; Jinguang, Wu; Guangxian, Xu


    FT-IR spectra of lauric acid in different media were examined. In very dilute solution of lauric acid in CC14, the two bands at 1711 and 1760 cm-1 the region 1650 to 1800 cm-1 were observed for the C=0 stretching modes of dimer and monomer of lauric acid, respectively. In n-butanol KBr pellet and fluorinated hydrocarbon media, the three bands at 1712, 1701 and 1687 cm-1 after deconvolution and curve analysis for the C=0 stretching mode can be observed. In the region of C-H stretching vibration, the wavenumber shifts of the CH2 symmetric and antisymmetric stretching bands of lauric acid in different media show that the packings of acyl chains of lauric acid in different media are not the same.

  19. Modeling the absorption behavior of solar thermal collector coatings utilizing graded alpha-C:H/TiC layers. (United States)

    Gruber, D P; Engel, G; Sormann, H; Schüler, A; Papousek, W


    Wavelength selective coatings are of common use in order to enhance the efficiency of devices heated by radiation such as solar thermal collectors. The use of suitable materials and the optimization of coating layer thicknesses are advisable ways to maximize the absorption. Further improvement is achievable by embedding particles in certain layers in order to modify material properties. We focus on optimizing the absorption behavior of a solar collector setup using copper as substrate, a layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon with embedded titanium carbide particles (a-C:H/TiC), and an antireflection coating of amorphous silicon dioxide (aSiO(2)). For the setup utilizing homogeneous particle distribution, a relative absorption of 90.98% was found, while inhomogeneous particle embedding yielded 98.29%. These results are particularly interesting since until now, absorption of more than 95% was found only by using embedded Cr but not by using the more biocompatible Ti.

  20. A concise synthesis of (±)-pregabalin via intramolecular C-H insertion of N-cumyl á-diazoacetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen-liang; LIU Wei-jun; CHEN Zhi-yong; Jiang Yao-zhong; HU Wen-hao


    Pregabalin 1 (3-aminomethyl-5-methyl hexanoic acid) is a potent anticonvulsant related to the inhibitory neurotransmitter a-aminobutyric acid (GABA).1 In preclinical trials of anticonvulsant activity, pregabalin is three to ten times more potent than gabapentin. Therefore,pregabalin can be used for the potential treatment of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including epilepsy, neuropathic pain, anxiety and social phobia. Many synthetic routes have been developed to prepare pregabalin.2-3 However, there is a need to explore novel, practical and better synthetic approaches to pregabalin. Herein we report a concise synthesis of (±)-pregabalin from hydrolysis of corresponding (a)-lactam, which was obtained from the intramolecular C-H insertion of N-cumyl a-diazoacetamide 4.