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Sample records for arena increases c-fos

  1. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual......Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...

  2. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons......Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  3. c-Fos overexpression increases the proliferation of human hepatocytes by stabilizing nuclear Cyclin D1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meryem G(u)ller; Kahina Toualbi-Abed; Agnès Legrand; Laurence Michel; Alain Mauviel; Dominique Bernuau; Fanny Daniel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of stable c-Fos over-expression on immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) proliferation. METHODS: IHHs Stably transfected with c-Fos (IHH-Fos) or an empty "vector (IHH-C) were grown in me-dium supplemented with 1% serum or stimulated with 10% serum. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counts, 3H-thymidine uptake and flow cytometry analyses. The levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, E, A) cyclin dependent kinases (cdk) cdk2, cdk4, cdk6, and their inhibitors p15, p16, p21, p27, to-tal and phosphorylated GSK-3?and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) were assayed by Western blot-ting. Analysis of Cyclin D1 mRNA levels was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Stability of Cyclin D1 was studied by cycloheximide blockade experiments. RESULTS: Stable c-Fos overexpression increased cell proliferation under low serum conditions and resulted in a two-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine incorpora-tion following serum addition. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed that c-Fos accelerated the cell cycle kinetics. Following serum stimulation, Cyclin D1 was more abundantly expressed in c-Fos overexpress-ing cells. Cyclin D1 accumulation did not result from increased transcriptional activation, but from nuclear stabilization. Overexpression of c-Fos correlated with higher nuclear levels of inactive phosphorylated GSK-3? A kinase involved in Cyclin D1 degradation and higher levels of EGF-R mRNA, and EGF-R protein com-pared to IHH-C both in serum starved, and in serum stimulated cells. Abrogation of EGF-R signalling in IHH-Fos by treatment with AG1478, a specific EGF-R tyro-sine kinase inhibitor, prevented the phosphorylation of GSK-3?induced by serum stimulation and decreased Cyclin D1 stability in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Our results clearly indicate a positive role for c-Fos in cell cycle regulation in hepatocytes. Importantly, we delineate a new

  4. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  5. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation. PMID:26774022

  6. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation.

  7. The reducing agent Dithiothreitol (DTT) increases expression of c-myc and c- fos protooncogenes in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Frandsen, H.;

    1995-01-01

    . The genes were two proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, and the tumour suppressor gene, p53. We observed that the expression of the c-fos and c-myc genes was induced when human bladder epithelial cells were treated with a standard solution of N-OH-PhIP and dithiothreitol (DTT), previously shown to be genotoxic...

  8. LPS-induced c-Fos activation in NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol increases in septic rats are suppressed by bilateral carotid chemodenervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Martin, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Cortés, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered I.P. increases significantly the activation of c-Fos in neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which in turn activates hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The vagus nerve appears to play a role in conveying cytokines signals to the central nervous system (CNS), since -in rodent models of sepsis- bilateral vagotomy abolishes increases in plasmatic glucocorticoid levels, but does not suppress c-Fos NTS activation. Considering that NTS also receives sensory inputs from carotid body chemoreceptors, we evaluated c-Fos activation and plasmatic cortisol levels 90 min after I.P. administration of 15 mg/kg LPS. Experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, in control conditions and after bilateral carotid neurotomy (BCN). LPS administration significantly increases the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol levels in animals with intact carotid/sinus nerves. When LPS was injected after BCN, the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons, and plasmatic cortisol levels were not significantly modified. Our data suggest that carotid body chemoreceptors might mediate CNS activation during sepsis.

  9. Puerarin reduces increased c-fos, c-jun, and type Ⅳ collagen expression caused by high glucose in glomerular mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-ping MAO; Zhen-lun GU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Increased expression of c-fos, c-jun and type Ⅳ collagen (CoⅣ) in glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) are important characteristics of diabetic nephropathy.Both c-fos and c-jun regulate the gene expression of extracellular matrix components, and CoⅣ is the main component of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that puerarin inhibits aggregation of the extracellular matrix in diabetic rats by an as yet unknown mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of puerarin on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression in GMC cultured in medium containing 5.6 or 27.8 mmol/L glucose. Methods: The expressions ofc-fos and c-jun were measured at the protein level using flow cytometry. CoⅣ content was detected using radioimmunoassay. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured using liquid scintillation counting. Results: Puerarin (10-5 mmol/L) significantly ameliorated the high-glucose effect on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression.This effect is accompanied by a reduced PKC activity in these cells. Conclusion:Our results suggest that reduced PKC activity and expression of c-fos and c-jun in GMC might participate in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of puerarin on diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (phamster.

  11. Brain development is impaired in c-fos -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Fabiola N; Prucca, César G; Etienne, Olivier; D'Astolfo, Diego S; Silvestre, David C; Boussin, François D; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2015-07-10

    c-Fos is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse cellular functions. Its deregulation has been associated to abnormal development and oncogenic progression. c-fos-/- mice are viable but present a reduction in their body weight and brain size. We examined the importance of c-Fos during neocortex development at 13.5, 14.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. At E14.5, neocortex thickness, apoptosis, mitosis and expression of markers along the different stages of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells (NSPCs) differentiation in c-fos-/- and wild-type mice were analyzed. A ~15% reduction in the neocortex thickness of c-fos-/- embryos was observed which correlates with a decrease in the number of differentiated cells and an increase in apoptosis at the ventricular zone. No difference in mitosis rate was observed, although the mitotic angle was predominantly vertical in c-fos-/- embryos, suggesting a reduced trend of NSPCs to differentiate. At E13.5, changes in differentiation markers start to be apparent and are still clearly observed at E16.5. A tendency of more AP-1/DNA complexes present in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex from c-fos-/- embryos with no differences in the lipid synthesis activity was found. These results suggest that c-Fos is involved in the normal development of NSPCs by means of its AP-1 activity.

  12. H-ras transfection of the rat kidney cell line NRK-52E results in increased induction of c-fos, c-jun and hsp70 following sulofenur treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Smith, M W; Phelps, P C; Berezesky, I K; Merriman, R L; Boder, G B; Trump, B F

    1996-09-10

    The effect of the antineoplastic drug sulofenur on the induction of the immediate-early genes (IEG) c-fos and c-jun and the stress gene hsp70 was compared in the rat kidney epithelial-like cell line NRK-52E and a derivative H-ras-transfected (H/1.2NRK-52E) cell line. Fold induction for each gene after sulofenur (500 microM) treatment was greater in H/1.2NRK-52E. The maximum increases for NRK-2E and H/1.2NRK-52E were as follows: c-fos, approximately 10-fold and approximately 18-fold; c-jun, approximately 2.5-fold and approximately 3.6-fold; hsp70, approximately 13-fold and approximately 30-fold. In cells loaded with EGTA/AM or treated in low or no Ca2+ HBSS, c-fos induction was reduced similarly in both cell types. However, inhibition of protein kinases with staurosporin and calphostin C reduced c-fos by 80% in NRK-52E but by only 10-20% in H/1.2NRK.52E. These results indicate that sulofenur-induced IEG elevation is Ca(2+)-dependent and that the requirement for protein kinase C activation is bypassed in H-ras-transfected cells.

  13. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-in...

  14. Using c-fos as a neural marker of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J A

    1998-01-01

    Just over a decade has past since Hunt et al. reported that the gene c-fos and its protein product Fos are expressed in the spinal cord of rats subjected to peripheral noxious stimulation. These authors showed that noxious stimulation (application of radiant heat or mustard oil) to the hind paw resulted in a massive increase in the expression of Fos in neurons in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Since then, there has been an explosion of studies in which c-fos has been used to study nociception (pain), and the number of such studies increases each year. The net result has been to establish c-fos expression as a valuable tool in pain research. Moreover, recent studies have provided evidence identifying the role of c-fos expression in spinal nociceptive processes. However, there are several important limitations to the practice of using c-fos to study nociception, and these limitations can be easily overlooked as the practice graduates to the status of an established technique. The increasing use of c-fos to study nociception necessitates a critical review of the practice, identifying the shortcomings as well as the strengths of this tool.

  15. Anxiogenic-like activity of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine ("Ecstasy") in the social interaction test is accompanied by an increase of c-fos expression in mice amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José Francisco; Rivera, Alicia; Maldonado, Enrique; Cavas, María; de la Calle, Adelaida

    2004-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic amphetamine popularly known as "Ecstasy." Animal studies examining acute effects of MDMA on anxiety are unclear because although an anxiolytic-like action of MDMA in different animal models of anxiety has been described, there is also substantial evidence supporting an anxiogenic-like effect of this drug. To date, several studies have examined c-fos expression following MDMA administration in rats. However, there is no information about the MDMA-induced c-fos expression in mice previously tested in an animal model of anxiety. In this study, male mice were injected with MDMA (1, 8 and 15 mg/kg ip) and assessed for changes on anxiety and for the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the amygdala (central, basolateral and basomedial). Anxiety was evaluated by the "social interaction test." Ten behavioral categories were recorded: body care, digging, nonsocial exploration, exploration from a distance, social investigation, threat, attack, avoidance/flee, defense/submission and immobility. As compared with the control group, mice treated with MDMA (all doses) showed a decrease in mean duration and total time spent in social investigation behaviors, whereas avoidance/flee behaviors were significantly increased after treatment with this compound (8 and 15 mg/kg). Likewise, a significant increase in c-fos expression was found in the basolateral (all doses) and central (15 mg/kg) amygdala after MDMA administration. Overall, these findings indicate that MDMA exhibits an anxiogenic-like profile in the social interaction test in mice, and that central and basolateral amygdala might be involved in these anxiogenic-like effects of the drug.

  16. A Simple Method for Immunohistochemical Staining of Zebrafish Brain Sections for c-fos Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Tran, Steven; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) are transcription factors whose own transcription is initiated rapidly, for example, in the brain in response to environmental stimuli. c-fos is an IEG often used as a marker of neuronal activation. c-fos mRNA expression has started to be quantified and localized in the zebrafish brain following environmental manipulations but analysis of the expression of c-fos protein in the zebrafish brain has rarely been attempted. Here, we describe an immunofluorescence staining method for quantifying c-fos protein expression in different regions of the zebrafish brain. In addition, we expose zebrafish to caffeine, a positive control for c-fos activation in the brain. To confirm cell nucleus specific binding of the c-fos antibody, we counterstained brain sections with the nuclear fluorescent stain DAPI. Furthermore, we describe a method for reducing background autofluorescence often observed in zebrafish brain tissue. Our analysis showed that exposure to caffeine increased the number of c-fos protein-positive cells in specific zebrafish brain regions detected by the immunofluorescence method. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of immunofluorescence-based methods in the analysis of neuronal activation in the zebrafish brain, and reinforce the utility of the zebrafish in behavioral neuroscience research.

  17. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitor (PKCI) on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a multisystem disease characterized by extreme radiosensitivity. The recent identification of the gene mutated in AT, ATM, and the demonstration that it encodes a homologous domain of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), the catalytic subunit of an enzyme involved in transmitting signals from the cell surface to the nucleus, provide support for a role of this gene in signal transduction. Although ionizing radiation was known to induce c-fos transcription, nothing is known about how ATM or PKCI mediated signal transduction pathway modulates the c-fos gene transcription and gene expression. Here we have studied the effect of PKCI on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription in normal and AT cells. Normal (LM217) and AT (AT58IVA) cells were transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and the overexpression and integration of PKCI was evaluated by northern blotting and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. 5 Gy of radiation was exposed to LM and AT cells transfected with PKCI expression plasmid and cells were harvested 48 hours after radiation and investigated apoptosis with TUNEL method. The c-fos transcription activity was studied by performing CAT assay of reporter gene after transfection of c-fos CAT plasmid into AT and LM cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time a role of PKCI on. the radiation sensitivity and c-fos expression in LM and AT cells. PKCI increased radiation induced apoptosis in LM cells but reduced apoptosis in AT cells. The basal c-fos transcription activity is 70 times lower in AT cells than that in LM cells. The c-fos transcription activity was repressed by overexpression of PKCI in LM cells but not in AT cells. After induction of c-fos by Ras protein, overexpression of PKCI repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. Overexpression of PKCI increased radiation sensitivity and repressed c-fos transcription in LM cells but not in AT cells. The results may be a

  18. d-LSD-induced c-Fos expression occurs in a population of oligodendrocytes in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J; Rabin, Richard A; Winter, Jerrold C; Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2008-03-31

    Induction of mRNA or protein for immediate-early genes, such as c-fos, is used to identify brain areas, specific cell types, and neuronal circuits that become activated in response to various stimuli including psychoactive drugs. The objective of the present study was to identify the cell types in the prefrontal cortex in which lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces c-Fos expression. Systemic administration of d-LSD resulted in a dose-dependent increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity. Although c-Fos-positive cells were found in all cortical layers, they were most numerous in layers III, IV, and V. d-LSD-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in cells co-labeled with anti-neuron-specific enolase or anti-oligodendrocyte Oligo1. The Oligo1-labeled cells had small, round bodies and nuclear diameters characteristic of oligodendrocytes. Studies using confocal microscopy confirmed colocalization of c-Fos-labeled nuclei in NeuN-labeled neurons. Astrocytes and microglia labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody and OX-42 antibody, respectively, did not display LSD-induced c-Fos expression. Pyramidal neurons labeled with anti-neurofilament antibody also did not show induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity after systemic d-LSD administration. The present study demonstrates that d-LSD induced expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex occurs in subpopulations of neurons and in oligodendrocytes, but not in pyramidal neurons, astrocytes, and microglia.

  19. CGRP infusion in unanesthetized rats increases expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarius and caudal ventrolateral medulla, but not in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Ramachandran, Roshni; Christensen, Sarah Louise Tangsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) infusion in migraineurs provokes headache resembling spontaneous migraine, and CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment of acute migraine. We hypothesized that CGRP infusion would increase...

  20. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  1. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  2. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States)); Janssen, Y.M. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States) Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1993-04-15

    To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-05-01

    The involvement of the basolateral and the medial amygdala in fear conditioning was evaluated using different markers of neuronal activation. The method described here is a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and c-Fos immunocytochemistry on fresh frozen brain sections. Freezing behavior was used as an index of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. As expected, freezing scores were significantly higher in rats exposed to tone-shock pairings in a distinctive environment (conditioned; COND), as compared to rats that did not receive any shocks (UNCD). CO labeling was increased in the basolateral and medial amygdala of the COND group. Conversely, c-Fos expression in the basolateral and medial amygdala was lower in the COND group as compared to the UNCD group. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was particularly high in the medial amygdala of the UNCD group. The data provided by both techniques indicate that these amygdalar nuclei could play different roles on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17425902

  5. Overexpression of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Li Yang; Bo Xu; Yu-Gang Song; Wan-Dai Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore dysregulation of c-fos in several human malignancies, and to further investigate the role of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori)-induced gastric precancerosis.METHODS: Four-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were H. pyloriNCTC 11 637 in Brucella broth were inoculated orally into 20 Mongolian gerbils. Another 20 gerbils were inoculated with Brucella broth as controls. 10 of the infected gerbils and 10 of the non- infected control gerbils were sacrificed at 25 and 45 weeks after infection. The stomach of each gerbil was removed and opened for macroscopic observation. The expression of c-fos was analyzed by RTPCR and immunohistochemical studies in H. pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil. Half of each gastric antrum mucosa was dissected for RNA isolation and RTPCR. β-actin was used as the housekeeping gene and amplified with c-fos as contrast. PCR products of c-fos were analyzed by gel image system and the level of c-fos was reflected with the ratio of c-fos/β-actin. The immunostaining for c-foswas conducted using monoclonal antibody of c-fosand the StreptAvidin-Biotin-enzyme Complex kit.RESULTS: H. pyloriwas constantly found in all infected animals in this study. After infection of H. Pylorifor 25 weeks,ulcers were observed in the antral and the body of stomach of 60 % infected animals (6/10). Histological examination showed that all animals developed severe inflammation, especially in the area close to ulcers, and multifocal lymphoid follicles appeared in the lamina propria and submucosa. After infection of H. Pylorifor 45 weeks, severe atrophic gastritis in all infected animals, intestinal metaplasia in 80 % infected animals (8/10) and dysplasia in 60 % infected animals (6/10) could be observed. C-fos mRNA levels were significantlyhigher after infection of H. pylorifor 25 weeks (1.84±0.79),and for 45 weeks (1.59±0.37) than those in control-animals (0.74±0.22, P<0.01). C-fos mRNA levels were increased 2.5-fold by 25th

  6. Effect of growth hormone and serum on the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun was analysed in the insulin producing rat tumor cell line, RIN 5AH. Addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) to serum-starved cells in the presence of cycloheximid induced a modest increase in c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels, whereas growth hormone (GH...

  7. Expression and localization of c-Fos and NOS in the central nerve system following esophageal acid stimulation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Shuai; Peng-Yan Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of neurons expressing c-Fos and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central nerve system (CNS) following esophageal acid exposure, and to investigate the relationship between c-Fos and NOS.METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. Hydrochloric acid with pepsin was perfused in the lower part of the esophagus for 60 min. As a control,normal saline was used. Thirty minutes after the perfusion,the rats were killed and brains were removed and processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry.Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) during the experimental procedures were recorded every 10 min.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in BP, HR and RR between the two groups. c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased in rats receiving acid plus pepsin perfusion in amygdala (AM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN),parabrachial nucleus (PBN), nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (NTS/DMV), nucleus ambiguous (NA), reticular nucleus of medulla (RNM) and area postrema (AP). NOS reactivity in this group was significantly increased in PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP. c-Fos and NOS had significant correlation between PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP.CONCLUSION: Acid plus pepsin perfusion of the esophagus results in neural activation in areas of CNS,and NO is likely one of the neurotransmitters in some of these areas.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  9. Growth of peripheral and central nervous system tumors is supported by cytoplasmic c-Fos in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Silvestre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is also capable of associating to endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER and activating phospholipid synthesis. Herein we examined phospholipid synthesis status in brain tumors from human patients and from NPcis mice, an animal model of the human disease Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human samples, c-Fos expression was at the limit of detection in non-pathological specimens, but was abundantly expressed associated to ER membranes in tumor cells. This was also observed in CNS of adult tumor-bearing NPcis mice but not in NPcis fos(-/- KO mice. A glioblastoma multiforme and a malignant PNS tumor from a NF1 patient (MPNST showed a 2- and 4- fold c-Fos-dependent phospholipid synthesis activation, respectively. MPNST samples also showed increased cell proliferation rates and abundant c-Fos expression. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight a role of cytoplasmic c-Fos as an activator of phospholipid synthesis in events demanding high rates of membrane biogenesis as occurs for the exacerbated growth of tumors cells. They also disclose this protein as a potential target for controlling tumor growth in the nervous system.

  10. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  11. Expression of Egr-1,c-fos and cyclin D1 in esophageal cancer and its precursors:An immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yao Wu; Chu-Xiang Zhuang; Huan-Xing Yang; Ying-Rui Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expression of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 at both transcript and protein levels in esophageal carcinoma and to correlate the level of their expressions with precancerous and paracancerous esophageal lesions and esophageal carcinoma.METHODS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used respectively to detect the expression of mRNA and proteins of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 in 70 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and their corresponding para-cancerous mucosa and upper cut edge mucosa.RESULTS: In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed positive staining of all three mRNAs in the cytoplasm and those of the proteins in nuclei. Overexpression of Egr1, c-fos and cyclin D1 mRNAs and their proteins was found in dysplasia and squamous carcinomas. The expression level of Egr-1 and c-fos was high, and cyclin D1 was low in dysplasia mucosa, whereas the expression of Egr-1 was decreased, c-fos was maintained and cyclin D1 was increased in the cancers. The expression of both c-fos and cyclinD1 was consistent between the mRNA and protein in their corresponding high expression lesions.CONCLUSION: The expression of Egr-1, c-fos and cyclin D1 varies in esophageal precancerous lesions and cancer tissues, suggesting an involvement of these genes in the development of esophageal carcinoma.

  12. Bombesin stimulation of c-fos and c-myc gene expression in cultured of Swiss 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin has been show to be a potent mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. At nanomolar concentrations it stimulates DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures of 3T3 cells and also induces the expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNA. c-fos mRNA transcripts dramatically increase 15 min after the addition of bombesin, are still abundant after 30-60 min and then decrease. c-myc mRNA induction is detectable later, 1 h after bombesin treatment. Conversely, no changes in c-Ki-ras expression are observed after stimulation with bombesin. These results demonstrate that the increased expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs appears to be a common response to diverse agents that induce DNA synthesis and cell proliferation

  13. ACTIVATION OF CELLS FROM HYPOTHALAMIC STRUCTURES AFTER INJECTION OF ANTIGENS DIFFERENT IN THEIR NATURE (by the c-Fos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Perekrest

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Activation levels of hypothalamic structures (AHN, PVH, DMH, VMH, LHA, PH were analyzed within first hours after injection of antigens [lipopolysaccharide (LPS and bovine serum albumine [BSA]. For all investigated hypothalamic structures, an increase of c-Fos positive cells numbers was observed after injection of the antigens, as compared to the controls. LPS injection caused activation of more multiple neuron populations. AHN, PVH, LHA, and PH structures exhibited the highest levels of c-Fos activation upon LPS application. BSA injection induced activation of lesser cells quantities, but their enrichment in c-Fos protein was higher, thus resulting into increased optical density of VMH, LHA and PH neurons. Hence, the present work has shown that activation pattern of hypothalamic structures differs upon application of antigens that are different by their origin.

  14. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake. PMID:27396908

  15. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake.

  16. Anxiety-like behaviour and c-fos expression in rats that inhaled vetiver essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Pongmayteegul, Sirinun; Marsden, Charles A; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver essential oil (VEO) has been used in aromatherapy for relaxation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEO on an anxiety-related behavioural model (the elevated plus-maze, EPM) and immediate-early gene c-fos in amygdala, known to be involved in anxiety. Male Wistar rats were administered diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 30 min or inhalated with VEO (1%, 2.5% or 5% w/w) for 7 min prior to exposure to the EPM. Then, the effects of 2.5% VEO, the anxiolytic dose, on c-fos expression in amygdala were investigated. The rats given either 2.5% VEO or diazepam exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM. VEO and diazepam significantly increased c-fos expression in the lateral division of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeL). Therefore, the anxiolytic properties of VEO might be associated with altering neuronal activation in CeL. However, future studies are needed to investigate the precise mechanism of action of VEO. PMID:25553641

  17. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Notably, the vast majority of individuals with ASD experience some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have recently reported consistent hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is employed as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology of auditory brainstem centers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal neuronal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4- or 16-kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these exposures, we identified significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Additionally, we observed a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:27094734

  18. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2015-12-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Additionally, the vast majority of subjects with ASD suffer some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have previously identified significant hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is utilized as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology in the auditory brainstem. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4 or 16 kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these sound exposures, we found significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Further, we found a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:26518464

  19. Thermal injuries induce gene expression of endogenous c-fos, c-myc and bFGF in burned tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 顾小曼; 孙同柱; 杨银辉; 孙晓庆; 盛志勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression sequence and distribution characteristics of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF ) genes in burned tissues, and to explore the possible effects of changes in the se genes' functions on wound healing. Methods Partial-thickness burns of 30% TBSA were established on backs of Wistar rats. Insitu hybridization and histological methods were used to detect expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF genes in normal and burned tissue at 3 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d , 7 d and 14 d postburn. Results Although expression of c-fos and c-myc genes and bFGF gene could be found in normal skin, the expression of all three were markedly induced by burn wounds and the expression models in sequence and distribution were quite different. Expre ssion of c-fos gene increased and peaked at 6 h. Signals were mainly localiz ed in both nuclei of dermal fibroblasts and monocytes. The expression of bFGF gene increased at 6 h and peaked at 1 d postburn, and was distributed in the cyt oplasm of fibroblasts. C-myc gene peaked 3 d postburn and was also distributed in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. Conclusions These results indicated that thermal injury could induce the expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF at gene level, showing phasic control and regional distributi on. The phasic expression of these genes suggests that there is an interaction between protooncogenes and bFGF, which may play an important role in wound heali ng. The different expressions of c-fos and c-myc play an inducing role in reg ulating bFGF, and in turn affect wound healing.

  20. Expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes in the uteri of immature mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takayanagi, A; Shimizu, N

    2003-01-01

    We studied the cell-type-specific and temporal expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes after 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulation in the uteri of immature 3-week-old mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES), DES-mice, and the ontogenic expression of these genes in the uteri of DES-mice using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A single E2 injection induced the transient and rapid expression of c-fos mRNA and c-Fos protein in the endometrial epithelium and endothelial cells of the blood vessels in both 3-week-old vehicle-treated controls and DES-mice; a peak of mRNA expression was 2 hours after E2 injection and that of protein expression was 2 to 3 hours after the injection. The expression of c-fos mRNA and protein after E2 stimulation was lower in the DES-mice than in the control animals. There were no significant differences in the c-jun expression patterns in both experimental groups before and after the E2 injection. The E2 injection transiently down-regulated the c-jun expression in the epithelium and up-regulated it in the stroma and myometrium. The uterine epithelium of DES-mice showed much stronger c-Jun immunostaining on days 4 and 10, compared with those of controls. Neonatal DES treatment reduced c-Jun immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium on days 4 and 10, and increased the reaction in the stroma on day 4. These results suggested that the neonatal DES treatment induces permanent changes in the c-fos expression pattern independent of the postpuberal secretion of ovarian steroids. The changes in the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes, particularly during postnatal development, are likely to play important roles in the production of uterine abnormalities in the DES-mice.

  1. Spatial memory extinction: a c-Fos protein mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, M; Conejo, N M; Vallejo, G; Arias, J L

    2014-03-01

    While the neuronal basis of spatial memory consolidation has been thoroughly studied, the substrates mediating the process of extinction remain largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the functional contribution of selected brain regions during the extinction of a previously acquired spatial memory task in the Morris water maze. For that purpose, we used adult male Wistar rats trained in a spatial reference memory task. Learning-related changes in c-Fos inmunoreactive cells after training were evaluated in cortical and subcortical regions. Results show that removal of the hidden platform in the water maze induced extinction of the previously reinforced escape behavior after 16 trials, without spontaneous recovery 24h later. Extinction was related with significantly higher numbers of c-Fos positive nuclei in amygdala nuclei and prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, the lateral mammillary bodies showed higher number of c-Fos positive cells than the control group. Therefore, in contrast with the results obtained in studies of classical conditioning, we show the involvement of diencephalic structures mediating this kind of learning. In summary, our findings suggest that medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala complex and diencephalic structures like the lateral mammillary nuclei are relevant for the extinction of spatial memory. PMID:24315832

  2. The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces the immediate-early gene c-Fos in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Paul S; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2002-12-27

    The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) evokes dramatic somatic and psychological effects. In order to analyze the neural activation induced by this unique psychoactive drug, we tested the hypothesis that expression of the immediate-early gene product c-Fos is induced in specific regions of the rat forebrain by a relatively low, behaviorally active, dose of d-LSD (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.); c-Fos protein expression was assessed at 30 min, and 1, 2 and 4 h following d-LSD injection. A time- and region-dependent expression of c-Fos was observed with a significant increase (PLSD administration. These data demonstrate a unique pattern of c-Fos expression in the rat forebrain following a relatively low dose of d-LSD and suggest that activation of these forebrain regions contributes to the unique behavioral effects of d-LSD.

  3. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. AP-1 Transcription Factors c-FOS and c-JUN Mediate GnRH-Induced Cadherin-11 Expression and Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Liyang; Wang, Yan-Ling; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-06-01

    GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion. PMID:25794160

  5. SUMOylation of the inducible (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex occurs on target promoters to limit transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempé, D; Vives, E; Brockly, F; Brooks, H; De Rossi, S; Piechaczyk, M; Bossis, G

    2014-02-13

    The inducible proto-oncogenic (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex binds 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) in its target genes. It is tightly controlled at multiple levels to avoid the deleterious effects of its inappropriate activation. In particular, SUMOylation represses its transactivation capacity in transient reporter assays using constitutively expressed proteins. This led to the presumption that (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation would be required to turn-off transcription of its target genes, as proposed for various transcription factors. Instead, thanks to the generation of an antibody specific for SUMO-modified c-Fos, we provide here direct evidence that SUMOylated c-Fos is present on a stably integrated reporter TPA-inducible promoter at the onset of transcriptional activation and colocalizes with RNA polymerase II within chromatin. Interestingly, (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation limits reporter gene induction, as well as the appearance of active transcription-specific histone marks on its promoter. Moreover, non-SUMOylatable mutant (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 dimers accumulate to higher levels on their target promoter, suggesting that SUMOylation might facilitate the release of (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 from promoters. Finally, activation of GADD153, an AP-1 target gene, is also associated with a rapid increase in SUMOylation at the level of its TRE and c-Fos SUMOylation dampens its induction by TPA. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation could serve to buffer transcriptional activation of AP-1 target genes.

  6. Expression of c-fos mRNA following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-fos mRNA in brain following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expression following percussion. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury group. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa). The injury groups were then subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1h, 2h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA was studied with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) semi-quantitatively.RESULTS: At 5 min after percussion, the induction of c-fos mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 2 h after brain injury.CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-fos mRNA in cortex and brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly.

  7. Expression of c-fos in Rat Brain as a Prelude Marker of Central Nervous System Injury in Response to Methylmercury-stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To probe into the prelude marker of central nervous system injury in response to methyl mercury chloride (MMC) stimulation and the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain induced by MMC. Methods The expression of c-fos mRNA in brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The control group was injected with physiological saline of 0.9%, while the concentrations for the exposure groups were 0.05 and 0.5,5 mg/kg MMC respectively, and the sampling times points were 20, 60, 240, 1440 min. Results The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus increased significantly, the accumulation of mercury in the brain induced by 0.05 mg/Kg MMC for 20 min had no significant difference compared with the control group. The mean value was 0.0044 mg/Kg, while the protein c-FOS expression had significant difference compared with the control group (P<0.01). More sensitive expression occurred in hippocampus and cortex, but not in ependyma. Conclusion The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus can predict the neurotoxicity of MMC in the early time, and immediately early gene (IEG) c-fos participates in the process of brain injury induced by MMC.

  8. A novel mouse c-fos intronic promoter that responds to CREB and AP-1 is developmentally regulated in vivo.

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    Vincent Coulon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The c-fos proto-oncogene is an archetype for rapid and integrative transcriptional activation. Innumerable studies have focused on the canonical promoter, located upstream from the transcriptional start site. However, several regulatory sequences have been found in the first intron. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe an extremely conserved region in c-fos first intron that contains a putative TATA box, and functional TRE and CRE sites. This fragment drives reporter gene activation in fibroblasts, which is enhanced by increasing intracellular calcium and cAMP and by cotransfection of CREB or c-Fos/c-Jun expression vectors. We produced transgenic mice expressing a lacZ reporter controlled by the intronic promoter. Lac Z expression of this promoter is restricted to the developing central nervous system (CNS and the mesenchyme of developing mammary buds in embryos 12.5 days post-conception, and to brain tissue in adults. RT-QPCR analysis of tissue mRNA, including the anlage of the mammary gland and the CNS, confirms the existence of a novel, nested mRNA initiated in the first intron. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for a novel, developmentally regulated promoter in the first intron of the c-fos gene.

  9. C-Fos regulation by the MAPK and PKC pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

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    Katsuya Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene encoding c-fos is an important factor in the pathogenesis of joint disease in patients with osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether the signal mechanism of c-fos acts in intervertebral disc (IVD cells. We investigated whether c-fos is activated in relation to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and the protein kinase C (PKC pathway in nucleus pulposus (NP cells. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were used to measure the expression of c-fos in rat IVD cells. Transfections were performed to determine the effects of c-fos on target gene activity. The effect of c-fos protein expression was examined in transfection experiments and in a 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, the most commonly used phorbol ester, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC, causing a wide range of effects in cells and tissues. PMA induced the expression of c-fos gene transcription and protein expression, and led to activation of the MAPK pathways in NP cells. The c-fos promoter was suppressed completely in the presence of the MAPK inhibitor PD98059, an inhibitor of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade, but not in the presence of SKF86002, SB202190, or SP600125. The effects of the PKC pathway on the transcriptional activity of the c-fos were evaluated. PKCγ and PKCδ suppressed the promoter activity of c-fos. Treatment with c-fos inhibited aggrecan and Col2 promoter activities and the expression of these genes in NP cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the MAPK and PKC pathways had opposing effects on the regulation of c-fos in NP cells. Thus, the expression of c-fos can be suppressed in the extracellular matrix of NP cells.

  10. Reduction of c-Fos via Overexpression of miR-34a Results in Enhancement of TNF- Production by LPS in Neutrophils from Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikama, Yayoi; Cao, Meiwan; Ono, Tomoyuki; Feng, Xiaomin; Noji, Hideyoshi; Kimura, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuei; Suzuki, Yuko; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kimura, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Although increased TNF-α has been considered to cause ineffective hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the mechanisms of TNF-α elevation are not known. We recently found that c-Fos mRNA stabilization under translation-inhibiting stimuli was impaired in MDS-derived neutrophilic granulocytes. In the current study, we identified overexpression of c-Fos-targeting miR-34a and miR-155 as the cause of impairment. Expression levels of miR-34a but not miR-155 inversely correlated with ratios of c-Fos-positive cells in MDS-derived CD16+ neutrophils (r = -0.618, P<0.05), which were analyzed by flow cytometry. Among the seventeen patients, c-Fos was detectable in less than 60% of CD16+ cells in eight patients (Group A), while five (Group B) expressed c-Fos in more than 80% of CD16+ cells, which was consistent with the controls (88.6 ± 7.8%). Group A-derived granulocytes secreted more TNF-α in response to 1 μM LPS for 3 hours (735.4 ± 237.5 pg/mL) than Group B (143.5 ± 65.7 pg/mL, P<0.05) and healthy controls (150.8 ± 91.5 pg/mL, P<0.05). Knockdown of c-Fos in neutrophil-like differentiated HL60 increased the binding of NF-κB p65 to the promoter region of TNF-α DNA. Thus, c-Fos reduction via overexpression of miR-34a contributes to TNF-α overproduction under inflammatory stimuli in MDS. PMID:27513856

  11. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. PMID:25846435

  12. On the functional significance of c-fos induction during the sleep-waking cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, C; Tononi, G

    2000-06-15

    A striking finding in recent years has been that the transition from sleep to waking is accompanied in many brain regions by a widespread activation of c-fos and other immediate-early genes (IEGs). IEGs are induced by various electrical or chemical signals to which neural cells are exposed and their protein products act as transcription factors to regulate the expression of other genes. After a few hours of sleep, the expression of these transcription factors in the brain is absent or restricted to very few cells. However, after a few hours of spontaneous waking or sleep deprivation, the expression of c-fos and other IEGs is high in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, septum, and several thalamic and brainstem nuclei. While cells expressing c-fos during waking are widely distributed, they represent only a subset of all neurons in any given area. These observations raise several questions: Why is c-fos expressed during waking and not during sleep? Is waking always accompanied by c-fos induction? Which subset of cells express c-fos during waking and why only a subset? Once c-fos has been induced, what are the functional consequences of its activation? In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the meaning of c-fos activation in the brain in relation to the sleep-waking cycle and suggest that c-fos induction in the cerebral cortex during waking might be related to the occurrence of plastic phenomena.

  13. c-Fos expression in rat brainstem following intake of sucrose or saccharin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Chen; Jianqun Yan; Jinrong Li; Bo Lv; Xiaolin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the activation of brainstem neurons during intake of a sweet tastant is due to orosensory signals or post-ingestive factors,we compared the distribution of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI)in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of brainstem following ingestion of 0.25M sucrose or 0.005 M saccharin solutions.Immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in the middle zone of the PBN and four rostral-caudal subregions of the NST.Intake of sucrose increased the number of FLI neurons in almost every subnucleus of the PBN (F(2,13) =7.610,P =0.023),in addition to the caudal NST at the level of the area postrema (F(2,13) =10.777,P =0.003) and the NST intermediate zone (F(2,13) =7.193,P =0.014).No significantincrease in the number of c-Fos positive neurons was detected in response to saccharin ingestion,although there was a trend towards a modest increase in a few select NST and PBN nuclei.These results suggest that the PBN and NST may be involved in sweet taste perception and modulation of sweet tastant intake,but the significantlyenhanced intensity of Fos expression induced by sucrose indicates that PBN/NST neuronal activity is driven by the integrated effects of sweet taste sensation and post-ingestive signals.

  14. Piperine alleviates osteoclast formation through the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C; Joubert, Annie; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Increased bone fracture is one of the health risk factors in patients with bone loss related disorders such as osteoporosis and breast cancer metastasis to bone. Over activity of osteoclasts leads to uncoupling of bone remodeling favoring bone loss over bone formation. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL) triggers the differentiation pathway leading to multinucleated osteoclast formation. Modulation of RANKL or its downstream signaling pathways involved in osteoclast formation is of significant interest in the development of anti-resorptive agents. In this study, the effects of piperine, an alkaloid present in Piper nigrum L. on osteoclast formation was investigated. Piperine inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14+ monocytes induced by RANKL and breast cancer cells. Piperine attenuated the p38-mitogen activated protein kinase pathway activation, while the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or NF-κβ pathways downstream of RANKL remained unaffected. Concomitantly, expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), the key transcription factors involved in osteoclastogenesis were remarkably inhibited by piperine. Furthermore, piperine disrupted the actin ring structure and bone resorption, a characteristic hallmark of osteoclasts. Collectively, these results suggested that piperine inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the p38/NFATc1/c-Fos signaling axis.. PMID:26627060

  15. Roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Yamashita, Teruhito; Yao, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fang; Xing, Lianping

    2005-01-01

    NF-kappaB and c-Fos are transcription factors that are activated in immune cells and in most other cell types following stimulation by a variety of factors, including cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. They regulate the expression of a large number of genes, and both are activated in osteoclast precursors after RANKL, IL-1, or TNF bind to their respective receptors. However, of these cytokines, only RANKL is required for the induction of osteoclast formation in vivo. Nevertheless, it is likely that IL-1, TNF, and other cytokines participate in the upregulation of osteoclast formation seen in a variety of conditions that affect the skeleton in which cytokine production is increased, including estrogen deficiency and inflammatory bone diseases. In this review, the RANKL/ OPG/RANK system and roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts are reviewed along with our current understanding of how this system may be disrupted in common bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis, and Paget's disease.

  16. Effects of electroacupuncture on c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and brain of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei Wang; Huirong Liu; Guanghong Ding; Yunfei Chen; Huangan Wu; Na Li; Enhua Zhou; Xiudi Qin; Lingsong Yuan

    2009-01-01

    hypersensitivity increased c-Fos staining (P 0.05). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores were significantly lower in the electroacupuncture and normal groups than in the model group (P 0.05).CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture decreases c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex and increases pain threshold in a chronic visceral hypersensitivity model in rats.

  17. Sympathetic-correlated c-Fos expression in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsiao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An isolated thoracic spinal cord of the neonatal rat in vitro spontaneously generates sympathetic nerve discharge (SND at ~25°C, but it fails in SND genesis at ≤ 10°C. Basal levels of the c-Fos expression in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C and ~25°C were compared to determine the anatomical substrates that might participate in SND genesis. Cells that exhibited c-Fos immunoreactivity were virtually absent in the spinal cords incubated at ≤ 10°C. However, in the spinal cords incubated at ~25°C, c-Fos-positive cells were found in the dorsal laminae, the white matter, lamina X, and the intermediolateral cell column (IML. Cell identities were verified by double labeling of c-Fos with neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. The c-Fos-positive cells distributed in the white matter and lamina X were NeuN-negative or GFAP-positive and were glial cells. Endogenously active neurons showing c-Fos and NeuN double labeling were scattered in the dorsal laminae and concentrated in the IML. Double labeling of c-Fos and ChAT confirmed the presence of active sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs in the IML. Suppression of SND genesis by tetrodotoxin (TTX or mecamylamine (MECA, nicotinic receptor blocker almost abolished c-Fos expression in dorsal laminae, but only mildly affected c-Fos expression in the SPNs. Therefore, c-Fos expression in some SPNs does not require synaptic activation. Our results suggest that spinal SND genesis is initiated from some spontaneously active SPNs, which are capable of TTX- or MECA-resistant c-Fos expression.

  18. Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2009-01-30

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that food deprivation and food presentation produce different patterns of neuronal activity (as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity) in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats. Since the amygdala has been implicated in both motivational and reinforcement processes and has neuronal connections to both the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, it was of interest to assess amygdaloid c-Fos immunoreactivity during similar manipulations of food deprivation and presentation. In the current study, c-Fos counts in both basolateral and central amygdalar nuclei were observed to increase in rats 12- and 36-h food deprived (relative to 0-h controls)-an effect reversed by the presentation of either a small or large meal (2.5 or 20g of food). In another experiment, rats working on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement exhibited elevated break-points as a function of food deprivation, a result consistent with the view that the feeding manipulations increased the subjects' level of motivation. In contrast, food deprivation reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity of rats, presumably as a result of an inherent energy-conservation strategy when no food is readily available. These data suggest that the state of food deprivation is associated with: (a) enhanced behavioral output only when food is attainable (increased goal-directed behavior, but decreased spontaneous activity), and (b) increased synaptic engagement in neuronal circuits involved in affective valuation and related decision-making (increased c-Fos counts in the amygdala). PMID:18706934

  19. c-Fos as a transcription factor: a stressful (re)view from a functional map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K J

    1998-10-01

    This article summarizes the achievements that have been accumulated about the role of c-Fos as a transcription factor and as a functional marker of activated neurons. Since its discovery, more than a decade ago, as an inducible immediate-early gene encoding a transcription factor, or third messenger, involved in stimulus-transcription coupling and mediation of extracellular signals to long-term changes in cellular phenotype, c-fos became the most widely used powerful tool to delineate individual neurons as well as extended circuitries that are responsive to wide variety of external stimuli. There still remain uncertainties as to how general is the c-fos induction in the central neurons, and whether the threshold of c-fos induction is comparable along a certain neuronal circuit. The major limitation of this technology is that c-fos does not mark cells with a net inhibitory synaptic or transcriptional drive, and c-fos induction, as a generic marker of trans-synaptic activation, does not provide evidence for transcriptional activation of specific target genes in a certain cell type of interest. The first part of the review focuses on recent functional data on c-fos as transcription factor, while the second part discusses c-fos as a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-related circuitry.

  20. Induction of c-Fos expression in the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus after fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-09-14

    The aim of the present study was to provide further evidence on the role of particular subdivisions of the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus to contextual and auditory fear conditioning. We used c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation to compare rats that received tone-footshock pairings in a distinctive context (conditioned group) to rats being exposed to both the context and the auditory CS without receiving footshocks (unconditioned group), and naïve rats that were only handled. Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased only in the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral mammillary nucleus of the conditioned group. However, the dorsal hippocampus showed the highest density of c-Fos positive nuclei in the naïve group as compared to the other groups. Together, our data support previous studies indicating a particular involvement of the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamus in fear conditioning. PMID:17683804

  1. Activation of the c-fos gene in prodynorphin- and proenkephalin-expressing cells of nucleus tractus solitarius after seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, R K; Erickson, J T; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    We performed studies to determine the anatomical regions and chemical phenotypes of neurons within the rat medulla oblongata activated by pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Activated cells were identified by their expression of the c-fos gene, detected by in situ hybridization for c-fos mRNA and immunocytochemistry for Fos protein. Activated cells were located predominantly in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), with c-fos mRNA appearing within 20 min after seizures (peak at 1-2 h), followed by Fos immunoreactivity visible at 1 h (peak at 2-4 h). Neither nonspecific noxious stimulation by intraperitoneal injection of saline nor brief exposure to hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mixtures to stimulate chemoreceptors reproduced this pattern of labeling. Prodynorphin or proenkephalin mRNA, detected by in situ hybridization, was colocalized with Fos immunoreactivity in many NTS cells. Thus, seizures activate neuronal pathways in the medulla oblongata which express genes for endogenous opioids. Potential long-term effects of seizures are suggested by the in situ hybridization finding that NTS prodynorphin mRNA increased 24 h after seizures compared to control levels. PMID:7957742

  2. TRPV4 mediates afferent pathways in the urinary bladder. A spinal c-fos study showing TRPV1 related adaptations in the TRPV4 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dick A W; Hoenderop, Joost G; Heesakkers, John P F A; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-10-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in urinary bladder afferent neural pathways was investigated using spinal c-fos measurements in mice. Anesthetized wild type and TRPV4 knockout (-/-) mice underwent noxious bladder distention and treatment with either intravesical instillation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX), vehicle or an intraperitoneal injected TRPV4 antagonist (HC067047). Mice underwent paraformaldehyde perfusion for rapid fixation and L6-S1 spinal cord sections were removed followed by immunohistochemical staining for c-fos. A number of c-fos expressing neurons in the dorsal horns of L6-S1 spinal cord transections were quantified. Groups were compared using univariate ANOVA. Even with the absence of bladder inflammation on H&E, the TRPV4 -/- mice still have a significant twofold higher c-fos expression (n = 39, SD 2) after noxious bladder distention compared to wild type mice (n = 20, SD 3). A twofold increase in c-fos expression was observed after LPS treatment in wild types (n = 42, SD 5), but no increase was seen in TRPV4 -/- mice (n = 42, SD 2). After desensitization of primary afferent C-nerve fibers with RTX, c-fos expression in TRPV4-/- mice decreased significantly (threefold) (n = 12, SD 4). Results imply that TRPV4 channels are important for bladder afferent signaling. TRPV4 -/- mice bladders generate more noxious sensory output, which is predominantly mediated through TRPV1 expressing high threshold nerve fibers. This study reveals TRPV1 related adaptive changes in afferent pathways of the TRPV4 -/- mouse. We propose that this effect is caused by a congenital impairment of low threshold nerves that mediate normal bladder filling sensations.

  3. Effect of c-fos antisense probe on prostaglandin E2-induced upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in human liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qi Li; Kai-Shan Tao; Ning Ren; Yi-Hu Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells and the possible involvement of c-fos protein in this process.METHODS: Human HCC HepG2 cells were divided into three groups treated respectively with PGE2, a combination of PGE2 and c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO),and PGE2 plus c-fos sense oligodeoxynudeotide (SO). The expression of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells after different treatments was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relative expression level of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells in each group was measured.RESULTS: Administration of PGE2 resulted in an increased expression of c-fosand VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells. The relative expression level of c-fos mRNA reached the peak at 3 h (68.4±4.7%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (20.6±1.7%, P<0.01).Whereas, the highest expression level of VEGF mRNA was observed at 6 h (100.5±6.1%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (33.2±2.4%,P<0.01). C-fos ASO significantly reduced PGE2-induced VEGF mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: PGE2 increases the expression and secretion of VEGF in HCC cells by activating the transcription factor c-fos, promotes the angiogenesis of HCC and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.

  4. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    neurons of cerebral cortex from embryos of rats. OLYMPUS Bx-50 microscope was used to observe sections and DP12 digit camera was also used under 400 times to detect types of cells. Under microscope, the number of c-Fos, NOS, c-Fos/NOS positive neurons in cerebral cortex from embryos of rats were counted in 2 fields with magnification of 400 in one section per animal. ③ The data in experiments were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by q test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:① Results of immunohistochemical double-label staining of c-Fos/NOS from cerebral cortex; ② Comparison of amount immunohistochemical double-label staining of c-Fos/NOS positive cells from cerebral cortex.RESULTS:① The positive NOS cells and c-Fos/NOS cells in the three groups were mainly distributed in cerebral cortex, but positive c-Fos neurons were not observed. ② Positive NOS cells and c-Fos/NOS cells in hypoxia group were more than those in control group (76.55±12.02, 50.45±10.39; 33.35±7.42, 26.35±6.67, P < 0.05), but those in Angelica group were less than those in hypoxia group (51.70±9.82, 35.65±8.37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Hypoxia can stimulate the increase of expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex. However, Angelica sinensis can decrease this expression so as to play a protective role in cerebral neurons of hypoxic fetal rats.

  5. Recombinant CART peptide induces c-Fos expression in central areas involved in control of feeding behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Tang-Christensen, M.; Larsen, Philip J.;

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus......Regulation of food intake, c-Fos induction, i.c.v. injection, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...

  6. c-Fos induction by a 14 T magnetic field in visceral and vestibular relays of the female rat brainstem is modulated by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Kwon, Bumsup; Smith, James C; Houpt, Thomas A

    2010-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that high magnetic fields interact with the vestibular system of humans and rodents. In rats, exposure to high magnetic fields of 7 T or above induces locomotor circling and leads to a conditioned taste aversion if paired with a novel taste. Sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure have been found, such that female rats show more locomotor circling and enhanced conditioned taste aversion compared to male rats. To determine if estrogen modulates the neural response to high magnetic fields, c-Fos expression after 14 T magnetic field exposure was compared in ovariectomized rats and ovariectomized rats with estradiol replacement. Compared to sham exposure, magnetic field exposure induced significantly more c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract and the parabrachial, medial vestibular, prepositus, and supragenualis nuclei. Furthermore, there was a significant asymmetry in c-Fos induction between sides of the brainstem in several regions. In ovariectomized rats, there was more c-Fos expressed in the right side compared to left side in the locus coeruleus and parabrachial, superior vestibular, and supragenualis nuclei; less expression in the right compared to left side of the medial vestibular; and no asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Chronic estradiol treatment modulated the neural response in some regions: less c-Fos was induced in the superior vestibular nucleus and locus coeruleus after estradiol replacement; estradiol treatment eliminated the asymmetry of c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus and supragenualis nucleus, created an asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and reversed the asymmetry in the parabrachial nucleus. These results suggest that ovarian steroids may mediate sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure at the level of visceral and vestibular nuclei of the brainstem.

  7. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... and somatotroph proliferation, can also regulate the expression of c-fos proto-oncogene in primary somatotrophs....

  8. Induction of C-FOS, C-MYC and P53 by US -adrenergic receptor (US -AR) stimulation of rat parotid acinar cells (RPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousvelari, E.E.; Louis, J.; Curran, T.; Baum, B.J.

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of rats with the US -agonist isoproterenol (ISO) results in dramatically increased parotid gland protein synthesis, processing and cell proliferation. The authors have shown that in RPAC in vitro, US -AR stimulation has similar effect on protein synthesis and processing. Proto-oncogenes have been implicated in growth regulation, differentiation and in mediating some extracellular stimulated events at the level of gene expression. To understand the regulation of cellular events after US -AR stimulation, the expression of c-fos, c-myc and p53 was investigated. RPAC were incubated with or without 10 VM ISO for 15, 30, 60 min. mRNA was isolated from cells and hybridization analysis was performed on nitrocellulose paper-transferred mRNA using TSP-labeled DNA probes. At early time points, the levels of c-fos gene activation in ISO-treated and control cells were comparable. After 60 min of ISO treatment, a sharp 20-30 fold induction of c-fos expression occurred. Similar increases in c-myc and p53 gene expression were observed after 60 min of ISO treatment. The authors data indicate that early effects of US -AR stimulation of RPAC include induction of c-fos, c-myc and p53 gene expression as well as enhanced protein synthesis and processing.

  9. Effect of Heroin on C-Fos Expression of Cerebellar Cortex of Rat%海洛因对小脑皮质C-FOS表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连秀珍; 谢明仁; 朱喜春; 李世平; 俞发荣

    2012-01-01

    为探索海洛因对小脑皮质C-FOS表达的影响,通过肌肉注射海洛因建立成瘾大鼠模型,用免疫组化方法检测小脑细胞C-FOS的表达.结果表明,大鼠连续注射7d后,出现明显的戒断症状;小脑细胞中C-FOS表达阳性细胞数比对照组明显增多,与对照组相比有显著性差异(P<0.01).证明海洛因具有诱导C-FOS基因表达、损伤脑组织细胞的作用.%To study the effects of heroin on the C-Fos expression of cerebellar cortex of the rat,an addiction model was established by an intramuscular injection of heroin. The C-Fos expression of cerebellar cortex was detected by into the rat immunohistochemical methods. Results showed that rats had significant withdrawal symptoms after continuous injections of heroin for 7 days;the expression of C-Fos positive cells in the cerebellar cortex of rat were increased significantly than those of the control group (P<0.01). Hence it was proved that heroin had the effect of inducing C-Fos gene expression and damaging its brain cells.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of Arc and c-Fos in the hippocampus after acute electroconvulsive stimulation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Mads; Hansen, Henrik H; Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira;

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) remains one of the most effective treatments of major depression. However, the underlying molecular changes still remain to be elucidated. Since ECS causes rapid and significant changes in gene expression we have looked at epigenetic regulation of two important...... of the important epigenetic marks associated with gene activation. We show increased H4Ac at the c-Fos promoter at 1 h post-ECS. Surprisingly, we also observed a significant increase in DNA methylation of the Arc gene promoter at 24 h post-ECS. DNA methylation, which is responsible for gene silencing, is a rather...

  11. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  12. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice.

  13. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of c-Fos and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor of the Cerebral Cortex in Rats with Cerebral Infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqiao; MEI Yuanwu; LIU Chuanyu; YU Shanchun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the neurological functional recovery and expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction was investigated. Cerebral infarction models were established by using left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into a model group (n=40) and a TMS group (n=40). TMS treatment (2 times per day, 30 pulses per time) with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 1.33 Tesla was carried out in TMS group after MCAO. Modified neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded before and 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day(s) after MCAO. The expression of c-Fos and BDNF was immunohistochemically detected 1, 7,14, 21, and 28 day(s) after infarction respectively. Our results showed that a significant recovery of NSS (P<0.05) was found in animals treated by TMS on day 7, 14, 21, and 28 as compared with the animals in the model group. The positive expression of c-Fos and BDNF was detected in the cortex surrounding the infarction areas, while the expression of c-Fos and BDNF increased significantly in TMS treatment group in comparison with those in model group 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (P<0.05) and 7,14, 21 days (P<0.01) after infarction, respectively. It is concluded that TMS has therapeutic effect on cerebral infarction and this may have something to do with TMS's ability to promote the expression of c-Fos and BDNF of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction.

  14. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigé, Stéphanie; Bonnet, Marion S; Tardivel, Catherine; Pinton, Philippe; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Guzylack, Laurence; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Dallaporta, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the cereal-contaminating Fusarium fungi, is a major trichothecene responsible for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, including swine. The main effect of DON-intoxication is food intake reduction and the consequent body weight loss. The present study aimed to identify brain structures activated during DON intoxication in pigs. To this goal, we used c-Fos staining which constitutes a useful approach to identify activated neurons. We showed that per os administration of Fusarium graminearum extracts (containing the equivalent of 1mg DON per kg of body weight) induced an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in several central structures, including the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), dorsal vagal complex (DVC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (Arc), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and amygdala (CeA). Moreover, we coupled c-Fos staining with phenotypic markers detection in order to specify the neuronal populations activated during DON intoxication. This phenotypic characterization revealed the activation of catecholaminergic but not of serotoninergic neurons in response to the toxin. In this context, we also paid a particular attention to NUCB2/nesfatin-1 positive cells, since nesfatin-1 is known to exert a satiety effect. We report here, for the first time in the pig brain, the presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the VLM, DVC, PVN, Arc and SON, and their activation during DON intoxication. Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin.

  15. Wounding a fibroblast monolayer results in the rapid induction of the c-fos proto-oncogene.

    OpenAIRE

    Verrier, B; Müller, D; Bravo, R.; Müller, R.

    1986-01-01

    The c-fos gene has previously been shown to be transiently induced within minutes after the stimulation of mouse fibroblasts with growth factors. Induction of c-fos was observed specifically with competence factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), not with progression factors (e.g., platelet-poor plasma), suggesting a role for c-fos in conferring competence on fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we have analyzed c-fos expression in NIH 3T3 cells that were made competent in a different...

  16. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  17. Mapping brain response to social stress in rodents with c-fos expression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Calvo-Torrent, A; Herbert, J

    2002-02-01

    Social defeat is an important event in the life of many animals, and forms part of the process of social control. Adapting to social defeat is thus an intrinsic part of social "homeostasis", and mal-adaptation may have pathological sequelae. Experimental models of social defeat (e.g. inter-male aggression) have existed for many years. However, very few studies have investigated the changes in brain activity in male animals exposed to the social stress of being defeated by another conspecific male, and in all these studies the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been used as the marker of neuronal activity. In general, the results obtained inform that many areas of the brain, especially those involved in the general stress response, increase their activity when animals are exposed to an acute defeat. However, when animals are defeated repeatedly over many consecutive days, the level of activation of the brain shows different patterns of adaptation depending on the brain areas (varying from complete habituation to persistent activation). Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in the experimental procedure. On the other hand, further research has to be conducted in order to understand what these changes in the brain activity mean in relation to the other stress responses to social defeat. Furthermore, knowing that the corresponding protein products of many immediate-early genes are transcription factors that can promote or inhibit the expression of target genes, research following this approach is also necessary.

  18. The mGlu2/3 Receptor Agonists LY354740 and LY379268 Differentially Regulate Restraint-Stress-Induced Expression of c-Fos in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets due to the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to modulate excitatory transmission at specific synapses. LY354740 and LY379268 are selective and potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonists that show both anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in animal models. We compared the efficacy of LY354740 and LY379268 in attenuating restraint-stress-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the rat prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL cortex. LY354740 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. showed statistically significant and dose-related attenuation of stress-induced increase in c-Fos expression, in the rat cortex. By contrast, LY379268 had no effect on restraint-stress-induced c-Fos upregulation (0.3–10 mg/kg, i.p.. Because both compounds inhibit serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR-induced c-Fos expression, we hypothesize that LY354740 and LY379268 have different in vivo properties and that 5-HT2AR activation and restraint stress induce c-Fos through distinct mechanisms.

  19. c-Fos enhances the survival of thymocytes during positive selection by upregulating Bcl-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wang; Yafeng Zhang; Gang Xiao; Xiang Gao; Xiaolong Liu

    2009-01-01

    T cells are derived from progenitor thymocytes, of which only a minority receive the appropriate TCR signal, undergo positive selection and mature. Owing to the very short lifespan of thymocytes, the prerequisite for posi-tive selection is survival. TCR signal-induced Bcl-2 expression is believed to play a dominant role in the survival of positively selecting thymocytes, but how Bcl-2 is directly regulated is unknown. Here we report that the immediate early gene (lEG) c-Fos can stimulate the expression of Bcl-2, depending on a specific AP-l-binding site in the Bcl-2 promoter. In c-Fos transgenic (Fos-Tg) mice, c-Fos binds to this site and promotes the expression of Bcl-2. As a result, Fos-Tg thymocytes exhibited enhanced survival, and more mature single-positive (SP) thymocytes were generated, even on a unique TCR background. The TCR repertoire remained normal in Fos-Tg mice. Our results identified e-Fos as the mediator of the stimulatory effect of TCR signaling on Bcl-2 expression. Therefore, c-Fos, as an IEG, because of its early response ability, can quickly rescue the survival of short-lived thymocytes during positive selection. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism regulating the survival of positively selecting thymocytes.

  20. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne;

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived fro...

  1. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  2. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  3. Receptor systems mediating c-fos expression within trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animal models of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, D D; Sanchez del Rio, M

    2001-03-01

    In intracranial structures unmyelinated C- and Adelta-fibers of the trigeminal nerve transmit pain stimuli from meninges to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Peripheral nerve endings surround meningeal vessels (the so-called trigeminovascular system) and contain vasoactive neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neurokinin A). Activation of the trigeminovascular system promotes a meningeal sterile inflammatory response through the release of neuropeptides by peripheral endings. Orthodromic conduction along trigeminovascular fibers transmits information centrally with induction of immediate early c-fos gene within post-synaptic Sp5C neurons, as a marker of neuronal activity within central nociceptive pathways. In laboratory animals the system is activated by either electrical stimulation of the TG, chemical stimulation of the meninges, electrical or mechanical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by induction of cortical spreading depression. All these techniques induce c-fos within Sp5C and are used as a rodent/feline model of vascular headache in humans. Up-to-date there is evidence that at least ten receptors (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(lF), 5-HT(2B), NK-1, GABA(A), NMDA, AMPA, class III metabotropic glutamate receptors, and opioids mu receptors) modulate c-fos expression within Sp5C. These receptors represent potential targets for anti-migraine drugs as shown by triptans (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and ergot alkaloids (5-HT(1A1B/1D/1F)). This review discusses the importance of c-fos expression within Sp5C as a marker of cephalic nociception, the different cephalic pain models that induce c-fos within Sp5C, the receptors involved and their potential role as targets for anti-migraine drugs.

  4. 不同间歇低氧方式对内皮细胞c-fos mRNA表达水平的影响%Changes of c-fos mRNA in Endothelial Cells Exposed to Various Intermittent Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梦丽; 刘春霞; 冯靖; 曹洁; 陈宝元

    2013-01-01

    .5 h group, 3 h group, 5 h group, 6.5 h group and 9.5 h group. The mRNA expression of immediate-early gene c-fos was measured by real-time PCR. Results There was no significant difference in the level of c-fos mRNA between intermittent normoxia group and CH group. The expression of c-fos mRNA was significantly higher in 1.5%O2 IH group and 10%O2 IH group than that of intermit-tent normoxia group, and there was a higher expression level of c-fos mRNA in 1.5%O2 IH group than that of 10%O2 IH group (P<0.01). It was found that the mRNA expression of c-fos increased gradually at first, and then gradually decreased. The expression of c-fos mRNA was significantly higher in 5 h group than that of other groups (P<0.01). Conclusion The mRNA expression of immediate-early gene c-fos is increased after exposing to IH/ROX in endothelial cells, which is closely related with IH extents and frequencies.

  5. [The Role of c-fos in the Production of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and the Related Signal Transduction Pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Quan; Huang, Jun-Qin; Yi, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Jun

    2015-12-01

    As an immediate early gene, c-fos plays a critical role in stimulating the synthesis and release of pituitary FSH via GnRH. To better understanding the mechanism how c-fos works in the transcription of FSHbeta under different frequency of pulsatile GnRH stimulation, this paper reviewed the signal trans- ductions initiated by c-fos in pituitary, which include cAMP pathway, MAPK pathway, Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinases pathway and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway. It will be helpful for research in molecular targeted immunotherapy and eventually effective treatment to the infertility which resulted from defection or mutation of c-fos and c-fos related signal pathway elements.

  6. GABAergic neurons of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei of the cat express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2001-02-23

    The laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT-PPT) are involved in the generation of active sleep (AS; also called REM or rapid eye movement sleep). Although the LDT-PPT are composed principally of cholinergic neurons that participate in the control of sleep and waking states, the function of the large number of GABAergic neurons that are also located in the LDT-PPT is unknown. Consequently, we sought to determine if these neurons are activated (as indicated by their c-fos expression) during active sleep induced by the microinjection of carbachol into the rostro-dorsal pons (AS-carbachol). Accordingly, immunocytochemical double-labeling techniques were used to identify GABA and Fos protein, as well as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), in histological sections of the LDT-PPT. Compared to control awake cats, there was a larger number of GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol (31.5+/-6.1 vs. 112+/-15.2, P<0.005). This increase in the number of GABA+Fos+ neurons occurred on the ipsilateral side relative to the injection site; there was a small decrease in GABA+Fos+ cells in the contralateral LDT-PPT. However, the LDT-PPT neurons that exhibited the largest increase in c-fos expression during AS-carbachol were neither GABA+ nor ChAT+ (47+/-22.5 vs. 228.7+/-14.0, P<0.0005). The number of cholinergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol was not significantly different compared to wakefulness. These data demonstrate that, during AS-carbachol, GABAergic as well as an unidentified population of neurons are activated in the LDT-PPT. We propose that these non-cholinergic LDT-PPT neurons may participate in the regulation of active sleep. PMID:11172778

  7. β-glucan reduces exercise-induced stress through downregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jae-Deung; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. β-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of β-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of β-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follows: Control, exercise, exercise and 50 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, exercise and 100 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, and exercise and 200 mg/kg β-glucan treatment. Rats in the β-glucan‑treated groups were administered β-glucan at the respective dose once per day for seven days. Rats in the exercise groups performed treadmill running once per day for six days. On the seventh day of the experiment, the time to exhaustion in response to treadmill running was determined for the exercise groups. The expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe and hippocampus was enhanced by exhaustive treadmill running. Administration of β-glucan resulted in an increase in the time to exhaustion and the suppression of the exercise-induced increment in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. In conclusion, β-glucan may exert an alleviating effect on exercise-induced stress through the suppression of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats. PMID:24604295

  8. c-fos Expression in mesopontine noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep: a double-labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of cholinergic and catecholaminergic mechanisms in the mesopontine region has been hypothesized as being critical for the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. To further examine this hypothesis, we sought to determine the pattern of neuronal activation (via c-fos expression) of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in this region during active sleep induced by the pontine microapplication of carbachol (designated as active sleep-carbachol). Accordingly, we used two sets of double-labeling techniques; the first to identify tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons (putative catecholaminergic cells) which also express the c-fos protein product Fos, and the second to reveal choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons (putative cholinergic cells) which also express Fos. Compared to control cats, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of Fos-expressing neurons in the dorsolateral region of the pons, which encompasses the locus coeruleus, the lateral pontine reticular formation, the peribrachial nuclei and the latero-dorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei. However, both control and active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a similar number of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in those regions that expressed Fos (i.e., double-labeled cells). A large number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the active sleep-carbachol cats whose neurotransmitter phenotype was not identified suggests that non-catecholaminergic, non-cholinergic neuronal populations in mesopontine regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of active sleep. The lack of increased c-fos expression in catecholaminergic neurons during active sleep-carbachol confirms and extends previous data that indicate that these cells are silent during active sleep-carbachol and naturally-occurring active sleep. The finding that cholinergic neurons of the dorsolateral pons were not activated either during wakefulness or active sleep

  9. Effect of water restrictions on the physiological parameters, psychological behavior and brain c-Fos expression in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua ZHU; Bai-Ren WANG; Qing-Rong TAN; Xiao-Li DUAN; Fang KUANG; Zhen XU; Gong JU

    2006-01-01

    Objective In order to characterize the feature of stress response induced by stressor with both physical and psychological natures, the effect of water restriction performed in different experimental modes on the physiological parameters, psychological behavioral manifestations and brain c-Fos expressions were observed and compared. Methods 58 male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n= 18 for each) and a control group (n=4). In control group, the rats were allowed to access drinking water freely at all experimental period. In the experimental groups the water supply to the rats was restricted. In timed water supply (TW) group, the water was supplied twice a day,10 min for each in fixed hours every day. In empty bottle-served (EB) and water-restricted (WR) groups, the water was served only once a day for 10 min, either in the early morning or evening, and in the other time point scheduled for water supply only an empty bottle without water was provided in the EB group and nothing was given in the WR group. The quantities of drank water and eaten food, weight-gaining, and behavior score were observed every day. The serum level of corticosterone was assayed and the rats were sacrificed with fixative perfusion of 3 d, 7 d or 14 d respectively, following water restriction (n=6 for each time point in each group). The brain c-Fos expressions were examined with immunohistochemistry. Results The slowing down of weight-gaining, rise of serum corticosterone level, occurrence of psychological behavioral manifestations of unpeaceful restlessness such as exploring and attacking, enhance of c-Fos expression in the subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), area postrema (AP), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), medial (MeA) and central (CeA) amygdaloid nucleus and ventrolateral septum (LSV) were noticed in both EB and WR groups, except the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) in which the Fos

  10. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yun Ahn; Seongkweon Hong; Jae-Chul Lee; Jeong Yeol Seo; Hyun-Jin Tae; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Joon Ha Park; Dong Won Kim; Jun Hwi Cho; Moo-Ho Won

    2015-01-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disor-ders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cin-gulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histolfuorescence staining. c-Fos-immunore-active cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction.

  11. C-fos and the Digestive Disease%c-fos与消化系疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海玲; 邓春发; 骆黎

    2011-01-01

    c-fos是一种存在于正常神经核内的原癌基因,属于即刻早期基因,可被多种刺激诱导而快速表达.c-fos原癌基因及其蛋白产物不仅参与细胞的正常生长、分化过程,而且也参与细胞内信息传递过程和细胞的能量代谢过程,在生命活动中起着极为基本而重要的作用.c-fos是反映细胞活性的一种标志,近年来被广泛用作神经元异常兴奋标记物,用于探讨多种疾病的发生机制,尤其在神经病学及麻醉医学中,被广泛应用于脑缺血发作及其他有害刺激对脑细胞的损伤及药物疗效评价.近些年随着对其生物学功能认识的逐渐深入,c-fos逐渐用于探索内脏敏感性异常的起源、胃肠伤害性信号传递的神经通路、脊髓和高级中枢如何调节及其关键的活性物质的研究.本文综述了近年来国内外c-fos 在探讨消化系疾病的发病机制中的异常表达及其生物学意义的研究进展.%c-fos was a normal neural kernel inside protocarcinogenic gene,belongs to the immediate early gene, can be quickly and induction of stimulation expression. c-fos protocarcinogenic gene and their protein products not only in the normal cell differentiation process,but also in the information transfer within the cell and the cells in the process of energy metabolism, life activity plays very basic and important role. c-fos is a symbol of the cell. In recent years,c-fos has been widely used for neuron abnormalities excited marker and used to explore the mechanism of various diseases and evaluation the drug efficacy. Especially in neurology and anesthesia in medicine, c-fos have been widely applied in ischemic attacks and other noxious stimulation of the brain damage and drug efficacy evaluation. In recent years with the understanding of their biological functions,c-fos gradually used to explore the internal abnormal origin, gastrointestinal sensitivity to harm the signaling pathways, spinal cord and senior central

  12. Using c-fos to study neuronal ensembles in corticostriatal circuitry of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fabio C; Javier Rubio, F; Hope, Bruce T

    2015-12-01

    Learned associations between drugs and environment play an important role in addiction and are thought to be encoded within specific patterns of sparsely distributed neurons called neuronal ensembles. This hypothesis is supported by correlational data from in vivo electrophysiology and cellular imaging studies in relapse models in rodents. In particular, cellular imaging with the immediate early gene c-fos and its protein product Fos has been used to identify sparsely distributed neurons that were strongly activated during conditioned drug behaviors such as drug self-administration and context- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Here we review how Fos and the c-fos promoter have been employed to demonstrate causal roles for Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in conditioned drug behaviors. This work has allowed identification of unique molecular and electrophysiological alterations within Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles that may contribute to the development and expression of learned associations in addiction.

  13. Brainstem Regions Involved in the Expiration Reflex. A c-fos Study in Anesthetized Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, Ivan; Halasova, Erika; Jakus, Jan; Murin, Peter; Barani, Helena; Stransky, Albert; Bolser, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was employed to localize brainstem neuronal populations functionally related to the expiration reflex (ER). Twelve spontaneously breathing, non-decerebrate, pentobarbital anesthetized cats were used. The level of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in 6 animals with repetitive ERs mechanically induced from the glottis (296±9 ERs) was compared to FLI in 6 control non-stimulated cats. Respiratory rate, arterial blood pre...

  14. Effect of naloxone hydrochloride on c-fos protein expression in brain and plasma beta-endorphin level in rats with diffuse brain injury and secondary brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie JING

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the changes of c-fos protein expression in brain and beta-endorphin (β-EP level in blood plasma in rats with diffuse brain injury (DBI and secondary brain insult (SBI after intraperitoneal injection of naloxone hydrochloride, and explore the role of c-fos andβ-EP in development of SBI in rats. Methods Seventy health male SD rats were enrolled in the present study and randomly divided into group A (intraperitoneally injected with 0.9% saline after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, group B (injected intraperitoneally with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and SBI model was reproduced, and group C (intraperitoneally injected with 1.0mg/kg naloxone hydrochloride after DBI and before SBI model was reproduced. The animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injury, and the number of c-fos positive cells in brain and content of β-EP in blood plasma were determined by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay respectively, the water content and number of injured neurons in brain tissue were measured by pathomorphological observation of the brain tissue. Results No significant difference was observed between group B and C for all the detection parameters. In group B and C, the water content in brain tissue at 3h and 24h was found to be decreased, while the number of injured neurons at 24h and 48h increased, number of c-fos positive cells in brain at 3h, 24h and 48h decreased, and content of β-EP in blood plasma at 3h and 24h decreased when compared with group A(P < 0.05. Conclusion Naloxone hydrochloride could decrease the c-fos expression in brain and β-EP level in blood plasma, alleviate the nerve injury, and protect neural function. The therapeutic effect of naloxone administered either after DBI and SBI or after DBI and before SBI was similar.

  15. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J. [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda (United States); Lord, Rebecca L. [Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom); Chawla, Sangeeta, E-mail: sangeeta.chawla@york.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited

  16. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  17. Injections of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala induce anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, F; Lightman, S L; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2006-01-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Previous studies have shown that injections of the anxiety-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor or the related neuropeptide urocortin 1 into the region of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus induce anxiety-like behavior in several behavioral paradigms. Brainstem serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus may be part of a distributed neural system that, together with the basolateral amygdala, regulates acute and chronic anxiety states. We therefore investigated the effect of an acute bilateral injection of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala on behavior in the social interaction test and on c-Fos expression within serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae directed at the region of the basolateral amygdala; 72 h after surgery, rats were injected with urocortin 1 (50 fmol/100 nl) or vehicle (100 nl of 1% bovine serum albumin in distilled water). Thirty minutes after injection, a subgroup of rats from each experimental group was exposed to the social interaction test; remaining animals were left in the home cage. Two hours after injection rats were perfused with paraformaldehyde and brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Acute injection of urocortin 1 had anxiogenic effects in the social interaction test, reducing total interaction time without affecting locomotor activity or exploratory behavior. These behavioral effects were associated with increases in c-Fos expression within brainstem serotonergic neurons. In home cage rats and rats exposed to the social interaction test, urocortin 1 treatment increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive serotonergic neurons within subdivisions of both the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the

  18. Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Abdelli

    Full Text Available Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.

  19. Individual variations in maternal care early in life correlate with later life decision-making and c-fos expression in prefrontal subregions of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa N van Hasselt

    Full Text Available Early life adversity affects hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, alters cognitive functioning and in humans is thought to increase the vulnerability to psychopathology--e.g. depression, anxiety and schizophrenia--later in life. Here we investigated whether subtle natural variations among individual rat pups in the amount of maternal care received, i.e. differences in the amount of licking and grooming (LG, correlate with anxiety and prefrontal cortex-dependent behavior in young adulthood. Therefore, we examined the correlation between LG received during the first postnatal week and later behavior in the elevated plus maze and in decision-making processes using a rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT. In our cohort of male and female animals a high degree of LG correlated with less anxiety in the elevated plus maze and more advantageous choices during the last 10 trials of the rIGT. In tissue collected 2 hrs after completion of the task, the correlation between LG and c-fos expression (a marker of neuronal activity was established in structures important for IGT performance. Negative correlations existed between rIGT performance and c-fos expression in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, prelimbic cortex, infralimbic cortex and insular cortex. The insular cortex correlations between c-fos expression and decision-making performance depended on LG background; this was also true for the lateral orbitofrontal cortex in female rats. Dendritic complexity of insular or infralimbic pyramidal neurons did not or weakly correlate with LG background. We conclude that natural variations in maternal care received by pups may significantly contribute to later-life decision-making and activity of underlying brain structures.

  20. Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Julie A D; Coke, Tricia; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study uses cellular c-fos activation to assess effects of novel ingestion of fat and sugar on brain dopamine (DA) pathways in rats. Intakes of sugars and fats are mediated by their innate attractions as well as learned preferences. Brain dopamine, especially meso-limbic and meso-cortical projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been implicated in both of these unlearned and learned responses. The concept of distributed brain networks, wherein several sites and transmitter/peptide systems interact, has been proposed to mediate palatable food intake, but there is limited evidence empirically demonstrating such actions. Thus, sugar intake elicits DA release and increases c-fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) from individual VTA DA projection zones including the nucleus accumbens (NAC), amygdala (AMY) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as well as the dorsal striatum. Further, central administration of selective DA receptor antagonists into these sites differentially reduce acquisition and expression of conditioned flavor preferences elicited by sugars or fats. One approach by which to determine whether these sites interacted as a distributed brain network in response to sugar or fat intake would be to simultaneous evaluate whether the VTA and its major mesotelencephalic DA projection zones (prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC, core and shell of the NAc, basolateral and central-cortico-medial AMY) as well as the dorsal striatum would display coordinated and simultaneous FLI activation after oral, unconditioned intake of corn oil (3.5%), glucose (8%), fructose (8%) and saccharin (0.2%) solutions. This approach is a successful first step in identifying the feasibility of using cellular c-fos activation simultaneously across relevant brain sites to study reward-related learning in ingestion of palatable food in rodents. PMID:27583636

  1. Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Andreza B; Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimaraes, Francisco S

    2016-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychoactive compound from Cannabis sativa plant. Given that CBD reduces psychotic symptoms without inducing extrapyramidal motor side-effects in animal models and schizophrenia patients, it has been proposed to act as an atypical antipsychotic. In addition, CBD reduced catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms, including the typical antipsychotic haloperidol. To further investigate this latter effect, we tested whether CBD (15-60mg/kg) would attenuate the catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal striatum induced by haloperidol (0.6mg/kg). We also evaluated if these effects occur through the facilitation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. For this, male Swiss mice were treated with CBD and haloperidol systemically and then subjected to the catalepsy test. Independent groups of animals were also treated with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). As expected, haloperidol induced catalepsy throughout the experiments, an effect that was prevented by systemic CBD treatment 30min before haloperidol administration. Also, CBD, administered 2.5h after haloperidol, reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Haloperidol also increased c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum, an effect attenuated by previous CBD administration. CBD effects on catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression induced by haloperidol were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. We also evaluated the effects of CBD (60nmol) injection into the dorsal striatum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Similar to systemic administration, this treatment reduced catalepsy induced by haloperidol. Altogether, these results suggest that CBD acts in the dorsal striatum to improve haloperidol-induced catalepsy via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:27131780

  2. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  3. c-fos/c-jun expression and AP-1 activation in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, E; Bellesia, E; Salomoni, P; Croce, M A; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Latorraca, S; Barbieri, D; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Sorbi, S; Franceschi, C

    1996-09-13

    In vitro replicative senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest due to the inability of the cell to induce some key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as c-fos and AP-1, in response to mitogenic stimuli. In vitro replicative senescence and in vivo aging have been assumed to be two related phenomena, likely controlled by overlapping or interacting genes. As a corollary, fibroblasts from centenarians, which have undergone a long process of senescence in vivo should have very limited proliferative capability. On the contrary, in a previous work we found that fibroblasts from centenarians exhibited the same capacity to respond to different mitogenic stimuli as fibroblasts from young donors. Here we provide evidences that the well preserved proliferative response is likely due to the fact that some pivotal regulators- c-fos, c-jun and AP-1-are still fully inducible, despite a long process of in vivo senescence. Our data therefore suggest that in vivo and in vitro aging are separate phenomena whose possible relationships, if any, have to be ascertained very carefully. PMID:8806666

  4. C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Mancillas, J R; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1993-06-01

    Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral pontine tegmentum of the cat induces a state that is comparable to naturally occurring active (REM, rapid eye movement) sleep. We sought to determine, during this pharmacologically induced behavioral state, which we refer to as active sleep-carbachol, the distribution of activated neuron within the pons and medulla using c-fos immunocytochemistry as a functional marker. Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited higher numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons in (1) the medial and portions of the lateral reticular formation of the pons and medulla, (2) nuclei in the dorsolateral rostral pons, (3) various raphe nuclei, including the dorsal, central superior, magnus, pallidus, and obscurus, (4) the medial and lateral vestibular, prepositus hypoglossi, and intercalatus nuclei, and (5) the abducens nuclei. On the other hand, the mean number of c-fos-expressing neurons found in the masseter, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei was lower in carbachol-injected than in control cats. The data indicate that c-fos expression can be employed as a marker of state-dependent neuronal activity. The specific sites in which there were greater numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons during active sleep-carbachol are discussed in relation to the state of active sleep, as well as the functional role that these sites play in generating the various physiological patterns of activity that occur during this state. PMID:8501533

  5. Acute nicotine enhances spontaneous recovery of contextual fear and changes c-fos early gene expression in infralimbic cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Tumolo, Jessica M; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence suggests ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and infralimbic cortex may be involved in SR. PTSD patients also show high rates of comorbidity with nicotine dependence. While the comorbidity between smoking and PTSD might suggest nicotine may alter SR, the effects of nicotine on SR of contextual fear are unknown. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute nicotine administration on SR of extinguished contextual fear memories and c-fos immediate early gene immunohistochemistry in mice. Our results demonstrated that acute nicotine enhanced SR of extinguished fear whereas acute nicotine did not affect retrieval of unextinguished contextual memories. This suggests that the effect of acute nicotine on SR is specific for memories that have undergone extinction treatment. C-fos immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala were increased in the nicotine-treated mice following testing for SR, whereas the number of IR cells in the infralimbic cortex was decreased in the same group. Overall, this study suggests that nicotine may adversely affect context-specific relapse of fear memories and this effect is potentially mediated by the suppression of cortical regions and increased activity in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:27421892

  6. A new cAMP response element in the transcribed region of the human c-fos gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, E; Loncarević, I F; Büscher, M.; Herrlich, P; Rahmsdorf, H J

    1991-01-01

    In NIH 3T3 cells the c-fos gene is induced rapidly and transiently by cAMP. As shown by the analysis of 3T3 cells stably transfected with promoter mutants of the human c-fos gene this induction does not depend on the dyad symmetry element (position -320 to -300), but involves at least two other non-related sites: an element located around position -60 resembling the cAMP response element of the fibronectin and somatostatin genes (which has been described before), and an element located betwee...

  7. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  8. [Effects of ketamine and urethane on stimulation-induced c-fos expression in neurons of cat visual cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Cui-Yun; Li, Peng; Jin, Cai-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lu; Jiang, San; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ketamine and urethane on neuronal activities remain in debate. As a member of immediate early genes family, the expression of c-fos is stimulation dependent and could be treated as an index to evaluate the strength of neural activities. In this study, SABC immunohistochemical techniques were applied to compare the c-fos expression in neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1) of cats and therefore, to evaluate the effects of acute anesthesia with ketamine HCl and uethane on inhibiting neural activities. Our results showed that compared with control cats, there were no significant differences with the average densities of Nissl-stained V1 neurons in each cortical layers of either urethane or ketamine anesthetized cats. In urethane anesthetized cats, neither the average densities nor the immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons showed significant difference with that of control ones. However, both the average densities and immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons in ketamine anesthetized cats decreased significantly compared with that of control and urethane anesthetized cats. These results suggested that ketamine has strong inhibitory effects on the activities of visual cortical neurons, whereas urethane did not. PMID:24415690

  9. Dentin bonding agents induce c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2003-01-01

    An important requirement for a dentin bonding agent is biologic compatibility; the bonding agent usually remains in close contact with living dental tissues over a long period of time. Information on the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potentials of dentin bonding agents is rare. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to dentin bonding agents. Therefore, we used primary human gingival fibroblasts to examine the effect of six dentin bonding agents on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to evaluate the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potential of the dentin bonding agents. The levels of mRNA were measured by the quantitative RT-PCR analysis. c-fos and c-jun mRNA expression in dentin bonding agents-treated cells revealed a rapid accumulation of the transcript, a significant signal first was detectable after 1h of exposure. Persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by dentine bonding agents may distribute systemically to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. It would be necessary to identify the severely toxic compounds and replace these substances by better biocompatible components. Otherwise, leaching of those genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity components must be minimized or prevented.

  10. The cellular protooncogenes c-fos and egr-1 are regulated by prostacyclin in rodent osteoblasts and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantschnig, H; Varga, F; Klaushofer, K

    1996-11-01

    PGs are local regulators of various cellular functions. They exert their effects via specific PG receptor subtypes. Induction of c-fos gene expression has been described for arachidonic acid and its metabolite PGE2. We demonstrate that another very short half-lifed prostanoid metabolite, namely prostacyclin (PGI2), is a regulator of immediate-early genes. PGI2 transiently induced the growth-associated immediate-early genes c-fos and egr-1 in osteoblastic as well as fibroblastic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that PGI2 dose dependently stimulated new DNA synthesis in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. Although PGI2 is known to be a potent inducer of cyclooxygenases, we showed that this pathway is not necessary for protooncogene induction by PGI2. Our data indicate a direct effect of PGI2 on immediate-early gene expression, which does not depend on the synthesis of other prostanoids. Intracellular signal transduction mechanisms were studied with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7, a potent inhibitor of PGI2-induced c-fos expression. Experiments with phorbol esters revealed that protein kinase C activity is not obligatory for the effect of PGI2 on c-fos expression. We conclude from these results that PGI2, a rapidly inactivated prostanoid, has a major impact on cellular oncogene expression and growth in mesenchymally derived cells.

  11. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Hedges, Valerie L; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-03-15

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. PMID:24342748

  12. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R cooperates with mediator to facilitate transcription reinitiation on the c-Fos gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Fukuda

    Full Text Available The c-fos gene responds to extracellular stimuli and undergoes robust but transient transcriptional activation. Here we show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R facilitates transcription reinitiation of the c-fos promoter in vitro in cooperation with Mediator. Consistently, hnRNP R interacts with the Scaffold components (Mediator, TBP, and TFIIH as well as TFIIB, which recruits RNA polymerase II (Pol II and TFIIF to Scaffold. The cooperative action of hnRNP R and Mediator is diminished by the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8 module, which is comprised of CDK8, Cyclin C, MED12 and MED13 of the Mediator subunits. Interestingly, we find that the length of the G-free cassettes, and thereby their transcripts, influences the hnRNP R-mediated facilitation of reinitiation. Indeed, indicative of a possible role of the transcript in facilitating transcription reinitiation, the RNA transcript produced from the G-free cassette interacts with hnRNP R through its RNA recognition motifs (RRMs and arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG domain. Mutational analyses of hnRNP R indicate that facilitation of initiation and reinitiation requires distinct domains of hnRNP R. Knockdown of hnRNP R in mouse cells compromised rapid induction of the c-fos gene but did not affect transcription of constitutive genes. Together, these results suggest an important role for hnRNP R in regulating robust response of the c-fos gene.

  13. Ethanol-induced c-Fos expression in catecholamine- and neuropeptide Y-producing neurons in rat brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, TE; Cubero, [No Value; van Dijk, G; Mediavilla, C; Bernstein, IL; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2000-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have used c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (cFLI) to examine the neuroanatomical location of cells that are activated in response to ethanol administration. However, the use of cFLI alone fails to reveal the phenotypical identity of cells. Tn the present study we used double-

  14. Combined Expression of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 Improves Estimation of Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Xin; Xu, Fei; Meng, Yan; Sun, Changsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Eryang

    2016-09-13

    To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Simultaneous coexpression of these markers in OSCCs might prove to be a useful indicator for differentiation of low and high-risk patients.

  15. c-fos expression in brainstem premotor interneurons during cholinergically induced active sleep in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F R; Sampogna, S; Yamuy, J; Chase, M H

    1999-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify trigeminal premotor interneurons that become activated during carbachol-induced active sleep (c-AS). Their identification is a critical step in determining the neural circuits responsible for the atonia of active sleep. Accordingly, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected into the trigeminal motor nuclei complex to label trigeminal interneurons. To identify retrograde-labeled activated neurons, immunocytochemical techniques, designed to label the Fos protein, were used. Double-labeled (i.e., CTb(+), Fos(+)) neurons were found exclusively in the ventral portion of the medullary reticular formation, medial to the facial motor nucleus and lateral to the inferior olive. This region, which encompasses the ventral portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and the nucleus magnocellularis, corresponds to the rostral portion of the classic inhibitory region of. This region contained a mean of 606 +/- 41.5 ipsilateral and 90 +/- 32.0 contralateral, CTb-labeled neurons. These cells were of medium-size with an average soma diameter of 20-35 micrometer. Approximately 55% of the retrogradely labeled cells expressed c-fos during a prolonged episode of c-AS. We propose that these neurons are the interneurons responsible for the nonreciprocal postsynaptic inhibition of trigeminal motoneurons that occurs during active sleep. PMID:10531453

  16. Functional organisation of central cardiovascular pathways: studies using c-fos gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, R A L; Horiuchi, J

    2003-12-01

    Until about 10 years ago, knowledge of the functional organisation of the central pathways that subserve cardiovascular responses to homeostatic challenges and other stressors was based almost entirely on studies in anaesthetised animals. More recently, however, many studies have used the method of the expression of immediate early genes, particularly the c-fos gene, to identify populations of central neurons that are activated by such challenges in conscious animals. In this review we first consider the advantages and limitations of this method. Then, we discuss how the application of the method of immediate early gene expression, when used alone or in combination with other methods, has contributed to our understanding of the central mechanisms that regulate the autonomic and neuroendocrine response to various cardiovascular challenges (e.g., hypotension, hypoxia, hypovolemia, and other stressors) as they operate in the conscious state. In general, the results of studies of central cardiovascular pathways using immediate early gene expression are consistent with previous studies in anaesthetised animals, but in addition have revealed other previously unrecognised pathways that also contribute to cardiovascular regulation. Finally, we briefly consider recent evidence indicating that immediate early gene expression can modify the functional properties of central cardiovascular neurons, and the possible significance of this in producing long-term changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system both in normal and pathological conditions.

  17. Changes in hypothalamic staining for c-Fos following 2G exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Murakami, D. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Tang, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    The static gravitational field of the earth has been an important selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of biological organisms. This is illustrated by the evolution of tetrapods from a water environment where gravitational force was partially negated to a terrestrial environment where gravity is of greater consequence. Terrestrial invasion resulted in a series of new structural, physiological, and behavioral features. Therefore, it is not surprising that alterations in the gravitational field can cause widespread effects in many physiological systems and behaviors. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both exposure to hyperdynamic fields and the microgravity condition of space flight have significant effects on body temperature, heartrate, activity, feeding, drinking, and circadian rhythms. However, it has not been determined whether these physiological adaptations are associated with changes in neural activity within the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. This study examined the changes in body temperature, activity, body weight and food and water intake in rats caused by exposure to a hyperdynamic field. In addition, the immediate early gene activation marker, c-Fos, was used to examine potential protein synthesis changes in the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions.

  18. Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenic potential in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients via the suppression of MAPK/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wei; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. PBMCs from patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=10) were cultured to assess osteoclastogenic potential. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts differentiated from PBMCs isolated from patients with RA was significantly increased compared with that of the healthy controls. In addition, the osteoclast number in patients with RA was correlated with the clinical indicators, Sharp score (r=0.810; P=0.001) and lumbar T-score (r=−0.685; P=0.014). Furthermore, the resorption area was increased in the RA group compared with the healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMC-derived osteoclasts treated with curcumin were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs, potentially by suppressing activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs from patients with RA through the suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways, and that curcumin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone deterioration in inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:27572279

  19. A non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, alleviates novelty-induced hypophagia in mice: insights into changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Ulrich, Christine; Ling, Nicholas; Allen, Kerry; Levine, Allen S

    2014-09-01

    Anxiety caused by the novelty of food or of the environment where the food is presented leads to suppression of consumption (hyponeophagia) reflected by an increased latency to begin feeding and decreased food intake. Studies suggest that some anxiolytics, mainly benzodiazepines and SSRIs, resolve hyponeophagia. Though the neurohormone oxytocin (OT) affects both anxiety responsiveness and feeding-related homeostasis, the link between OT and hyponeophagia has not been established. The current experiments examined the effect of OT receptor stimulation on hyponeophagia in mice and associated changes in brain activity. We found that the OT receptor agonist, WAY-267,464, at 10 and 30 mg/kg b. wt. IP, reduced the latency to approach food and increased the amount of food eaten in hyponeophagia tests differing in animals' motivation to eat (hunger, reward) and the anxiogenic context of environmental novelty (illumination and type of the cage). This effect was abolished by the pretreatment with the OT receptor antagonist, L-368,899, at 10mg/kg b. wt. The antagonist also suppressed social transmission of preference for novel food. Mice subjected to novelty conditions causing hypophagia showed significant changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, lateral septum, cingulate and piriform cortex and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral division, posterolateral part (STLP). The pretreatment with WAY-267,464 restored c-Fos levels in the STLP to values detected in control animals subjected to non-anxiogenic conditions. We conclude that OT plays a role in shaping the magnitude of the novelty stress-provoked hypophagia and the activity of the relevant neural networks. PMID:25038444

  20. Changing the General Factor of Personality and the c-fos Gene Expression with Methylphenidate and Self-Regulation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Micó Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Amigó Borrás, Salvador; CASELLES MONCHO, ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    [EN] A deepening in the biological nature of the general factor of personality (GFP) is suggested: the activation level of the stress system is here represented by the gene expression of c-fos. The results of a single case experimental design are reported. A model of four coupled differential equations that explains the human personality dynamics as a consequence of a single stimulant drug intake has been fitted to psychological and biological experimental data. The stimulant-drug conditi...

  1. Expression of cFos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alele, Paul E.; Devaud, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To map areas of brain activation (cFos) alongside changes in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to provide insights into neuronal mechanisms contributing to previously observed sex differences in behavioral measures of ethanol withdrawal (EW). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of cFos and BDNF levels using protein-specific antibodies and visualization with nickel-enhanced DAB staining in 3 cortical and 4 hippocampal regions was used to assess EW-in...

  2. Transient down-regulation of sound-induced c-Fos protein expression in the inferior colliculus after ablation of the auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Clarkson; José M Juíz; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether lesions of the excitatory glutamatergic projection from the auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus induce plastic changes in neurons of this nucleus. Changes in neuronal activation in the inferior colliculus deprived unilaterally of the cortico-collicular projection were assessed by quantitative c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Densitometry and stereology measures of sound-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus showed diminished labeling at 1, 15, 90 and 1...

  3. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Delcuratolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis.

  4. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcuratolo, Maria; Fertey, Jasmin; Schneider, Markus; Schuetz, Johanna; Leiprecht, Natalie; Hudjetz, Benjamin; Brodbeck, Stephan; Corall, Silke; Dreer, Marcel; Schwab, Roxana Michaela; Grimm, Martin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Stubenrauch, Frank; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS) in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:26727473

  5. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing focus on cancer rehabilitation programs, there is limited knowledge about the experiences of residential rehabilitation focusing on both the patients and their relatives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experienced benefits of the joint...... involvement of patients and their relatives in a 5-day residential cancer rehabilitation course, provided as part of a larger intervention study in Denmark. Methods: Ethnographic fieldwork, consisting of participant observations and informal conversations, was conducted with 20 individuals (10 patients and 10...... relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  6. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  7. Food for song: expression of c-Fos and ZENK in the zebra finch song nuclei during food aversion learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Tokarev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their 'evolutionary history'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding.

  8. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Farivar, Shirin; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh

    2011-09-01

    Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

  9. Bcl-2, Bax, and c-Fos expression correlates to RPE cell apoptosis induced by UV-light and daunorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Y G; Jorgensen, A G; Kaestel, C G;

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2, Bcl-X L, Bax, and c-Fos in regulation of apoptosis, induced by ultraviolet-light A (UV-A) and daunorubicin (DNR), in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells grown on bovine extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated or uncoated plastic dishes....... METHODS. Apoptosis in confluent RPE cells cultured on ECM-coated or uncoated dishes was induced by UV-A or DNR. Apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D labeling followed by flow cytometry and by terminal deoxy-transferase mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Cellular expression of Bcl-2, Bcl......-X L, Bax, and c-Fos was determined by the use of antibodies and flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemical staining. RESULTS. Both UV-A and DNR induce apoptosis in human RPE cells in vitro. Human fetal RPE cells grown on ECM-coated dishes were significantly more resistant to UV...

  10. C-fos protein expression in the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens in the hypoxic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Siniša S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By examining the production of c-Fos protein, we analyzed the response to the ischemic attack in different brain tissue, two of which are regions of the limbic system: the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens. Material and Methods. We used the model of rat brain ischemia - four-vessel occlusion, and Pulsinelli’s method. The rats were treated in two ways, according to which they were divided into two groups: a total ischemia (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery with bilateral ligation of the carotid artery - the so-called R-group rats, and transient ischemic attack (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery, with mutual re-ligation of the carotid arteries in the form of transient ischemia - the so-called T-group rats, which can also be called “pre-conditioned group”. Both groups had their own control group. Conclusion. We have concluded that parts of the brain with an important role for the survival have a strong expression of c-fos gene.

  11. Changing the general factor of personality and the c-fos gene expression with methylphenidate and self-regulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A deepening in the biological nature of the general factor of personality (GFP) is suggested: the activation level of the stress system is here represented by the gene expression of c-fos. The results of a single case experimental design are reported. A model of four coupled differential equations that explains the human personality dynamics as a consequence of a single stimulant drug intake has been fitted to psychological and biological experimental data. The stimulant-drug conditioning and its adaptation to the considered mathematical model is also studied for both kinds of measures. The dynamics of the c-fos expression presents a similar pattern to the dynamics of the psychological measures of personality assessed by the GFP-FAS (Five-Adjective Scale of the General Factor of Personality) as a consequence of a single dose of stimulant drug (methylphenidate). The model predicts similar dynamic patterns for both psychological and biological measures. This study proves that describing mathematically the dynamics of the effects of a stimulant drug as well as the effects of a conditioning method on psychological or subjective variables and on gene expression is possible. It verifies the existence of biological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the General Factor of Personality (GFP).

  12. Effects of mercury contaminated rice from typical chemical plant area in China on nitric oxide changes and c-fos expression of rats brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; WANG Wen-hua; JIA Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; SHI Wei; Lin Xue-yu

    2005-01-01

    China is one of countries with the highest mercury production in the world. The Guizhou Province in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. In order to study the neurotoxicity of rice from Qingzhen Chemical Plant area and probe into the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain stimulation by mercury contaminated rice. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated rice for 20 d. Both of the measurements of NO and NOS were processed according to the protocol of the kit. The effect of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods.The results showed the neural transmitter NO and NOS in brain were significantly change between exposure groups and control group; the mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group( p < 0.01). It could be concluded that nitric oxide was involved in mercury contaminated rice induced immediate early gene c-fos expressions in the rat brain. Through food chain, local ecosystem and health of local people iave been deteriorated seriously by mercury. This serious situation will last a long period. In order to alleviate mercury pollution, more work needs to do.

  13. Function of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like Proteins on Trichostatin A-induced G2/M Arrest in Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue LI; Jun LU; Yan-Mei ZHAO; Bai-Qu HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The homologs of transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been detected in slime mold Physarum polycephalum during progression of the synchronous cell cycle. Here we demonstrated that cFos-like and c-Jun-like proteins participated in G2/M transition by the regulation of the level of Cyclin B1 protein in P. polycephalum. The study of antibody neutralization revealed that interruption of the functions of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like proteins resulted in G2/M transition arrest, implicating their functional roles in cell cycle control. When G2/M transition was blocked by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, changes in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like protein levels, and hyperacetylation of c-Jun-like protein, were observed. The data suggest that in P. polycephalum, c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins may be the key factors in the regulation of histone acetylation-related G2/M transition, involving the coordinated expression and hyperacetylation of these proteins.

  14. Physical interaction of the activator protein-1 factors c-Fos and c-Jun with Cbfa1 for collagenase-3 promoter activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Karsenty, Gerard; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we determined that the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-binding site and the runt domain (RD)-binding site and their binding proteins, c-Fos.c-Jun and Cbfa, regulate the collagenase-3 promoter in parathyroid hormone-treated and differentiating osteoblasts. Here we show that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun appear to cooperatively bind the RD- and AP-1-binding sites and form ternary structures in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies further demonstrate interaction between Cbfa1 with c-Fos and c-Jun in the absence of phosphorylation and without binding to DNA. Additionally, only the runt domain of Cbfa1 was required for interaction with c-Jun and c-Fos. In mammalian cells, overexpression of Cbfa1 enhanced c-Jun activation of AP-1-binding site promoter activity, demonstrating functional interaction. Finally, insertion of base pairs that disrupted the helical phasing between the AP-1- and RD-binding sites also inhibited collagenase-3 promoter activation. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Cbfa1 and c-Fos.c-Jun physically interact and cooperatively bind the AP-1- and RD-binding sites in the collagenase-3 promoter. Moreover, the AP-1- and RD-binding sites appear to be organized in a specific required helical arrangement that facilitates transcription factor interaction and enables promoter activation.

  15. Topical application of preparations containing DNA repair enzymes prevents ultraviolet-induced telomere shortening and c-FOS proto-oncogene hyperexpression in human skin: an experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Altabas, Velimir; Altabas, Karmela; Berardesca, Enzo

    2013-09-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the most important risk factors for skin aging and increases the risk of malignant transformation. Telomere shortening and an altered expression of the proto-oncogene c-FOS are among the key molecular mechanisms associated with photoaging and tumorigenesis. Photolyase from A. nidulans and endonuclease from M. luteus are xenogenic DNA repair enzymes which can reverse the molecular events associated with skin aging and carcinogenosis caused by UVR exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the topical application of preparations containing DNA repair enzymes may prevent UVR-induced acute telomere shortening and FOS gene hyperexpression in human skin biopsies. Twelve volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin types I and II) were enrolled for this experimental study, and six circular areas (10 mm diameter) were marked out on the nonexposed lower back of each participant. One site was left untreated (site 1: negative control), whereas the remaining five sites (designated sites 2-6) were exposed to solar-simulated UVR at 3 times the MED on four consecutive days. Site 2 received UVR only (site 2: positive control), whereas the following products were applied to sites 3-6, respectively: vehicle (moisturizer base cream; applied both 30 minutes before and immediately after each irradiation; site 3); a traditional sunscreen (SS, SPF 50) 30 minutes before irradiation and a vehicle immediately after irradiation (site 4); a SS 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 5); a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation immediately after irradiation (site 6). Skin biopsies were taken 24 h after the last irradiation. The degree of telomere shortening and c-FOS gene expression were measured in all specimens. Strikingly, the combined use of a SS plus photolyase 30 minutes before irradiation and an endonuclease preparation

  16. The effects of a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1 on endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI in intensive care units. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a major pathogenetic factor in septic AKI. c-Fos/activator protein (AP-1 controls the expression of these cytokines by binding directly to AP-1 motifs in the cytokine promoter regions. T-5224 is a new drug developed by computer-aided drug design that selectively inhibits c-Fos/AP-1 binding to DNA. In this study, we tested whether T-5224 has a potential inhibitory effect against LPS-induced AKI, by suppressing the TNF-alpha inflammatory response and other downstream effectors. Methods To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice at 7 weeks old were divided into three groups (control, LPS and T-5224 groups. Mice in the control group received saline intraperitoneally and polyvinylpyrrolidone solution orally. Mice in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with a 6 mg/kg dose of LPS and were given polyvinylpyrrolidone solution immediately after LPS injection. In the T-5224 group, mice were administered T-5224 orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg immediately after LPS injection. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Moreover, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA in kidney was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated renal histological changes. Results LPS injection induced high serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the administration of T-5224 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in these cytokine levels. The serum levels of IL-10 in the LPS group and T-5224 group were markedly elevated compared with the control group. T-5224 also inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore histological studies supported an anti-inflammatory role of T-5224. Conclusions In endotoxin

  17. Regulation of glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression in cells with mutated or endogenous growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, T W; Meyer, D J; Liao, J;

    1998-01-01

    To identify mechanisms by which GH receptors (GHR) mediate downstream events representative of growth and metabolic responses to GH, stimulation by GH of c-fos and egr-1 expression and glucose transport activity were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing mutated GHR. In CHO cells......, whereas P11 inhibits the GH-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation of only some proteins, including extracellular signal regulated kinases ERK1 and -2, but not JAK2. Taken together, these results implicate association of GHR with JAK2 and GH-stimulated tyrosyl phosphorylation of an additional cellular protein...... in GH-stimulated glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression. These studies also indicate that, in contrast to spi-2.1, the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR is sufficient to mediate stimulation of c-fos and egr-1 expression and Elk-1 activation, supporting multiple mechanisms for GH...

  18. Apolipoprotein E inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of c-Fos, NFATc1 and NF-κB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Shin; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Zang Hee [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, BK21 Program and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yeongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngkyun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Hee, E-mail: hhbkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, BK21 Program and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yeongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a major role in the transport and metabolism of lipid. Other functions of ApoE include modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The expression of ApoE in osteoblasts and its relevance with bone formation have also been reported. However, the effect of ApoE on osteoclasts has not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of ApoE in osteoclast differentiation using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells. We found a down-regulation of ApoE gene expression during osteoclastic differentiation of those cells. Overexpression of ApoE in BMMs and RAW264.7 cells significantly blocked the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1), transcription factors critical for expression of osteoclast marker genes, by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), the osteoclast differentiation factor. ApoE inhibited osteoclast differentiation, as measured by decreased number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNCs). In addition, ApoE reduced the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and ATPase, H{sup +} transporting, lysosomal 38 kDa, V0 subunit d2 (ATP6v0d2), genes involved in cell–cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. Knock-down of ApoE using a specific siRNA promoted the RANKL-mediated induction of osteoclast differentiation. While ApoE did not affect the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways by RANKL, the phosphorylation of p65 trans-activation domain on serine 536 and transcription activity of NF-κB were reduced by ApoE overexpression. These findings suggest that ApoE plays an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of RANKL-dependent activation of NF-κB and induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. - Highlights: ► Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and activation of NF-κB. ► ApoE decreased the induction of osteoclast marker

  19. Expression of c-fos and oxidative stress on brain of rats reared on food from mercury-selenium coexisting mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; LIU Xiao-jie; ZHENG Min; SHI Wei; WANG Wen-hua

    2006-01-01

    Wanshan mercury mine is the largest mercury deposit in Guizhou Province of China, but there were few reports on mercury toxic effect in the mining area. In order to study the neurotoxicity of food from Wanshan mercury mine area and probe into the effect of food from Wanshan mercury miner area on the changes of brain oxidative damage and expression of c-fos gene. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated food for 20 d. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD),GSH-peroxidase (GSH-px) and Glutathione (GSH) in rat brain was measured, and the effect of mercury contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed the levels of GSH, MDA,SOD and of GSH-dependent enzymes in the rat brain changed between exposure groups and control group; The mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group (P<0.01). It could be concluded that oxidative stress signals could contribute to the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs); free radicals and their by-products might not only cause oxidative damage, but also influenced gene expression; IEGs c-fos participated in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted food.

  20. Induction of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tai, Kuo-Wei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2002-03-01

    An important requirement for a root-canal sealer is biologic compatibility; most evaluations have focused on general toxicological and local tissue irritating properties. There is only scant information about mutagenicity or carcinogenicity testing for root-canal sealer. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Numerous works have extensively investigated the induction mechanisms of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes by these agents; however, little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to root-canal sealers. Therefore, we used osteoblastic cell line U2-OS to examine the effect of zinc-oxide eugenol-based (N2 and Endomethasome), epoxy resin-based (AH Plus), and calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex) root-canal sealers on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to understand in more detail the molecular mechanisms of root-canal sealer-induced genotoxicity. The cytotoxicity decreased in an order of N2 > Endomethasome > AH Plus > Sealapex. In addition, N2, Endomethasome, and AH Plus rapidly induced c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels in cells. However, Sealapex did not induce c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression at detectable levels all time points. Taken together, persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers may be distributed systemically via apex to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. These data should be taken into consideration when choosing a root-canal sealer.

  1. In vitro interaction of uterine estrogen receptor with the estrogen response element present in the 3'-flanking region of the murine c-fos protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S M; Stancel, G M

    1994-01-01

    Estradiol treatment rapidly stimulates transcription of the c-fos protooncogene in the rodent uterus, and transfection analysis previously identified an estrogen response element (ERE) in the 3'-flanking region of the murine gene with the sequence GGTCAnnnCAGCC. We now report that endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) obtained from either mouse or rat uterus binds to this 3'-ERE. Unoccupied receptor, receptor occupied with estradiol and receptor occupied with the antiestrogen tamoxifen all bind to this element, and the binding of receptor exhibits strict sequence specificity. By using a competition binding assay, the affinity of the ER for the c-fos-ERE is estimated to be approximately an order of magnitude less than the affinity for the consensus ERE (GGTCAnnnTGACC) found in the Xenopus and chicken vitellogenin genes. Differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the c-fos and vitellogenin EREs bound to the ER in band-shift assays also suggest subtle structural differences in the two complexes. Mutations in either half-site of the c-fos-ERE destroy ER binding, suggesting that the receptor binds to this sequence as either a homo- or heterodimer. The 3'-fos-ERE region exhibits some homologies to both AP1 and AP2 consensus sites, but neither AP1-like proteins present in uterine extracts nor recombinant AP2 bind this protooncogene sequence. The finding that the ERE present in the 3'-region of the murine c-fos gene interacts with receptors present in the mouse and rat uterus supports a role for this element in the physiological regulation of c-fos expression in the uterus by estrogens. PMID:8136308

  2. c-fos gene induction by interleukin 2: identification of the critical cytoplasmic regions within the interleukin 2 receptor beta chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, M; Kawahara, A; Mori, H.; Shibuya, H.; Taniguchi, T.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) plays a critical role in the growth and differentiation of lymphoid cells. The IL-2 signal is delivered intracellularly by the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2R beta); however, the mechanism by which the signal reaches the nucleus remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the rapid activation of c-fos protooncogene transcription by IL-2 and provide evidence that the serum-responsive element (SRE) within the c-fos promoter is responsible for the activation in a murine p...

  3. The transcription factors CREB and c-Fos play key roles in NCAM-mediated neuritogenesis in PC12-E2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, U; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N;

    2001-01-01

    roles in this process by estimating NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells grown in co-culture with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PC12-E2 cells were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding wild-type or dominant negative forms of CREB and c-Fos or an activated...... thus present evidence that NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth involves a series of signal transduction pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway, targeting c-Fos and CREB....

  4. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Delcuratolo; Jasmin Fertey; Markus Schneider; Johanna Schuetz; Natalie Leiprecht; Benjamin Hudjetz; Stephan Brodbeck; Silke Corall; Marcel Dreer; Roxana Michaela Schwab; Martin Grimm; Shwu-Yuan Wu; Frank Stubenrauch; Cheng-Ming Chiang; Thomas Iftner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncog...

  5. Urban Knowledge Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schmeidler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available COST Action C20 – Urban Knowledge Arena is research programme supported by European Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research. It is co-ordinated by COST Office and European Science Foundation. The main objective of this Action is to explore and develop a European Arena for cross boundary, integrated knowledge and Know-how on complex urban problems, which is termed Urban Knowledge Arena. The COST Domain Transport and Urban Development aims at fostering international research networking activities of scientist and experts dealing with transport systems and infrastructures, spatial planning, urban land use and development, urban design, architecture and design and civil engineering issues. The focus is on multi and interdisciplinary approaches and the aim is to cover both basic and applied research activities and their changeovers that are relevant to policy and decision making processes. A significant concern is devoted to activities exploring new research needs and developments.

  6. GABAergic neurons of the cat dorsal raphe nucleus express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2000-11-24

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) cease firing during active sleep (AS, also called rapid-eye-movement sleep). This cessation of electrical activity is believed to play a 'permissive' role in the generation of AS. In the present study we explored the possibility that GABAergic cells in the DRN are involved in the suppression of serotonergic activity during AS. Accordingly, we examined whether immunocytochemically identified GABAergic neurons in the DRN were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during carbachol-induced AS (AS-carbachol). Three chronically-prepared cats were euthanized after prolonged episodes of AS that was induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis. Another four cats (controls) were maintained 2 h in quiet wakefulness before being euthanized. Thereafter, immunocytochemical studies were performed on brainstem sections utilizing antibodies against Fos, GABA and serotonin. When compared with identically prepared tissue from awake cats, the number of Fos+ neurons was larger in the DRN during AS-carbachol (35.9+/-5.6 vs. 13.9+/-4.4, P<0.05). Furthermore, a larger number of GABA+ Fos+ neurons were observed during AS-carbachol than during wakefulness (24.8+/-3.3 vs. 4.0+/-1.0, P<0.001). These GABA+ Fos+ neurons were distributed asymmetrically with a larger number located ipsilaterally to the site of injection. There was no significant difference between control and experimental animals in the number of non-GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos in the DRN. We therefore suggest that activated GABAergic neurons of the DRN are responsible for the inhibition of serotonergic neurons that occurs during natural AS. PMID:11082488

  7. Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casalotti Stefano O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoephedrine is a drug commonly prescribed as a nasal decongestant and bronchodilator and is also freely available in cold remedies and medications. The structural and pharmacological similarity of pseudoephedrine to amphetamine has led to evaluation of its psychomotor stimulant properties within the central nervous system. Previous investigations have shown that the acute responses to pseudoephedrine were similar to those of amphetamine and other psychostimulants. Results This study examined the effect of chronic administration of pseudoephedrine in rat nucleus accumbens and striatum and identified three further similarities to amphetamine. (i Chronic exposure to pseudoephedrine reduced the c-Fos response to acute pseudoephedrine treatment suggesting that pseudoephedrine induced tolerance in the animals. (ii In animals chronically treated with amphetamine or pseudoephedrine the acute c-Fos response to pseudoephedrine and amphetamine was reduced respectively as compared to naïve animals indicating cross-tolerance for the two drugs. (iiiThe known involvement of the dopamine system in the response to amphetamine and pseudoephedrine was further confirmed in this study by demonstrating that pseudoephedrine similarly to amphetamine, but with lower potency, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake in synaptosomal preparations. Conclusion This work has demonstrated further similarities of the effect of pseudoephedrine to those of amphetamine in brain areas known to be associated with drug addiction. The most significant result presented here is the cross tolerance effect of amphetamine and psudoephedrine. This suggests that both drugs induce similar mechanisms of action in the brain. Further studies are required to establish whether despite its considerable lower potency, pseudoephedrine could pose health and addiction risks in humans similar to that of known psychostimulants.

  8. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin

  9. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipigorngoson Suwiwek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham. Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin.

  10. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 as in the wild-type mice. In contrast, synaptophysin levels did not differ between mutant and wild type mice, suggesting that the observed effect was not due to a general decrease in the number of presynapses. These data suggest a reduction in basal and novelty-induced neuronal activity...

  11. Effect of rosiglitazone on protein expression of renal ERK and c-fos in the type 2 diabetic rats%罗格列酮对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏ERK/c-fos蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王隽; 王战建; 徐焕宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察罗格列酮对糖尿病大鼠肾脏细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)、c-fos蛋白表达的影响.方法 应用高糖高脂饮食加小剂量链脲佐菌素建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型,用免疫组化方法检测肾脏ERK、c-fos蛋白表达.结果:(1)成模动物具有高血糖、胰岛素抵抗、肾脏病变等特点.(2)糖尿病组大鼠肾组织中ERK、c-fos表达较对照组明显增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK、c-fos活性降低,肾功能及组织病理学损害改善.结论 2型糖尿病大鼠模型肾组织ERK/c-fos蛋白表达增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK/c-fos表达降低,伴肾功能和肾脏病理损害改善.%Objective To investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on activation of renal ERK and c-fos in the experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods The rats of model groups were intraperitoneally given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) after taking the sucrose-and fat-rich diets for one month.Immunohistochemistry and computer image-pattern analysis system were used to analyze expression of ERK and c-fos in renal tissues. Results (1)This rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus showed hyperglycemia, IR and typical renal lesions. (2)Compared to normal group, the protein expression of ERK and c-fos were increased in glomeruli of type 2 diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone inhibited significantly the activation of ERK and c-fos, partly improved the renal function and matrix accumulation. Conclusions (1) A rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus presents the increased protein expression of ERK and c-fos of diabetic nephropathy. (2) The kidney protection of rosiglitazone is associated, at least in part, with down-regulating ERK/c-fos activation in renal tissues.

  12. Arenas of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the notion 'development arena' is presented and discussed. The notion is suggested to function as a cognitive space for research. It seeks to catch and describe the relational, unstable and heterogeneous character of the development process. It should sensitize both researchers...... and transformations involved in shaping and restructuring activities in a development arena are described and discussed based on a case study of the development of HDTV as the next generation television. It exemplifies different moments and aspects of technology development. A number of configurations of specific...

  13. EFFECTS OF SERICIN ON EXPRESSION OF C-FOS IN KIDNEY OF RATS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS%丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东慧; 颜勇; 刘美晓; 陈志宏

    2015-01-01

    目的::观察丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏c-fos表达的影响。方法:48只雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、糖尿病模型组、丝胶治疗组和阳性对照组,每组12只。采用链脲佐菌素腹腔注射的方法建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型并给予丝胶(2.4g/kg/d)灌胃35天。分别采用Western Blot法和RT-PCR法检测各组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达。结果:糖尿病模型组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白及mRNA的表达较正常对照组大鼠明显升高(P<0.01);丝胶治疗组、阳性对照组大鼠肾脏c-fos蛋白及mRNA的表达较糖尿病模型组大鼠明显降低(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论:丝胶可能通过下调肾脏c-fos的表达发挥对糖尿病时肾脏损伤的保护作用。%Objective:To observe the effects of sericin on expression of c-fos in kidney of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:48 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetes mellitus model group, sericin treatment group and positive control group with 12 rats in each group. The type 2 diabetes rats model was made by continuously injecting streptozotocin into peritoneal cavity and then the rats were lavaged with sericin (2.4g/kg/d) for 35 days. Western Blot and RT-PCR were used to detect the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney. Results:Compared with rats in normal control group, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney of rats in diabetes mellitus model group increased obviously (P<0.01). The c-fos protein and mRNA expression in kidney of rats in sericin treatment group and positive control group were obviously lower than that of rats in diabetes mellitus model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions:Sericin may protect kidney injury during diabetes mellitus by down regulating expression of c-fos in kidney.

  14. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  15. A role for the immediate early gene product c-fos in imprinting T cells with short-term memory for signal summation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn E Clark

    Full Text Available T cells often make sequential contacts with multiple DCs in the lymph nodes and are likely to be equipped with mechanisms that allow them to sum up the successive signals received. We found that a period of stimulation as short as two hours could imprint on a T cell a "biochemical memory" of that activation signal that persisted for several hours. This was evidenced by more rapid induction of activation markers and earlier commitment to proliferation upon subsequent stimulation, even when that secondary stimulation occurred hours later. Upregulation of the immediate early gene product c-fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, was maximal by 1-2 hours of stimulation, and protein levels remained elevated for several hours after stimulus withdrawal. Moreover, phosphorylated forms of c-fos that are stable and transcriptionally active persisted for a least a day. Upon brief antigenic stimulation in vivo, we also observed a rapid upregulation of c-fos that could be boosted by subsequent stimulation. Accumulation of phosphorylated c-fos may therefore serve as a biochemical fingerprint of previous suboptimal stimulation, leaving the T cell poised to rapidly resume its activation program upon its next encounter with an antigen-bearing DC.

  16. Modulation of c-Fos and BDNF Protein Expression in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Mice following the Treatment with Novel Antiepileptic Compound HHL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Mahmood Malhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos are shown to promote epileptogenesis and are taken as a marker of neuronal activity. The present study investigated the expression of BDNF and c-Fos in mice brain with pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced generalized seizure and evaluated the effect of novel tryptamine derivative HHL-6 on the expression of these two markers. The subconvulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg was administered on alternate days in the experimental groups until the seizure scores 4-5 developed in the PTZ-control group. At the end of each experiment, animals were sacrificed, brain samples were collected and cryosectioned, and immunohistochemical analysis of BDNF and c-Fos protein was performed. Data obtained from two sections per mouse (n=12 animals/group is presented as means ± S.E.M. The test compound HHL-6 demonstrated a potent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced seizure in mice. Significant reduction in the BDNF (P<0.003 and c-Fos (P<0.01 protein expression was observed in the HHL-6 treated group. Based on these results we suggest that one of the possible mechanisms of HHL-6 to inhibit epileptogenesis might be due to its controlling effect on the cellular and molecular expression of the factors that contribute to the development of epileptogenic plasticity in the CNS.

  17. A dual-immunocytochemical method to localize c-fos protein in specific neurons based on their content of neuropeptides and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Larsen, P J; Sørensen, G G;

    1994-01-01

    -immunocytochemical staining technique has been developed with avidin-biotin-peroxidase labelling using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen for c-fos protein located in the nucleus, and benzidine dihydrochloride (BDHC) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside to reveal cytoplasmic antigens (neuropeptide or retrograde tracer...

  18. Central serotonin depletion modulates the behavioural, endocrine and physiological responses to repeated social stress and subsequent c-fos expression in the brains of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K K; Martinez, M; Herbert, J

    1999-01-01

    Intraspecific confrontation has been used to study effect of depleting central serotonin on the adaptation of male rats to repeated social stress (social defeat). Four groups of adult male rats were used (serotonin depletion/sham: stressed; serotonin depletion/sham: non-stressed). Central serotonin was reduced (by 59-97%) by a single infusion of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine (150 microg) into the cerebral ventricles; levels of dopamine and noradrenaline were unaltered (rats received appropriate uptake blockers prior to neurotoxic infusions). Sham-operated animals received solute only. Rats were then either exposed daily for 10 days to a second larger aggressive male in the latter's home cage, or simply transferred to an empty cage (control procedure). Rats with reduced serotonin failed to show the increased freezing behaviour during the pre-defeat phase of the social interaction test characteristic of sham animals. There was no change in the residents' behaviour. Core temperature increased during aggressive interaction in sham rats, and this did not adapt with repeated stress. By contrast, stress-induced hyperthermia was accentuated in serotonin-reduced rats as the number of defeat sessions increased. Basal core temperature was unaffected by serotonin depletion. Heart rate increased during social defeat, but this did not adapt with repeated stress; serotonin depletion had no effect on this cardiovascular response. Basal corticosterone was increased in serotonin-depleted rats, but the progressive reduction in stress response over days was not altered. C-fos expression in the brain was not altered in control (non-stressed) rats by serotonin reduction in the areas examined, but there was increased expression after repeated social stress in the medial amygdala of 5-HT depleted rats. These experiments show that reduction of serotonin alters responses to repeated social stress in male rats, and suggests a role for serotonin in the adaptive process.

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SJ Moghaddam; EN Haghighi; S Samiee; N Shahid; AR Keramati; S Dadgar; MR Zali

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of some genes especially those involved in cell cycle regulation on hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 25 patients (18 males and 7 females) with hepatocellular carcinoma were collected from 22 pathology centers in Tehran during 2000-2001, and stained using immunohistochemistry method (avidin-biotin-peroxidase)for detection of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras proteins.RESULTS: Six (24%), 5 (20%), 12 (48%) and 2 samples (8%) were positive for p53, cyclinD1, C-fos and N-ras expression, respectively. Twenty-two (88%) samples had alterations in the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint protein expression (RB1 or cyclinD1). P53 positive samples showed a higher (9 times) risk of being positive for RB1 protein than p53 negative samples. Loss of expression of RB1 in association with p53 over-expression was observed in 4 (66.7%) of 6 samples. Loss of expression of RB1 was seen in all cyclinD1 positive, 20 (90.9%) N-ras negative, and 11 (50%) C-fos positive samples,respectively. CyclinD1 positive samples showed a higher (2.85 and 4.75 times) risk of being positive for c-fos and N-ras expression than cyclinD1 negative samples.CONCLUSION: The expression of p53, RB1 and c-fos genes appears to have a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran. Simultaneous overexpression of these genes is significantly associated with their loss of expression during development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock down-mice are more susceptible to inflammation, c-Fos expression and sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina de; Pereira, Luciana de Melo; Oliveira, Vinícius Elias de Moura; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antônio Máximo; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the well-known functions as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) can modulate of the immune system. Nonetheless, how endogenous ACh release inflammatory responses is still not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of an animal model with a decreased ACh release due a reduction (knockdown) in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression (VAChT-KD(HOM)). These animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Afterwards, we evaluated sickness behavior and quantified systemic and cerebral inflammation as well as neuronal activation in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). VAChT-KD(HOM) mice that were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) showed increased mortality rate as compared to control mice. In line with this result, a low dose of LPS (0.1mg/kg) increased the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the spleen and brain of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice in comparison with controls. Similarly, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in VAChT-KD(HOM) mice. This excessive cytokine production was completely prevented by administration of a nicotinic receptor agonist (0.4mg/kg) prior to the LPS injection. Three hours after the LPS injection, c-Fos expression increased in the DVC region of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice compared to controls. In addition, VAChT-KD(HOM) mice showed behavioral changes such as lowered locomotor and exploratory activity and reduced social interaction after the LPS challenge, when compared to control mice. Taken together, our results show that the decreased ability to release ACh exacerbates systemic and cerebral inflammation and promotes neural activation and behavioral changes induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that activity of cholinergic pathways, which can be modulated by VAChT expression, controls inflammatory and neural responses to LPS challenge.

  1. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  2. Changes in hypothalamic [correction of hypothalmic] staining for c-Fos following 2G exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C A; Murakami, D M; Hoban-Higgins, T M; Tang, I H

    1994-05-01

    The static gravitational field of the earth has been an important selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of biological organisms. This is illustrated by the evolution of tetrapods from a water environment where gravitational force was partially negated to a terrestrial environment where gravity is of greater consequence. Terrestrial invasion resulted in a series of new structural, physiological, and behavioral features. Therefore, it is not surprising that alterations in the gravitational field can cause widespread effects in many physiological systems and behaviors. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both exposure to hyperdynamic fields and the microgravity condition of space flight have significant effects on body temperature, heartrate, activity, feeding, drinking, and circadian rhythms. However, it has not been determined whether these physiological adaptations are associated with changes in neural activity within the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. This study examined the changes in body temperature, activity, body weight and food and water intake in rats caused by exposure to a hyperdynamic field. In addition, the immediate early gene activation marker, c-Fos, was used to examine potential protein synthesis changes in the hypothalamic nuclei that regulate these functions. PMID:11538768

  3. CA-074Me compound inhibits osteoclastogenesis via suppression of the NFATc1 and c-FOS signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Nizami, Saqib; Song, Lee; Mikami, Maya; Hsu, Anny; Hickernell, Thomas; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Rho, Shim; Compton, Jocelyn T; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Kaiser, Philip B; Bai, Hanying; Lee, Heon Goo; Fischer, Charla R; Lee, Francis Y

    2015-10-01

    The osteoclast is an integral cell of bone resorption. Since osteolytic disorders hinge on the function and dysfunction of the osteoclast, understanding osteoclast biology is fundamental to designing new therapies that curb osteolytic disorders. The identification and study of lysosomal proteases, such as cathepsins, have shed light on mechanisms of bone resorption. For example, Cathepsin K has already been identified as a collagen degradation protease produced by mature osteoclasts with high activity in the acidic osteoclast resorption pits. Delving into the mechanisms of cathepsins and other osteoclast related compounds provides new targets to explore in osteoclast biology. Through our anti-osteoclastogenic compound screening experiments we encountered a modified version of the Cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074: the cell membrane-permeable CA-074Me (L-3-trans-(Propylcarbamoyl) oxirane-2-carbonyl]-L-isoleucyl-L-proline Methyl Ester). Here we confirm that CA-074Me inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. However, Cathepsin B knockout mice exhibited unaltered osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a more complicated mechanism of action than Cathepsin B inhibition. We found that CA-074Me exerts its osteoclastogenic effect within 24 h of osteoclastogenesis stimulation by suppression of c-FOS and NFATc1 pathways. PMID:25428830

  4. DNA Damage, Apoptosis and C-myc, C-fos, and C-jun Overexpression Induced by Selenium in Rat Hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RI-AN YU; CHENG-FENG YANG; XUE-MIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of selenium on DNA damage, apoptosis and c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun expression in rat hepatocytes. Methods Sodium selenite at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg was given to rats by i.p. and there were 5 male SD rats in each group. Hepatocellular DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis (or comet assay).Hepatocellular apoptosis was determined by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) and flow cytometry. C-myc,c-fos, and c-jun expression in rat hepatocytes were assayed by Northern dot hybridization. C-myc, c-fos, and c-jun protein were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results At the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg, DNA damage was induced by sodium selenite in rat hepatocytes and the rates of comet cells were 34.40%, 74.80%, and 91.40% respectively. Results also showed an obvious dose-response relationship between the rates of comet cells and the doses of sodium selenite (r=0.9501,P<0.01). Sodium selenite at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg caused c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun overexpression obviously. The positive brown-yellow signal for proteins of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun was mainly located in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes with immunohistochemical method. TUNEL-positive cells were detected in selenium-treated rat livers. Apoptotic rates (%) of selenium-treated liver cells at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 μmol/kg were (3.72±1.76), (5.82±1.42), and (11.76±1.87) respectively, being much higher than those in the control. Besides an obvious dose-response relationship between apoptotic rates and the doses of sodium selenite (r=0.9897, P<0.01), these results displayed a close relationship between DNA damage rates and apoptotic rates, and the relative coefficient was 0.9021, P<0.01. Conclusion Selenium at 5-20 μmol/kg can induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and overexpression of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun in rat hepatocytes.

  5. Effect of Qi-protecting powder (Huqi San) on expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in diethylnitrosamine-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Zheng-Ming Shi; Ping Feng; Zhao-Yang Wen; Xue-Jiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of Huqi San (Qiprotecting powder) on rat prehepatocarcinoma induced by diethylinitrosamine (DEN) by analyzing the mutational activation of c-fos proto-oncogene and over-expression of c-jun and c-myc oncogenes.METHODS: A Solt-Farber two-step test model of prehepatocarcinoma was induced in rats by DEN and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to investigate the modifying effects of Huqi San on the expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in DEN-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Huqi San was made of eight medicinal herbs containing glycoprival granules, in which each milliliter contains 0.38 g crude drugs. γ-glutamy-transpeptidase-isoenzyme (γ-GTase)was determined with histochemical methods. Level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) formed in liver and c-jun, c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogenes were detected by immunohistochemical methods.RESULTS: The level of 8-OHdG, a mark of oxidative DNA damage, was significantly decreased in the liver of rats with prehepatocarcinoma induced by DEN who received 8 g/kg body weight or 4 g/kg body weight Huqi San before (1 wk) and after DEN exposure (4 wk). Huqi Santreated rats showed a significant decrease in number of γ-GT positive foci (P < 0.001, prevention group: 4.96 ±0.72 vs 29.46 ± 2.17; large dose therapeutic group: 7.53± 0.88 vs 29.46 ± 2.17). On the other hand, significant changes in expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc were found in Huqi San-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Activation of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.Huqi San can inhibit the over-expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc oncogenes and liver preneolastic lesionsinduced by DEN.

  6. Effect of estrogen and tamoxifen on the expression pattern of AP-1 factors in MCF-7 cells: role of c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 in cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Patil, Rajeshwari H; Devaraju, K S; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2013-08-01

    The activated transcription factor ERα plays an important role in the breast development and progression of cancer. In a non-classical pathway ER interacts with other transcription factors AP-1, NFkB, SP1, etc. AP-1 transcription factors control rapid responses of mammalian cells to stimuli that impact proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. AP-1 factors are leucine zipper proteins belonging to members of the Jun family (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) and Fos family (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2) proteins. Although AP-1 factors are well characterized, not much is known about the expression pattern of the AP-1 factors in breast cancer cells. Hence to determine which AP-1 factors are expressed and regulated by estrogen, we used human breast cancer MCF-7 cells as in vitro model system. The MCF-7 cells were treated with or without estradiol-17β (E2) or antiestrogen tamoxifen (TMX) and the cell proliferation and viability was assessed by MTT assay. The expression of different AP-1 factors was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cells treated with E2 found to increase the cell proliferation by more than 35 % and TMX an antiestrogen decreased by 29 % compared to control. The E2 found to induce the expression of c-Jun, Fra-1, and c-Fos, while TMX decreased the expression. In addition TMX also decreased the mRNA levels of Jun-D and Fra-2. These results suggest that the AP-1 factors c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 may be involved in the proliferation and transformation of MCF-7 cells. E2 also found to induce cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 mRNA transcripts of cell cycle regulators while TMX significantly decreased compared to control. Further E2 induced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and TMX decreased mRNA transcripts. The data presented here support the E2-ERα-mediated MCF-7 cell proliferation and confirms the role of AP-1 factors in cell cycle regulation. PMID:23625206

  7. Simulation modeling and arena

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Manuel D

    2015-01-01

    Emphasizes a hands-on approach to learning statistical analysis and model building through the use of comprehensive examples, problems sets, and software applications With a unique blend of theory and applications, Simulation Modeling and Arena®, Second Edition integrates coverage of statistical analysis and model building to emphasize the importance of both topics in simulation. Featuring introductory coverage on how simulation works and why it matters, the Second Edition expands coverage on static simulation and the applications of spreadsheets to perform simulation. The new edition als

  8. Selection and characterization of a DNA aptamer that can discriminate between cJun/cJun and cJun/cFos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Walters

    Full Text Available The AP-1 family of transcriptional activators plays pivotal roles in regulating a wide range of biological processes from the immune response to tumorigenesis. Determining the roles of specific AP-1 dimers in cells, however, has remained challenging because common molecular biology techniques are unable to distinguish between the role of, for example, cJun/cJun homodimers versus cJun/cFos heterodimers. Here we used SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment to identify and characterize DNA aptamers that are >100-fold more specific for binding cJun/cJun compared to cJun/cFos, setting the foundation to investigate the biological functions of different AP-1 dimer compositions.

  9. Relations of transcription expression of IL-2 with nuclear factor of activated T cells as well as changes of C-Fos and C-Jun after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 梁华平; 胡承香; 徐祥; 王正国

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relations among expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in spleen lymphocytes, DNA binding activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and expression of the partly family members C-Fos, C-Jun after trauma. Methods: A murine closed trauma model was used, animals were sacrificed 6, 12 hours and 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 days, respectively after injury. Spleen lymphocytes were isolated from injured mice and stimulated with concanavalin-A. The culture supernatants were harvested and assayed for IL-2 activity. Total RNA was extracted from spleen lymphocytes and assayed for IL-2 mRNA. Nuclear protein was extracted, and the DNA binding activity of NFAT was measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), the expressions of C-Fos, C-Jun protein determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expressions of IL-2 activity and IL-2 mRNA in spleen lymphocytes were decreased in injured mice compared with those in control mice, and the most obvious decrease appeared on the 4th day after injury. The DNA binding activity of NFAT decreased gradually and reached the minimum that was only 41% of the control on the 4th day after injury, which was closely associated with the decline of IL-2 activity and IL-2 mRNA. An decrease in the expression of C-Fos on the 1st and 4th day after injury, trauma had no significant effect on the C-Jun expression.Conclusions: These results suggest that the inhibition of IL-2 expression is partly due to the impairment in the activation of NFAT in injured mice; and the decline in the DNA binding activity of NFAT is partly due to trauma block in the C-Fos expression.

  10. Parthenolide inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity by down-regulation of NFATc1 induction and c-Fos stability, during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2014-08-01

    Parthenolide, a natural product derived from Feverfew, prevents septic shock and inflammation. We aimed to identify the effects of parthenolide on the RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand)-induced differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts. In this study, parthenolide dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in BMMs, without any evidence of cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and IκB, as well as IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. Parthenolide suppressed the expression of NFATc1, OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-treated BMMs. Furthermore, parthenolide down-regulated the stability of c-Fos protein, but could not suppress the expression of c-Fos. Overexpression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs reversed the inhibitory effect of parthenolide on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Parthenolide also inhibited the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Parthenolide inhibits the differentiation and bone-resolving activity of osteoclast by RANKL, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for bone destructive disorders associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  11. Effect of MgSO4 on the expression of C-fos gene and the abilities of learning and memory in the rat brain with radiation induced injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the nerves function after hemisphere irradiation and explore possible mechanism of the effect. Methods: Mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group (n = 26), experimental control group (n = 32) and experimental group (n = 32). To selecte rats randomly from the experimental control group and the experimental therapy group for 1/2 brain irradiation to a single-fraction maximal dose of 20 Gy using 5 MeV electrons. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats that from the experimental group before and after irradiation for total seven times. The expression of c-fos gene was observed in the hippocampal formation of the rat brain with the immunofluorescence technique in 24 h after irradiation. The learning and memory results in Y-maze test were detected 8 weeks after irradiation respectively with the other rats and then had the pathomorphology observation. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the number of c-fos immunopositive cells in the hippocampal formation of experimental control group were increased markedly (P<0.01), and the learning and memory results of Y-maze test in the irradiation control group declined significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the irradiation control group, the experimental group's Fos immunopositive cells decreased significantly (P<0.05), and also the cognitive function of learning attempt times (at 4 and 8 weeks, P<0.01) and memory reappearance times (P<0.05) were significantly different from that in the irradiation control group. Conclusion: Magnesium sulfate can promote the recovery of the rats' cognitive impairment in the early stage after irradiation, and may play a role of protecting hippocampus neurons by the way of decreasing the expression of Fos protin in hippocampal formation. (authors)

  12. 硝普钠控制性降压对兔脑神经元c-fos及细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of induced hypotension on brain neuronal c-fos and apoptosis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏艳; 肖晓山; 周代伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the brain's tolerance and the safe low limit to the hypotension through observing the effect of four different levels of sodium nitroprusside induced hypotension on neuronal ultrastructure and apoptosis and expression of c-fos in rabbits' hippocampal CA1 field. Methods Thirty New Zealand rabbits were equally randomized into five groups: mean arterial pressure fell to 70% (group I), 60% (group Ⅱ), 50% (group Ⅱ ) and 45% (group Ⅳ) of the baseline and normal control group (group V ). After maintaining target blood pressure for 1 h, the rabbits were sacrificed 2 h after boosting pressure. The ultrastructure of CA1 field was observed with transmission electron microscopy. The expression of c-fos was assayed by immunohistochemical SP and apoptosis was detected by Tunel immunofluorescence in hippocampal CA1 neuron. Results In the transmission electron microscopy of hippocampal CA1 neuron, group [I appeared cellular swelling and groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ appeared karyopyknosis and apoptosis. The c-fos expression in CA1 neuron significantly increased in hypotension groups (P<0. 01). The TUNEL mean fluorescence intensity was much strengthen in groups H , III and IV than that in groups I and V ( P <0.01). Conclusion Controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside can cause apoptosis in partial hippocampal CA1 neurons. C-fos can make rapid respond according to changes of brain blood and oxygen supply, and its expression may produce protective effects on neurons.%通过观察硝普钠诱导的四种低血压水平对兔脑海马CA1区神经元超微结构、细胞凋亡及c-fos表达的影响,了解脑组织对低血压的耐受性以及探讨安全的降压低限.方法30只新西兰兔随机均分为五组,MAP分别降至基础值的70%(Ⅰ组)、60%(Ⅱ组)、50%(Ⅲ组)、45%(Ⅳ组)和不降压(Ⅴ组).目标血压维持1h,复压2h处死兔.透射电镜观察海马CA1区神经元超微结构,SP法测定该

  13. Effect of pre-electroacupuncture on p38 and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-da; LIANG Tao; WANG Kun; TIAN De-an

    2010-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is an effective way to relieve pain, but the mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) decreases the visceral pain state still remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-electroacupuncture on pain behaviors, p38 phosphorylation, and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain. This study also investigated the probable signaling regulatory mechanism of the analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture. Methods All rats were randomized into the control (Con) group, the Con+EA group, the visceral pain (VP) group, and VP+EA group (n=8 for all groups). The visceral pain model was established using 40 ul of 5% formalin solution injected into the colon of rats. EA was applied to the bilateral Jiaji acupoints for 20 minutes before application of visceral pain. Parameters for EA were set at a continuous wave (20 Hz) and intensity where the rats shook their whiskers but did not scrabble (≤1 mA). The visceral pain score was recorded and the expressions of p38 and c-Fos protein were detected using Western blotting. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to determine the expression of c-Fos mRNA. Results Rats in the VP group immediately presented with obvious visceral pain behaviors after being injected with formalin. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn were higher in the VP group than in the Con group (P <0.05). By contrast, visceral pain behaviors were delayed in rats from the VP+EA group. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression were lower in the VP+EA group than that in the VP group (P<0.01). Conclusions Pre-electroacupuncture of the Jiaji acupoint has prophylactic analgesic effects on rats suffering from visceral pain. The p38 signal transduction pathway may be partly involved in the regulatory mechanism of this analgesic effect.

  14. 哮喘大鼠大脑和肺组织c-fos蛋白表达与神经免疫调节%Cerebral and lung c-fos protein expression and neuroimmunomodulation in asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫文; 杨志军; 罗荣城; 魏玲; 邓火金

    2005-01-01

    经免疫调节密切相关.%BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence identifies the immune system not as an isolated system with automodulations, but one that interacts with the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of c-fos expression in the lung and brain tissues of asthmatic rats and explore is significance.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Oncology, Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted Department of Oncology,Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital,Southern Medical University, between January and August 2004. Fourteen healthy male rats were randomized into experimental group (n=10) and control group (n=4).METHODS: On the first day of experiment, the rats in experimental group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL of the suspension containing 10 mg albumen, 200 mg aluminum hydroxide powder and inactivated pertussis vaccine (5×109), and subjected to inhalation of ultrasonically atomized 10 g/L albumen from on the 15th day, 2 times per hour for totally 3 days, to induce asthma in the rats. The rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL normal saline on the 1st day and inhalation of ultrasonically normal saline on the 15th day, 30 mL a day for totally 3 days. The lung and brain tissues of all the anesthetized rats were fixed by perfusion, and immunohistochemical method with ovin-biotin-peroxidase complex and imaging analysis system were used to observe the distribution of Fos protein in the lung and brain.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of c-Fos protein in lung and cerebrum.c-Fos in the lung and brain tissues was obviously higher in asthmatic group than in the control group (P < 0.05), located mainly in the parietal-fontal cortex, limbic forebrain (cingulum cortex, pyriform cortex and central amygdaloid nucleus and so on), thalamus paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus

  15. Expression of arthritis-causing HLA-B27 on Hela cells promotes induction of c-fos in response to in vitro invasion by Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa, T; Ikeda, M; Yamaguchi, A; Tsai, W.C.; Tamura, N; Seta, N; Trucksess, M; Raybourne, R B; Yu, D T

    1998-01-01

    HLA-B27 confers a very strong genetic predisposition to development of a reactive arthritis after infection by bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium. This study examines the role of HLA-B27 in the initiation of the earliest host activities after exposure to Salmonella, namely activation of the immediate early genes in the epithelial cells. Our major finding is that in Hela cells, the expression of c-fos was induced by Salmonella invasion only when the cells expressed the transfected HLA-B27...

  16. Effects of nasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone/testosterone propionate on expression efficacy of c-Fos in rat brain%经鼻及皮下给予睾丸酮/丙酸睾丸酮对大鼠相关脑区c-Fos表达效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 牛小龙; 康云霄; 薛岩; 方卉; 石葛明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy of intranasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone (T) / testosterone propionate (TP) on different brain regions in rats. Methods:Radioimmunoassay was used to detect testosterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum after intranasal administration of TP. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein in different brain regions. Results:Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was decreased in gonadectomized (GDX) rats compared to the normal control rats. Subcutaneous injection of TP in GDX rats only increased testosterone in serum. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was increased after intranasal administration of TP in GDX rats and in the normal control rats. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was higher than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP, however testosterone in serum of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was lower than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP. After intranasal administration of TP or T, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased in more brain regions. However, after subcutaneous injection of TP, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased only in a few brain regions. Conclusion:Intranasal administration of TP or T could induce the expression of c-Fos and activate more brain regions. That can provide a new therapy method for some central nervous system diseases.%目的:探讨经鼻和皮下给予睾丸酮(T)或丙酸睾丸酮(TP)对大鼠中枢神经系统相关脑区激活的效能.方法:利用放射免疫分析法检测大鼠经鼻滴注给予TP后脑脊液和血清睾丸酮浓度的变化;以免疫组织化学观察大鼠各脑区cFos的表达.结果:放射免疫结果显示去势组大鼠脑脊液和血清中睾丸酮含量比正

  17. Genome-wide analysis reveals PADI4 cooperates with Elk-1 to activate c-Fos expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4 catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. To broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of PADI4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (ChIP-chip analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of PADI4 target genes across the genome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that PADI4 is enriched in gene promoter regions near transcription start sites (TSSs; and, surprisingly, this pattern of binding is primarily associated with actively transcribed genes. Computational analysis found potential binding sites for Elk-1, a member of the ETS oncogene family, to be highly enriched around PADI4 binding sites; and coimmunoprecipitation analysis then confirmed that Elk-1 physically associates with PADI4. To better understand how PADI4 may facilitate gene transactivation, we then show that PADI4 interacts with Elk-1 at the c-Fos promoter and that, following Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulation, PADI4 catalytic activity facilitates Elk-1 phosphorylation, histone H4 acetylation, and c-Fos transcriptional activation. These results define a novel role for PADI4 as a transcription factor co-activator.

  18. Dynamic acetylation of all lysine 4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus: analysis at c-fos and c-jun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of current research into gene induction relates to chromatin and nucleosomal regulation, especially the significance of multiple histone modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation during this process. We have discovered a novel physiological characteristic of all lysine 4 (K4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus, distinguishing it from lysine 9-methylated H3. K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to continuous dynamic turnover of acetylation, whereas lysine 9-methylated H3 is not. We have previously reported dynamic histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation as a key characteristic of the inducible proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. We show here that dynamically acetylated histone H3 at these genes is also K4-methylated. Although all three modifications are proven to co-exist on the same nucleosome at these genes, phosphorylation and acetylation appear transiently during gene induction, whereas K4 methylation remains detectable throughout this process. Finally, we address the functional significance of the turnover of histone acetylation on the process of gene induction. We find that inhibition of turnover, despite causing enhanced histone acetylation at these genes, produces immediate inhibition of gene induction. These data show that all K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to the continuous action of HATs and HDACs, and indicates that at c-fos and c-jun, contrary to the predominant model, turnover and not stably enhanced acetylation is relevant for efficient gene induction.

  19. Expressão dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos Expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and c-jun in human normal miometrium and leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Ferrari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão gênica (mRNA e protéica dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo caso-controle. O material foi coletado de 12 pacientes submetidas a histerectomia no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. A expressão do mRNA específico para c-myc, c-fos, c-jun e beta-microglobulina foi avaliada pela técnica de RT-PCR, utilizando primers específicos para cada gene. A expressão protéica destes protooncogenes foi avaliada através de Western blot com anticorpos específicos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa para expressão gênica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 0,87 ± 0,08 vs 0,87 ± 0,08, p = 0,952; c-fos: 1,10 ± 0,17 vs 1,01 ± 0,11, p = 0,21; c-jun: 1,03 ± 0,12 vs 0,96 ± 0,09, p = 0,168, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para expressão protéica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 1,36 ± 0,48 vs 1,53 ± 0,29, p = 0,569; c-fos: 8,85 ± 5,5 vs 6,56 ± 4,22, p = 0,434; e c-jun: 6,47 ± 3,04 vs 5,42 ± 2,03, p = 0,266, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão gênica (transcrição e a expressão protéica (tradução dos protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos e c-jun em mioma e miométrio normal são semelhantes.Uterine myomas are common benign tumors of the female genital tract. The expression of growth factor signal transduction cascade components including the protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun seem to be involved in the development of myomas. PURPOSE: To compare the gene (mRNA and protein expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun in human normal myometrium and leiomyoma. METHOD: A case-control study was performed. Samples were collected from 12 patients submitted to hysterectomy at the Hospital de Clínicas at Porto Alegre. The expression of the specific mRNA for c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, and beta-microglobulin was assessed through the RT

  20. Effect of ketamine anesthesia in early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in offsprings of rats%孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 赵为禄; 罗佛全

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响.方法 孕5~13 d的SD大鼠30只,体重250~300 g,随机分为2组(n=15):对照组(C组)和氯胺酮组(K组).K组经尾静脉注射氯胺酮20 mg/kg,随后以130 mg·kg-1·h-1的速率静脉输注2 h;C组以等量生理盐水替代氯胺酮.子代大鼠于出生后20和30 d时测定认知功能,取海马组织,测定c-fosmRNA和c-jun mRNA表达水平并观察超微结构.结果 与C组比较,K组子代大鼠出生后30 d时认知功能测定第2天逃避潜伏期延长(P<0.05),海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA的表达水平差异无统计学意义,出生后20 d上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).K组海马神经元发生损伤.结论 孕早期氯胺酮麻醉抑制子代大鼠认知功能的机制与海马神经元受损有关,但与海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达无关.%Objective To investigate the effect of ketamine anesthesia in the early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in the offsprings of rats. Methods Thirty pregnant SD rats at 5-13 days of gestation were randomly divided into control group and ketamine group (n = 15 each). Ketamine 20 mg/kg was injected intravenously through tail vein followed by 2 h infusion at a rate of 130 mg·kg-1 ·h-1 in ketmine group.While the equal volume of normal saline was given instead of ketamine in control group. The learning and memory function of the offsprings were tested by Morris water maze test on postnatal day 20 and 30. The hippocampal tissues were taken to detect the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA and to observe the ultrastructure. Results Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged at 2 days during the test which was performed on postnatal day 30, but there was no significant difference in the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA on postnatal day 20 and 30 and in the indices mentioned above on postnatal day 20 in ketamine group (P >0.05). The

  1. Norisoboldine suppresses osteoclast differentiation through preventing the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and activation of MAPKs/NF-κB/c-Fos/NFATc1 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Wei

    Full Text Available Norisoboldine (NOR is the main alkaloid constituent in the dry root of Lindera aggregata (Sims Kosterm. (L. strychnifolia Vill.. As reported previously, orally administered NOR displayed a robust inhibition of joint bone destruction present in both mouse collagen-induced arthritis and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis with lower efficacious doses than that required for ameliorating systemic inflammation. This attracted us to assess the effects of NOR on differentiation and function of osteoclasts, primary effector cells for inflammatory bone destruction, to get insight into its anti-rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms. Both RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs were stimulated with RANKL (100 ng/mL to establish osteoclast differentiation models. ELISA, RT-PCR, gelatin zymography, western blotting, immunoprecipitation and EMSA were used to reveal related signalling pathways. NOR (10 and 30 µM, without significant cytotoxicity, showed significant reduction of the number of osteoclasts and the resorption pit areas, and it targeted osteoclast differentiation at the early stage. In conjunction with the anti-resorption effect of NOR, mRNA levels of cathepsin K and MMP-9 were decreased, and the activity of MMP-9 was attenuated. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies indicated that NOR obviously suppressed the ubiquitination of TRAF6, the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. However, NOR had little effect on expressions of TRAF6 or the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Moreover, NOR markedly inhibited expressions of transcription factor NFATc1, but not c-Fos. Intriguingly, the subsequent nuclear translocations of c-Fos and NFATc1 were substantially down-regulated. Hence, we demonstrated for the first time that preventing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts at the early stage was an

  2. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called dikar

  3. Prolonged induction of c-fos in neuropeptide Y- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons of the rat dentate gyrus after electroconvulsive stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Greisen, M H; Bolwig, T G;

    1996-01-01

    RNA and Fos was observed. Compared to the granular layer, however, c-fos mRNA and Fos in hilar cells reached maximum later and remained elevated considerably longer. Several neurochemically distinct populations of hilar neurons have been described, some of which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and....../or somatostatin (SS). Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we examined to what extent Fos was induced in these hilar neurons after ECS. Although a minor population of non-NPY non-SS cells displayed Fos induction early after ECS, prolonged induction of Fos almost exclusively occurred in NPY or SS neurons....... The Fos-immunoreactive NPY or SS neurons only amounted to about 50% of the total hilar population of NPY or SS neurons. The present observations suggest that a subpopulation of hilar NPY and SS neurons may be central to the actions of electroconvulsive seizures in the dentate gyrus....

  4. Laguerre Filter Analysis with Partial Least Square Regression Reveals a Priming Effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takamasa; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Wada, Takumi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Masashi; Saito, Takeshi H; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Signaling networks are made up of limited numbers of molecules and yet can code information that controls different cellular states through temporal patterns and a combination of signaling molecules. In this study, we used a data-driven modeling approach, the Laguerre filter with partial least square regression, to describe how temporal and combinatorial patterns of signaling molecules are decoded by their downstream targets. The Laguerre filter is a time series model used to represent a nonlinear system based on Volterra series expansion. Furthermore, with this approach, each component of the Volterra series expansion is expanded by Laguerre basis functions. We combined two approaches, application of a Laguerre filter and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and applied the combined approach to analysis of a signal transduction network. We applied the Laguerre filter with PLS regression to identify input and output (IO) relationships between MAP kinases and the products of immediate early genes (IEGs). We found that Laguerre filter with PLS regression performs better than Laguerre filter with ordinary regression for the reproduction of a time series of IEGs. Analysis of the nonlinear characteristics extracted using the Laguerre filter revealed a priming effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS induction. Specifically, we found that the effects of a first pulse of ERK enhance the subsequent effects on c-FOS induction of treatment with a second pulse of ERK, a finding consistent with prior molecular biological knowledge. The variable importance of projections and output loadings in PLS regression predicted the upstream dependency of each IEG. Thus, a Laguerre filter with partial least square regression approach appears to be a powerful method to find the processing mechanism of temporal patterns and combination of signaling molecules by their downstream gene expression. PMID:27513954

  5. Effect of different therapies of Chinese medicine on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus of rats with post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Mei Chen; Binhui Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: c-fos and c-jun, the important immediate early genes (IEG), are regarded as the markers for the location and function of neuronal activity, as well as the third signal messengers, they couple the stress stimulation and the gene expression in neuron, and hippocampus is involved in the process of signal transmission after stress stimulation induced depression.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effects of Bushen Yiqi (tonifying kidney to benefit qi), Huoxue Huayu (promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis) and Ditan Kaiqiao (eliminating phlegm for resuscitation) on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus and spontaneous behaviors of rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and compare the results with those of fluoxetine, which is known to have definite effect on depression.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETrING: Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The trial was completed in Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January to July in 2003. Fifty-six healthy adult Wistar male rats of clean grade, weighing (250±50) g, were randomly divided into 7 groups with 8 rats in each group: control group, model group, forced swimming group,Bushen Yiqi group; Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine group. The Bushen Yiqi Tang con tained Renshen, Huangqi, Heshouwu, Gouqi, Shudi, etc., crude drugs 1 800 g/L. The Huoxue Huayu Tang contained Danshen, Chuanxiong, Chishao, Yujin, etc., crude drugs 3 600 g/L. The Dian Kaiqiao Tang contained Banxia, Danxing, Changpu, Yuanzhi, etc., crude drug 1 000 g/L.METHODS: ① Except the control group and forced swimming group, rats in the other groups were made into PSD models by deligating the bilateral common carotid arteries permanently. ② Rats in the control group, model group and forced swimming group were intragastrically perfused by saline (3 mL for each time); those in the Bushen Yiqi group, Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine

  6. Effect of Ningxian Particles on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨东东

    2013-01-01

    weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats. Results: Immunohisto-chemistry experiments: resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group, increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippoeampal CA3 region compared to the sham group, was densely distributed, deeply stained, while lower than that of the model group; Ningxian particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein and was superior to CBZ group ( P<0.05 ). No significant differences among groups, Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference. Conclusion: Ningxian particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression significantly and enhance efficacy, the treatment groups indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.

  7. Subd iaphragmatic vagotomy reduce the responses of fever and c-Fos expression inrat PVN and NTS to LPS%膈下迷走神经切断降低LPS所致大鼠发热及室旁核、孤束核c-Fos蛋白表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路秀英; 杨贵贞

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the possibility that responses of fever and c- Fos expression in rat PVN and NTS to intraperitoneal administration of LPS are rnediated by vagal afferents. Methods: Rectal temperature was detected by digital temperature detecting instrument. c-Fos expressis was detected by immunohistochemistry staining.Results:The rectal temperature change value in vagotomy LPS gnoup was significantlydecreased compared with that in sham IPS group,and there was striking difference betwen them, p <0.05.It was increased significantlycompared with that in vagotomy NS group, P < 0.05.The percentage of c-Fos positive neurons in rat PVN and NTS in vagotomy LPS group wassignificantly decreased compared with that in sham LPS group,and there were difference between them, p <0.01.Itwas stnkingly increased compared with that in vagotomy conrol group,respectively, P <0.01.Conclusion:The results indicate that vagus nerve is one of thepathways of peripheal LPS signal communicating to CNS.%探讨迷走神经作为LPS信息由外周传入中枢的桥梁。方法:实验组为膈下迷走神经切断并给予LPS组,3个对照组为假手术生理盐水组,假手术LPS组,膈下迷走切断生理盐水组。测体温用数字体温检测仪测定大鼠肛温。c-Fos蛋白表达用免疫组织化学法检测。结果:实验组肛温变化值与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.05;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.05。c-Fos蛋白表达:实验组PVN和NTS中c-Fos阳性细胞百分率与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.01;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.01。结论:迷走神经是外周LPS信息向脑传递的途径之一。

  8. A comparative study of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to expressions of c-fos and c-jun products and bone matrix proteins: a clinicopathologic review and immunohistochemical study of c-fos, c-jun, type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, A; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1999-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia are both benign fibro-osseous lesions of the bone and are generally seen during childhood or adolescence. Histologically, the features of these bone lesions sometimes look quite similar, but their precise nature remains controversial. We retrospectively studied clinicopathologic findings in 62 cases of fibrous dysplasia and 20 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to their anatomic location and histological appearance. From among these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogene products and bone matrix proteins of type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were evaluated in 20 typical fibrous dysplasias and 17 osteofibrous dysplasias using paraffin sections, and these expressions were then assessed semiquantitatively. Microscopically, fibrous dysplasia showed various secondary changes, such as hyalinization, hemorrhage, xanthomatous reaction, and cystic change in 22 of the 62 cases (35%). This was a higher incidence than in osteofibrous dysplasia, in which only 2 of the 20 cases (10%) showed such changes. In the elderly fibrous dysplasia cases, the cellularity of fibroblast-like cells was rather low, and those cases were hyalinized. Almost all of the cases of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia showed positive expressions of c-fos and c-jun products. The expressions of type I collagen and osteopontin showed no difference between fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia. Immunoreactivity for osteonectin in bone matrix was detected in only 1 case of fibrous dysplasia (1 of 20), whereas it was recognized in 14 of the 17 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity for osteocalcin in bone matrix and fibroblast-like cells was higher in fibrous dysplasia than it was in osteofibrous dysplasia, semiquantitatively. Our immunohistochemical results regarding osteonectin and osteocalcin suggest that the bone matrix of fibrous dysplasia is

  9. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE/NaCl MIXTURES STIMULATION ON C-FOS-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE TASTE-RELATED NUCLEI IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋恩社; 闫剑群; 宋新艾

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of neuronal activation in taste-related nuclei following intraoral taste stimulation with binary taste mixtures of sucrose and NaCl. Methods Neuronal activation in response to intraoral taste stimulation with 0.5 mol*L-1 sucrose, 0.3 mol*L-1 NaCl, sucrose+NaCl mixture and distilled water was evaluated in taste-related nuclei by using c-Fos-like immunoreactivity(c-FLI) in the rats deprived of water overnight. Results The consumption of sucrose+NaCl mixture was lower than that of sucrose solution. Intraoral sucrose or NaCl stimulation induced more c-FLI than distilled water in the external lateral subnucleus of the rostral parabrachial nucleus (PBN), but the c-FLI induced by intraoral sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation was less than that induced by sucrose solution in this subnucleus. Compared with distilled water, the intraoral sucrose or sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation induced more c-FLI in the central amygdala. ConclusionThese results suggest that salty taste has a suppressive effect on the neuronal activations induced by sweet taste in the external lateral subnucleus of rostral PBN in rats.

  10. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors. PMID:20570698

  11. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  12. 靶向人原癌基因c-fos的shRNA表达质粒的构建及鉴定%Construction and Identification of Short Hairpin RNA Expression Vector Targeting to Human Proto-oncogene c-fos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景志杰; 刘田福; 师锐赞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting to human protooncogene c-fos. Methods Recombinant shRNA expression vector Psilencer3.l-sic-fos targeting to human c-fos gene was constructed and transfected to breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The expression of c-fos mRNA in stably transfected cell was determined by RT-PCR.Results PCR, restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid Psilencer3. 1-sic-fos was constructed correctly.The recombinant plasmid inhibited the expression of c-fos gene at mRNA level in MCF-7 cells significantly. Conclusion The recombinant shRNA expression vector for human c-fos gene was successfully constructed, which provided a technical tool for further study on the role of c-fos gene in genesis and progress of tumors.%目的 构建靶向人原癌基因c-los的短发夹RNA(Short hairpin RNA,shRNA)重组真核表达质粒,并进行鉴定.方法 构建靶向人c-fos基因的shRNA重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos,转染乳腺癌MCF-7细胞,采用RT-PCR法检测稳定转染细胞中c-fos基因mRNA的表达.结果 重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos经PCR、双酶切及测序证明构建正确;重组表达质粒在mRNA水平明显抑制了MCF-7细胞c-fos基因的表达(P<0.05).结论 已成功构建了人c-fos基因shRNA重组表达质粒,为深入研究c-fos基因在肿瘤发生、发展过程中的作用提供了技术手段.

  13. The effect of chronic ketamine injection on the change of behavior and expressions of PV and c-Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice%成年小鼠氯胺酮慢性注射后行为改变以及海马CA3区小清蛋白和c-Fos的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 刘阳; 张志龙; 王德广

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the expressions of parvalbumin (PV) and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice after they showed symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . Methods Sixty adult Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group of saline ( NS) injection and the three groups of ketamine in - jection including 50 mg/kg (Kl) , 100 mg/kg (K2) and 150 mg/kg (K3). The mice were administered by intraperito - neal injection once every five days for 6 times. Then stereotyped behavior was observed and the open field test was per -formed after 5 days from the last injection. The expression of PV and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 of mice were detected by immunohistochemical staining in different groups . Results Compared to the control group , the scores of stereotyped behavior and open field test of ketamine groups increased significantly (P <0.01) , and tended to increase with the increasing dosage of ketamine. The expressions of PV in hippocampal CA 3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of ketamine , with significant difference between K2 group and K3 group (P <0.01). The expressions of c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of katamine (P <0.05). Conclusion The adult mice can show symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . The expressions of PV and c -Fos are suppressed with the increasing ketamine dosage, which may be related to the symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine poisoning.%目的 观察小鼠氯胺酮慢性中毒产生精神分裂症样症状后,海马CA3区小清蛋白(parvalbumin,PV)和c-Fos蛋白的表达.方法 将60只成年昆明小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS)和氯胺酮给药组:50 mg/kg(K1)、100 mg/kg(K2)和150 mg/kg(K3).每5天腹腔给药1次,连续注射6次,于给药完成后第5天,观察刻板行为

  14. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  15. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Derek A Hamilton; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that desc...

  16. Activation of endogenous c-fos proto-oncogene expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40 sup tax protein in the human T-cell line, Jurkat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kinya; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masataka; Sugamura, Kazuo (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    The authors examined the ability of the trans-acting factor p40{sup tax} of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), which is thought to be a crucial molecule in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I, to activate expression of a set of endogenous cellular genes related to T-cell proliferation. For this purpose, they established a subclone (JPX-9) of Jurkat cells that was stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the p40{sup tax} gene, whose expression is definitively dependent on heavy-metal ions. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} chain in JPX-9 cells was induced in response to the induction of p40{sup tax} expression, as has been demonstrated by others in transient transfection experiments with Jurkat cells. In addition, they found that significant enhancement of expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was closely associated with expression of p40{sup tax}. Continuous enhancement in the level of c-fos mRNA was observed in the presence of p40{sup tax}. These results suggest that (i) in addition to the interleukin-2-interleukin-2 receptor system, cellular genes such as c-fos, which regulate normal T-cell growth, are also activated directly or indirectly by p40{sup tax} and (ii) p40{sup tax}-induced modulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I.

  17. Light pulses do not induce c-fos or per1 in the SCN of hamsters that fail to reentrain to the photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; O'Hara, Bruce F; Cao, Vinh H; Larkin, Jennie E; Heller, H Craig; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-08-01

    Circadian activity rhythms of most Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase shift of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Instead, their rhythms free-run at periods close to 25 h despite the continued presence of the LD cycle. This lack of behavioral reentrainment necessarily means that molecular oscillators in the master circadian pacemaker, the SCN, were unable to reentrain as well. The authors tested the hypothesis that a phase shift of the LD cycle rendered the SCN incapable of responding to photic input. Animals were exposed to a 5-h phase delay of the photocycle, and activity rhythms were monitored until a lack of reentrainment was confirmed. Hamsters were then housed in constant darkness for 24 h and administered a 30-min light pulse 2 circadian hours after activity onset. Brains were then removed, and tissue sections containing the SCN were processed for in situ hybridization. Sections were probed with Siberian hamster c-fos and per1 mRNA probes because light rapidly induces these 2 genes in the SCN during subjective night but not at other circadian phases. Light pulses induced robust expression of both genes in all animals that reentrained to the LD cycle, but no expression was observed in any animal that failed to reentrain. None of the animals exhibited an intermediate response. This finding is the first report of acute shift in a photocycle eliminating photosensitivity in the SCN and suggests that a specific pattern of light exposure may desensitize the SCN to subsequent photic input.

  18. Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin klockout mice: Oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyu Bai-Chuang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study used the preproenkephalin knockout (ppENK mice to test whether the endogenous enkephalins deficit could facilitate the anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. On Day 1, sixteen wildtype (WT and sixteen ppENK male mice were given a 3 mA or no footshock treatment for 10 seconds in the footshock apparatus, respectively. On Days 2, 7, and 13, all mice were given situational reminders for 1 min per trial, and the freezing response was assessed. On Day 14, all mice were tested in the open field test, elevated plus maze, light/dark avoidance test, and forced swim test. Two hours after the last test, brain tissues were stained to examine c-fos expression in specific brain areas. The present results showed that the conditioned freezing response was significant for different genotypes (ppENK vs WT. The conditioned freezing effect of the ppENK mice was stronger than those of the WT mice. On Day 14, the ppENK mice showed more anxiety- and depressive-like responses than WT mice. The magnitude of Fos immunolabeling was also significantly greater in the primary motor cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-lateral division, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-supracapsular division, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-lateral magnocellular part, central nucleus of the amygdala, and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in ppENK mice compared with WT mice. In summary, animals with an endogenous deficit in enkephalins might be more sensitive to PTSD-like aversive stimuli and elicit stronger anxiety and depressive PTSD symptoms, suggesting an oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced PTSD.

  19. Effect of scopolamine on expression of p-CREB, c-Fos in rat hippocampus in recurrence of Conditioned place preference induced by morphine%东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现大鼠海马p-CREB及c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方正梅; 李晓红; 邵晓霞; 李顺英; 赵永娜

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To deetect the effect of scopolamine on expression of phospho-cAMP response element binding pro-tein (p-CREB) and c-Fos in rat hippoeampus(Hip) in recurrence of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. METHODS Morphzine was administered by subcutaneously injection(sc)at gradually increasing dose( from 10 mg·kg-1 to 60 mg·kg-1)for 6 days to establish morphine CPP. From dT, the rats were administered saline instead of morphine for 10 days to induce CPP extinction. The rats were given a single priming injection of morphine (4 mg·kg-1) to reinstate the morphine CPP, some rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection(ip) scopolamine (1,2,3 mg·kg-1) prior to priminging injection of morphine. The expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in Hip were assayed with immunohistochemistry method in the phase of recurrence of CPP. RESULTS (1) After priming injection of morphine 4 mg·kg-1, the time spent on the drug paired side was significantly reduced because of the treatment with scopolamine, compared with morphine group(P<0. 05);(2) Compared to morphine group, scopolamine could decrease the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos of Hip in rats (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The effect of scopolamine inhibited morphine-induced CPP recurrence probably relates to its inhibitory effect on p-CREB and c-Fos expres-sion of Hip in rats.%目的:探讨东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发条件位置性偏爱激活大鼠海马(hippocampus.Hip)cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(phos-pho-cAMP response element binding protein,p-CREB)和c-Fos表达的变化.方法:以吗啡剂量递增法6 d建立大鼠条件位置性偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)模型.生理盐水替代吗啡训练大鼠10 d.使形成的CPP逐渐消退,小剂量吗啡激发已消退的CPP.采用免疫组化技术检测不同剂量东茛菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现时大鼠海马p-CREB和c-Fos表达的变化.结果:东莨菪碱可抑制吗啡点燃诱发大鼠CPP重现行为;并可减少吗啡诱发的CPP重现时大鼠

  20. Effects of Herbs Invigorating Kidney on the Sports Ability and C - fos Expression within PVN in Over Trained Rats%补肾中药对过度训练大鼠运动能力及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 李中华; 于芳; 汪晓阳; 刘鸿宇

    2012-01-01

    .05 ) ; the amount and area of c - fos within PVN obviously decreased ( P 〈0.05, P 〈0.01 ), the gray degree was not significant different ( P 〉0.01 ) in the Chinese - medicine and training group. Conclusion: Taking Xuefurong capsules may enhance the sports ability, its mech- anism might be that Xuefurong capsules increase the serum testoster- one and decrease the serum cortisol and excessive expression of c - fos within PVN at the same time.

  1. Observations of the 1995 ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Sahai, Y.; Casiccia, C. A. R. S.; Zamorano, B. F.; Valderrama, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    We examine the appearance of the ozone hole over a populated area with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The largest population concentrations on the South American continent nearest the ozone hole region are Punta Arenas, Chile (53.0°S, 70.9°W) and Ushuaia, Argentina (54.5°S, 68.0°W), located close to the strait of Magallanes, opposite the Antarctic Peninsula. A special field mission was held in Punta Arenas, in September-October 1995 to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone during the appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole. Previous work has shown that the city of Punta Arenas is located at the edge of the hole area and is affected every year during a few days in the October period. The ozone trend near these locations is -0.5% per year using the yearly averages and -1.2% per year using the October means. This trend is 2 to 5 times larger than the global average. Several ozonesondes of the electrochemical concentration cell type were launched from Punta Arenas to determine the vertical distribution of ozone during "normal" and "perturbed" conditions. The ozone hole passed over Punta Arenas on October 12, 13 and 14, 1995. In addition to the sondes, which were launched once a day, ozone column amounts and UVB radiation were measured with a ground-based ozone Brewer spectrophotometer. The strongest ozone depletion over Punta Arenas in 1995 occurred on October 13, when the ozone column decreased from a "normal" value of about 325 Dobson Units (DU) to 200 DU; the vertical distribution of ozone on October 13 compared with October 6 shows depleted ozone roughly 50% less during hole conditions in the stratosphere. The UVB intensities have increased accordingly. The spectral ratio for October 13 to October 4 is 13 times larger at 297 nm.

  2. Expression of ERK and c-fos and effect of brain derived neurotrophic factor in early retinal neuropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat%糖尿病早期大鼠视网膜中细胞外信号调节激酶与c-fos的变化及脑源性神经营养因子的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万超; 刘宁宁; 柳力敏; 才娜; 陈蕾

    2012-01-01

    phosphatized extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and c-fos in the retina after injection of BDNF into the vitreous in STZ induced Wistar diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats aged 9 weeks-old were randomly divided into BDNF injection group,diabetes mellitus (DM) control group and normal control group and 20 rats for each group.STZ was intraperitoneally injected in the rats of BDNF injection group and DM control group to create the experimental DM.BDNF was intravitreously injected in the rats of BDNF group 2 weeks after administration of STZ in three-day interval for 5 times,and BSS containing O.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used at the same way in the DM control group and normal control group.The retina was isolated for hybridization in situ for BDNF,and TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos.Levels in retina were detected using sandwich method ELISA. Results The number of BDNF positive cells and the gray scale were lower obviously in the rat retina of DM control group than those of BDNF injection group and normal control group,showing significant differences among the 3 groups ( F =102.36,92.55 ;P<0.05 ).ELISA assay showed that TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values in retina were statistically significantly different among the 3 groups ( F =92.54,95.46,94.84,P<0.05 ).The TrkB level in retina was statistically reduced,but the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos levels in retina were increased statistically in DM control group compared with BDNF injection group and normal control group( P<0.05 ).No statistical difference was found in TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values between the BDNF injection group and normal control group(P>0.05). Conclusions The injection of BDNF into the vitreous cavity can protect retina from downregulating BDNF and TrkB levels and up-regulating the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos protein levels in the early stage of DM.

  3. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  4. The preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma%中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤c-fos表达的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶峰; 徐春; 梁立武

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤表达癌基因c-fos的抑制作用.[方法]用皮下植入雌激素的方法制备大鼠催乳素瘤模型,将成功诱发出催乳素瘤的大鼠随机分2组,分别给予安慰剂和降乳散灌胃,用药治疗4周后处死动物,垂体称重,用放免法测定血清催乳素(prolactin,PRL)水平.用反转录-PCR方法分析原癌基因c-fos mRNA水平.[结果]降乳散组血清PRL水平为(67.9±9.6)ng/ml,垂体重量为(33.7±5.0)mg均明显低于安慰剂组[血清PRL水平为(5 667.1±860)ng/ml,垂体重量为(67.1±3.5)mg(P<0.001),降乳散组c-fos mRNA水平为(2.1±0.6)较安慰剂组(6.2±0.5)明显降低(P<0.001).[结论]降乳散具有抗高PRL血症和抑制PRL瘤生长的作用,降低原癌基因c-fos的表达水平可能是降乳散抗PRL瘤的重要机制之一.%[Objective] To study the preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma. [Methods] To prepare prolactinoma model in rats. The Prolactinomas were divided into 2 groups at random. Jiangrusan was orally adminstrated to rats in Jiangrusan group(n = 5). Water were adminstrated to rats in placebo group(n = 5). After 4 weeks of treatment, all the animals were executed. Each pituitary gland was weighted. Serum prolactin(PRL) levels were measured by RIA method. C-fos mRNA levels in pituitary tissue were measured by RT-PCR method. [Results] The weight of pituitary gland and PRL level in Jiangrusan group were individually lower than those in placebo group(F <0.001 repectively). The expression level of c-fos mRNA in Jiangrusan group was obviously lower than that in placebo group(P < 0.001). [Conclusion] Jiangrusan has potential preventive effect on estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma. The decrease of c-fos mRNA level may be involved in the mechanism of anti-prolactinoma effect of Jiangrusan.

  5. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeung Su [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young, E-mail: kimjy1014@gmail.com [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  6. Protective effect of c-fos antisense oligonucleotides on brain damage induced by glutamate%c-fos反义寡核苷酸对谷氨酸神经毒性鼠脑损伤的防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳少杰; 陶永光; 罗自强; 冯德云; 伍赶球

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between glutamate neurotoxicity and c-fos gene expression. Methods c-fos antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODN) was injected into the right lateral ventricles of 9 SD rats to block the c-fos gene expression in brain tissue. c-fos sense oligonucleotides (S ODN)was used a control. The numbers and morphology of neurons in both cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 were detected by MIAS-300 image analysing instrument. c-fos gene expression in brain was observed by immunohistochemical method. The content of water and electrolytes in the brain tissue and Ca2+ in the synapse were measured. Results The c-fos AS ODN blocked the c-fos gene expression and reduced the content of both water and sodium in brain tissue and Ca2+ in symptosome, thus alleviating the morphological damage in neuron. S ODN did not have such effect. Conclusion c-fos gene expression plays an important role in mediating the effect of glutamate neurotoxicity. Blocking the c-fos gene expression could antagonize glutamate neurotoxicity.%目的 探讨c-fos基因的表达在谷氨酸神经毒性中的作用。方法 在9只SD大鼠侧脑室注射c-fos反义寡核苷酸以阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,并用c-fos正义寡核苷酸为对照。观察脑组织中水、电解质含量和突触体内Ca2+浓度的变化,并采用细胞形态计量分析及免疫组织化学方法,观察大脑皮质、海马CA1区神经细胞数目、形态的变化及c-fos基因的表达。结果 c-fos反义寡核苷酸可有效地阻断脑组织c-fos基因的表达,降低脑组织c-fos阳性细胞率(9.4%±2.8%和74%±3%,P<0.01),抑制谷氨酸神经毒性所致的脑组织含水量(79.9%±0.4%和82.3%±0.8%,P<0.01)、钠(5.05 mg/g干重±0.39 mg/g干重和5.98 mg/g干重±0.50 mg/g干重,P<0.01)及细胞内Ca2+(176 nmol/L±35 nmol/L和344.12±50.13,P<0.01)含量的增加,抑制谷氨酸所致大脑皮质(157±10和145±7,P<0

  7. 电针对雌性去势大鼠行为学和下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on behavioral and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in female ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 许浩; 胡光明; 尹刚; 王海颖; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察电针对雌性切除卵巢(去势)大鼠行为学、血浆雌二醇(E)及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响,探讨电针的抗抑郁效应及其机制.方法:SPF级SD雌性成年大鼠40只,随机分为正常对照组、去势组、电针组及美雌醇组.除正常对照组外大鼠均行双侧卵巢切除术.2周后,给予双侧内关、三阴交穴位电针干预处理2周.强迫游泳实验(FST)观察行为学变化;免疫组化观察下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达;放射免疫方法检测m浆E、FSH及LH变化.结果:大鼠卵巢切除4周后,FST显示不动时间明显增加(P水平降低(P水平明显升高(P<0.01),FSH(P<0.05,P<0.01)和LH(P<0.01,P<0.05)水平明显降低,室旁核c-fos阳性表达明娃增强.结论:去卵巢后,可致大鼠行为学改变,表现为抑郁倾向;电针干预具有明显抗抑郁效应,调整下丘脑轴是其可能机制.%Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depression-like behavior, estradiol (E2) and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Methods: SPF grade SD female rats were ovariectomized. After two weeks recovery, the rats in APU group were treated by EA in bilateral Neiguan and Sanyinjiao for two weeks and the rats in E group were treated by mestranol. Later let ail the rats in every group to undergo FST. To measure the sum of time about immobility, struggling and swimming in the second FST (within 5 minutes), the levels of Ej, FSH, LH in blood serum were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expressions of proto-oncogene c-fos in PVN were ovserved by immunohistochemistry. Results: The time of immobility increased significantly in OVX group after rats were ovariectomized for 4 weeks (P<0.01), the levels of E, in blood plasma decreased (P<0.05), and the levels of FSH (P<0.01) and LH (P<0.05) increased significantly. After treated by EA, the levels of Ej increased significantly

  8. Effect of Ningxian Particles Combined with CBZ on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨旭红; 钟振东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the Ningxian Particles combined with Carbamazepin (CBZ)on immediate early gene c-fos expression of drug-resistant epilepsy in rats,and to explore its mechanism.Methods:42 male Wister rats were randomly divided into sham group,model group,Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ high[(0.03+4.80) g · kg-1 · d-1],medium[(0.03+2.40) g · kg-1 · d-1] and low dose groups [(0.03 +1.20)g · kg-1 · d-1],Ningxian Particles group (2.40 g · kg-1 · d-1)and CBZ group (0.03 g · kg-1 · d-1) (n=6).Epilepsy model in rats was established by injection of kainic acid into hippocampal CA3.PHT drug screen was made 14 days after the production of drug-resistant epilepsy model.Immunohistochemical method in each group was given two weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats.Results:Immunohisto-chemistry experiments:resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group,increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippocampal CA3 region compared to the sham group,and were densely distributed,deeply stained,while lower than that of the model group.Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein which was superior to that of CBZ group (P<0.05).No significant differences among groups,Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference.Conclusion:Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression and significantly enhance combination of efficacy,the efficacy of high-dose group of the United Ningxian Particles treatment group indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.%目的:观察宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠即早基因c--fos表达的影响,并探讨其作用机制.方法:Wistar雄性大鼠42只,按体质量随机分为假手术组,模型组,卡马西平+宁痫颗粒高[(0.03+4.80)g·kg-1·d-1]、中[(0.03+2.40)g·kg-1·d-1]、低剂量组[(0.03+1.20)g·kg-1·d-1],

  9. Effects of voluntary wheeling exercise on the learning and memory and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of depression model rats%自愿转轮运动对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆及基底外侧杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 药宏慧; 李中华; 庞立杰; 贺继平

    2013-01-01

    automatic movement ability and explorative behavior of the rats, ap-plied the 8-arm radial maze experiment to measure the space learning and memorizing ability of the rats, applied immunohistochemical and image semi-quantitative methods to measure and analyze the number, area and grey level of c-fos neurons of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, and revealed the following findings:1) as compared with the rats in the stress model group, the rats in the stress exercise group had a significantly increased number of squares crossed, number of times of standing up, number of times of decoration (P0.05) although it decreased. The said findings indicated the followings: voluntary wheeling exercise can enhance the learning and memorizing ability of depressive rats;its mechanism may be related to that long-term voluntary wheeling exercise decreases the level of blood serum cortisol of depressive rats and enhances the c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of their brains.

  10. Effect of Suanzao-Rentang on Neuronal Apoptosis and c-fos Gene Expression of Aged Rats with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation%酸枣仁汤对REM睡眠剥夺老年大鼠脑神经细胞凋亡及c-fos基因表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游秋云; 王平; 张舜波; 黄攀攀; 章程鹏

    2014-01-01

    48h to produce model of old rats with homemade improved multi-platform.The nerve cells apoptosis of cortex and hippocampus in the rats from each group are determined by situ end labeling ( TUNEL) and level changes in c-fos gene expression to Fos protein are detected by using immunohistochemistry and explore the effect of suanzao-Rentang on the nerve damage and c-fos gene expression change in elder,which caused by insomnia.Results Compared with the control group,the cerebral cortex and hippocampus nerve cells apoptosis of rats, which are from REM sleep deprivation group, increased, and their Fos protein expression was significantly.Compared with REM sleep deprivation older group,Suanzao-Rent-ang group’s nerve cells apoptosis and Fos protein expression in brain significantly decreased,but still higher than the normal con-trol group.Conclusion C-fos gene is likely involved in the process of apoptosis in old REM sleep deprivation rats and Suanzao-Rentang inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play a protective role in the brain possibly by inhibiting brain upregulation of c-fos gene.

  11. Correlation of expression VEGF to expression of protooncogenes of c-fos and c-myc at protein level among various grades of liver cirrhosis%硬变肝组织VEGF的表达与原癌基因c-fos,c-myc 以及肝功能分级的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施宝民; 杨镇; 张黎; 李大鹏

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在肝硬化发生发展中的作用以及肝脏原癌基因(c-fos,c-myc)与肝功能Child分级的相关关系。方法通过对54例硬变肝组织中的VEGF、c-fos、c-myc蛋白的免疫组化检测,观察VEGF的蛋白水平表达与肝脏功能Child 分级的相关性,同时分析VEGF阳性病例组与阴性病例组c-fos、c-myc的不同表达,来了解二者的相互作用关系。结果 Child A级与Child B级VEGF的表达显著高于Child C级和对照组(P<0.05),而Child A级与Child B级之间差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。c-fos 及c-myc的表达在VEGF阳性组和阴性组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。结论 VEGF的水平可以反映肝脏功能的代偿状态,可能在肝硬化的进程中起着保肝作用;原癌基因c-fos、c-myc与VEGF作用在不同环节。

  12. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis.

  13. Pyrroloquinoline quinine inhibits RANKL-mediated expression of NFATc1 in part via suppression of c-Fos in mouse bone marrow cells and inhibits wear particle-induced osteolysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo Kong

    Full Text Available The effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and on wear particle-induced osteolysis were examined in this study. PQQ inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, and TRAP in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by PQQ treatment. Moreover, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by PQQ. PQQ additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. Further a UHMWPE-induced murine calvaria erosion model study was performed to assess the effects of PQQ on wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro-CT and histologic analysis of calvaria. These results collectively suggested that PQQ demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and may suppress wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo, indicating that PQQ may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  14. Simulation modeling and analysis with Arena

    CERN Document Server

    Altiok, Tayfur

    2007-01-01

    Simulation Modeling and Analysis with Arena is a highly readable textbook which treats the essentials of the Monte Carlo discrete-event simulation methodology, and does so in the context of a popular Arena simulation environment.” It treats simulation modeling as an in-vitro laboratory that facilitates the understanding of complex systems and experimentation with what-if scenarios in order to estimate their performance metrics. The book contains chapters on the simulation modeling methodology and the underpinnings of discrete-event systems, as well as the relevant underlying probability, statistics, stochastic processes, input analysis, model validation and output analysis. All simulation-related concepts are illustrated in numerous Arena examples, encompassing production lines, manufacturing and inventory systems, transportation systems, and computer information systems in networked settings.· Introduces the concept of discrete event Monte Carlo simulation, the most commonly used methodology for modeli...

  15. Potential arenas for crisis and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on crises of the nuclear age, on the outbreak of the two World Wars, which constitutes our historical data base. There is another data base that is probably more germane to the problem of assessing the risks entailed in future crises: the constant, objective factors defined by the superpowers' military deployments, alert operations, command organizations, and political commitments in the various geopolitical arenas were friction exists or can be anticipated. These tangible factors are likely to play a significant role in a future crisis whatever it speculiarities may be, and this paper is devoted to described them. Crisis arenas may be divided into categories having quite distinct characteristics: Europe, where both superpowers have large forces in constant and close contact; the Middle East and other circumscribed regions where they do not; and the global arenas the oceans and space. In view of these distinctions, the authors shall impose this geographic division on their discussion of the objective factors

  16. Effects of sericine on c-fos expression in testis of type 2 diabetic mellitus rats%丝胶对2型糖尿病大鼠睾丸c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成军; 付文亮; 钟美蓉; 陈志宏

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠睾丸原癌基因c-fos表达的变化及丝胶的保护作用.方法 30只雄性SD大鼠随机分成正常对照组、糖尿病模型组和丝胶治疗组.链脲佐菌素腹腔注射建立T2DM大鼠模型,以血糖≥16.7 mmol/L作为成模标准.待模型成功建立后,模型组大鼠不做任何处理;丝胶治疗组大鼠给予丝胶灌胃(2.4 g·kg-1·d-1)35 d.ELISA方法检测大鼠血清睾酮水平,SP免疫组化法和RT-PCR法分别检测睾丸c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达.结果 T2DM模型大鼠血清睾酮水平、睾丸c-fos蛋白和mRNA的表达均明显低于正常对照组大鼠(P<0.01);丝胶治疗组大鼠血清睾酮水平、睾丸c -fos蛋白和mRNA的表达明显高于模型大鼠(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论 丝胶可通过上调睾丸c-fos的表达,促进精原细胞向精母细胞转化,发挥对T2DM生殖功能损伤的保护作用.%Objective To observe the changes of c-fos expression in testis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats and the protective effects of sericine. Methods 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model and sericine treatment groups ( n -10). T2DM model rats were made by continuous intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and blood glucose≥ 16. 7 mmol/L was taken as standard. After successfully establishing model, the rats in model group were not given any more treatment; the rats in sericine treatment group were lavaged with sericine (2.4 g · kg -1 ? D -1 ) for 35 days. ELISA was used to detect the testosterone level in serum; SP immuno-histochemical staining and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of c-fos protein and mRNA in testis respectively. Results The testosterone level in serum, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in testis of diabetes model rats were obviously lower than those of normal control rats (P<0. 01). The testosterone level in serum, the c-fos protein and mRNA expression in testis of rats in sericine treatment group were

  17. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces rapid c-fos and BZLF1 transient expression in EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Akata%EB病毒感染诱导Akata的c-fos及BZLF1基因的短暂表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温旺荣; 李莉; 陈盛亭; 林晓丹; 吴勇; 曹燕

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on expression of early gene c-fos and the BZLF1 transient in EBV-negative Burkitt' s lymphoma-derived Akata cells infected by EB virus. Methods EBV-negative Burkitt' s lymphoma-derived Akata cells were infected by EBV from Akata\\GFEEBV.c18. Moreover c-fos and BZLF1 expression postinfection were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot. Results The rapid increase of c-los expression from 30 min to 3 h post-infection and BZLF1 or BZLF1 protein transient expression from 1.5 h to 48 h or from 6 h to 12 h(there after disappeared) were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot. Conclusion These results indicated that EBV infection could induce c-los and then BZLF1 transient expression in Akata cells.%目的 研究EB病毒感染对EB病毒阴性的Burkitt'S淋巴瘤细胞株Akata的B细胞早早期癌前基因c-fos及病毒激活的关键转录因子BZLF1的表达的影响.方法 应用EB病毒(来源于EB病毒阳性Akata/GFP.EBV.c18)感染EB病毒阴性的Burkitt'S淋巴瘤细胞株Akata,使用RT-PCR和蛋白质印迹技术分别检测EB病毒感染不同时间后细胞c-fos和EB病毒的BZLF1的表达. 结果 EB病毒感染Akata后30min到3 h期间c-fos的表达明显增加,随后恢复正常;EB病毒感染后1.5 h到48 h的BZLF1的短暂表达,随后消失;而且EB病毒感染后6 h到12 h BZLF1蛋白也有短暂表达.随后消失. 结论 EB病毒感染能诱导Akata的B细胞c-fos及随后的BZLF1的短暂表达.

  18. Prevention of overweight in the school arena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of studies with the main purpose to intervene against obesity in children at the school arena. Through databases and Cochrane reviews, 14 studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Most of the studies are American and none were performed in Scandinavia. The European...

  19. Effects of IHT on skeletal muscle metabolism and c-fos expression in rats%间歇性低氧训练对大鼠骨骼肌相关代谢及c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金柱

    2012-01-01

    采用间歇性低氧复合常氧训练的方法,下高原调整后以25m/min的速度一次性力竭,紫外分光光度法测定大鼠骨骼肌匀浆液中SOD、MDA、SDH、CCO指标变化,免疫组织化学ABC法测定骨骼肌c-fos基因表达.结果表明:IHT组能明显提高大鼠抗氧化和清除自由基以及有氧代谢的能力,降低了c-fos表达,有效改善了大鼠对中等强度耐力运动的适应能力,旨在为运动员间歇性低氧训练后平原耐力参赛提供参考.%This research adopts the intermittent hypoxia compound normoxic training method, next plateau after adjustment with the speed of 25m/min exhaustive, UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of rat skeletal muscle homogenate in SOD, MDA, SDH, CCO index changes, the immunohistochemical ABC method for the determination of c-fos gene expression in skeletal muscle of. Results: the IHT group can obviously improve the antioxidant and free radical scavenging and aerobic metabolism ability, reduces the expression of c-fos, can effectively improve the rats to moderate-intensity endurance exercise capacity to adapt, designed for athletes of interval hypoxic training in endurance race to provide reference.

  20. 大鼠脑挫裂伤后c-jun和c-fos基因快速反应的特点%Quick response of genes c-jun and c-fos after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄爱华; 薛贵平; 张辉; 董建峰; 邢立强; 米坤龙

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos has been widely recognized. However, there are very few reports on the characters of the expressions of these two genes after brain contusion.OBJECTIVE: To explore the characters of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos.DESIGN: Randomized case control study.SETTING and MATERIALS: Experimental location: Experimental Centre of Zhangjiakou Medical College. Forty-five adult Wistar rats, with a boby mass about 200 g to 310 g.INTERVENTIONS: Forty-five rats were randomly divided into model group, sham operation group and normal control group. No treatment to normal group. The skulls were opened without strike for sham operation group. Free falling body method was used to make the brain injury model for model group. Rats were executed in 0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 72 hours. Brain tissues were taken out to make paraffin sections and dyed by PV6000 immunohistochemistry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The similarities and differences of gene expressions of c-jun and c-fos.RESULTS: There was no positive expression of c-fos in the normal and sham group. However, there was weakly positive of c-jun. In the model group, the positive neurons distributed in the 1.0 - 2.0 mm cortex area surrounding the focus and the hippocampus of the same side. c-jun positive neurons were widely found in the cortex of injury side and hippocampus. The color of c-jun positive cells was dark, especially in hippocampus which c-jun positive cells concentrated. There was hardly expression of c-fos in 72 hours, but there were obvious positive neurons of c-jun existed.CONCLUSION: The gene expression of c-jun in the same side of brain injury is much stronger and more extensive than that of c-fos. The expressive time is much longer.%背景:目前关于c-jun和c-fos基因表达的重要性已逐渐被人们认识,而关于脑挫伤后两种基因表达的特点报道较少.目的:探讨脑挫裂伤后c-jun和c-fos基因表达的特点.设计:随机

  1. Reinaldo Arenas e il trauma delle dittature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Andrea Spadola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinaldo Arenas is a Cuban writer known for his opposition to Fidel Castro’s regime. In his work Antes queanochezca. Autobiografía, written as a book of memories, the author recalls his life and minutely recounts his traumatic experience in prison as a homosexual protester, and his new life in the USA, experienced as being in exile. This article concentrates on a comparative study of the novel and screen adaptation, entitled Before Night Falls, directed by Julian Schnabel in 2000. If at the very beginning, Arenas is engaged against Cuban Communism, at the end of his life, he will consider that all political systems repressing freedom and dignity are equally reprehensible.

  2. Increased number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area after deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Hescham, S; Adriaanse, B; Campos, F L; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F; Temel, Y; Jahanshahi, A

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been long implicated with the processes of memory. In long-term memory, the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) use DA to enhance long-term potentiation, while prefrontal DA D1 receptors are involved in working memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of specific brain areas have been shown to affect memory impairments in animal models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DBS could reverse memory impairments by increasing the number of dopaminergic cells in the VTA. Rats received DBS at the level of the mammillothalamic tract, the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and entorhinal cortex before euthanasia. These regions are part of the so-called memory circuit. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry in the VTA and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). c-Fos, TH and c-Fos/TH immunoreactive cells were analyzed by means of stereology and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus induced substantial higher numbers of TH-immunoreactive cells in the VTA, while there were no significant differences between the experimental groups in the number of TH immunoreactive cells in the SNc, c-Fos immunoreactive cells and c-Fos/TH double-labeled cells in both the SNc and VTA. Our findings suggest a phenotypic switch, or neurotransmitter respecification, of DAergic cells specifically in the VTA which may be induced by DBS in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

  3. Effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats%薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑及杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操礼琼; 杨莹; 程文文; 李光武; 傅佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核即早基因(c-fos)表达的影响,探讨其发挥生物活性的中枢机制.方法:将24只SD大鼠随机分为薰衣草精油组、蒸馏水组和空白组,免疫组化法观察各组大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos表达并对结果进行灰度半定量分析.结果:c-fos阳性细胞呈棕黄色染色,薰衣草组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞主要分布在杏仁核、下丘脑处,其它脑组织有散在分布,蒸馏水组和空白组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞散在分布于各处脑组织.与蒸馏水组和空白组比较,薰衣草组下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos灰度值降低(P<0.05).结论:大鼠吸入薰衣草精油后可能通过下丘脑及杏仁核发挥各种生物活性.%Objective: To study the effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats, explore the biological activity of the central mechanisms to lavender essential oil. Methods: Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: lavender essential oil group, distilled water group and control group. The immuno histochemical methods were used to detect the c-fos expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala and was semi-quantitative analysed for grey value. Results: The c-fos positive neurons were dyed in brown. For lavender essential oil group, c-fos positive neurons were mainly distributed in the hypothalamus and amygdala; others brain were scattered. For distilled water and control group, c-fos positive neurons were dispersed in brain tissue. Compared to distilled water and control group, grey value of c-fos of lavender was significantly reduced (/><0.05) in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Conclusion: Rats after inhalation of lavender essential oil may play a variety of biological activity through the hypothalamus and amygdala.

  4. LEADING CHANGE IN THE PUBLIC ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA BĂHNĂREANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The public arena is constantly exposed to social and economic pressures, forcing governmental organizations to question their capacity to change and to rethink their leadership status.First, we will provide an overview of the importance of leadership in achieving successful change, which is undoubtedly recognized through the academic literature on public leadership. Then, drawing on the concept of organizational change, this article explores the role of public leaders as change agents and illustrates empirical evidence that support the positive effect of change-oriented leaders actions in the public context.

  5. Effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in ischemia reperfusion myocardium of rats%参附注射液影响大鼠缺血再灌注心肌Bcl-2,Bax与c-Fos蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉培; 牟崇明; 季道如; 但伶; 龚文婷; 王莉莎

    2006-01-01

    injection of Shenfu parenteral injection (8 mL/kg) at 15 minutes before ligation, and then the left coronary artery anterior descending branch was ligated for 40 minutes and reperfused for 30 minutes. ③ Shenfu parenteral injection 120-minute group: The rats were reperfused for 120 minutes, and the others were the same as those in the Shenfu parenteral injection 30-minute group. ④ Saline 30-minute control group: The rats were treated with intravenous injection of saline (8 mL/kg) at 15 minutes before ligation, and then the left coronary artery anterior descending branch was ligated for 40 minutes and reperfused for 30 minutes. ⑤ Saline 120-minute control group: The rats were reperfused for 120 minutes, and the others were the same as those in the saline 30-minute control group. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in myocardial tissues were detected with immunohistochemical method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and cFos proteins in myocardial tissues of rats in each group were observed.RESULTS: All the 35 rats were involved in the analysis of results without deletion. ①As compared with the sham-operated group, the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax or c-Fos protein in myocardium were significantly increased(P < 0.01), but the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were significantly decreased (P <0.01) in the saline 30 and 120-minute groups. ② As compared with corresponding saline groups, the expressions of Bcl-2 protein in the Shenfu parenteral injection 30 and 120-minute groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01), the expressions of Bax and c-Fos proteins were remarkably decreased (P < 0.01), and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were significantly increased (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Protective effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on ischemia/reperfusion myocardium may be correlated with its promotion of Bcl-2 protein expression, restrain to Bax and c-Fos protein expressions, and increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and it restrains the apoptosis of myocardial cells.

  6. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on c-fos gene expression and cAMP levels in rat hippocampus%人参皂苷Rg1对大鼠海马c-fos基因表达和cAMP含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忞; 张均田

    1996-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of Rg1 antiaging and nootropic function. METHODS: Using Northern and Western blot analyses, the levels of cfos mRNA and fos protein were determined in the hippocampus of young and old rats treated with or without ginsenoside Rg1. RESULTS: The expression of c-fos gene and protein was decreased in the hippocampus of aged rats, but dose-dependently increased in young and aged rats after the administration of Rg1. Furthermore, Rg1 increased the level of cAMP in the hippocampus of both young and old rats. CONCLUSION: The changes at the genomic and protein levels, arisen from the increase of cAMP, provide an explanation of the mechanisms of Rg1 nootropic and antiaging function.%探讨Rg1对神经系统作用的机制.方法:采用Northern和Western印迹分析法,检测了Rg1处理前后大鼠海马组织的c-fos基因和蛋白的表达.结果:老年鼠c-fos基因和蛋白的表达明显低于青年鼠,但给Rg1后老年鼠和青年鼠均呈现显著性增强效应.此外,Rg1还明显增加青年鼠和老年鼠海马组织的cAMP含量.结论:Rg1升高cAMP水平及促进c-fos基因和蛋白的表达有助于阐明其促智和抗衰老作用的机制.

  7. Changes of c-fos expression in kidney tissue in rhesus macaques following high +Gx exposures%高+Gx暴露对猴肾脏组织c-fos表达影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛忠英; 张建中; 施生根; 李冬; 党平

    2006-01-01

    目的 观察高+Gx过载对猴肾脏组织c-fos表达的影响.方法 9只雄性恒河猴,随机分为4组.对照组与实验1、2、3组经受+Gx及其作用时间分别为1 Gx/300 s、+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s和+21 Gx/140 s.使用专用动物离心机,过载暴露后的动物即刻处死、取材、制片、染色.用免疫组织化学方法观察猴肾脏组织c-fos表达.结果 实验组猴肾脏的肾小球充血、肾小管浊肿.肾小管上皮细胞损伤程度呈现出较明显的G值量-效关系.对照组猴肾脏组织结构基本正常.各组动物肾小管上皮细胞有不同程度表达c-fos 蛋白.对照组部分肾小管上皮细胞胞浆呈淡黄色,为c-fos弱阳性表达;实验组c-fos 表达明显增强,阳性产物呈棕黄色颗粒状弥漫分布于肾近曲小管上皮细胞胞浆和胞膜,尤其近管腔面染色加深.实验3组(21 Gx/140 s)较实验1、2组c-fos表达有增强趋势.结论 高+Gx过载作用可诱导肾脏组织中c-fos表达,其表达的强度随着+Gx值的增加有所增强.

  8. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Pai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im], but not colchicine (oral [po], significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  9. Apomorphine induced c-fos expression in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats%阿朴吗啡诱导黑质毁损大鼠纹状体c-fos表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定庆; 陈晓蓉

    2005-01-01

    目的观察6-羟基多巴胺(6-OHDA)毁损黑质后,不同时间点腹腔注射阿朴吗啡(APO)大鼠纹状体c-fos表达情况,探讨其可能机制.方法利用6-OHDA单侧一点注射大鼠黑质致密区(SNc),特异毁损DA能神经元;术后1、7、14、21 d腹腔注射APO,观察旋转行为;利用免疫组织化学和电镜的方法,观察各时间点黑质DA能神经元形态学变化和纹状体c-fos表达情况.结果毁损侧DA能神经元逐渐减少,超微结构损伤逐渐加重;DA神经元丢失≥80%时,APO诱导的旋转实验>7 r·min-1,纹状体毁损侧c-fos表达.结论 APO能诱导毁损侧纹状体表达c-fos,c-fos表达与DA能神经元毁损程度有一定的关系.

  10. Pim-1 kinase inhibits the activation of reporter gene expression in Elk-1 and c-Fos reporting systems but not the endogenous gene expression: an artifact of the reporter gene assay by transient co-transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the molecular mechanism and signal transduction of pim-1, an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine kinase. This is a true oncogene which prolongs survival and inhibits apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. In order to determine whether the effects of Pim-1 occur by regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we used a transcriptional reporter assay by transient co-transfection as a screening method. In this study, we found that Pim-1 inhibited the Elk-1 and NFkappaB transcriptional activities induced by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in reporter gene assays. However, Western blots showed that the induction of Elk-1-regulated expression of endogenous c-Fos was not affected by Pim-1. The phosphorylation and activation of neither Erk1/2 nor Elk-1 was influenced by Pim-1. Also, in the gel shift assay, the pattern of endogenous NFkappaB binding to its probe was not changed in any manner by Pim-1. These data indicate that Pim-1 does not regulate the activation of Erk1/2, Elk-1 or NFkappaB. These contrasting results suggest a pitfall of the transient co-transfection reporter assay in analyzing the regulation of transcription factors outside of the chromosome context. It ensures that results from reporter gene expression assay should be verified by study of endogenous gene expression.

  11. World of warcraft : en social arena

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidi; Kellokoski, Asta

    2007-01-01

    Onlinespelet World of Warcraft (WoW) erbjuder ungdomar en annorlunda social arena, en värld som bara existerar online. Datorspel har blivit en växande underhållning och fler ungdomar spenderar en stor del av sin fritid framför datorn. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur ungdomarna spelar WoW och om de utnyttjar den sociala spelarenan som erbjuds. Genom att belysa spelet WoW, hoppas vi ge blivande pedagoger en ökad förståelse för onlinespel som är ett exempel på en växande populär fr...

  12. Taking the Temperature of Sports Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke

    the technology of the sensor and the different application areas. Two new methods for counting people are presented, as well as two methods for sports type recognition. Tracking of sports players is an important task in many applications, from recognition of activities to evaluation of performance. This thesis......Measuring and mapping human activities are essential steps towards constructing an intelligent and efficient society. Using thermal imaging, the privacy issues often related to surveillance can be eliminated and public acceptance of such systems is easier to obtain. The main focus of this thesis...... is automatic analysis of the use of sports arenas. This work is organised under three themes: Occupancy analysis, Activity recognition and Tracking. Finally, the thesis demonstrates how thermal imaging can also be applied efficiently for analysing humans in the Smart City. This thesis starts by introducing...

  13. Exploring Digital Encounters in the Public Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieck, Ava Fatah Gen.; Kostakos, Vassilis; Penn, Alan

    In this chapter, we explore the types of encounters that technology enables. We consider the differences between digital and nondigital encounters through two pilot studies carried out in the city of Bath, United Kingdom. We investigate how technology can be appropriated for shared interactions that support conscious (or unconscious) social encounters, and highlight the importance of space and the role of place in providing temporal and spatial mechanisms facilitating different types of shared encounters. Here, we apply a method based on intervention through "sensing and projecting" Bluetooth names and digital identity in the public arena, and describe initial observations about people's reaction toward the projection of their Bluetooth names in public. In particular, we note the significance of constructing socially meaningful relations between people mediated by these technologies. We discuss initial results and outline issues raised in detail before finally describing the ongoing work.

  14. Obesity as a social problem in the United States: application of the public arenas model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Morgan C

    2009-05-01

    Obesity rates in the United States have been rising over the past 35 years, resulting in a subsequent increase in nutrition-related chronic disease morbidity and mortality and significant burdens to families, communities, and health care systems. In working to formulate effective public health policy solutions that address the obesity epidemic, it is important to analyze how obesity has been defined and accepted as a social problem. This article applies Hilgartner and Bosk's public arenas model to examine how obesity is defined in the public arena, how competition plays a role in "framing" the obesity issue, and how operatives influence the ways in which obesity is viewed and understood. Implications for nurses and policy makers are addressed in the context of using the public arenas model as a tool to analyze the social problem of obesity. PMID:19696086

  15. Target R&D for the JHF N-arena (Japan Hadron Facility, neutron- arena)

    CERN Document Server

    Furusaka, M

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF), Neutron Science Laboratory (N-arena) is a project that aims to build a world-class pulsed-spallation neutron source (PSNS) at KEK. The N-arena will use a proton beam from a 3 GeV-200 mu A-25 Hz proton-synchrotron (0.6 MW for the first stage, and 1.2 MW for the second stage). For the target system of the N-arena, a solid-metal-target is the main option, and all of the target-moderator-reflector-assembly (TMRA) is being optimized for it. For the upgrade, we have an option of employing a liquid-metal-target system. We have conducted a flow-optimization study of a cross-flow type liquid-metal-target system with water used in place of liquid- metal. For the solid-target system, we are considering to employ a system comprising an array of thin target-plates made of cladded- tungsten with narrow water-channels in between. We have conducted heat-transfer and critical-heat flux experiments for various conditions, and applicable correlations were determined. We also started a water-flow...

  16. Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenic potential in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients via the suppression of MAPK/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wei; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Hui

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. PBMCs from patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=10) were cultured to assess osteoclastogenic potential. The number of tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase‑positive osteoclasts differentiated from PBMCs isolated from patients with RA was significantly increased compared with that of the healthy controls. In addition, the osteoclast number in patients with RA was correlated with the clinical indicators, Sharp score (r=0.810; P=0.001) and lumbar T‑score (r=‑0.685; P=0.014). Furthermore, the resorption area was increased in the RA group compared with the healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMC‑derived osteoclasts treated with curcumin were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs, potentially by suppressing activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase, and inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), c‑Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs from patients with RA through the suppression of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase/RANK/c‑Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways, and that curcumin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone deterioration in inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:27572279

  17. Combining backcasting and transition management in the community arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, J.N.; Wittmayer, J.; Van Steenbergen, F.; Loorbach, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical basis and the methodological framework of the community arena, a co-creation tool for sustainable behaviour by local communities and consumers. The community arena focuses on articulating, confronting and connecting individual inner contexts in a participatory pro

  18. 癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B、c-fos表达的影响%Dianxianqing Granule on Behavior, NMDAR2B and c-fos Expression in PTZ Kindling Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄寓; 薛彦杰; 齐越; 王健; 贾冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos表达的影响,探讨其抗癫痫的作用机理.方法:腹腔注射戊四唑建立癫痫大鼠点燃模型,连续灌胃给药30 d后,观察癫痫清颗粒对大鼠行为学及脑组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的影响.结果:癫痫清颗粒可延长癫痫大鼠惊厥潜伏期,缩短惊厥持续时间,减少组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达.结论:癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃大鼠模型具有抗癫痫作用,作用机制与减少脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达有关.%Objective:To study the anti-epileptic mechanism of DianxianqingGranule by observing the effects on behavior,NMDAR2B and c-fos expression in brain of epilepsy model rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol(PTZ).Methods:Kindling models were established by intraperitoneal injection of PTZ on rats,intragastric administration for 30 days,continuously.The expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in the hippocampus of rats were measured with immunohistochemistry assay.Results:DianxianqingGranule can prolong the latencyof seizure,shorten the duration of seizure and reduce the expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in brain.Conclusion:DianxianqingGranule has anti-epileptic effect on PTZ kindling epileptic model rats through inhibition of NMDAR2B and c-fos expression.

  19. Preschool as an Arena of Gender Policies: The Examples of Sweden and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstrom, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    As many countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development have developed more universal provision for early childhood education during the last decades, preschool increasingly has become a central policy arena. Gender politics, especially with an aim to promote female labour market participation, but also policies addressing…

  20. Data Mining-an Evolutionary Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Govindarajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a survey of information retrieval and its various methodologies. In today’s escalating world, tracking of information should be done with ease. Keeping that as a constraint, most of the qualms can be deciphered with the aid of Machine Learning (ML. ML can be envisioned as a tool, which identifies and disseminates all information through computerized systems, which can be integrated in the respective domains, in order to get a better and more proficient retrieval of content. This study summarizes the well-known methods used in feature extraction and for classification of text. ML can be portrayed as a major tracker for surveillance, with the aid of some trained ML algorithms. In order to strengthen the response policies for any queries, which is being surrounded with two main issues like policy matching and policy administration, can be prevailed over Joint Threshold Administration Model, JTAM (i.e., Principle of separation of duty. This study gives an overall review about tracking of information with respective to semantic as well as syntactic perspective. It revolves around some of the application as well as administrative mechanism involved in Information Retrieval for mining the data. Data mining techniques in various arenas has been explored; this survey explores the various techniques and evolution of mining in detail.

  1. The change of c-fos expression in mammillary body after single prolonged stress%单次延长应激导致的创伤后应激障碍行为伴随乳头体神经元活化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊丽; 夏亮; 王莉颖; 田菲; 翟明珠; 鲁亚成; 李云庆; 朱霞; 王文

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the behavioral change of anxiety and depression in the rats model of posttraumatic stress disorders ( PTSD) and the neuronal activation in the mammillary body. Methods: By using single prolonged stress (SPS) to establish the PTSD animal model, open-field test (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used to evaluate rats' spontaneous acitivity and anxiety & depression behavior, and the expression of c-Fos actived in the mammillary neuron after single prolonged stress were identified by immunofluorescence staing. Results; The spontaneous activity were significantly reduced, and the anxiolytic behavior were significantly increased, at the same time, the expression of Fos im-munoreactive neurons were increased significantly in the mammillary body in the SPS group compared to the control group. Conclusion; The neurons in the mammillary body in the SPS group were sigificantly activated, and it may be involved in the PTSD response caused by the SPS.%目的:探讨创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)模型大鼠的焦虑抑郁行为改变以及乳头体神经元的活化情况.方法:采用单次延长应激(SPS)建立大鼠PTSD模型,采用自发活动、高架十字迷宫方法评价大鼠的自发活动能力和焦虑或抑郁行为;同时利用Fos蛋白免疫荧光染色方法观察乳头体神经元的活化情况.结果:SPS大鼠自发活动明显减少,焦虑样行为明显增多,乳头体内Fos免疫反应阳性神经元数量较正常大鼠显著增加.结论:SPS大鼠乳头体神经元显著激活,可能参与SPS所造成的PTSD反应.

  2. Weakened rate-dependent depression of Hoffmann's reflex and increased motoneuron hyperactivity after motor cortical infarction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Toda, T; Kiyama, H; Yamashita, T

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal reflexes associated with spasticity are considered a major determinant of motor impairments occurring after stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying post-stroke spasticity remain unclear. This may be because of the lack of suitable rodent models for studying spasticity after cortical injuries. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to establish an appropriate post-stroke spasticity mouse model. We induced photothrombotic injury in the rostral and caudal forelimb motor areas of mice and used the rate-dependent depression (RDD) of Hoffmann's reflex (H-reflex) as an indicator of spastic symptoms. To detect motoneuron excitability, we examined c-fos mRNA levels and c-Fos immunoreactivity in affected motoneurons using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. To confirm the validity of our model, we confirmed the effect of the anti-spasticity drug baclofen on H-reflex RDDs 1 week post stroke. We found that 3 days after stroke, the RDD was significantly weakened in the affected muscles of stroke mice compared with sham-operated mice, and this was observed for 8 weeks. The c-fos mRNA levels in affected motoneurons were significantly increased in stroke mice compared with sham-operated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of c-Fos-positive motoneurons in stroke mice compared with sham-operated mice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after stroke; however, the number of c-Fos-positive motoneurons on both sides of the brain gradually decreased over time. Baclofen treatment resulted in recovery of the weakened RDD at 1 week post stroke. Our findings suggest that this is a viable animal model of post-stroke spasticity. PMID:24434515

  3. Arena size, hole density, and capture of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) in grain probe traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Shuman, Dennis

    2004-02-01

    The relationship of size of test arena, number of holes in a grain probe trap body and capture of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), was determined in simulated field tests conducted in an outdoor screen enclosure exposed to natural temperature fluctuations. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) probe bodies were attached to electronic sensor heads, and insect captures were recorded electronically using an electronic grain probe insect counter (EGPIC) system. In comparisons among PVC probe trap bodies with 60, 132, 252, and 492 holes, tested at 18 insects per kilogram in 4.5, 17, and 40 kg of soft wheat in cylindrical arenas (10.2, 20.3, and 30.5 cm in diameter, respectively), number of holes in the probe trap body had no effect on insect capture, but percentage of insects recovered was indirectly related to size of the test arena. Periodicity of insect capture was determined using the time-stamp data that were recorded by the EGPIC system. Circadian rhythm was observed in the periodicity of the capture that corresponded to foraging activity peaks documented for sawtoothed grain beetles, with activity peaks occurring early in the scotophase. There were shifts in times of peak activity among the different test arena sizes that corresponded to differences in temperature in the grain mass. Increases in both temperature and contact between insects and grain probe in the smallest arenas resulted in higher capture of sawtoothed grain beetles. This research documents additional important factors when evaluating capture of sawtoothed grain beetles in grain probe traps. PMID:14998139

  4. An illustration of the Arena model: Conflicts concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the current relevance of the debate on risk and presents a systematic survey of theoretical concepts of risk: Technical foundations, economic and psychological perspectives, sociological and cultural-anthropological perspectives as well as social mobilization and the arena model, arenas for settling conflicts being parliament, administrative institutions, the legal realm, the humanities and sciences, mass media etc. The arena model is illustrated using atomic energy as an example, whereby the following factors are taken into account: The political arena, the function of the normal authority, agents, the media as a medium for action and public opinion. Conclusion: Three elements are necessary for a rational and democratic policy for dealing with risks: Experts on the theoretical aspects of the issue must be consulted, the legitimate interests of those persons in the arena who are affected by the decision must be taken into acoount and a representative public opinion poll which determines whether the public is in favour of possible political options must be carried out, thus giving them the opportunity to participate in the decision-making procedure. The better a process is prestructured before such a participatory procedure is initiated, the more likely it is that acceptance and acceptability can be obtained. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois;

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs......), is essential to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest at sporting events. This paper outlines minimum standards for cardiovascular care to assist in the planning of mass gathering sports events across Europe with the intention of local adaptation at individual sports arenas, to ensure the full...

  6. The construction of professional sports arenas: funding and politics.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Howie Scott.

    1996-01-01

    This report attempts to analyze the many dynamics of professional sports as they relate to the construction of arenas and stadiums by examining: (1) The reasons sports teams are viewed with such importance by the cities that have, or wish to have, them; (2) why the stadiums and arenas they play in, and the revenues these venues produce, are of such interest to the teams; (3) how these facilities actually produce the much-desired revenues; (4) how many of today's stadium projects are funded; a...

  7. Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of c-fos protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the rostral ventromedia medulla of rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia%电针对慢性内脏痛觉敏感大鼠延髓头端腹内侧核c-fos蛋白和NR1受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁德波; 李为民

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Acupuncture has been clinically proved to be effective in treating abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS).However,its neurobiological mechanism remains largely unexplored.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving chronic visceral hyperalgesia and the possible involvement of N-methyi-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in rostral ventromedia medulla (RVM) of the brain in an IBS rat model.METHODS:To establish the IBS rat model,male Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats received colon mechanical irritation on a daily basis from the 9th to the 22nd day after their birth.After a resting period of another two to four weeks,behavioral tests of pain threshold pressure (PTP)and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) responding to colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli were conducted to judge the colorectal sensitive situation.Then administration of EA at acupoints of Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) bilaterally in the hind limbs was repeated four times every other day,while sham-EA was done by inserting needles at similar acupoints without electrical stimulation.Immunohistochemical method was used to display the expression of protooncogene protein c-fos and NR1 in RVM of rats.RESULTS:The results demonstrated that the PTP values and AWR scores,in response to the CRD stimuli,significantly decreased and increased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.01),while the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos protein and NR1 significantly increased in nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi),nucleus lateralis paragigantocellulari (LPGi),nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (GiA) and nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of RVM in IBS model rats compared with the normal rats (P<0.05).After EA treatment,PTP values and AWR scores significantly increased and decreased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.05) ; the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos and NR1 significantly decreased respectively in Gi,LPGi and GiA and in Gi

  8. Occupancy Analysis of Sports Arenas Using Thermal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system for automatic analysis of the occupancy of sports arenas. By using a thermal camera for image capturing the number of persons and their location on the court are found without violating any privacy issues. The images are binarised with an automatic threshold method...

  9. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of geno

  10. Shell Good Player in China's Oil Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Jun

    2002-01-01

    @@ As one of the leading energy multinationals operating worldwide, the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies is now expanding rapidly in China.Its current investment in mainland China exceeds US$1.5 billion, one of the largest commitments of any international energy company, and this will increase significantly in the next five years as new projects and agreements go forward.

  11. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-01-01

    The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to...

  12. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  13. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  14. Corporations and Citizenship Arenas in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Whelan, Glen; Grant, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the importance of social media in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. This deficit is redressed in the present paper through utilizing the notion of ‘citizenship arenas’ to identify three dynamics in social media-augmented corporate......–society relations. First, we note that social media-augmented ‘corporate arenas of citizenship’ are constructed by individual corporations in an effort to address CSR issues of specific importance thereto, and are populated by individual citizens as well as (functional/formally organized) stakeholders. Second, we...... highlight that, within social media-augmented ‘public arenas of citizenship’, individual citizens are empowered, relative to corporations and their (functional/formally organized) stakeholders, when it comes to creating, debating, and publicizing, CSR-relevant issues. Third, we posit that information...

  15. Lokalt nybrott? Sosiale medier som arena for lokal valgkamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segaard, Signe Bock; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    Social media as democratic arenas for opinion sharing and discussions between elected politicians and voters have been described as a vision of the new media. The topic has been a research subject in several years, but there is a lack of research on how social media is used in local election camp...... that the fear of the logic of marketing is unfounded. The reason is the effect of the institutional conditions and the fact that it is possible «to steer» the conversation online...... campaigns. The article investigates the use of selected social media, political election blogs, as arenas for campaigns in the Norwegian local elections of 2011. For that purpose we first develop two models of political communication in social media that conceptualise the horizontal and vertical...

  16. THE ARENAS BUSINESS: SPORTS PROFESSIONALISM, CULTURE AND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubens Camargo Gonçalves da Motta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No matter how elaborate is any study, the point is that if it is not applicable, of little served the entire effort. In this way, the Business Plan of Multipurpose Arenas proposes to demonstrate marketing and financial viability of its concept. In the aspect of business return on investment, it was proved by three indicators that it represents a project with positive return and better than conservative investments. Moreover, the analysis were founded and applied by the theory that had its importance in the definition and validation of the proposed model of multipurpose arenas. As Blake (1985, Image, Leisure Management, pp. 14-15 "sports centers, theaters, art galleries, libraries, museums, are mere installations containing tangible and intangible products that have no value, except what the customers attribute". This is, in fact, the best way to represent what was intended to highlight through this study.

  17. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Legêne, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antill...

  18. Towards a more dynamic stakeholder model : Acknowledgning multiple issue arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma-aho, Vilma; Vos, Marita

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The paper suggest that corporate communications is becoming less predictable as interaction with stakeholders is moving from organizational control toward ‘issue arenas’, places of interaction where an issue is discussed by stakeholders and organizations both online and within the traditional media. The role of corporate communications and public relations is broadening beyond the traditional relationship management to issue arena monitoring. Design/methodology/approach – Theor...

  19. c-fos与c-jun癌蛋白在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面联合表达的特征与意义%Expression of oncoproteins c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨c-fos与c-jun两种原癌基因产物在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面表达的特征与规律以及与不同组织修复结局发生的关系。 方法 16例标本均取自于外科手术患者,其中增生性瘢痕8例,溃疡创面8例,另有正常对照皮肤5例取自增生性瘢痕患者作为对照。用免疫组化法(ABC法)检测c-fos与c-jun两种癌蛋白以及bFGF在三种组织切片的分布特征。 结果在正常皮肤c-fos与c-jun的阳性表达主要见于表皮基底细胞和少量皮下成纤维细胞,但在相应部位c-jun的表达较c-fos为弱。在增生性瘢痕,c-fos与c-jun均出现强阳性表达,主要见于成纤维细胞。在溃疡组织,c-fos与c-jun的联合表达多见于毛细血管内皮细胞、部分炎症细胞以及成纤维细胞胞浆。 结论增生性瘢痕与溃疡创面c-fos与c-jun表达量与部位同正常皮肤存在显著差异,提示这两种原癌基因产物在影响和调控组织修复中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the characteristics of oncoprotein expression of c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods Tissues of hypertrophic scars (n=8), chronic dermal ulcers (n=8) and normal skin (n=5) were taken from 21 patients with burns and chronic dermal ulcers in operation. The ABC immunohistochemical method was used to characterize the gene product expression of c-fos, c-jun and bFGF in the above tissues. Results In normal skin, both c-fos and c-jun protein expression and bFGF protein expression were observed. The signals of both oncoproteins were localized mainly in subcutaneous fibroblasts, but, positive expression of the bFGF protein was mainly in keratinocytes. In hypertrophic scars, positive expression of both oncoproteins could be found mainly in fibroblasts, but bFGF was mainly in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In chronic dermal ulcers, endothelial cells, some

  20. 表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽诱导人白细胞c-fos基因表达的研究%EFFECTS OF EGF AND MEK ON C-FOS PROTOONCOGENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BLOOD LEUCOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史学义; 吴景兰; 丁一; 王一菱; 丰艳

    1997-01-01

    由健康人外周血分离淋巴细胞及溶血处理后的全白细胞,以外源性表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽培育后取细胞悬液制成滴片和滴膜,用生物素标记的c-fos cDNA探针进行原位杂交和斑点印迹杂交.结果显示表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽两组c-fos原癌基因的表达均较对照组增强(P≤0.05).

  1. 鞘内注射艾司洛尔对福尔马林疼痛大鼠脊髓背角C-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of intrathecal esmolol on spinal c-fos expression in a formalin-induced pain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 邹聪华; 陈彦青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intrathecal estnolol on the expression of c-fos in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in a formalin-induced pain model. Methods Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 each. Every mouse received intrathecal catheter placement and was infused with saline 10 L(group N), esmolol 300 g/kg(group A), or 600 g/kg(group B), respectively. Pain was induced by 50 L of 5% formalin solution injected into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. The nociceptive behaviors including licking, biting and lifting of the injected paw were cumulatively recorded during phase I (0-5 min) and phase Ⅱ (15 50 min) by Dubuisson's method. The expression of c-fos protein in the spinal dorsal horn was detected with immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with group N, the pain-related behaviors in phase II were decreased significantly in group A and B. The expression of c-fos in the L4-5 spinal dorsal horn was significantly lower in group A and B compared with group N(P<0. 01). Conclusion Intrathecal morphine can inhibit c-fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a formalin-induced pain model.%目的 探索大鼠鞘内注射艾司洛尔能否抑制福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.方法 雄性SD大鼠,鞘内置管成功后,随机分为三组(n=8):生理盐水组(N组),艾司洛尔300μg/kg组(E1组),艾司洛尔600 μg/kg组(E2组).在异氟醚麻醉下,鞘内注射上述药物10μl,5d后,所有大鼠一侧后肢爪掌背侧皮下注射福尔马林(5%,50 μl),观察大鼠在Ⅰ相(0~5 min)和Ⅱ相(15~50min)疼痛行为学变化(包括添足、咬足、抬腿动作等),并进行Dubuisson评分.采用免疫组织化学方法检测脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.结果 与N组比较,E1、E2组大鼠Ⅱ相阶段的疼痛相关行为均有减少,呈量效关系(P<0.05),且E1、E2组L4~5节段脊髓表达的c-fos蛋白均较N组减少(P<0.05).结论 鞘内注射艾司洛尔可减少福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.

  2. A neural-network reinforcement-learning model of domestic chicks that learn to localize the centre of closed arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2007-03-29

    Previous experiments have shown that when domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) are first trained to locate food elements hidden at the centre of a closed square arena and then are tested in a square arena of double the size, they search for food both at its centre and at a distance from walls similar to the distance of the centre from the walls experienced during training. This paper presents a computational model that successfully reproduces these behaviours. The model is based on a neural-network implementation of the reinforcement-learning actor - critic architecture (in this architecture the 'critic' learns to evaluate perceived states in terms of predicted future rewards, while the 'actor' learns to increase the probability of selecting the actions that lead to higher evaluations). The analysis of the model suggests which type of information and cognitive mechanisms might underlie chicks' behaviours: (i) the tendency to explore the area at a specific distance from walls might be based on the processing of the height of walls' horizontal edges, (ii) the capacity to generalize the search at the centre of square arenas independently of their size might be based on the processing of the relative position of walls' vertical edges on the horizontal plane (equalization of walls' width), and (iii) the whole behaviour exhibited in the large square arena can be reproduced by assuming the existence of an attention process that, at each time, focuses chicks' internal processing on either one of the two previously discussed information sources. The model also produces testable predictions regarding the generalization capabilities that real chicks should exhibit if trained in circular arenas of varying size. The paper also highlights the potentialities of the model to address other experiments on animals' navigation and analyses its strengths and weaknesses in comparison to other models. PMID:17255019

  3. Acerca del libro de arena de Jorge Luis Borges

    OpenAIRE

    Albertí, Miquel

    2001-01-01

    Muchas veces en clase he trazado de extremo a extremo de la pizarra una línea blanca a la que he puesto por nombre R. Este gesto invita a pensar que R, el conjunto de los números reales, se parece mucho a una fila india de puntos muy apretados. Pero los matemáticos sabemos que no es así, pues hay infinitos de diversa índole. El infinito del libro de arena borgiano es numerable, el infinito real no. El continuo real no es ni debe imaginarse como una hilera muy tupida de puntos suspensivos, sin...

  4. Pilas de arena sobre grafos dirigidos y algo de complejidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mejía Moreno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo estudiamos el Modelo de Pilas de Arena sobre grafos dirigidos. El comportamiento del modelo sobre grafos dirigidos es más complejo (en término estrictos que sobre grafos no dirigidos; es por ello que, para muchas de las preguntas centrales de la teoría, no se conoce la respuesta en el caso dirigido. En este artículo se ha sintetizado la teoría para digrafos, se han simplificado algunas pruebas y se concretan algunos resultados relacionados con la complejidad de predicción del autómata.

  5. Game on[Natural ventilation for the Sydney Olympics arena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, A.

    2000-08-01

    The provision of design advice and computer modelling of a natural ventilation system for the Olympic Games arena in Sydney by UK consultants is reported, and the limitation of technology choices due to the advanced stage of the structural design and the need for unrestricted spectator views is noted. Details are given of the choice of natural cross-ventilation as well as passive driven ventilation, mechanical ventilation and some air conditioning, and simulation modelling indicating the effectiveness of night-time cooling for temperature control. The effects of the wind regime are considered, and the strategy to maximise energy efficiency and minimise waste is described.

  6. The Space of Connections as the Arena for (Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Gielen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We review some properties of the space of connections as the natural arena for canonical (quantum gravity, and compare to the case of the superspace of 3-metrics. We detail how a 1-parameter family of metrics on the space of connections arises from the canonical analysis for general relativity which has a natural interpretation in terms of invariant tensors on the algebra of the gauge group. We also review the description of canonical GR as a geodesic principle on the space of connections, and comment on the existence of a time variable which could be used in the interpretation of the quantum theory.

  7. Status of air quality in arenas in the Abitibi-Temiscamingue 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air quality was checked in 24 of 26 arenas in Quebec's Abitibi-Temiscamingue region during the intensive tournament season from November 2004 to March 2005. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured in 24 arenas, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were measured in 22 arenas during and after intensive use of the ice surfacing machine. The air quality respected the public health criteria for CO and NO2 in 87 and 95 per cent of the arenas, respectively. The main factors that influence the ambient air quality in the arenas included the maintenance of the ice surfacing machine, the system of radiant heating and ventilation of combustion gases. In more than half of the arenas, the ice surfacing machine had been tuned prior to the active season. In 28 per cent of the arenas, maintenance inspections were carried out only twice during the season. Two arenas were equipped with an electric ice surfacing machine. All arenas had a mechanical ventilation system. It was concluded that the proportion of arenas that do not respect public health criteria at the time of monitoring varied between 4 and 23 per cent. While the negligence of operators is often in question, the failures of ventilation systems or a contamination by external sources of CO are often unforeseeable. For these reasons, it was recommended that annual monitoring should be conducted by an external organization. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. ARENA - A Collaborative Immersive Environment for Virtual Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Whenever a geoscientific study area is not readily accessible, as is the case on the deep seafloor, it is difficult to apply traditional but effective methods of fieldwork, which often require physical presence of the observer. The Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis (ARENA), developed at GEOMAR | Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel within the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", provides a backend solution to robotic research on the seafloor by means of an immersive simulation environment for marine research: A hemispherical screen of 6m diameter covering the entire lower hemisphere surrounds a group of up to four researchers at once. A variety of open source (e.g. Microsoft Research World Wide Telescope) and commercial software platforms allow the interaction with e.g. in-situ recorded video, vector maps, terrain, textured geometry, point cloud and volumetric data in four dimensions. Data can be put into a holistic, georeferenced context and viewed on scales stretching from centimeters to global. Several input devices from joysticks to gestures and vocalized commands allow interaction with the simulation, depending on individual preference. Annotations added to the dataset during the simulation session catalyze the following quantitative evaluation. Both the special simulator design, making data perception a group experience, and the ability to connect remote instances or scaled down versions of ARENA over the Internet are significant advantages over established immersive simulation environments.

  9. "What do the papers say?" How press reviews link national media arenas in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Erbe, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have measured to what degree national mass media arenas in Europe converge in terms of news agendas, ways of framing, and reporting political claims from other countries or EU actors. This article suggests explaining such output oriented findings with a theoretical model of mechanisms that link different mass media arenas. It is derived from national settings, where mass media arenas are also highly fragmented and yet sufficiently interlinked to be considered a publ...

  10. "What do the papers say?": how press reviews link national media arenas in Europe:

    OpenAIRE

    Erbe, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have measured to what degree national mass media arenas in Europe converge in terms of news agendas, ways of framing, and reporting political claims from other countries or EU actors. This article suggests explaining such output oriented findings with a theoretical model of mechanisms that link different mass media arenas. It is derived from national settings, where mass media arenas are also highly fragmented and yet sufficiently interlinked to be considered a publ...

  11. Effects of rizatriptan on cortical spreading depression and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对皮质扩布性抑制及中脑导水管周围灰质c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤鹏; 刘若卓; 姜磊; 于生元; 管维平; 石宏; 陈淑莉; 晋志高; 吴士文; 董钊; 邱恩超

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rizatriptan has an effect on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey (PAG) induced by CSD in rats. Methods The experimental SD rats were randomly divided into group A injected with KCl, group B KCl plus rizatriptan and group C NaCL The number and amplitude of CSD were recorded after KCl or NaCl injection. C-Fos positive neurons of different layer were identified by the immunohistochemical technique 2 hours after the first injection of KCl or NaCl. Results There was no CSD in group C. The number of CSD in group A ( 10.70±3.23 ) was significantly more than that in group B (6.10±2.56, t = - 3.528, P < 0.01 ). The amplitude of CSD in group A ( 17.33 (95% CI 11.45--23.11 ) mV) was significantly greater than that in group B (11.82 (95%CI 9.24--14.70) mV, Z= -4.360, P< 0.01). There were more cFos-like immnoreactive neurons in every layer in group A than in group C (P < 0.01 ) and in group B (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rizatriptan has an inhibitory effect on CSD, which might induce the headache through exciting the neurons in PAG.%目的 观察苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对大鼠皮质扩布性抑制(cortical spreading depression,CSD)和CSD引起中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueduetal grey,PAG)内c-Fos表达的影响.方法 实验选用的SD大鼠随机分为3组,A组:氯化钾刺激组;B组:氯化钾刺激+苯甲酸利扎曲普坦组;C组:氯化钠刺激组.对各组大鼠使用氯化钾(或氯化钠)刺激,以观察CSD出现的个数和波幅;第1次刺激2 h后使用免疫组织化学法检测各组PAG内不同层面c-Fos阳性神经元.结果 C组未记录到CSI).A组CSD个数(10.70±3.23)较B组(6.10±2.56)显著增多(t=-3.528,P<0.01);A组CSD波幅[17.33(95%CI 11.45~23.11)mV]较B组[11.82(95%CI 9.24~14.70)mV]显著增加(Z=-4.360,P<0.01).A组各层面c-Fos阳性细胞数较B、C组显著增多(P<0.05).结论 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对CSD有抑制作用,可使CSD引起PAG内神经元兴奋作用减弱.

  12. 蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经元形态及c-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 李霞; 甘子明

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经细胞的生物学影响.方法:选用健康新西兰大白兔30只,随机分为实验组和对照组.每组15只.基础麻醉后实验组用5 g/L布比卡冈进行蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉(腰麻),对照组用生理盐水代替局麻药.于麻醉后30 min灌注取材,HE染色观察2组兔L5-7节段脊髓神经元形态的变化,免疫组化法检测脊髓神经元中c-fos蛋白的表达.结果:与对照组相比,实验组L5-7节段脊髓灰质后角Ⅲ、Ⅳ板层的小圆细胞及前角Ⅸ板层外侧大多角细胞胞质中均有尼氏体减少、神经元c-fos蛋白阳性细胞数减少[(68.9±1.4) vs (12.3±1.6),t=60.352,P<0.001]和脊髓软脊膜分层或断裂现象(P<0.001).结论:蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉后,兔脊髓相应节段的神经细胞功能受到抑制,脊髓软脊膜有分层或断裂现象.%Aim: To obsereve the effect of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits. Methods :Thity healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control group,15 in each group. After basal anesthesia,the rabbits in the experimental group were given 5 g/L bupiva-caine for subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia( spinal anesthesia for short) ,and those in the control group were given normal saline. After 30 minutes, spinal cord samples were prepared. HE staining and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the morphological changes of neurons and the expression of c-fos,respectively. Results;Compared with those of the control group, Nissl bodies reduced and nuclear bias in the horn of lumbosacral spinal cord gray matter III , IV plate layer of small round cells and anterior horn of the lateral lamina mostly IX horn cells in experimental group. The expression of c-fos protein in the control group was higher than that in the experimental group [ (68. 9 ±1.4) vs ( 12. 3 ± 1. 6) , t = 60. 352, P < 0

  13. Influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugai pathway%不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥佳利; 胡满; 李慧超; 刘春凌; 张利卫

    2011-01-01

    为进一步探究光照对母鸡生产性能影响的神经调节机制,采用神经标记和免疫组化技术相结合的方法,对不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响进行了观察研究.将120日龄母鸡右眼遮光5d后向丘脑圆核引入微量30%HRP,48 h后解除遮光并给予不同强度的光照刺激1~1.5 h,暗适应1.5h后灌流固定,取脑制作连续冰冻切片,用TMB法检测离顶盖通路HRP逆行标记神经细胞,通过Fos蛋白免疫组化方法检测c-fos基因在这些部位的表达.结果显示,母鸡离顶盖通路各核团对不同强度的光刺激有不同的反应,SGC层和ROT核对30 lx光照最为敏感,而SP/IPS核对40 lx光照反应较为明显.%In order to further understand the nerve regulation mechanism in effect of light on hen production performance,influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugal pathway was studied using nervous labeling combining with the immunohistochemistry method. The right eyes of hens in 120 day-old were shaded to keep dark for 5 d, then small amount of 30% HRP was injected into the thalamencephalon nucleus rotundus (ROT). After a 48 h survival period, light stimulation of different intensities was given for 1-1. 5 h, afterwards kept in dark again for 1. 5 h. Following perfusing with fixative, their brains were removed and made into continuous frozen sections. TMB method was used to show the HRP retrograde labeling nervous cells, and the immunohistochemical reaction of Fos protein was employed to detect the expression of c-fos gene in these regions. The results showed that there are different reactions to different light stimulation in the nucli of hen tectofugal pathway. Stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and ROT are most sensitive to the light of 30 lx, while the nucleus SP/IPS is more sensitive to the light of 40 lx.

  14. 不同波长光照对开产初期母鸡间脑c-fos基因表达的影响%Effect of light stimulation by different wavelength on expression of c-fos gene in hen diencephalon at early laying period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 胡满; 程金金; 郭洁; 兰晓宇

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nervous mechanism in the effect of light on egg-laying, the response of hen diencephalon to light stimulation by different wavelength were investigated by u-sing c-Fos and GnRH method. Unilateral eyes of 150 days old hens were kept dark for seven days. Then they accepted different wavelength light stimulation of 20 lx for 1. 5 hours and dark adaptation 1. 5 hours. After perfusion with fixative, their brains were removed from the skulls and were made into continuous paraffin sections. The distribution of imunoreactive positive neurons of Fos protein and GnRH in mesencephalon were examined using immunohistochemical method. The results showed that expression of c-fos gene and the release of GnRH could be in-fluenceed by different wavelength light stimulation. The expression induced by green and blue light stimulation was more significant than that by red one.%为深入了解不同波长光照对母鸡生产性能的影响机理,用c-Fos法探讨了母鸡间脑对不同波长光照的反应,同时检测GnRH免疫反应神经元的动态变化.将150日龄母鸡右眼遮光7 d后接受20 lx 的不同波长光照刺激1.5 h, 暗适应1.5 h后灌流固定,取脑制作石蜡切片,采用免疫组化方法检测Fos 蛋白和 GnRH 样免疫反应阳性神经元在间脑的分布.结果显示,不同波长光照均影响c-fos基因表达和GnRH的释放,绿光组和蓝光组的表达均高于红光组.

  15. The changing Arena: New DOE waste management orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are five orders that address waste management within the Department of Energy (DOE); three of these orders are being revised, which emphasize the rapidly changing arena in which the department is contending in this field. The need to change the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Order arose from the Superfund amendments of 1986 (SARA) with its hammer provisions in Section 120 for compliance at Federal facilities. The need to change the Hazardous and Mixed Waste Management Order was accelerated by the promulgation by DOE of the new mixed waste rule on May 1, 1987, (1) and cancellation of the obsolete existing order on October 5, 1987. The new rule requires coregulation of all DOE mixed waste with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the respective authorized states. 5 refs

  16. Planta de lavado para arena silícea

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo García, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto fin de carrera trata sobre la instalación de una planta móvil de lavado para arena silícea. Este recurso está presente en el Monte Público nº 90 denominado “RAJICA DE EN MEDIO” en el Término Municipal de Jumilla (Murcia), donde se ubica la cantera “Los Mochuelos” de la que es concesionaria y explotadora la empresa JUMILLANA DE SÍLICE, S.L, con C.I.F. nº B-25.646.720, con domicilio social en C/ Canalejas nº 83, Bajo, de Jumilla (Murcia). Por ello, el presente proyecto tien...

  17. Chemical Source Localization using Mobile Robots in Indoor Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a virtual-physics force based control strategy for swarm robotic chemical source localization. The control force includes: structure formation force, goal force, and obstacle avoidant force. For swarm formation, the robots maintain the regular polygon formation and a virtual robot is located at the center of the polygon. The motion of the virtual robot depends on the goal force which obtained from the sensor observations of the robots. Once the virtual robot moved to a new place, the robots would also move as a single body with the structure formation force and obstacle avoidant force. In this paper, we adopted chemotaxis as plume tracing algorithms. Simulation experiments in indoor arena without obstacle and with obstacles using different robot number are carried out respectively, and the results show that the proposed strategy can effectively navigate the mobile robotics swarms to the chemical source once selecting proper number of robots.  

  18. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years...... attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking...

  19. Möjligheternas arena? : Barns och ungas samtal om tjejer, killar, känslor och sexualitet på en virtuell arena

    OpenAIRE

    Löfberg, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Computer mediated communication (CMC) has created new arenas for social interaction in contemporary society, also for children and young people. This raises questions about how these arenas are used by children and young people. Drawing on the sociology of childhood, this thesis addresses children’s social interaction on a website designed for young people, where issues of masculinity, femininity, emotions and sexuality are discussed. The general aim is to explore the construction of meaning ...

  20. Partidos fracos na arena eleitoral e partidos fortes na arena legislativa: a conexão eleitoral no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the determinants of voting positions in the Brazilian House of Representatives (Chamber of Deputies in relation to the preferences of the Executive Branch, focusing on the reasons leading Deputies to cooperate with or resist the President's interests on votes. The article examines the role played by political parties in the Deputies' behavior both inside and outside Congress, as well as the main instruments used by the Executive to encourage cooperative legislative behavior, applying a multivariate econometric model to estimate the determinants of Deputies' votes. The authors conclude that Deputies, especially those belonging to parties in the government coalition, cooperate with the President, following the orientation provided by their party leaders, as a strategy to access political and financial benefits controlled by the Executive, which in turn can be used in the electoral arena in order to maximize their odds of political survival, and that these same Deputies are the ones with the greatest odds of being reelected.

  1. Lobbying Across Arenas. Interest Group Involvement in the Legislative Process in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjær

    2014-01-01

    . The article investigates the factors that lead groups to engage in these phases based on group proceedings for 225 bills presented to the Danish parliament in the 2009/2010 session. We conclude that resourceful groups are clearly more active in both arenas, but the parliamentary arena is also a venue...

  2. Italian agri-food exports in the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the positioning of the so-called Made in Italy agro-food exports in foreign markets considering global world tendencies as well as country specific trends. Besides, we aim at disentangling the role of product quality from price competition as a driver of competitive advantages.To these ends, the work combines two different methodologies, applied in three steps. First, we estimate the elasticities of Italian exports, with respect to world imports, Italian export prices and the competitors’ prices. Second, an index of the sophistication of exports’ flows that captures the role of quality in global competition is calculated. Third, the estimated elasticities are compared with the changes in the sophistication levels.Results allow for product-specific trends to stem out from the overall picture. Exports’ performance varies according to the type of product and to the degree of market completion. Although, the Made In Italy aggregate seems overall competitive, the analysis pinpoints some drawbacks in the positioning of some products in the world arena. Focus on wine and on olive oil, two major Italian exporting sectors, helps in understanding the potential of the joint methodology adopted.

  3. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legêne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antillean islands in the Caribbean. Bosma traces the development of postcolonial immigrant organizations. In interaction with government policies, these organizations moved from mere socioeconomic emancipation struggles to mere cultural identity politics. Van Leeuwen takes such cultural identity politics as the starting point for her analysis of Indo-Dutch and Dutch Indies cultural initiatives and the competing interests at stake in the Indies heritage discourse. Oostindie discusses these developments in terms of community development and change within Dutch society at large. He introduces the notion of a ‘postcolonial bonus’. In postcolonial Netherlands, this bonus was available to immigrants on the grounds of a shared colonial past. Today, this bonus is (almost spent. The review discusses the three monographs, as well as the coherence of Bringing History Home as a research programme. Legêne argues, that notwithstanding valuable research outcomes, the very category of postcolonial immigrants does not constitute a convincing category of analysis.

  4. MOOCs as Change Agents to Boost Innovation in Higher Education Learning Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Ossiannilsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Massive open online courses (MOOCs provide opportunities for learners to benefit from initiatives that are promoted by prestigious universities worldwide. The introduction of MOOCs in 2008 has since then transformed education globally. Consequently, MOOCs should be acknowledged as a pedagogical innovation and recognized as change agents and facilitators in the transition of opening up education, in the transition from traditional campus education to open online learning arenas, which increases learners’ access to and equity in lifelong learning. There is a need to consider MOOCs as a natural part of universities’ course offerings and business models and to recognize MOOCs as valuable for learners. Furthermore, MOOCs should be regarded as valuable learning and educational initiatives in the same way that journals and books are recognized. Learners should be able to take MOOCs either at their own university or from other providers. Moreover, MOOCs should be valued in policies, strategies, and action plans, and they should be included in processes of quality enhancement and quality assurance. This paper points out the merits of the innovative use of MOOCs in higher education. In this qualitative literature research, a content method analysis was conducted through a systematic review of the literature. Through the findings from the literature research it is suggested that MOOCs could be permanent change agents that boost innovation in higher education learning arenas. In particular, the findings revealed the benefits of MOOCs in various areas, such as lifelong learning, professional competence development, validation of learning, and degree recognition, in addition to clarifying several business models of higher education.

  5. C-fos诱导生长因子在胰腺再生中的重要作用%The important role of c-fos-induced growth factor in the pancreas regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕兆刚; 魏军; 范恒; 李玉奎; 王立斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of e-fos induced growth factor (Figf) in the pancreas -regeneration. Methods Mouse model with pancreatic regeneration were established by pancreatectomy. Pancreatic function loss and regeneration was monitored by time-coursed blood glucose testing after pancreatectomy. The levels of blood glucose were measured before and 12 h and 24 h after operation. Regenerated pancreas tissues were collected 48 h after pancreatectomy for RNA isolation. Gene expression was performed using mouse whole genome chips. Differently expressed genes were verified by Q-PCR. The target gene, Figf, was selected and cloned in expression plasmid. MS 1 cells cultured in vitro were transfected with the Figf constructs, and insulin secretion by the transfected cells was detected by ELBA 36 h after cell transfectioa The mRNA levels of Pdxl and insulinl genes in transfected celts were tested by Q-PCR. Results Figf expression was significantly increased in regenerating pancreas. As compared with the untransfected and vector-transfected groups, the insulin secretion in-Figf transfected cells increased significantly [(116. 89±6.09) pg/ml in the untransfected group (P<0. 01); and (114. 24 ± 4. 60) pg/ml in the vector-transfected group (P< 0.01)].As compared with the untransfected and vector-transfected groups, the Figf over expression group expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of Pdxl and insulinl genes (P<0. 01). Conclusion Over expression of Figf gene in MS 1 cells can elevate the expression of Pdxl and insulinl in mRNA levels, and increase the insulin secretion. Figf may be one of the key genes involoving in pancreas regeneration and plays an important role in β-cell regeneration.%目的 探讨c-fos诱导生长因子(Figf)对小鼠胰腺再生的影响.方法 建立小鼠胰腺损伤模型,于术前、术后12h、24 h检测血糖,48 h后收集剩余胰腺组织.经全基因组芯片分析、Q-PCR验证Figf发生高表达.构建Figf过表达质

  6. Impaired satiation and increased feeding behaviour in the triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Adebakin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with non-cognitive symptoms such as changes in feeding behaviour that are often characterised by an increase in appetite. Increased food intake is observed in several mouse models of AD including the triple transgenic (3×TgAD mouse, but the mechanisms underlying this hyperphagia are unknown. We therefore examined feeding behaviour in 3×TgAD mice and tested their sensitivity to exogenous and endogenous satiety factors by assessing food intake and activation of key brain regions. In the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS, 3×TgAD mice consumed more food after a fast compared to Non-Tg controls. Feeding and drinking behaviours were increased and rest decreased in 3×TgAD mice, but the overall sequence of behaviours in the BSS was maintained. Exogenous administration of the satiety factor cholecystokinin (CCK; 8-30 µg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently reduced food intake in Non-Tg controls and increased inactive behaviour, but had no effect on food intake or behaviour in 3×TgAD mice. CCK (15 µg/kg, i.p. increased c-Fos protein expression in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS and area postrema of the brainstem to the same extent in Non-Tg and 3×TgAD mice, but less c-Fos positive cells were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of CCK-treated 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. In response to a fast or a period of re-feeding, there was no difference in the number of c-Fos-positive cells detected in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, NTS and area postrema of 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. The degree of c-Fos expression in the NTS was positively correlated to food intake in Non-Tg mice, however, this relationship was absent in 3×TgAD mice. These data demonstrate that 3×TgAD mice show increased feeding behaviour and insensitivity to satiation, which is possibly due to defective gut-brain signalling in response to endogenous satiety factors released

  7. A learning arena for knowledge development by the use of didactics and situated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    This paper unfolds the concept of a learning arena as a means of building robust and effec-tive global operations networks through a focus on organizational didactics and situated learning. The paper builds on six case studies in three MNEs which have come far in establishing capabilities...... for the transfer of operations activities. However, they have tended to take a piecemeal and substance-based approach in relation to learning. A new model shows the contours of a learning arena, and case studies illustrate how different learning arenas may be used for supporting knowledge development....

  8. Young mothers with a history of substance use - establishing arenas of comfort.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    to different staff members (such as social workers, visiting nurses, and addiction counsellors). Staff members, who focus on these women's new roles as responsible parents, but also on aspects related to their history of drug (mis-)use. Usually the combination of being a young mother with a history......-using lifestyle (which for most of the women include several years of dependency and misuse of cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, ecstasy and heroin) because they manage to create a new arena of comfort based on their relation to their child.[1] All people take part in different social arenas. But an arena...

  9. 电针对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture on c-fos Expression in Nucleus of the Solitary Tract and Electrocardiogram ST_Ⅱin Myocardial Ischemia Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江山; 严洁; 何军锋; 彭娜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察针刺"内关""足三里"对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核(nucleus of the solitary tract,NTS)c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响,阐明延髓初级中枢在"内关""足三里"穴共同调节心功能中的作用.方法:将36只雄性SD大鼠随机分为生理盐水组、模型组、足三里组、内关组、偏历组及合阳组,每组6只,腹腔注射异丙肾上腺素造成心肌缺血模型.电针治疗20 min,采用抗Fos蛋白免疫组织化学技术观察大鼠NTS内c-fos表达和电生理技术观察大鼠心电图ST_Ⅱ的变化.结果:心肌缺血模型大鼠NTS内c-foS的表达明显增加(P<0.01),而足三里组、内关组与模型组比较,NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数均明显减少(P<0.01);足三里组、内关组NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数显著低于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).足三里组、内关组大鼠缺血性心电图ST_Ⅱ电位值显著降低(P<0.01),其电位降低值大于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).结论:NTS是针刺内关、足三里共同调节心功能的整合中枢之一.%Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on c-fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)and ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats, so as to study the role of NTS in EA-induced improvement of AMI. Methods Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, ST 36, PC 6, "Pianli" (LI 6), and "Heyang" (BL 55) groups, with 6 cases in each. AMI model was established by intraperitoneal injection of Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg). EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to PC 6, ST 36, LI 6 and BL 55 for 20 min separately. C-fos expression in the NTS was detected by immunohistochemistry and ECG-ST_Ⅱ was recorded before and after AMI and EA. Results ① Compared to control group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ of model group elevated significantly, while in comparison with model group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ values of ST 36 and PC 6 groups decreased significantly

  10. 标准化科学攻坚的战略高地%StrategicHeights of Standards Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春田

    2015-01-01

    The article explains the meaning and its extreme importance of the strategic heights for the standardization ifeld, deliberates over the challenges for traditional standardization, and proposes the ur-gency of the transformation towards modernized standardization. Affirming the limited role of existing methods like modularization and comprehensive standardization, the author insists on the necessity of accelerating the development of modernized standardization to meet the increasing demand of modern so-ciety towards standardization. It is a historical mission for current standardizers to focus on theories, meth-odologies and innovations in the modern standardization arena.

  11. CCALBATC - bathymetric contours for the central California region between Point Arena and Point Sur.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — CCALBATC consists of bathymetric contours at 10-m and 50-m intervals for the area offshore of central California between Point Arena to the north and Point Sur to...

  12. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Owen-Smith

    Full Text Available An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant and plains zebra (a non-ruminant, using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  14. Solving Stochastic Büchi Games on Infinite Arenas with a Finite Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider games played on an infinite probabilistic arena where the first player aims at satisfying generalized Büchi objectives almost surely, i.e., with probability one. We provide a fixpoint characterization of the winning sets and associated winning strategies in the case where the arena satisfies the finite-attractor property. From this we directly deduce the decidability of these games on probabilistic lossy channel systems.

  15. The making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom: a social and political history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    This article offers a critical sociological rendering of the making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom. It offers an interpretation of the conditions that led to the formation, expansion and development of the interprofessional arena using a social worlds/arenas lens of secondary data. I propose that the making of the interprofessional arena has been achieved in three historiographical phases. First, the "recognition of the professionalisation conundrum" that led to the intuitive assumption that interprofessional education (IPE) could lead to improved collaboration in practice and improved outcomes. Second, the "legitimisation" of the interprofessional assumption through the development of networks, building consensus, nurturing an evidence base and negotiating with policymakers. Third, "Talking up and acting up" the interprofessional agenda by developing global communities of practice, pandering to a neoliberal agenda, disseminating exemplars of good practice and encouraging practical changes within diverse settings. Articulating these historical "moments" may allow us insights into the conditions that have created the contemporary interprofessional arena and offer us ways of considering how present conditions may re-shape the discourses that constitute the interprofessional arena of the future.

  16. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans : early progeny choice in a filamentous fungus = Selectie arena in Aspergillus nidulans : vroege selectie van nakomelingen in een filamenteuse schimmel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:selection arena, progeny choice, Aspergillus nidulans , fungus, spores, ascospore, conidiospore, asexual, sexual, fruiting body, cleistothecium, zygote, dikaryon, self-sterility, self-fertility, mutation accumulation, fitness,

  17. Composición modal de las arenas de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir: evaluación de su procedencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomares, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation of the Guadalquivir neogene basin between Córdoba and Sevilla towns gave place to a thick marly succession which included several sandstone units: Arenas Basales, Arenas de Ubeda, Arenas del Guadalquivir, Arenas de Ecija, Arenas de Cuesta el Espino (all of them of upper Tortonian age, Arenas de Guadarcázar, Calcarenitas de Carmona (both of Messinian age and pliocene sands. Arenas Basales have a lithic composition, showing high percentages of metamorphic rock fragments, and derived from metamorphic complexes of the paleozoic Macizo Hespérico located in the N of the basin. Arenas del Guadalquivir and Arenas de Ecija are litharenites and sublitharenites; their rock fragments are mainly carbonatic and derived from neogene sandy formations that cropped out in the N because of the progressive reduction of the basin. Arenas de Ecija derived from the betic mantles that were emplaced in the S of the basin at that time. Arenas Basales and Arenas del Guadalquivir are plataform deposits and Arenas de Ecija are sediments in subsea fans. Finally, Arenas de Guadarcázar and the pliocene sands are quartzarenites and sublitharenites and derived from the underlying sandy formations. The high compositional and textural maturity of Arenas de Guadarcázar was due to the reworking of these sands in a beach environment. The succession reflects an initial stage with first cycle contributions of metamorphic rocks from a stable craton and a later stage in which the source area is formed of sedimentary rocks related to a recycled orogen. In the eastern part of the basin Arenas del Guadalquivir and Arenas de Ecija are litharenites whilst the Arenas de Cuesta el Espino are sublitharenites; the former derived from a recycled orogen, and the latter from a continental block or a stable craton. The compositional evolution of the sands in this side of the basin could indicate a basin edge zone.La sedimentación de la cuenca neógena del Guadalquivir entre

  18. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  19. Nadando debajo de la arena: Observaciones sobre un peculiar comportamiento en Liolaemus multimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacoliris, Federico

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La lagartija de las dunas, Liolaemus multimaculatus (Duméril & Bibron, 1837 es una especie endémica de las dunas costeras pampeanas en Argentina. Esta especie es estrictamente arenícola, especialista en cuanto al uso de microhábitats y posee adaptaciones morfológicas y etológicas para la vida en la arena. Una de las adaptaciones más destacadas en esta lagartija es la capacidad de enterrarse bajo la arena rápidamente ante la presencia de un depredador o durante el cese nocturno de la actividad. En el presente artículo se presentan las primeras observaciones sobre un nuevo tipo de comportamiento, el cual incluye desplazamientos de los individuos por debajo de la arena durante un evento de escape.

  20. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  1. Analyse des interactions energetiques entre un arena et son systeme de refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouani, Lotfi

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet strategique sur les arenas finance par le CRSNG (Conseil de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles et en Genie du Canada) qui a pour but principal le developpement d'un outil numerique capable d'estimer et d'optimiser la consommation d'energie dans les arenas et curlings. Notre travail s'inscrit comme une suite a un travail deja realise par DAOUD et coll. (2006, 2007) qui a developpe un modele 3D (AIM) en regime transitoire de l'arena Camilien Houde a Montreal et qui calcule les flux de chaleur a travers l'enveloppe du batiment ainsi que les distributions de temperatures et d'humidite durant une annee meteorologique typique. En particulier, il calcule les flux de chaleur a travers la couche de glace dus a la convection, la radiation et la condensation. Dans un premier temps nous avons developpe un modele de la structure sous la glace (BIM) qui tient compte de sa geometrie 3D, des differentes couches, de l'effet transitoire, des gains de chaleur du sol en dessous et autour de l'arena etudie ainsi que de la temperature d'entree de la saumure dans la dalle de beton. Par la suite le BIM a ete couple le AIM. Dans la deuxieme etape, nous avons developpe un modele du systeme de refrigeration (REFSYS) en regime quasi-permanent pour l'arena etudie sur la base d'une combinaison de relations thermodynamiques, de correlations de transfert de chaleur et de relations elaborees a partir de donnees disponibles dans le catalogue du manufacturier. Enfin le couplage final entre l'AIM +BIM et le REFSYS a ete effectue sous l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS. Plusieurs etudes parametriques on ete entreprises pour evaluer les effets du climat, de la temperature de la saumure, de l'epaisseur de la glace, etc. sur la consommation energetique de l'arena. Aussi, quelques strategies pour diminuer cette consommation ont ete etudiees. Le considerable potentiel de recuperation de chaleur au niveau des condenseurs qui peut reduire l'energie requise par

  2. The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract belonging to PhD thesis:
    The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector
    Sjoukje A. Osinga
    Wageningen University, Information technology group To be defended on 22nd of April, 2015
    Promotor: Em. Prof. ir AJM (Adrie) Beulens, I

  3. Arenas normalizadas españolas. Su preparación. 1ª parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1919, the Ministry of Public Works made the Central Laboratory responsable for all referring to sands with respect to the evaluation of tensile and compressive strengths of cement mortar. After 1956, the then Technical Institute of Construction and Cement took over the preparation and supply of this type of Spanish sand. Presently, these sands are still being prepared in a modern complex consisting of an installation in Segovia and the sand plant located at the lETcc.

    El Ministro de Fomento, en el año 1919, nominó al Laboratorio Central como Centro responsable en todo lo referente a arenas para la evaluación de las resistencias a tracción y compresión de los morteros de cemento. A partir de 1956, el entonces Instituto Técnico de la Construcción y del Cemento, pasó a preparar y suministrar este tipo de arena española. En la actualidad, estas arenas se continúan preparando mediante un moderno complejo compuesto por una instalación en Segovia y la planta de arenas situada en el lETcc.

  4. Restructuring the Power Arena in Denmark: Shaping Markets, Technologies and Environmental Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Strunge, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The ongoing liberalisation of the Danish power sector challenges the traditional engineering regime of regulation and the Danish support policies for renewable energy sources. The chapter highlights the changes using an actor-network approach and the framework of development and policy arenas....

  5. Cross-Cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An Arena for Facilitating Reflection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored how cross-cultural collaboration involving university lecturers from Norway (the North) and Egypt (the South), and student-teachers from Egypt, can be an arena for facilitating student-teachers' reflection and for challenging student-teachers' preconceived beliefs and perspectives about disability and education. The…

  6. Think Tanks and the Media: How the Conservative Movement Gained Entry into the Education Policy Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how the conservative movement has used both conservative think tanks and the media to gain entry into the field of education policy. The study examines how the conservative movement has attempted to use think tanks as legitimating organizations to enter the education policy arena by (a) measuring the historical growth in the…

  7. An Examination of College and University Athletic Directors' Perception of Management Models Utilized to Operate Intercollegiate Athletic Arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Mauro R.

    2010-01-01

    Demands for enhanced accountability and effectiveness in higher education have also affected athletic departments, requiring a more cost-efficient managerial approach to the administration of athletic facilities, especially arenas. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic directors' perceptions towards the arena management models they…

  8. Current trends in the cardiovascular clinical trial arena (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Cornel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of effective therapies for most cardiovascular disease states, coupled with increased requirements that potential benefits of new drugs be evaluated on clinical rather than surrogate endpoints, makes it increasingly difficult to substantiate any incremental improvements in efficacy that these new drugs might offer. Compounding the problem is the highly controversial issue of comparing new agents with placebos rather than active pharmaceuticals in drug efficacy trials. Despite the recent consensus that placebos may be used ethically in well-defined, justifiable circumstances, the problem persists, in part because of increased scrutiny by ethics committees but also because of considerable lingering disagreement regarding the propriety and scientific value of placebo-controlled trials (and trials of antihypertensive drugs in particular. The disagreement also substantially affects the most viable alternative to placebo-controlled trials: actively controlled equivalence/noninferiority trials. To a great extent, this situation was prompted by numerous previous trials of this type that were marked by fundamental methodological flaws and consequent false claims, inconsistencies, and potential harm to patients. As the development and use of generic drugs continue to escalate, along with concurrent pressure to control medical costs by substituting less-expensive therapies for established ones, any claim that a new drug, intervention, or therapy is "equivalent" to another should not be accepted without close scrutiny. Adherence to proper methods in conducting studies of equivalence will help investigators to avoid false claims and inconsistencies. These matters will be addressed in the third article of this three-part series.

  9. How do the BRIC countries play their roles in the global innovation arena? A study based on USPTO patents during 1990–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new taxonomy for the internationalization patterns of innovation of the BRIC countries within the global innovation landscape during the period 1990–2009. Based on the BRICs’ patents granted by the USPTO, we find (1) the BRICs gradually increased their roles in the global...... innovation arena with various degrees of internationalization; (2) the domestic-dominant pattern has widely countered the foreign dominance of innovation, while the collaborative multi-dominant pattern has increased; (3) a divergence of the BRICs’ global innovation output growth emerged, while...

  10. Evaluación de filtros de arena y de malla para riego por goteo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Mendoza Roncancio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del mecanismo de filtración y de los filtros empleados en la limpieza del agua para riego, es de gran importancia porque de su conocimiento y funcionamiento depende en gran medida la vida útil de un sistema de riego por goteo. Actualmente existen en Colombia empresas que fabrican filtros de arena y malla para sistemas de riego por goteo, carentes de información respecto al mecanismo de filtración y a la forma como funcionan realmente los filtros que producen. Con este trabajo se quiere llenar ese vacío y proponer, además, una metodología para las evaluaciones del filtro de arena, con una rata de filtrado de 100 galones por minuto (gpm y del filtro de malla de 100 mesh, para la misma rata de filtrado, por ser más utilizados en las instalaciones de este tipo de sistema de riego.

  11. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo de la ciudad que incrementa los valores del suelo con su proximidad. Este trabajo, muestra parte del proyecto de conservación "Parque Ecológico y Humedal Tres Puentes", cuyo objetivo principal es el de salvaguardar esta importante área ecológica.

  12. En undersøgelse af folkeskolen som en sundhedsfremmende arena mod fedme?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Charlotte Aalling Bruun; Spangaard, Christine Løvgreen; Hvam, Tine; Eriksen, Ida Maria; Nielsen, Katrine Broager

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a study of the Danish elementary schools options to act as an arena for health promotion against overweight and obesity among children. The investigation is based on practises at Damagerskolen in Greve Kommune and its health promotion policies. Through three interviews with a teacher, the principal and the head of the education for teachers at University College Metropol, we got insight into how the school provides health promotion advice to the students and which tools the teac...

  13. Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena: I. Kinematical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Pullin, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the idea of Vassiliev invariants to the spin network context, with the aim of using these invariants as a kinematical arena for a canonical quantization of gravity. This paper presents a detailed construction of these invariants (both ambient and regular isotopic) requiring a significant elaboration based on the use of Chern-Simons perturbation theory which extends the work of Kauffman, Martin and Witten to four-valent networks. We show that this space of knot invariants has the...

  14. Arenas of Service and the Development of the Hindu Nationalist Subject in India

    OpenAIRE

    Katan Alder

    2015-01-01

    The study of the relationship between Hindu nationalism and Hindu activist traditions of seva (selfless service) has been principally organised into three approaches: firstly, the instrumentalist deployment of the practice, secondly, the political appropriation of traditions of seva, and thirdly, that these related associational spaces are internally homogenous and distinct from alternative ‘legitimate’ religious arenas. These frameworks largely reflect approaches to Hindu nationalism which p...

  15. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  16. Employee Engagement Programmes As An Arena for Citizenship: A Case Study from Cadbury PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Ferreira, L

    2009-01-01

    In their book ‘Corporations and Citizenship’ (2008), Crane, Matten and Moon suggest that the corporation could be an arena for different stakeholders’ citizenship. They detail varied possibilities, however do not empirically test any of them. This dissertation empirically evaluates this assumption, using Cadbury’s employee engagement programme (the Green Advocates’ Network) case as an antecedent to employees’ citizenship. To conduct the research the author put together a framework based o...

  17. Crisis Communication and the Rhetorical Arena - A Multi-Vocal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni; Frandsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of a new model of crisis communication called the rhetorical arena. This new model is compared to W. Benoit's theory of image restoration strategies and T. Coomb's theory of crisis communication as relationship management. The new model is based on a multi-vocal approach taking...... into account the many corporate and non corporate 'voices' which meet, compete, collaborate or negotiate during a crisis situation. The model conceives crisis communication as mediated through four parameters: context, media, genre, and text....

  18. Women and men entering the 2014 presidential arena. Running a campaign on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Băluță

    2015-01-01

    Women and men entering the 2014 presidential arena. Running a campaign on social media explores how the usage of social media in the electoral campaign supports or resists representation of conventional stereotypes of femininity/masculinity and politics (such as the public man/private woman) whether women and men candidates have addressed substantive representation of women and tried to mobilize the support of women voters through specific targeted messages. Even if at the beginning of the re...

  19. Confianza, influencia política e intercambio de recursos en arenas decisorias regionales Trust, Political Influence, and Exchange of Resources in Regional Decision-Making Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMIRO BERARDO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura politológica destaca la importancia de la confianza en la emergencia de procesos sociopolíticos cooperativos, pero en la politología latinoamericana no existen aún exploraciones empíricas de la relación entre confianza y otras variables que también afectan la cooperación en arenas decisorias regionales. Este artículo contribuye a solucionar esta limitación examinando la relación entre confianza, intercambio de recursos y reconocimiento de influencia política, entre actores de tres regiones subnacionales de la Argentina. Los resultados sugieren que tanto el reconocimiento de influencia como el intercambio de recursos se correlacionan de manera muy significativa con las relaciones de confianza que existe entre los actores. Esta relación tiene implicancias sobre procesos de gobernanza a nivel regional, que discutimos en detalle.Research in political science has identified trust as an important variable for the emergence of cooperative social-political processes, but there are no empirical explorations in Latin American political science yet of the relationship between trust and other variables that are thought to affect cooperation in regional decision-making arenas. This article contributes to addressing this limitation by examining the relationship between trust, exchange of resources, and perception of political influence among actors in 3 sub-national regions in Argentina. Results suggest that these variables are significantly related to each other, which has implications for our understanding of how regional governance processes work. We discuss these implications in detail.

  20. Sharing Only Parts of Me: Selective Categorical Self-Disclosure Across Internet Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Attrill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research that has considered how individuals share their personal information in online compared to offline disclosures has often demonstrated heightened and accelerated disclosures in online interactions. Recent work has shown that this acceleration may be more likely to occur for the sharing of superficial self-information in initial general online interactions. This work was extended to explore the reported content of online disclosures in four different Internet arenas, social networking, instant messaging, general communication and online shopping. Using a self-disclosure scale amongst a sample of students to measure the revelation of information pertaining to individuals’ beliefs, relationships, personal matters, interests and intimate feelings, the current findings showed that self-disclosure could be more categorical and goal-directed than can be accounted for by existing cue-impoverished and text-based explanations of online self-disclosure. Participants reported self-disclosing significantly less on online shopping sites than in the three communications type arenas. A consistent pattern of significant differences in the sharing of superficial (interests, relationships & personal matters and more personal or intimate (intimate feelings & beliefs information in instant messaging, social networking and general communication, along with an absence of significant intra-categorical disclosures is in line with hyperpersonal computer-mediated communication theory in that people selectively choose which information to self-disclose online, a proposal further supported by a significant decrease from relationship to personal matters information in instant messaging. These findings imply that categorical disclosures could be mapped onto the social cognitive self-memory-system model of autobiographical memory in line with the social penetration theory of self-disclosure. The findings along with non-significant differences in reported levels of

  1. ANÁLISIS Y PROPUESTA DE MEJORA DE UN RESTAURANTE EN LAS ARENAS DE VALENCIA

    OpenAIRE

    NIETO MENGOD, NAIARA

    2013-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Final de Carrera consiste en la realización de un análisis y propuesta de mejora de un restaurante ubicado en Las Arenas de Valencia. El trabajo está estructurado en nueve capítulos comenzando con uno de Introducción. En el segundo capítulo Antecedentes, se ha realizado una aproximación al sector del turismo donde se estudia la relevancia del mismo a nivel mundial, del país y de la Comunidad Valenciana. A continuación se hace una introducción al sector de la...

  2. Arena3D: visualizing time-driven phenotypic differences in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secrier Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating the genotype-phenotype connection is one of the big challenges of modern molecular biology. To fully understand this connection, it is necessary to consider the underlying networks and the time factor. In this context of data deluge and heterogeneous information, visualization plays an essential role in interpreting complex and dynamic topologies. Thus, software that is able to bring the network, phenotypic and temporal information together is needed. Arena3D has been previously introduced as a tool that facilitates link discovery between processes. It uses a layered display to separate different levels of information while emphasizing the connections between them. We present novel developments of the tool for the visualization and analysis of dynamic genotype-phenotype landscapes. Results Version 2.0 introduces novel features that allow handling time course data in a phenotypic context. Gene expression levels or other measures can be loaded and visualized at different time points and phenotypic comparison is facilitated through clustering and correlation display or highlighting of impacting changes through time. Similarity scoring allows the identification of global patterns in dynamic heterogeneous data. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of the tool on two distinct biological problems of different scales. First, we analyze a medium scale dataset that looks at perturbation effects of the pluripotency regulator Nanog in murine embryonic stem cells. Dynamic cluster analysis suggests alternative indirect links between Nanog and other proteins in the core stem cell network. Moreover, recurrent correlations from the epigenetic to the translational level are identified. Second, we investigate a large scale dataset consisting of genome-wide knockdown screens for human genes essential in the mitotic process. Here, a potential new role for the gene lsm14a in cytokinesis is suggested. We also show how phenotypic

  3. Arenas de dragado marino como nueva fuente para materiales de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limeira, J.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of dredged marine sand (DMS in pastes and mortars as construction material. Different materials from two Spanish ports were used: DMS-0 from Sant Carles de la Ràpita and DMS-A, DMS-B and DMS-C from Barcelona. The aim of the study was to assess DMS as addition (its influence on cohesion and fluidity or as a fine granular corrector (its influence on compressive strength in different mixes of cement paste and mortars, respectively. Two experimental stages were carried out: firstly, DMS-0 material was used on the production of pastes and mortars (partial substitution of raw sand 0/2 mm; secondly, DMS-A, DMS-B and DMS-C were used on mortar production (partial substitution of raw sand 0/5 mm. The fresh and hardened properties obtained were compared to those of the control mixes; the results revealed 25 % as an optimum substitution ratio of raw sands for DMS.

    Este trabajo propone el uso de arenas de dragado marino (DMS en pastas y morteros como material constructivo. Se utilizaron materiales de dos puertos españoles: DMS-0 del puerto de Sant Carles de la Ràpita, y DMS-A, DMS-B y DMS-C del puerto de Barcelona. El objetivo del estudio era evaluar el material DMS como adición (influencia sobre cohesión y fluidez o como corrector granular (influencia sobre resistencia a la compresión en diferentes mezclas de pasta y morteros de cemento, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos fases experimentales: primero, se empleó el DMS-0 en la producción de pastas y morteros (sustitución parcial de arena natural 0/2 mm; a continuación, se emplearon DMS-A, DMS-B y DMS-C en la producción de morteros (sustitución parcial de arena natural 0/5 mm. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados con las mezclas de control y revelaron que la proporción óptima de sustitución de arenas naturales por DMS era del 25 %.

  4. Water Rights Arenas in the Andes: Upscaling Networks to Strengthen Local Water Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutgerd Boelens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threats that Andean water user collectives face are ever-growing in a globalising society. Water is power and engenders social struggle. In the Andean region, water rights struggles involve not only disputes over the access to water, infrastructure and related resources, but also over the contents of water rules and rights, the recognition of legitimate authority, and the discourses that are mobilised to sustain water governance structures and rights orders. While open and large-scale water battles such as Bolivia’s 'Water Wars' or nationwide mobilisations in Ecuador get the most public attention, low-profile and more localised water rights encounters, ingrained in local territories, are far more widespread and have an enormous impact on the Andean waterscapes. This paper highlights both water arenas and the ways they operate between the legal and the extralegal. It shows how local collectives build on their own water rights foundations to manage internal water affairs but which simultaneously offer an important home-base for strategising wider water defence manoeuvres. Hand-in-hand with inwardly reinforcing their rights bases, water user groups aim for horizontal and vertical linkages thereby creating strategic alliances. Sheltering an internal school for rights and identity development, reflection and organisation, these local community foundations, through open and subsurface linkages and fluxes, provide the groundwork for upscaling their water rights defence networks to national and transnational arenas.

  5. Religando as arenas institucionais: uma proposta de abordagens multidimensionais nos estudos legislativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Peres

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A área de estudos legislativos foi uma das linhas de pesquisa que mais se desenvolveram no Brasil nos últimos anos. Ela formou-se em torno da oposição entre as explicações "distributivistas" e as explicações "partidárias" do processo legislativo. Seus achados empíricos e seu debate teórico certamente trouxeram grandes contribuições à Ciência Política do país e, até mesmo, ao debate de política comparada. Não obstante, essa linha de investigação incorreu no problema de adotar abordagens monodimensionais do fenômeno. A explicação partidária promoveu certo "insulamento" do poder Legislativo em relação às outras arenas institucionais, analisando-o em função de sua autodeterminação. A abordagem distributivista investiu quase exclusivamente no sistema eleitoral como variável explicativa, deixando em segundo plano outras arenas institucionais. Diante disso, nossa proposta é analisar os limites dessas abordagens presentes nos estudos legislativos, de forma a destacar algumas lacunas explicativas que poderiam ser preenchidas por meio de uma agenda de pesquisas multidimensionais, que considerem, por exemplo, as organizações partidárias e o poder Judiciário.

  6. Thinking outside of the box: Transfer of shape-based reorientation across the boundary of an arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew G; Smith, Alastair D; Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The way in which human and non-human animals represent the shape of their environments remains a contentious issue. According to local theories of shape learning, organisms encode the local geometric features of the environment that signal a goal location. In contrast, global theories of shape learning suggest that organisms encode the overall shape of the environment. There is, however, a surprising lack of evidence to support this latter claim, despite the fact that common behaviours seem to require encoding of the global-shape of an environment. We tested one such behaviour in 5 experiments, in which human participants were trained to navigate to a hidden goal on one side of a virtual arena (e.g. the inside) before being required to find the same point on the alternative side (e.g. the outside). Participants navigated to the appropriate goal location, both when inside and outside the virtual arena, but only when the shape of the arena remained the same between training and test (Experiments 1a and 1b). When the arena shape was transformed between these stages, participants were lost (Experiments 2a and 2b). When training and testing was conducted on the outside of two different-shaped arenas that shared local geometric cues participants once again explored the appropriate goal location (Experiment 3). These results provide core evidence that humans encode a global representation of the overall shape of the environments in, or around, which they navigate. PMID:27240027

  7. Medløbere eller modrum? - En refleksion over danske NGO'ers rolle på den udviklingspolitiske arena.

    OpenAIRE

    Kærsager, Line

    2005-01-01

    Målet med specialet er at bidrage til diskussionen af NGO'ers nutidige såvel som fremtidige rolle på den udviklingspolitiske og -strategiske arena, med empirisk nedslag i den danske kontekst. Udgangspunktet er en refleksion over udviklingsverdenen som et diskursivt eller narrativt felt, med vægt på diskussionen af NGO'ers rolle på den udviklingspolitiske arena og afdækningen af de forestillinger og fortællinger, der konvergerer i skabelsen af den dominerende forestilling om udvikling og samti...

  8. The secret things belong unto the Lord our God: secrecy in the pharmaceutical arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2007-09-01

    Secrecy in the pharmaceutical arena has taken on more importance in the recent past as the pharmaceutical industry has assumed greater prominence in the funding of clinical research and has also become a funder of the agencies that are charged with regulating it. Governments have adopted a neo-liberal agenda that prioritizes private profit over public health and are therefore willing to let industry set the research agenda. As a result, secrecy, to protect intellectual property rights, is a major feature of clinical research. Secrecy also leads to biases in the published literature that conceal significant safety problems. Because regulators are now partially dependent on the pharmaceutical industry for their existence regulators are unwilling to challenge industry. By treating data on efficacy and safety as commercially confidential information they effectively collude with industry in denying health professionals and the public access to essential information to be able to use drugs appropriately. PMID:17970243

  9. Enron looking to international arena for growth via hydrocarbon/power schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enron Corp., one of the US pioneers in the business of comarketing hydrocarbons and electricity, is looking to the international arena to provide the bulk of its future growth. Following its successes emanating from opportunities created by the deregulation of the natural gas industry in the US, Enron has ventured into a new area: the wholesale electricity market, which is in the process of deregulating in the US and in Europe. Enron has gained an edge here by transferring its wholesale gas market expertise to the evolving new electric power market. With its wholesale strategy in place, Enron has trained its sights on the deregulating retail natural gas and electricity markets in the US and Europe

  10. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  11. New learning arenas for shop stewards - a new political agenda for unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    in collaboration with researchers developed ideas for new learning environments and new political agendas for the shop steward. Besides presenting these results and relating them to overall political and societal challenges I will in the paper shortly outline preliminary ideas on how shop stewards learning......, little attention has been paid to the learning processes shop stewards develop when they are engaged in their daily practice in their workplaces, and not least how development of new learning environments or arenas can bridge learning issues in daily workplace practices and on educational courses...... in daily practices can be analysed us a combination of perspectives from different theoretical traditions. Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development...

  12. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  13. Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena; 1, Kinematical structure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R; Pullin, J; Bartolo, Cayetano Di; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Pullin, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    We generalize the idea of Vassiliev invariants to the spin network context, with the aim of using these invariants as a kinematical arena for a canonical quantization of gravity. This paper presents a detailed construction of these invariants (both ambient and regular isotopic) requiring a significant elaboration based on the use of Chern-Simons perturbation theory which extends the work of Kauffman, Martin and Witten to four-valent networks. We show that this space of knot invariants has the crucial property -from the point of view of the quantization of gravity- of being loop differentiable in the sense of distributions. This allows the definition of diffeomorphism and Hamiltonian constraints. We show that the invariants are annihilated by the diffeomorphism constraint. In a companion paper we elaborate on the definition of a Hamiltonian constraint, discuss the constraint algebra, and show that the construction leads to a consistent theory of canonical quantum gravity.

  14. MK-801 impairs cognitive coordination on a rotating arena (Carousel and contextual specificity of hippocampal immediate-early gene expression in a rat model of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán eKubík

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena - Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetrodotoxin into one hippocampus prevents cognitive coordination during avoidance of a stationary room-defined place on the Carousel and increases coactivity of previously unrelated neurons in the uninjected hippocampus. Place avoidance on the Carousel is impaired after systemic administration of non-competitive NMDAr blockers (MK-801 used to model schizophrenia in animals and people. We tested if this effect is due to cognitive disorganization or other effect of NMDAr antagonism such as hyperlocomotion, spatial memory impairment, or general learning deficit. We also examined if the same dose of MK-801 alters patterns of immediate-early gene (IEG expression in the hippocampus. IEG expression is triggered in neuronal nuclei in a context-specific manner after behavioral exploration and it is used to map activity in neuronal populations. IEG expression is critical for maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We show that the same dose of MK-801 that impairs spatial coordination of rats on the Carousel also eliminates contextual specificity of IEG expression in hippocampal CA1 ensembles. This effect is due to increased similarity between ensembles activated in different environments, consistent with the idea that it is caused by increased coactivity between neurons, which did not fire together before. Our data support the proposition of the Hypersynchrony theory that cognitive disorganization in psychosis is due to increased coactivity between

  15. MK-801 Impairs Cognitive Coordination on a Rotating Arena (Carousel) and Contextual Specificity of Hippocampal Immediate-Early Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, Stěpán; Buchtová, Helena; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena - Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetrodotoxin into one hippocampus prevents cognitive coordination during avoidance of a stationary room-defined place on the Carousel and increases coactivity of previously unrelated neurons in the uninjected hippocampus. Place avoidance on the Carousel is impaired after systemic administration of non-competitive NMDAr blockers (MK-801) used to model schizophrenia in animals and people. We tested if this effect is due to cognitive disorganization or other effect of NMDAr antagonism such as hyperlocomotion, spatial memory impairment, or general learning deficit. We also examined if the same dose of MK-801 alters patterns of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in the hippocampus. IEG expression is triggered in neuronal nuclei in a context-specific manner after behavioral exploration and it is used to map activity in neuronal populations. IEG expression is critical for maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We show that the same dose of MK-801 that impairs spatial coordination of rats on the Carousel also eliminates contextual specificity of IEG expression in hippocampal CA1 ensembles. This effect is due to increased similarity between ensembles activated in different environments, consistent with the idea that it is caused by increased coactivity between neurons, which did not previously fire together. Our data support the proposition of the Hypersynchrony theory that cognitive disorganization in psychosis is due to increased coactivity between unrelated

  16. Sistema Único de Saúde: espaços decisórios e a arena política de saúde The Unified National Health System: decision-making forums and the political arena in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Vargas Côrtes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o impacto da criação do novo Conselho Nacional de Saúde, em 1990, e das comissões intergestores, em 1993, sobre a arena política de saúde e sobre a configuração das relações entre atores estatais e societais no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde. As três principais conclusões do artigo são as seguintes: a criação de fóruns nos quais atores estatais podem construir acordos que viabilizem a coordenação federativa das ações de gestão fortaleceu as posições desses atores na arena política da área; atores sociais, liderados por representantes de entidades de profissionais de saúde, foram compelidos, mas também buscaram ativamente, a apresentar suas demandas e propostas em fóruns participativos que tratavam principalmente de questões políticas secundárias, perdendo assim, ao longo do período, capacidade de influir sobre o processo decisório da área; atores de mercado pouco se envolveram em fóruns participativos, dando preferência a exercer influência diretamente sobre os decisores públicos e a implementar estratégias adaptativas para aumentar seus lucros.This article analyzes the creation of new political arenas in the Brazilian health sector as well as shifts in power relations among state and social political actors in the context of public health system reform, focusing on the last two decades. The three main conclusions are the following: The creation of forums in which government actors can establish agreements that allow the shared national, State, and municipal coordination of management measures have strengthened the positions of these actors in the health political arena. Social actors, led by representatives of professional health societies, were both urged (and also took the initiative to submit their demands and proposals through participatory forums that dealt mainly with secondary political issues, thus steadily losing the capacity to influence the real decision-making process in

  17. 75 FR 39969 - Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Liquor Control Ordinance for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the...

  18. Characteristics That Differentiate Telecommuting from Non-Telecommuting Professionals in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in working from home in contrast to going to an office continues to be a growing phenomenon. This research examined personal characteristics of telecommuters and non-telecommuters including age, gender, years of working for the organization, and job satisfaction in the quality control and quality assurance arena. This study aimed to…

  19. [Perspectives and challenges of the "new" National Health Promotion Policy: to which political arena does management point?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tales Iuri Paz E; Sá, Ronice Maria Pereira Franco de; Araújo, José Luiz do Amaral Correia de

    2016-06-01

    The "new" National Health Promotion Policy opens up prospects and challenges for the political arena. This is the space where agreements and disagreements relating to decision-making, which will underpin its implementation, are established. This study sought to understand these questions, seeking to reflect upon the formation of arenas, in order to contribute with strategies coherent with the policy. It is a qualitative study, based on the theory of justification and its 'polities' according to Boltanski and Thévenot. Those interviewed were social actors involved with management of this policy. The analysis verified the presence of the polities such as: civic -vision and concepts; project -execution; and industrial - imposed limits. These polities define the arenas where the designated prospects and challenges appear. The configurations arising from the intersection points of these polities reveal arenas established through interests and issues resulting from agreements. It further highlights the grandeur of polities that may be found in controversies or conflicts, especially among the subcategories present in more than one polity. Critical awareness and the establishment of a clear political game are required of the social actors involved in promoting agreements and/or disagreements related to the new policy. PMID:27276537

  20. Climate Scientists In The Public Arena: Who's Got Our Backs? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Climate scientists have an important role to play in informing the public discourse on human-caused climate change. Our scientific expertise provides us a unique, informed perspective, and despite recent high profile attacks against climate science, the public still affords climate scientists the greatest trust to deliver an honest, unbiased assessment of the potential threats posed by climate changes. Yet, as with all areas of science where powerful special interests perceive themselves as threatened by the findings of science, scientists enter the public fray at our peril. Our efforts to communicate the science are opposed by a well-funded, highly organized disinformation effort that aims to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding. In recent years, the disinformation campaign has demonstrated a willingness to attack individual, climate scientists as a means of achieving a broader end: discrediting climate science itself. These attacks are rarely fought in legitimate scientific circles such as the peer-reviewed scientific literature or other scholarly venues, but rather through rhetorical efforts delivered by nonscientists, using ideologically aligned media outlets, special interest groups, and politicians. Scientists are massively out-funded and outmanned in this battle, and will lose if leading scientific institutions and organizations remain on the sidelines. I will discuss this dilemma, drawing upon my own experiences in the public arena of climate change.

  1. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  2. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus: what’s new in the management arena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ajoy Kumar1, Vibhuti Singh21Bayfront Family Medicine Residency, St Petersburg FL, USA; 2University of South Florida College of Medicine and Suncoast Cardiovascular Center, St Petersburg, FL, USAAbstract: When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%. For this reason diabetes is considered a “coronary disease equivalent” condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocar­dial infarction have a poorer prognosis than non­diabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycer­ides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.Keywords: atherogenic dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus

  3. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus: what's new in the management arena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajoy; Singh, Vibhuti

    2010-09-07

    When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%). For this reason diabetes is considered a "coronary disease equivalent" condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocardial infarction have a poorer prognosis than nondiabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.

  4. Construction of a policy arena: the case of public health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Henri; Nathanson, Constance A

    2012-02-01

    In this article we examine the transformation over the past two decades of public health as a policy arena in France from a backwater of little interest to politicians, bureaucrats, the media, and the public into a central preoccupation of the state. Recent dramatic health crises (the scandal over HIV-contaminated blood, mad cow disease, etc.) have substantially raised the political profile of (and corresponding state investment in) public health in France, offering opportunities and incentives for political actors not traditionally associated with public health to enter the field and challenging more traditional actors to galvanize themselves and compete for this newly attractive policy terrain. We use the occasion of the passage of a public health law in 2004, labeled by its proponents as the "first" public health law in one hundred years, to show how, in a context of national struggle to contain both risks and costs, "public health" -- chameleonlike -- has taken on various meanings and forms to serve highly conflicting political interests. PMID:22003098

  5. Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Weikang

    2016-01-01

    The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a trend of loss of correlation for the UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of -0.688 which drops to -0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will de...

  6. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  7. Solving the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem by Arena Simulation Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Gamal M. Nawara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The job-Shop Scheduling problem (JSSP attracted a lot of researchers from various research disciplines, mainly Operations Research, Management Science, Computer Science, and Manufacture Science for the last 50 years. JSSP is a typical NP-hard problem in the strong sense. Although the literature is full of researches concerning the JSSP, practitioners are not able to get benefit of the majority of these researches because of the assumptions which take the problem very far away from the real life JSSP. The aim of our research is to build a simulation model for the JSSP to be able to relax some of these assumptions to simulate the real life JSSP. We used discrete event simulation as it's suitable for the JSSP. We used Arena simulation software version 14 to build the model on a Dell® Vostro PC (Intel® Core(TM i5–2400 CPU @ 3.10GHZ with 4 GB RAM.In this paper we will just show the basic model which is able to solve the famous benchmarks for the JSSP to prove that our model is ready for the real life JSSP. In the following papers we will show how to relax some of these assumptions one by one. The computational results for 9 benchmarks of different sizes showed that the proposed model is both effective and efficient. It gave good solutions in reasonable amounts of time.

  8. Control system simulation for flexible manufacturing cell based on Arena RT%基于Arena RT的柔性制造单元控制系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 李春常; 周炳海

    2009-01-01

    从物理仿真模型型的控制逻辑和模型中资源的组织形式出发,提出了一种基于Arena RT的柔性制造单元仿真控制模型.采用Web服务技术设计了柔性制造单元控制实体之间的通讯模型,结合Arena RT模犁实时控制外部应用程序的特性,构建了基于Web服务和Arena RT的仿真控制软件体系结构.在此基础上,设计并实现了一种开放式、可视化,以及对柔性制造单元实时控制的仿真集成系统.以某军工单位的机加车间为例,验证了该仿真系统的实时控制性.

  9. Research capacity and training needs for non-communicable diseases in the public health arena in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent KILIC; Phillimore, Peter; Islek, Duygu; Oztoprak, Dilek; Korkmaz, Eren; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unal, Belgin

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to define the research capacity and training needs for professionals working on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the public health arena in Turkey. Methods This study was part of a comparative cross-national research capacity-building project taking place across Turkey and the Mediterranean Middle East (RESCAP-Med, funded by the EU). Identification of research capacity and training needs took place in three stages. The first stage involved mapp...

  10. Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: an experiment in a circular arena.

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardo, A; Odetti, F; Ioalè, P.

    2001-01-01

    Whether pigeons use visual landmarks for orientation from familiar locations has been a subject of debate. By recording the directional choices of both anosmic and control pigeons while exiting from a circular arena we were able to assess the relevance of olfactory and visual cues for orientation from familiar sites. When the birds could see the surroundings, both anosmic and control pigeons were homeward oriented. When the view of the landscape was prevented by screens that surrounded the ar...

  11. Skolan är en lättköpt arena - livskunskap i kritisk belysning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin von Brömssen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade a school subject with the designation of Life Competence Education ("Livskunskap" in Swedish has emerged in many Swedish schools. The aim of this article is to describe and analyse the subject Life Competence Education, its historical and ideological roots and current place in the curricula of some selected schools. The article is based on analyses of policy documents, interviews and participant observations from fieldwork in two upper secondary schools and in one course for further training of teachers arranged by a municipality. Work by Foucault, especially on governmentality, is used as an analytic tool, as well as work developed from Foucault by Nicolas Rose and Stephen J. Ball. The analyses show that the subject Life Competence Education is constructed in many varied ways in Swedish schools due to different influences, both from the state, but also from private policy entrepreneurs (Ball, 2006. It is also shown that the SET-programme, which is only one example of programmes used for this type of education, is quite widely used in Life Competence Education in Swedish schools. In light of analyses from Foucault and Rose, I suggest that these programmes can be seen as the “psy”, i.e. the “psychological domains” (Rose, 1999, entering into the educational arena and with the help of behaviouristic theories constructing "governable subjects" (Foucault, 1988, 1991. This raises questions regarding what kind of subjects are constructed in Life Competence Education, with what kind of methods, as well as how these methods are construed in the light of the Swedish National Curriculum

  12. Truelo de tipologias estratégicas na arena das franquias de fast food no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Almiro Brandt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo testar as tipologias de estratégias de Porter, Miles & Snow e Mintzberg nas franquias de fast food que operam no Brasil, destacando o impacto da resolução do trade-off clássico poder explanatório versus parcimônia na capacidade descritiva das alternativas. Com base em extensa revisão bibliográfica, compreendendo estratégias, ambiente e desempenho, foram selecionados dez métodos competitivos e três variáveis de desempenho para análise da base de dados produzida a partir da pesquisa de campo realizada por Cohen (1998. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente empregando-se análise multivariável (cluster e manova e estatística não-paramétrica, de forma a permitir a identificação de grupos estratégicos de acordo com as tipologias em estudo. Por fim, o desempenho médio dos grupos estratégicos formados foi comparado com os resultados preconizados pelos respectivos modelos teóricos. Constatou-se que as três tipologias testadas exibem capacidades descritivas distintas, sendo que a de Porter demonstrou maior aderência às franquias de fast food que operavam no Brasil na época. A parcimônia acabou sendo mais crítica em uma arena turbulenta e recessiva.

  13. Deinococcus arenae sp. nov., a novel species isolated from sand in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Cha, Seho; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Seo, Taegun

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-negative strain, designated SA1(T), was isolated from a sand specimen from Yangyang Beach, South Korea. The cells of SA1(T) were observed to be red pigmented, strictly aerobic, non-motile rods. Strain SA1(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7 (pH growth range, pH 7-9). Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of SA1(T) showed that the organism belongs to the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus and forms a branch within the genus Deinococcus, with Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T) as a close relative (99.8   % sequence similarity). The strain was found to be catalase positive and oxidase negative and to metabolise 2-ketogluconate, acetate, D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, D-glucose, D-maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, D-melibiose, D-sorbitol, D-sucrose, glycogen, L-alanine, L-histidine, L-malate, L-proline and n-valerate. The guanine plus cytosine (G + C) base composition of the DNA was 69.5 mol %, as determined by the thermal denaturation method. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone with eight isoprene units (MK-8). The polar lipid profile of strain SA1(T) showed the presence of several unidentified glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, aminophospholipids and unidentified lipids. In addition, the most abundant fatty acids of strain SA1(T) were identified as C15:1 ω6c, C16:1 ω7c and C17:0. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridisation and biochemical characteristics, strain SA1(T) (=KCTC 33741(T) = JCM 31047(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus arenae sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27147067

  14. Deinococcus arenae sp. nov., a novel species isolated from sand in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Cha, Seho; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Seo, Taegun

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-negative strain, designated SA1(T), was isolated from a sand specimen from Yangyang Beach, South Korea. The cells of SA1(T) were observed to be red pigmented, strictly aerobic, non-motile rods. Strain SA1(T) was found to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7 (pH growth range, pH 7-9). Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of SA1(T) showed that the organism belongs to the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus and forms a branch within the genus Deinococcus, with Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T) as a close relative (99.8   % sequence similarity). The strain was found to be catalase positive and oxidase negative and to metabolise 2-ketogluconate, acetate, D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, D-glucose, D-maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, D-melibiose, D-sorbitol, D-sucrose, glycogen, L-alanine, L-histidine, L-malate, L-proline and n-valerate. The guanine plus cytosine (G + C) base composition of the DNA was 69.5 mol %, as determined by the thermal denaturation method. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone with eight isoprene units (MK-8). The polar lipid profile of strain SA1(T) showed the presence of several unidentified glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, aminophospholipids and unidentified lipids. In addition, the most abundant fatty acids of strain SA1(T) were identified as C15:1 ω6c, C16:1 ω7c and C17:0. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridisation and biochemical characteristics, strain SA1(T) (=KCTC 33741(T) = JCM 31047(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus arenae sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  16. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  17. Serotonin receptors are involved in the spinal mediation of descending facilitation of surgical incision-induced increase of Fos-like immunoreactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Wiliam A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending pronociceptive pathways may be implicated in states of persistent pain. Paw skin incision is a well-established postoperative pain model that causes behavioral nociceptive responses and enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The number of spinal c-Fos positive neurons of rats treated intrathecally with serotonin, noradrenaline or acetylcholine antagonists where evaluated to study the descending pathways activated by a surgical paw incision. Results The number of c-Fos positive neurons in laminae I/II ipsilateral, lamina V bilateral to the incised paw, and in lamina X significantly increased after the incision. These changes: remained unchanged in phenoxybenzamine-treated rats; were increased in the contralateral lamina V of atropine-treated rats; were inhibited in the ipsilateral lamina I/II by 5-HT1/2B/2C (methysergide, 5-HT2A (ketanserin or 5-HT1/2A/2C/5/6/7 (methiothepin receptors antagonists, in the ipsilateral lamina V by methysergide or methiothepin, in the contralateral lamina V by all the serotonergic antagonists and in the lamina X by LY 278,584, ketanserin or methiothepin. Conclusions We conclude: (1 muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms reduce incision-induced response of spinal neurons inputs from the contralateral paw; (2 5-HT1/2A/2C/3 receptors-mediate mechanisms increase the activity of descending pathways that facilitates the response of spinal neurons to noxious inputs from the contralateral paw; (3 5-HT1/2A/2C and 5-HT1/2C receptors increases the descending facilitation mechanisms induced by incision in the ipsilateral paw; (4 5-HT2A/3 receptors contribute to descending pronociceptive pathways conveyed by lamina X spinal neurons; (5 α-adrenergic receptors are unlikely to participate in the incision-induced facilitation of the spinal neurons.

  18. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  19. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borjesson, M.; Serratosa, L.; Carre, F.; Corrado, D.; Drezner, J.; Dugmore, D.L.; Heidbuchel, H.H.; Mellwig, K.P.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Papadakis, M.; Rasmusen, H.; Sharma, S.; Solberg, E.E.; Buuren, F. van; Pelliccia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is e

  20. MK-801 Impairs Cognitive Coordination on a Rotating Arena (Carousel) and Contextual Specificity of Hippocampal Immediate-Early Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kubík, Štěpán; Buchtová, Helena; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena – Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetr...

  1. MK-801 impairs cognitive coordination on a rotating arena (Carousel) and contextual specificity of hippocampal immediate-early gene expression in a rat model of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpán eKubík; Helena eBuchtová; Karel eValeš; Aleš eStuchlík

    2014-01-01

    Flexible behavior in dynamic, real-world environments requires more than static spatial learning and memory. Discordant and unstable cues must be organized in coherent subsets to give rise to meaningful spatial representations. We model this form of cognitive coordination on a rotating arena - Carousel where arena- and room-bound spatial cues are dissociated. Hippocampal neuronal ensemble activity can repeatedly switch between multiple representations of such an environment. Injection of tetr...

  2. Cultivo de la ostra Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1795 en un vivero artesanal, La arena, Casma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltazar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la metodología empleada para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico Crassostrea gigas en un vivero artesanal, en el Centro Acuícola La Arena, Casma. Se utilizó reproductores en fase intermedia de madurez gonádica procedentes de líneas de cultivo del Centro Acuícola. El acondicionamiento se realizó en tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1000 L, con agua de mar sin filtrar a una temperatura de 27 ± 0,9 oC; adicionalmente se les alimentó con fécula de maíz y microalgas obtenidas en el lugar y cultivadas al aire libre. El desove se indujo para un grupo sólo por estimulación térmica (30 a 31 oC y para el otro se añadió además peróxido de hidrógeno, a lo cual se presentaron respuestas diferentes. A los 20 minutos después de la fertilización se observó, en el 100% de huevos fecundados, el cuerpo polar definido y a las 24 horas las larvas veliger. Las larvas alcanzaron el estado de pediveliger luego de 20 días de cultivo, con tallas promedios de 237 ± 10 µm. Para la fijación de las larvas se utilizó conchuela molida (300 µm, plástico negro lijado y valvas de ostras. A los 33 días se obtuvieron semillas con tallas medias de 1262 ± 204 µm las que fueron colocadas en pearl net para su desarrollo en el mar. A los 30 días de la siembra en el mar, la talla promedio de las postlarvas alcanzó los 13,4 ± 3,4 mm. El trabajo muestra las ventajas de la metodología descrita en la producción masiva de semillas en un vivero artesanal.

  3. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  4. Anthropogenic impacts on continental margins: New frontiers and engagement arena for global sustainability research and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. K.; Glavovic, B.; Limburg, K.; Emeis, K. C.; Thomas, H.; Kremer, H.; Avril, B.; Zhang, J.; Mulholland, M. R.; Glaser, M.; Swaney, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need to design and implement transformative governance strategies that safeguard Earth's life-support systems essential for long-term human well-being. From a series of meetings of the Continental Margins Working Group co-sponsored by IMBER and LOICZ of IGBP, we conclude that the greatest urgency exists at the ocean-land interface - the continental margins or the Margin - which extends from coastlands over continental shelves and slopes bordering the deep ocean. The Margin is enduring quadruple squeeze from (i) Population growth and rising demands for resources; (ii) Ecosystem degradation and loss; (iii) Rising CO2, climate change and alteration of marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems; and (iv) Rapid and irreversible changes in social-ecological systems. Some areas of the Margin that are subject to the greatest pressures (e.g. the Arctic) are also those for which knowledge of fundamental processes remains most limited. Aside from improving our basic understanding of the nature and variability of the Margin, priority issues include: (i) investment reform to prevent lethal but profitable activities; (ii) risk reduction; and (iii) jurisdiction, equity and fiscal responsibility. However, governance deficits or mismatches are particularly pronounced at the ocean-edge of the Margin and the prevailing Law of the Sea is incapable of resolving these challenges. The "gold rush" of accelerating demands for space and resources, and variability in how this domain is regulated, move the Margin to the forefront of global sustainability research and action. We outline a research strategy in 3 engagement arenas: (a) knowledge and understanding of dynamic Margin processes; (b) development, innovation and risk at the Margin; and (c) governance for sustainability on the Margin. The goals are (1) to better understand Margin social-ecological systems, including their physical and biogeochemical components; (2) to develop practical guidance for sustainable development

  5. Development of a new method to track multiple honey bees with complex behaviors on a flat laboratory arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Kimura

    Full Text Available A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A The object (bee's region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; 'crossing', 'touching', 'passing', 'overlapping' and 'waiting', and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance.

  6. Las fronteras del racismo en el teatro crítico de José Moreno Arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Leticia Báez Ayala

    2014-01-01

    La dramaturgia española de José Moreno Arenas, maestro del teatro mínimo e hiper - textual, incorpora uno de los temas señeros en la complejidad de los albores del siglo XXI: el racismo; sus obras: El cuchitril, El deseo, Las olas, El safari y La playa discuten el choque de mentalidades entre las poblaciones migrantes y las receptoras en la Euro - pa actual; destaca el doble papel que los españoles han vivido en el siglo XX, desde una mirada crítica, se cuestiona la falta de memoria del puebl...

  7. La construction territoriale de têtes de ponts antarctiques rivales : Ushuaia (Argentine) et Punta Arenas (Chili)

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Ushuaia et Punta Arenas sont les villes les plus australes de leurs pays d’appartenance,  l’Argentine et le Chili. Elles ont joué le rôle de ville frontière au service de la consolidation et la légitimation de ces territoires nationaux austraux localisés en position de bout du monde. Depuis cinquante ans, ces deux villes portuaires s’affirment comme les deux portes d’entrée internationales principales des relations avec le continent Antarctique, et en particulier avec la Péninsule Antarctique...

  8. Sand as thermoluminescent dosimeter to therapeutic doses Arena como dosímetro termoluminiscente para dosis terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Salcedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the characteristic thermoluminiscent of sand coming from Coveñas beaches, for its use as therapeutic dose dosimeter. The selected samples, annealed at 400oC during 1 hour, were irradiated to different doses using an unit of 60Co Theratron 780C in air to ambient temperature. The reading was carried out in a Harshaw TLD 4500. The main dosimetric properties of the material (glow curve, response reproducibility, reutilization, linearity and thermal decay have been studied in detail. The glow curve of the sand samples presents a peaks TL at about 145◦C. The results show that the material has a linear response to the dose from 50 cGy until 1000 cGy. The studied sand samples can be used as thermoluminescent dosimeters for applications in different areas. The importance of this work is that the sand is a natural substance available in large quantities, low cost and can be used in clinical physics to evaluate the dose received by the patient during medical treatment.Este trabajo describe las características termoluminiscentes de arena proveniente de las playas de Coveñas para su uso como dosímetro en dosis terapéuticas. Las muestras seleccionadas, tratadas térmicamente a 400◦C por una hora, fueron irradiadas a diferentes dosis usando una unidad de 60Co Theratron 780C en aire a temperatura ambiente. La lectura se realizó en un Harshaw TLD 4500. Las principales propiedades dosimétricas del material (curva de brillo, reproducibilidad de la respuesta, reutilización, linealidad y decaimiento térmico han sido estudiadas en detalle. La curva de brillo de las muestras de arena presenta un pico TL alrededor de los 145◦C. Los resultados muestran que el material tiene una respuesta lineal con la dosis desde 50 cGy hasta 1000 cGy. Las muestras de arena estudiadas se pueden utilizar como dos´ımetros termoluminiscentes para aplicaciones en diferentes áreas. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que la arena es una sustancia

  9. Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena; 2, Constraints, habitats and consistency of the constraint algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R; Pullin, J; Bartolo, Cayetano Di; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Pullin, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper we introduced a kinematical arena for the discussion of the constraints of canonical quantum gravity in the spin network representation based on Vassiliev invariants. In this paper we introduce the Hamiltonian constraint, extend the space of states to non-diffeomorphism invariant ``habitats'' and check that the off-shell quantum constraint commutator algebra reproduces the classical Poisson algebra of constraints of general relativity without anomalies. One can therefore consider the resulting set of constraints and space of states as a consistent theory of canonical quantum gravity.

  10. Ethanol increases osteoclastogenesis associated with the increased expression of RANK, PU.1 and MITF in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitsuka, Natsumi; Hie, Mamiko; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Tsukamoto, Ikuyo

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol has been known to induce osteopenia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for its effect have not been well characterized. This study investigated the effects of ethanol on bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis using rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (35% of calories from ethanol) for 3 weeks. Ethanol increased the activities of bone tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, without affecting the levels of serum osteocalcin or bone alkaline phosphatase activity. Histological analysis showed an increased number of osteoclasts in the proximal tibia, but no significant change in the number of osteoblasts. The mRNA levels of receptor for activation of NF-κB (RANK), c-fos, c-jun, TRAP and cathepsin K were significantly increased, although those of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and c-fms were unaltered. The mRNA and protein levels of PU.1 and microphthalmia-associated trascription factor (MITF) also increased. Further, the osteoclastic differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophage/monocyte precursor cells (BMMs) in vitro was stimulated by ethanol. The increased osteoclastogenesis of BMMs was associated with increased levels of RANK, PU.1 and MITF expression, activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Higher lipid peroxide levels and lower glutathione levels were also observed in the serum of the ethanol-fed rats. These results suggested that ethanol promoted osteoclastogenesis by increasing RANK expression through increases in the production of ROS, activation of ERK and expression of PU.1 and MITF. PMID:22576626

  11. Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions.

  12. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino@DFCI.HARVARD.EDU [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Tirumani, Sree H.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hodi, F. Stephen [Department of Medical Oncology and Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The successful clinical application of cancer immunotherapy has opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. • Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events. • The state-of-the art knowledge of immunotherapy and the related radiologic manifestations are essential for radiologists. - Abstract: The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists’ awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

  13. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station.

  14. Time Optimization on B Logistics Company Based on Simulation with Arena%用Arena对B物流公司作业时间的仿真及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶英; 马昌谱

    2011-01-01

    用Arena输入分析模块对记录所得数据进行分析处理,将结果用到仿真模型并实施运行,结合仿真运行结果及公司特点提出了作业时间优化方案.对比采取优化措施前后的仿真模型运行结果可以发现,工作人员的时间利用率提高11.37%,等待办理业务顾客的等待时间下降60.49%,提货顾客数、发货成功顾客数、发货不成功顾客数没有明显变化.%The data obtained from records was analyzed with the input analyzer of Arena. The result was used into the sim ulation model and its operation. Working time optimization was brought forward combined with operation results and the company particulars. After comparing the optimized simulation model with the original one, we found that staff time utiliza tion increased by 11. 37fercent, and the waiting time for customers decreased by 60. 49 percent. However, there were no significant changes in the number of customers who pick up the goods, the number of successful delivery customer, and the number of unsuccessful delivery customer.

  15. Effects of aripiprazole on caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and neural activation in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luara A; Viana, Thércia G; Silveira, Vívian T; Aguiar, Daniele C; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. In addition to its antipsychotic activity, this compound blocks the effects of some psychostimulant drugs. It has not been verified, however, if aripiprazole interferes with the effects of caffeine. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and investigated the effects of these drugs on neural activity in the striatum. Male Swiss mice received injections of vehicle or antipsychotic drugs followed by vehicle or caffeine. Locomotion was analyzed in a circular arena and c-Fos protein expression was quantified in the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral striatum, and in the core and shell regions of nucleus accumbens. Aripiprazole (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) prevented caffeine (10 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion at doses that do not change basal locomotion. Haloperidol (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg) also decreased caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion at all doses, although at the two higher doses, this compound reduced basal locomotion. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that aripiprazole increases c-Fos protein expression in all regions studied, whereas caffeine did not alter c-Fos protein expression. Combined treatment of aripiprazole and caffeine resulted in a decrease in the number of c-Fos positive cells as compared to the group receiving aripiprazole alone. In conclusion, aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases neural activation in the striatum. This latter effect is reduced by subsequent administration of caffeine. These results advance our understanding on the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.

  16. Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Ahmed

    Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures

  17. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele

    2014-06-22

    Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected.

  18. Los Rajiformes (Chondrichthyes, Batomorphii) del Plioceno inferior de la Formación Arenas de Huelva, suroeste de España

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, E.X.M.,; Balbino, A.; M.T. Antunes; Muñoz, F; Civis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Se estudiaron los dientes de rayiformes provenientes de ocho localidades de la Formación Arenas de Huelva (Plioceno inferior), suroeste de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir, España. La formación inicia con un nivel de limos glauconíticos datado en 5,33 millones de años (González-Delgado et al. 2004), este nivel es rico en dientes de seláceos, suprayacente siguen una secuencia de arenas limosas con diferentes intercalaciones de concentraciones de moluscos. Se estudiaron un total de 116 dientes del o...

  19. Implementation of Berth 3D Animation Simulation System Based on Arena%基于Arena的港口泊位三维仿真系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永辉; 胡青泥; 舒宏

    2007-01-01

    本文在三维仿真软件Arena 3DPlayer平台上实现了港口泊位作业系统的三维动画仿真.首先分析了港口泊位作业系统并利用Arena对该系统进行了二维仿真模拟,然后给出该系统在Arena 3DPlayer平台上三维仿真动画的实现过程,最后总结了其中的关键技术.

  20. Las fronteras del racismo en el teatro crítico de José Moreno Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Leticia Báez Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La dramaturgia española de José Moreno Arenas, maestro del teatro mínimo e hiper - textual, incorpora uno de los temas señeros en la complejidad de los albores del siglo XXI: el racismo; sus obras: El cuchitril, El deseo, Las olas, El safari y La playa discuten el choque de mentalidades entre las poblaciones migrantes y las receptoras en la Euro - pa actual; destaca el doble papel que los españoles han vivido en el siglo XX, desde una mirada crítica, se cuestiona la falta de memoria del pueblo peninsular en relación con los procesos migratorios que vivieron a lo largo del siglo XX hacia América y el norte de Europa. Los aportes de Michel Foucault así como los de Iuri Lotman permiten analizar las relaciones de poder que establecen los Estados mediante la xenofobia.

  1. Experiences of a small Canadian petroleum company in the international arena : the good, the bad and the ugly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S. [Aventura Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation discussed the potential for small companies to enter into the international oil and gas sector even though small companies face a unique set of challenges regarding project selection, financing, and technical credibility. The author stated that the first challenge is to choose the right countries and projects on which to focus. Aventura developed a concise set of country and project criteria in order to help select projects. Financing from investors or lenders (private or public) is also critical for small companies, given that international deals usually take longer and cost more than initially anticipated. It was emphasized that governments or companies seeking or selling international assets will only deal with serious contenders that have both the financial and technical backing to successfully complete a given project. Technical and financial credibility are crucial to closing a deal. Aventura's track record shows that small companies can be successful in the international arena. 19 figs.

  2. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Tirumani, Sree H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Hodi, F Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists' awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

  3. Arena与HLA/RTI互连方法研究%Research on Interconnection Between Arena and HLA/RTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 金淳; 高鹏

    2008-01-01

    Arena与HLA/RTI的互连问题本质上属于商业仿真软件包与HLA的互操作问题.根据互操作性参考模型IRM I层次互连的需求,在比较Arena RT模型及HLA联邦成员的执行流程的基础上,提出了将Arena模型连入HLA/RTI的通用方法,设计了适配器架构、接口及其与Arena模型和RTI的交互流程.实验结果表明了本方法在数据传输和时间同步方面的正确性.

  4. Pre-Eminance of Open Source Eda Tools and Its Types in The Arena of Commercial Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital synthesis with a goal of chip designing in the commercial electronics arena is packed into large EDA Software providers like, Synopsys, Cadence, or MentorGraphics. These commercial tools being expensive and having closed file structures. It is also a financial constraint for the startup companies sometimes who have their budget limitations. Any bug-fixes or add features cannot be made with ease; in such scenario the company is forced to opt for an alternative cost effective EDA software. This paper deals with the advantages of using open source EDA tools like Icarus Verilog, Verilator, GTKwave viewer, GHDL VHDL simulator, gEDA, etc. that are available as a free source and focuses on the Icarus Verilog simulator tool. It can be seen as a big encouragement for startups in Semiconductor domain. Thereby, these open source EDA tools make the design process more cost-effective, less time consuming and affordable as well.

  5. Effects of water contamination on site selection by amphibians: experiences from an arena approach with European frogs and newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Pesticide residues in breeding ponds can cause avoidance by at least some amphibian species. So far, outdoor experiments have been performed only with artificial pools in areas where the focus species usually occur and new colonization has been observed. Results of this kind of study are potentially influenced by natural disturbances and therefore are of limited comparability. We used an easily manufactured and standardizable arena approach, in which animals in reproductive condition for some hours had a choice among pools with different concentrations of a contaminant. Because there has been much debate on the potential environmental impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides, we investigated the impact of glyphosate isopropylamine salt (GLY-IS), Roundup LB PLUS (RU-LB-PLUS), and glyphosate's main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on individual residence time in water. The following European amphibian species were tested: Common frog (Rana temporaria), Palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus), and Alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris). The residence time in water was not significantly affected by concentrations below or slightly above the European Environmental Quality Standards for AMPA or the German "worst-case" expected environmental concentrations for GLY-IS and RU-LB-PLUS. Occasionally, microclimatic cofactors (nightly minimum ground temperature, water temperature) apparently influenced the residence time. The major drawback of such quick behavior studies is that results can only be transferred to perception and avoidance of contaminated water but not easily to site selection by amphibians. For example, testing oviposition site selection requires more natural water bodies and more time. Hence, to develop a standard procedure in risk assessment, an intermediate design between an arena approach, as presented here, and previously performed field studies should be tested. PMID:23377318

  6. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the medial prefrontal cortex is increased in the single-prolonged stress rats%单一连续应激大鼠内侧前额皮质细胞外信号调节激酶磷酸化增高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳霞; 徐爱军; 李冉; 吕翠平; 王海涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of phosphorylated p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( pERK1/2 ) and c-fos expression induced by single-prolonged stress (SPS) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Methods Forty-five male Wistar rats were divided into control group, SPS group and PD98059-SPS group. The rats of SPS group and PD98059-SPS group were exposed to single-prolonged stress ( SPS ), and that of PD98059-SPS group were bilaterally infused the PD98059, inhibitor of ERK, into the mPFC. The behavior was examined using open-field test, elevated plusmaze and Morris water maze. The expression of pERK1/2 in mPFC was detected with immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. And reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ) was employed to detect the c-fos mRNA.Results SPS exposure resulted in pronounced anxiety-like behavior and learning and spatial memory impairments.PD98059 significantly ameliorated the behavior alteration. Absorbance of pERK1/2 positive cell, expression of pERK1/2 and expression of c-fos mRNA of SPS rats were 51.54 ± 5.41, 89.61 ± 3.25 and 0.91 ± 0. 13 respectively, while the control group rats were 12. 18 ± 1.61, 34. 22±5.83 and 0. 13 ±0. 03, and PD98059-SPS group rats were 26. 26 ± 1.42,60. 59 ±5.88 and O. 35 ± 0. 11. These data suggest that expressions of pERK1/2 and c-fos mRNA in mPFC increased significantly after rats were exposed to SPS ( P < 0. 01 ), and the increase was siguifieantly abolished by PD98059 ( P < 0. 01 ). Conlusion The results suggest that pERK1/2 may be related to signal transduction pathway in single-prolonged stress.%目的 探讨单一连续应激(SPS)大鼠内侧前额皮质(mPFC)磷酸化细胞外信号调节激酶(pERK1/2)和c-fos表达的变化.方法将45只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、应激组和干预组.应激组和干预组大鼠接受SPS,干预组大鼠接受SPS前30min前额皮质局部注射ERK抑制剂2′-氨基-3′-甲氧黄酮(PD98059).利用开场

  7. Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Oat (Arena nuda L.) as Affected by Mineral Nitrogen Forms Supplied in Hydroponics and Soil Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ming-Shou; LI Zhen; WANG Feng-Mei; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Plants show different growth responses to N sources supplied with either NH4+ or NO3-.The uptake of different N sources also affects the rhizosphere pH and therefore the bioavailability of soil phosphorus,particularly in alkaline soils.The plant growth,P uptake,and P availability in the rhizosphere of oat (Arena nuda L.) grown in hydroponics and in soil culture were investigated under supply with sole NH4+-N,sole NO3--N,or a combination.Sole NO3-fed oat plants accumulated more biomass than sole NH4+-fed ones.The highest biomass accumulation was observed when N was supplied with both NH4+-N and NO3--N.Growth of the plant root increased with the proportion of NO3-in the cultural medium.Better root growth and higher root/shoot ratio were consistently observed in NO3--fed plants.However,root vigor was the highest when N was supplied with NO3-+NH4+.NH4+ supply reduced the rhizosphere pH but did not affect P uptake by plants grown in soils with CaHPO4 added as P source.No P deficiency was observed,and plant P concentrations were generally above 2 g kg-1.P uptake was increased when N was supplied partly or solely as NO3--N,similarly as biomass accumulation.The results suggested that oat was an NO3-prcferring plant,and NO3--N was essential for plant growth and the maintenance of root absorption capacity.N supply with NH4+-N did not improve P nutrition,which was most likely due to the absence of P deficiency.

  8. Car2x with software defined networks, network functions virtualization and supercomputers technical and scientific preparations for the Amsterdam Arena telecoms fieldlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer R.J.; Cushing R.; De Laat C.; Jackson P.; Klous S.; Koning R.; Makkes M.X.; Meerwijk A.

    2015-01-01

    In the invited talk 'Car2x with SDN, NFV and supercomputers' we report about how our past work with SDN [1, 2] allows the design of a smart mobility fieldlab in the huge parking lot the Amsterdam Arena. We explain how we can engineer and test software that handle the complex conditions of the Car2X

  9. Current Situation and Future Perspectives of Chinese Popular Music in Global Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Music industry, as a rising star of cultural industries, is playing an increasingly important role in globalization of international economy. Nowadays western music has cornered most of the modern music market for a long time while Korea and Japan’s modern music developed quickly these last 20 years which gave Chinese music market huge pressure. Under the background the author aims to observe and analyze present market situation and future perspective of Chinese popular music in this study. ...

  10. RECENT POTENTIAL USAGE OF SURFACTANT FROM MICROBIAL ORIGIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ARENA: A PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Rath Kalyani; Mishra Bishwambhar; Vuppu Suneetha

    2011-01-01

    The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactant has increased during the past decade which can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications i...

  11. A simulation model based on Arena for the transportation system of the Three Gorges Region%基于 Arena 的三峡枢纽运输系统仿真模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱顺应; 朱凯; 王丽铮

    2011-01-01

    建立了三峡枢纽运输系统运输组织方案论证与优化的计算机仿真模型.首先,调查确定了系统边界,分析了三峡枢纽系统的运输流程,拟订了模型输入输出参数;然后,选用 Arena 平台进行了仿真建模,研究了该模型的检验方法,并对所建立的模型进行检验.最后,对预测的2010年运输情况进行实例仿真,根据仿真结果分析该运输系统可能存在的问题,并提出了可行的改善方案,得出翻坝船舶比例和待闸锚地等待时间、排队长度的关系.实例表明,该仿真模型具有一定的工具性和可用性.

  12. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  13. Intervention studies for improving global health and health care: An important arena for epidemiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kvåle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marginalised populations in many low- and middle-income countries experience an increasing burden of disease, in sub-Saharan Africa to a large extent due to faltering health systems and serious HIV epidemics. Also other poverty related diseases (PRDs are prevalent, especially respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases in children, malnutrition, maternal and perinatal health problems, tuberculosis and malaria. Daily, nearly 30,000 children under the age of 5 die, most from preventable causes, and 8,000 people die from HIV infections. In spite of the availability of powerful preventive and therapeutic tools for combating these PRDs, their implementation, especially in terms of equitable delivery, leaves much to be desired. The research community must address this tragic gap between knowledge and implementation. Epidemiologists have a very important role to play in conducting studies on diseases that account for the largest share of the global disease burden. A shift of focus of epidemiologic research towards intervention studies addressing health problems of major public health importance for disadvantaged population groups is needed. There is a need to generate an evidence-base for interventions that can be implemented on a large scale; this can result in increased funding of health promotion programs as well as enable rational prioritization and integration between different health interventions. This will require close and synergetic teamwork between epidemiologists and other professions across disciplines and sectors. In this way epidemiologists can contribute significantly to improve health and optimise health care delivery for marginalized populations.

  14. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  15. Modelo y simulación de una intersección vial usando el software Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Puerto Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el modelo y la simulación de una intersección vial. Para modelar las dinámicas fue seleccionado el software Arena®, por su gran versatilidad y amplitud en herramientas a la hora de diseñar y modelar sistemas estocásticos. Las simulaciones en eventos discretos de la intersección validarán el modelo. Con el modelo obtenido se podrá realizar el cambio en la programación de los semáforos, la inclusión de paraderos en sitios específicos de las vías, y además la demostración de la relación entre la forma de conducción y estos problemas de movilidad. Se busca disminuir el tamaño de las colas que se generan, además de una reducción en los tiempos de recorridos de los usuarios en estos tramos y un mejoramiento notable en el funcionamiento vial en general de la ciudad.

  16. The Arena System: a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for the study of chimpanzee social interaction and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for examining a diverse range of topics in great ape social cognition and interaction. Our apparatus-named the Arena System-is composed of a single multitouch monitor that spans across two separate testing booths, so that individuals situated in each booth have tactile access to half of the monitor and visual access to the whole monitor. Additional components of the system include a smart-film barrier able to restrict visual access between the booths, as well as two automated feeding devices that dispense food rewards to the subjects. The touch-panel, smart-film, and feeders are controlled by a PC that is also responsible for running the experimental tasks. We present data from a pilot behavioral game theory study with two chimpanzees in order to illustrate the efficacy of our method, and we suggest applications for a range of topics including animal social learning, coordination, and behavioral economics. The system enables fully automated experimental procedures, which means that no human participation is needed to run the tasks. The novel use of a touch-panel in a social setting allows for a finer degree of data resolution than do the traditional experimental apparatuses used in prior studies on great ape social interaction.

  17. A corte, o chá e o voto: o consumo como arena política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar algumas das formas pelas quais as representações e práticas do consumo se configuraram como arenas de expressão política no mundo moderno. Vamos investigar os mecanismos que articulam consumo, busca pelo poder e atividade política em questões como o caráter simbólico dos bens, certas formas de comércio e novas sociabilidades propiciadas por espaços de compra. Para tanto, serão analisadas três experiências históricas que representam, de modo emblemático, as relações entre consumo e política. A primeira trata das sociedades de corte dos reinados de Elizabeth I, na Inglaterra, e Luís XIV, na França; a segunda do boicote conhecido como Boston Tea Party no processo da Revolução Americana; a terceira analisa a parceria entre grandes magazines e sufragistas na luta por direitos femininos no início do século XX.

  18. Arena-based terminal area simulation%基于Arena的终端区仿真建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 孙俊清; 靳慧斌

    2012-01-01

    The movement logic of aircraft at terminal area is analyzed and the Arena-based simulation model is developed to research the terminal area. The simulation resuhs show that the model can analyze aircraft movement at terminal area from micro- scopic view.. The simulation model can be used in 'capacity evaluation, runway operation management and tower control simulation.%详细分析了航空器在终端区的运动逻辑,设计了基于Arena平台的终端区空侧计算机仿真模型。模型运行结果表明,该模型基本能够描述起降航空器在终端区的微观运动过程。该模型在容量评估、多跑道模式管理和塔台管制仿真中有广泛的应用前景。

  19. Multiple Arenas and Diverse Techniques of Securitisation: The Case of the EU’s Visa Regime towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Baysan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 2009 and 2010, five Western Balkan countries were granted Schengen visa exemptions by the EU for the short travel of their citizens to the Schengen area in return for signing readmission agreements. Turkey, in contrast, was only offered a vague promise for the initiation of a visa liberalisation “dialogue” in return for initialling the readmission agreement. Taking this development as a genuine research puzzle the present article asks: What are the domestic dynamics that have driven this differential outcome? This article argues that the EU’s ongoing restrictive visa regime towards Turkey stems from the issue’s securitisation in certain member states (Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. Security-framing practices thereby occurred in both the political (elite-level discourse and bureaucratic arena (visa-issuing process as part of the same security dispositif. Two crucial implications follow from the findings: on the one hand, European visa authorities seem to follow their own visa-issuing policies despite regulations put in force at the EU level (Visa Codex. On the other hand, the purported theoretical divide between the Copenhagen and Paris School’s approaches to securitisation seems empirically rather disadvantageous. Treating these theoretical lenses as distinct may lead researchers to miss out on interrelated securitisation practices.

  20. Disasters that Matter: Gifts of Life in the Arena of International Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papagaroufali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the bodily donations made by Greeks, Turks and Cypriots to the victims of two devastating earthquakes in Turkey and Greece (1999, as well as to a Greek and a Turkish Cypriot boy, both suffering from leukemia (2000. Considering the age old discourse of amity and enmity shared by the citizens of the three nation states, I ask what made them see these hardly rare events as exceptionally important, and rush to offer each other their blood and body organs. Politicians and journalists of the time presented these corporeal responses as "civil society's demand for brotherly rapprochement," thus underscoring the anthropological insight that contemporary identity politics is increasingly "medicalized". Taking into consideration both the medical regimes of truth that made these donations possible, and the painful political experiences lived and remembered by Greeks, Turks and Cypriots to this day, I argue that the conciliation these donors performed revealed the suspense of their faith in the reconciliatory future rather than their acceptance of restorative notions such as brotherhood and rapprochement. Stated otherwise, these donors, being familiar with the euphemistic and the conditional hence pending nature of such political conciliations, dared the Derridian impossible: without endangering the principle of sharing, they opened their bodies to alterity, to their foe's bodies, and hence entertained the possibility of non-predetermined, thus unexpected even incongruous events of memory. 

  1. Joint venturing in the fuel, energy and environmental arena: Opportunities for utility subsidiaries and developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have witnessed major changes in the 1980s in the US fuel, energy and environmental areas. From the structure of heavily-regulated local and regional monopolies that predated World War 2, Federal and State governments have begun moving toward a more market-oriented approach to fuel supply, fuel transport and power generation with the goal of increasing competition to effect lower prices for consumers. Although some utilities have resisted this trend - arguing, for example, that third-party power purchasing threatens system reliability - others have joined the market by diversifying into the non-regulated side of the industry. Similarly, beginning with creation of the Superfund, continuing with last year's amendments to the Clean Air Act, and on into the future with anticipated changes for water, solid waste, and other areas, Congress and the EPA have created a regulatory structure that cries out for more capital yet makes such investment more risky. This paper examines joint venture strategies in the context of developing new business in the energy and environmental areas. This paper focuses on the interaction of three aspects of such efforts: (1) the issues of primary importance to the entity engaging in such efforts, (2) the impact of various strategies on the resolution of the issues, and (3) the use of joint ventures to maximize benefits and minimize risks

  2. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  3. A wideband dual-antenna receiver for wireless recording from animals behaving in large arenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Bae; Yin, Ming; Manns, Joseph R; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-07-01

    A low-noise wideband receiver (Rx) is presented for a multichannel wireless implantable neural recording (WINeR) system that utilizes time-division multiplexing of pulse width modulated (PWM) samples. The WINeR-6 Rx consists of four parts: 1) RF front end; 2) signal conditioning; 3) analog output (AO); and 4) field-programmable gate array (FPGA) back end. The RF front end receives RF-modulated neural signals in the 403-490 MHz band with a wide bandwidth of 18 MHz. The frequency-shift keying (FSK) PWM demodulator in the FPGA is a time-to-digital converter with 304 ps resolution, which converts the analog pulse width information to 16-bit digital samples. Automated frequency tracking has been implemented in the Rx to lock onto the free-running voltage-controlled oscillator in the transmitter (Tx). Two antennas and two parallel RF paths are used to increase the wireless coverage area. BCI-2000 graphical user interface has been adopted and modified to acquire, visualize, and record the recovered neural signals in real time. The AO module picks three demultiplexed channels and converts them into analog signals for direct observation on an oscilloscope. One of these signals is further amplified to generate an audio output, offering users the ability to listen to ongoing neural activity. Bench-top testing of the Rx performance with a 32-channel WINeR-6 Tx showed that the input referred noise of the entire system at a Tx-Rx distance of 1.5 m was 4.58 μV rms with 8-bit resolution at 640 kSps. In an in vivo experiment, location-specific receptive fields of hippocampal place cells were mapped during a behavioral experiment in which a rat completed 40 laps in a large circular track. Results were compared against those acquired from the same animal and the same set of electrodes by a commercial hardwired recording system to validate the wirelessly recorded signals. PMID:23428612

  4. Optimization of Resources Distribution in Auto Spare Parts Warehouse Based on Arena%基于 Arena 的汽车备件仓库资源配置优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思云; 秦艳超

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency , service quality and reduce operating costs of the auto spare parts warehouse , a reliable simulation model was established for an auto spare parts warehouse in Arena software .The maximum resource utilization , queue time within the specified scope was the goals .The tabu search algorithm was used to find the best resource allocation scheme.The simulation results show that , the optimized scheme is more practical; it improved the rate of resources utilization greatly, and at the same time decreased the total number of resources .The new scheme not only improved work efficiency and service quality , reduced operating costs , but also provide a reference for the designers to solve the problem of resource allocation .%以某汽车备件仓库为背景,运用Arena软件建立可靠性较强的仿真模型,以资源利用率最高、排队时间在规定范围内为目标,应用禁忌搜索法得到最佳的资源配置方案。仿真结果表明,优化后的方案较现实情况相比,资源的利用率有了较大提高,资源总数量有所减少,提高了工作效率和服务质量,降低了运营成本,为汽车备件仓库解决资源配置问题提供了参考。

  5. The Arena of Thanatos: Psuché, Soma, and Sigalit Landau's body representation—a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Sevilla Sadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sigalit Landau is an international sculpture, video, installation, and performance artist, born in Jerusalem, and raised also in the USA and the UK. This study seeks to analyse Landau's unique body representation of figures made of papier-mâché, focussing on the installation “The Country.” The point of departure of this study is a passage from the Platonic dialogue Timaeus, whose text strongly resembles Landau's succulent human images composed of soft bones, moist flesh, and sinews. This analogy then leads to a wider comparative discussion on the meanings of the body in Archaic and Classical aesthetic concepts in comparison with its postmodern meanings. In addition to the strong interest in the structure of the human body, another common concern of both the ancient body images and those of Landau is that both engage with death (thanatos. The premise underlying this study is that both the body and its implication of death in Ancient Greece, and Landau's body images, reflect metaphorically a political arena. However, while the political meanings of the ancient body images were constituted in manifestations of religion by means of purification, and were aimed at praising the homeland (polis, Landau's bodies manifest meanings of abjection, express political criticism, and are thus profane, reflecting loss of faith. Landau's loss of faith and sceptical spirit are inspired by two sources: the collective trauma of the Holocaust and the criticism of the occupation policy in her country. These two sources are main issues in many other works by Landau and are united in “The Country” installation, and particularly in the body images.

  6. Arena在制造业企业组织结构中应用研究%Practical study of the enterprise organization structure of Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭珊; 周勇; 张军月

    2001-01-01

    Arena has been introduced into the analysis of study of the enterprise organization structure on the basis of the introduction of Arena. Arena will be a very reliable tool for the research of the flexibility of the organization. This paper applies a quantitative discussion of two kinds of enterprise organization structures-multidivisional structure and unitary structure and compares the operation efficiency between the two on the basis of the operating period of the two kinds of organization structures as the indices.%在介绍Arena基础上,将Arena引入企业组织结构分析和研究。对于组织柔性研究,Arena将是非常可靠的工具。运用Arena对直线职能制和事业部制这两种企业组织结构进行定量讨论。并以两种企业组织结构的运行时间为指标,对两者的运行效率进行了仿真对比。

  7. MÉTODO SIMPLIFICADO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CARGA ÚLTIMA DE PILOTES SOMETIDOS A CARGA VERTICAL AXIAL EN ARENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Giovanny Dias Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta de diferentes pilotes sometidos a carga vertical axial fue estudiada empleando una serie de análisis mediante elementos finitos, considerando como suelo de fundación diez tipos de arenas en condición seca y saturada. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se propone un método simplificado para estimar la carga última en pilotes preexcavados sobre arenas, en términos del diámetro y enterramiento del pilote, peso unitario del suelo, condiciones de saturación, y mediciones indirectas de la resistencia al corte del suelo, obtenidas a partir de la densidad relativa y el índice de penetración SPT. El método propuesto, basado en 180 casos analizados, ofrece una precisión de 92%, y constituye una herramienta complementaría de diseño para estimar la carga última de pilotes preexcavados en arenas.

  8. arena_cove.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission...

  9. Hospitals as food arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    also identified. Research limitations: The assessment of the dietary changes based on the canteen take-away food was only based on indirect assessments based on interviews with users and non-users and furthermore based on a questionnaire at one of the hospitals. Value/originality: Canteen take...

  10. Las arenas negras de Mejías: nueva fuente para la obtención de consumibles para la soldadura por arco eléctrico

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Cruz-Crespo; Luis Gómez-Rodríuez; Lorenzo Perdomo-González; Rafael Quintana-Puchol

    2001-01-01

    A partir de la caracterización química y mineralógica de las fracciones pesadas, magnéticas y electromagnéticas de las arenas negras del placer de Mejías, se logró confeccionar una carga metalúrgica para obtener una escoria útil como matriz de fundentes para la soldadura automática (SAW) y una ferroaleación como carga aleante para diferentes consumibles de soldadura por arco eléctrico. La escoria obtenida presenta una composición de óxidos que garantiza las propiedades metalúrgicas y tecnológ...

  11. Biological characterization of ingredients in OPLC-BioArena-greenhouse-system. Unique reactions of endogenous HCHO and O{sub 3} in in vitro and in vivo conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyihak, Ernoe; Moricz, Agnes M.; Ott, Peter G.; Katay, Gyoergy [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Centre for Agricultural Research; Mincsovics, Emil [OPLC-NIT Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Corvinus Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    2012-09-15

    In the case of two ''old medicines'', the extension of the results from the in vitro BioArena studies was successfully solved for in vivo (greenhouse) conditions. These preliminary results of in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed the unique role and function of HCHO and O{sub 3} in the antibiotic effect of these two chemical substances, and in the basal and induced resistance. In the future, for the characterization of known and new active substances, in vitro and in vivo biological studies will be recommended in addition to chemical and physical characterization. (orig.)

  12. Arenas de Ação e Debate Públicos: Conflitos Ambientais e a Emergência do Meio Ambiente enquanto Problema Social no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuks Mario

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of legal disputes and of disagreements surrounding the definition of public matters and social issues, the article investigates how the question of the environment is being framed as a social issue in Rio de Janeiro. After tracing the profile of legal cases, the text examines the environmental arguments developed within the context of these conflicts. A description of "interpretive packages" put forward by the actors involved in the disputes serves as basis for an inventory of competing views of the environment expressed in the arenas of public action and debate in Rio.

  13. La influencia de la arena triturada en la resistencia de la mezcla asfáltica en caliente con gradación MDC2 INVIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño Martínez, Diana Mercedes; Ochoa Lozano, Lina María

    2005-01-01

    El desempeño de las mezclas asfálticas está influenciado por las propiedades de los agregados, en cuanto forma, angularidad textura y textura superficial de los agregados finos, que condicionan la estabilidad y resistencia de la mezcla asfáltica. Este trabajo contiene el estudio realizado a la que presenta la resistencia de una mezcla asfáltica MDC2 INVIAS, respecto al porcentaje de arena triturada; evaluada mediante la realización de ensayos de tensión indirecta y fluencia (Creep). Se elabor...

  14. La Modernidad más austral de Chile: el edificio de la U.T.E. en Punta Arenas (1964-1968, un ilustre desconocido./Modernity of southernmost Chile: the building of the UTE Punta Arenas (1964-1968, an illustrious unknown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Max

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El edificio de la Universidad Técnica del Estado (1964-1968 en Punta Arenas (latitud 53°8´53,3” sur, longitud 70°55´41,72” oeste jalona una etapa de la modernidad local y pone en evidencia la ambigüedad del término moderno, que obliga a la precisión de la categoría cada vez que circunscribimos el estudio a un caso específico como éste. /The building of the State Technical University (1964-1968 in Punta Arenas (latitude 53 ° 8'53, 3 "south, longitude 70 ° 55'41, 72" W marks out a stage in the local currency and highlights the ambiguity of the modern term, which requires the precision of each time category limits the study to a specific case like this.

  15. Central infusion of melanocortin agonist MTII in rats : assessment of c-Fos expression and taste aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, Todd E.; Dijk, Gertjan van; Yagaloff, Keith A.; Fisher, Stewart L.; Schwartz, Michael; Burn, Paul; Seeley, Randy J.

    1998-01-01

    Like leptin (OB protein), central infusion of the nonspecific melanocortin agonist MTII reduces food intake for relatively long periods of time (i.e., 12 h). To test the hypothesis that MTII may influence ingestive behavior via mechanisms similar to those that mediate the effects of leptin, we infus

  16. Systemic 5-Bromo-2-Deoxyuridine Induces Conditioned Flavor Aversion and C-Fos in the Visceral Neuraxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kwon, Bumsup; Eckel, Lisa A.; Houpt, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is often used in studies of adult neurogenesis and olfactory learning, but it can also have toxic effects on highly proliferative tissue. We found that pairing Kool-Aid flavors with acute systemic injections of BrdU induced strong conditioned flavor aversions. Intermittent injections during Kool-Aid-glucose…

  17. Matrix metalloproteinases in the adult brain physiology: a link between c-Fos, AP-1 and remodeling of neuronal connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lapinska-Dzwonek, Joanna; Szymczak, Sylwia

    2002-12-16

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) form an enzymatic system that plays an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. These proteins are also expressed in the brain, especially under pathological conditions, in which glia as well as invading inflammatory cells provide the major source of the MMP activity. Surprisingly little is known about the MMP function(s) in adult neuronal physiology. This review describes available data on this topic, which is presented in a context of knowledge about the MMP/TIMP system in other organs as well as in brain disorders. An analysis of the MMP and TIMP expression patterns in the brain, along with a consideration of their regulatory mechanisms and substrates, leads to the proposal of possible roles of the MMP system in the brain. This analysis suggests that MMPs may play an important role in the neuronal physiology, especially in neuronal plasticity, including their direct participation in the remodeling of synaptic connections-a mechanism pivotal for learning and memory.

  18. Inactivation of Median Preoptic Nucleus Causes c-Fos Expression in Hypocretin- and Serotonin-Containing Neurons in Anesthetized Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sunil; Szymusiak, Ronald; Bashir, Tariq; Suntsova, Natalia; Rai, Seema; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md. Noor

    2008-01-01

    The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) of the hypothalamus contains sleep-active neurons including sleep-active GABAergic neurons and is involved in the regulation of nonREM/REM sleep. The hypocretinergic (HCRT) neurons of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are mostly active during waking and have been implicated in the regulation of arousal. MnPN GABAergic neurons project to the PF-LHA and DRN. It is hypothesized ...

  19. Conformation of the c-Fos/c-Jun complex in vivo: a combined FRET, FCCS, and MD-modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Vámosi György (1967-) (biofizikus); Baudendistel, Nina; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Szalóki Nikoletta (1981-) (biológus); Mocsár Gábor (1981-) (biofizikus); Müller, Gabriele; Brázda Péter (1980-) (biológus, angol-magyar szakfordító); Waldeck, Waldemar; Damjanovich Sándor (1936-) (biofizikus); Langowski, Jörg; Tóth Katalin (Heidelberg)

    2008-01-01

    The activator protein-1 transcription factor is a heterodimer containing one of each of the Fos and Jun subfamilies of basic-region leucine-zipper proteins. We have previously shown by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) that the fluorescent fusion proteins Fos-EGFP and Jun-mRFP1, cotransfected in HeLa cells, formed stable complexes in situ. Here we studied the relative position of the C-terminal domains via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by flow cytomet...

  20. Conformation of the c-Fos/c-Jun Complex In Vivo: A Combined FRET, FCCS, and MD-Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vámosi, György; Baudendistel, Nina; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Szalóki, Nikoletta; Mocsár, Gábor; Müller, Gabriele; Brázda, Péter; Waldeck, Waldemar; Damjanovich, Sándor; Langowski, Jörg; Tóth, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    The activator protein-1 transcription factor is a heterodimer containing one of each of the Fos and Jun subfamilies of basic-region leucine-zipper proteins. We have previously shown by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) that the fluorescent fusion proteins Fos-EGFP and Jun-mRFP1, cotransfected in HeLa cells, formed stable complexes in situ. Here we studied the relative position of the C-terminal domains via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. To get a more detailed insight into the conformation of the C-terminal domains of the complex we constructed C-terminal labeled full-length and truncated forms of Fos. We developed a novel iterative evaluation method to determine accurate FRET efficiencies regardless of relative protein expression levels, using a spectral- or intensity-based approach. The full-length C-terminal-labeled Jun and Fos proteins displayed a FRET-measured average distance of 8 ± 1 nm. Deletion of the last 164 amino acids at the C-terminus of Fos resulted in a distance of 6.1 ± 1 nm between the labels. FCCS shows that Jun-mRFP1 and the truncated Fos-EGFP also interact stably in the nucleus, although they bind to nuclear components with lower affinity. Thus, the C-terminal end of Fos may play a role in the stabilization of the interaction between activator protein-1 and DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations predict a dye-to-dye distance of 6.7 ± 0.1 nm for the dimer between Jun-mRFP1 and the truncated Fos-EGFP, in good agreement with our FRET data. A wide variety of models could be developed for the full-length dimer, with possible dye-to-dye distances varying largely between 6 and 20 nm. However, from our FRET results we can conclude that more than half of the occurring dye-to-dye distances are between 6 and 10 nm. PMID:18065450

  1. Cyclic estradiol replacement attenuates stress-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN of ovariectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M; Grootkarijn, A; Bekkering, BF; Bruinsma, M; Den Boer, JA; Ter Horst, GJ

    2005-01-01

    Estradiol modulates stress reactions in female rats. Several studies showed anxiolytic effects of estradiol in behavioral tests, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore how estradiol-treated rats respond to acute and chronic stress compared to ova

  2. Periaqueductal gray c-Fos expression varies relative to the method of conditioned taste aversion extinction employed

    OpenAIRE

    Mickley, G Andrew; Wilson, Gina N.; Remus, Jennifer L.; Ramos, Linnet; Ketchesin, Kyle D.; Biesan, Orion R.; Luchsinger, Joseph R.; Prodan, Suzanna

    2011-01-01

    A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). Following CTA training, animals will avoid the taste that was previously associated with malaise. This defensive reaction to a learned fear can be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone (CS-only; CSO-EXT). However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). Through the use of an expl...

  3. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Külshammer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12 and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1. We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8. While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes.

  4. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes.

  5. ESTUDIO DE UN MINERAL DE COLUMBO-TANTALITA CON ENFOQUE METALÚRGICO PARA DEFINIR EL APROVECHAMIENTO DE DEPÓSITOS DE ARENA CON MINERALES PESADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela A. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar una muestra de arena de un yacimiento de Bolivia , con el fin de obtener un pre - c oncentrado de alta ley de Nb - Ta . Se realizó un análisis granulométrico de una muestra representativa de arena, y se determinó, en cada clase, el contenido de Nb y Ta. Además la muestra fue analizada mineralógicamente. De acuerdo a las propiedades físicas del mineral: paramagnetismo y alto peso específico, se plantearon dos metodologías de concentración. La primera consistió en realizar una separación magnética sobre un a muestra clasificada. En la segunda metodología se utilizó la concentración en Golg Pannig y posterior separación magnética de alta intensidad. Finalmente se evaluaron las leyes y recuperaciones de Nb y Ta de las dos metodologías planteadas. Se concluye que la concentración gravitacional seguida de separación magnética es el proceso indicado para pre - concentrar Nb - Ta.

  6. “¿Pero cuál es tu lugar?” Dislocaciones de la subjetividad revolucionaria en Reinaldo Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maccioni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar las formas de la subjetividad que quedan configuradas en un corpus constituido por los cuentos reunidos en Con los ojos cerrados (1972 y la novela El palacio de las blanquísimas mofetas (1975, escritos durante los años inmediatamente posteriores al triunfo de la revolución por el cubano Reinaldo Arenas (1943-1990. Se propone que en estos textos tiene lugar una dis-locación o socavamiento de los lugares comunes del discurso oficial, en particular la idea de que el locus comunitario que ha quedado inaugurado en 1959 es el territorio liberado que albergará a un hombre nuevo moralmente superior. La escritura de Arenas, por el contrario, escapa de estos supuestos al asumir el borramiento de los límites identitarios, la traición a las reglas de todos los sistemas semióticos y la errancia como condiciones para la emergencia de una subjetividad revolucionaria.

  7. Radar System Simulation Based on Arena and Petri Net%基于Arena和Petri网的雷达系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方益; 王明哲; 廖晶静

    2011-01-01

    为研究雷达系统的逻辑行为和系统性能,提出一种基于Petri网和Arena的综合仿真方法.利用Petri网提供的工具,对系统逻辑行为进行单次仿真,分析系统的可行性;运用Arena对系统进行多次仿真,分析系统的性能.结果表明Petri网和Arena相结合是一种实用的系统建模分析方法,可以应用于系统逻辑行为分析和性能分析.%A new method combining Petri nets and Arena to analyze radar system for studying logic behavior and system performances is presented. At first, the tool of Petri nets is utilized to simulate and detect the feasibility of models; then the Arena is utilized to simulate and analyze the performance of the system. The result shows the method is a useful approach for modeling and analyzing systems and can be used to logic behavior analysis and performance analysis.

  8. 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. A multifunctional arena of the fifth generation. Air conditioning for all types of events; 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. Eine Multifunktionsarena der 5. Generation. Die Klimaanlage wird zum Stimmungsmacher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischausky, Lutz [Wolf GmbH, Mainburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The Anschutz Entertainment Group invested about 165 million Euros in their new multifunctional arena 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. The arena has 17,000 seats and is Germany's most state-of-the-art arena building. It can be converted over night into an ice arena, a basketball stadium, a concert hall, or an opera house as desired. The technical facilities are equipped with so-called set-ups that ensure that air conditioning systems follow a specific scenario for each type of event. (orig.)

  9. Influencia de la formulación de la arena en verde en su difusividad térmica y su efecto en una pieza colada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguez, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data evidencing a relation among green sand formulations (% water/% bentonite, w/b, in the ranks 0.2-0.55 for 6, 7, 8 and 9 % bentonite, their heat transfer behaviour, specifically their thermal diffusivity, the casting solidification rate and the resulting macrostructures in aluminium castings are presented.

    Se presentan evidencias de que la formulación de una arena en verde (relación entre los porcentajes de agua y de bentonita, a/b, en el rango 0,2-0,55 para 6, 7, 8 y 9 % de bentonita parece determinar su transferencia de calor y, por tanto, su coeficiente de difusividad térmica, lo que influye en la rapidez de solidificación y en las macroestructuras de piezas coladas en aluminio.

  10. Study on Arena-based Simulation Model of Catering Business Service Process%基于Arena的餐饮业服务仿真模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶雷; 黄宏香; 陈泳娟; 周业韬

    2015-01-01

    Surrounding a sushi restaurant in Guangzhou, the paper makes series of field investigations and surveys, builds an Arena-based simulation model of the service process, and analyzes the quantitative relationship between the service supply and needs, in response to the indefinite customer request for catering business.%为提前计划和快速响应顾客需求,同时节约成本和确保盈利,文章以某餐厅为例,通过实地调查和流程分析,建立了基于Arena的服务流程仿真模型,分析了服务供给与需求之间的量化关系,为实现供需能力平衡做出有益尝试。

  11. 可视化交互仿真软件Arena的最新进展%The Latest Development of Visual Interactive Simulation Software Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璐; 金淳; 于越

    2006-01-01

    本文以可视化交互仿真软件Arena 10.0为对象,介绍了其近年来取得的最新进展.首先,介绍了Arena产品的构成、层次化的建模体系以及仿真建模的方法.其次,介绍了Arena各功能的最新进展情况,包括模板开发器、仿真优化器、应用方案模板和各种分析器等.然后,介绍了Arena的外部接口、仿真自动化以及Arena的应用领域.最后,根据Arena软件的进展特点概括出当前及今后仿真工具的发展趋势.

  12. 仿真软件Arena及其在物流教学中的应用%Application of Simulation Software Arena in Logistics Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马香

    2011-01-01

    简述了仿真软件Arena的特点、功能以及利用该软件进行物流系统仿真研究的基本步骤,通过实例说明了在物流教学过程中如何利用Arena仿真软件建立模型以及通过仿真结果对物流系统进行分析,找出存在的问题并进行改进.%The paper introduces briefly the characteristics and functions of the simulation software Arena and the basic steps of its application in logistics system simulation research and, through an empirical example, demonstrates how to use the software to set up models and using the simulation result to analyze the logistics system, find the existing problems and make correction.

  13. Proposed strategy for improving capulín cultivation in the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, Calpan and San Nicolas de los Ranchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Páez Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, Calpan and San Nicolás de los Ranchos Puebla State, conditions and have a favorable climate for growing capulín, however, not being given adequate management value the crop, This causes the yields are low and its economic importance is unnoticed. The aim of the investigation was "explore how to improve the economic and productive use capulín through the revaluation of the same by the producers, because of the advantages offered by the cultivation in its management and low investment”. For data collection a semistructured interview wasapplied to 15 key informants five municipality respectively. For data analysis tool was used the problem tree and a SWOT. Among the outstanding results we found that capulín has opportunities that can be exploited as an economic alternative for low-income producers or for the unemployed, because their characteristics and management can be easily cultivated.

  14. Iron Dome’s Impact on the Military and Political Arena: Moral Justications for Israel to Launch a Military Operation against Terrorist and Guerrilla Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liram Stenzler-Koblentz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The military and political arenas are closely linked in Israel’s !ght against terrorist and guerrilla organizations. Israel is a democratic country subject to legal and moral constraints and restraints, and therefore, when it initiates a military operation against such organizations, its justi!cations are important, as they will later a"ect its international legitimacy or lack thereof. This article discusses the Iron Dome system, which is designed to provide active protection for Israeli citizens. It attempts to answer the question whether there can be moral justification for Israel to launch a comprehensive military operation against a terrorist organization when it possesses such a system. The discussion of the question makes reference to a system of moral principles (jus ad bellum, which is part of just war theory and can help in making judgments about when there is moral justification for going to war.

  15. The Role of the Management Fashion Arena in the Cross-National Diffusion of Management Concepts: The Case of the Balanced Scorecard in the Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre Slåtten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of fashionable management concepts is an important research topic in management and organization studies. Researchers have pointed out that various actors such as consultants, conference organizers and the business media comprise the so-called “management fashion arena” around a management concept. However, a weakness of extant conceptualizations of management fashion arenas is in the lack of an explicit consideration of the dynamics between local and international actors. Drawing on the notion of “institutional duality”, we argue that the concept’s trajectory at the national level is shaped by both country-specific actors and international actors. Furthermore, we recognize that the presence and involvement of different types of actors may vary across different countries. Empirically, we analyze the level of involvement of actors such as consultants, professional groups, software firms, and conference organizers in the cross-national diffusion of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in the three Scandinavian countries. The comparative analysis of the data shows both similarities and differences between the three countries in terms of which actors have been the most influential players. Despite certain similarities and overlaps, the three markets can be considered largely national with key local players. Furthermore, country-specific actors appear to have played a particularly important role in the early phase in terms of establishing the concept in the local markets. These findings are used to elaborate on present conceptualizations of the management fashion arena, and to discuss the role of local and international actors in the cross-national diffusion of management concepts.

  16. Template do programa Arena para simulação das operações de carregamento e transporte em minas a céu aberto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Nogueira Ramos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo descreve um conjunto de módulos, do Template Mineração 1.0, que foi desenvolvido para utilização no programa ARENA, visando a melhorar a modelagem e a simulação de operações de carregamento e transporte em minas a céu aberto. Os módulos representam atividades de lavra, tais como carga, descarga, deslocamento vazio e carregado dos caminhões, além de paradas para manutenção dos equipamentos. Os sistemas de alocação dinâmica de caminhões, atualmente presentes em boa parte das minas, também possuem um módulo específico. Através de testes realizados com dados reais, o Template mostrou-se de uso bastante amigável e apresentou resultados satisfatórios quando comparado com a operação real e com resultados de outro simulador.This article describes a group of blocks of Template Mining 1.0, developed to be used with ARENA System. The objective is to improve modeling and simulation of open pit mining operations. The blocks represent the essential activities of open pit mining, like loading, unloading, loaded and unloaded haulage and equipment maintenance. The dynamic allocation system of trucks, nowadays used in the mining companies can also be represented. The Template has a friendly interface and it has been tested with real data. These tests have produced satisfactory results, which are similar to other simulation system.

  17. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  18. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  19. Hippocampal damage and kainic acid injection induce a rapid increase in mRNA for BDNF and NGF in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarín, M; Ernfors, P; Lindefors, N; Persson, H

    1991-10-01

    In situ hybridization and Northern blots were used to study expression of mRNAs for members of the nerve growth factor family in the rat brain following an excitatory stimulus. One hour after a unilateral needle insertion or saline injection into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA increased markedly in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the piriform cortex ipsilateral to the injection. The same treatment also increased the level of NGF mRNA in granular neurons of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. The rapid increase in BDNF and NGF mRNA after a needle insertion or injection of saline was transient and preceded by an increase in c-fos mRNA in the same brain regions. In contrast to a needle insertion per se or a saline injection, 7 h after a unilateral injection of kainic acid into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of BDNF mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus, as well as in the ipsilateral frontoparietal, piriform and perihinal cortex, the amygdaloid complex, claustrum, and ventromedial hypothalamus. A less pronounced increase was also seen in these brain areas on the contralateral side. Northern blots revealed that the level of BDNF mRNA increased 5- and 40-fold in the contra- and ipsilateral hippocampus, respectively, compared to sham-operated control animals. In contrast to BDNF and NGF, the level of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrohin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA was not altered by either needle insertion or injection of saline or kainic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1915733

  20. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks. PMID:26545831

  1. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks.

  2. El beneficio de arenas feldespáticas: una solución para la industria cerámica colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Laverde

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, la industria cerámica y del vidrio requiere materias primas feldespáticas de alta calidad. Sólo en algunas aplicaciones, los feldespatos pueden ser utilizados tal como se extraen de la mina, sin ninguna clase de beneficio. Sin embargo, en la producción de los esmaltes y pastas de alta calidad se hace necesario un feldespato con un alto grado de pureza. En este trabajo, se presenta el estudio realizado a una arena feldespática del municipio de Sardinata (Norte de Santander, que es empleada por la empresa CERÁMICA ITALIA S.A., de la ciudad de Cúcuta, para la fabricación de esmaltes y pastas utilizados en la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas. En la actualidad, estas arenas se utilizan tal como son extraídas de la mina, sin embargo, debido al alto número de rechazos en los productos actuales y a la implementación de nuevas líneas de productos de mayor calidad, se hace necesario su beneficio. En una primera etapa, se realizó el cálculo de reserva, y se identificaron y cuantificaron los principales contaminantes como hierro, cuarzo y micas, mediante análisis mineralógico y geoquímico. En la segunda etapa, se aplicaron procesos de beneficio de separación magnética para eliminar los óxidos de hierro, y de flotación para separar el cuarzo. Se estudió el efecto de variables como la granulometría, el pH y la concentración de los diferentes reactivos de flotación. En una tercera etapa, y con ayuda de la determinación de las características fisicoquímicas, mineralógicas y metalúrgicas se elaboró el diagrama de flujo apropiado y se seleccionaron y dimensionaron los equipos para el montaje de una planta piloto para el beneficio del mineral.

  3. The Safeguard of Audio Collections: A Computer Science Based Approach to Quality Control—The Case of the Sound Archive of the Arena di Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of multimedia, very little attention is given to the activities involved in the preservation of audio documents. At the same time, more and more archives storing audio and video documents face the problem of obsolescing and degrading media, which could largely benefit from the instruments and the methodologies of research in multimedia. This paper presents the methodology and the results of the Italian project REVIVAL, aimed at the development of a hardware/software platform to support the active preservation of the audio collection of the Fondazione Arena di Verona, one of the finest in Europe for the operatic genre, with a special attention on protocols and tools for quality control. On the scientific side, the most significant objectives achieved by the project are (i the setup of a working environment inside the archive, (ii the knowledge transfer to the archival personnel, (iii the realization of chemical analyses on magnetic tapes in collaboration with experts in the fields of materials science and chemistry, and (iv the development of original open-source software tools. On the cultural side, the recovery, the safeguard, and the access to unique copies of unpublished live recordings of artists the calibre of Domingo and Pavarotti are of great musicological and economical value.

  4. Estudio mineralóglco de la fracción arena de algunos materiales arcillosos de la sabana de Bogotá

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    Julia Rubio de Cubides

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio mineralógico de la fracción arena de tres muestras de materiales arcillosos situados en la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta fracción se caracterizó porque los minerales reslstentes-turmallna, circón y rutilo constituyeron más de la mitad de la fracción pesada de la muestra. Esta fracción también se caracterizó por una riqueza de minerales opacos naturales (ilmenlta, especialmente, y algo de magnetita, siendo los de alteración sobre todo leucoxenos. Dos de las muestras exhibieron un alto contenido de minerales metamórficos, en especial estaurolita. De los resultados granulométricos y mineralógicos de los materiales, se deduce que las muestras han sufrido alteraciones químicas fuertes (lavado, ya que únicamente permanecen los minearles resistentes (turmalina, circón, rutilo y cuarzo.

  5. 2014 World Cup - guidelines for the sustainable project design of the new "verdão" (big green, the Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba-Mt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tóffano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das medidas de sustentabilidade adotadas na concepção do projeto da Arena Pantanal, o novo estádio da capital de Mato Grosso, uma das subsedes brasileiras, para a Copa do Mundo FIFA 2014TM . Para sediar este megaevento esportivo, a cidade em questão, se propôs a realizar uma série de obras e exigências impostas pela FIFATM; que promoverão mudanças no espaço urbano, mas que, principalmente, atendem aos seus interesses específicos. Dentre estes, no campo da preservação do planeta, destaca-se uma preocupação com o meio ambiente, através de medidas de redução do consumo energético, de água, de insumos, etc. Medidas estas adotadas, em Cuiabá, de forma pioneira no Estado, em prol da divulgação dos benefícios da construção civil “verde” e da obtenção da primeira certificação de sustentabilidade ambiental para um edifício público local, o selo norte-americano LEEDTM . O que se observa é que, uma construção civil deste porte não pode ser 100% sustentável, entretanto, seus impactos ambientais podem ser minimizados.

  6. Las arenas negras de Mejías: nueva fuente para la obtención de consumibles para la soldadura por arco eléctrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Cruz-Crespo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la caracterización química y mineralógica de las fracciones pesadas, magnéticas y electromagnéticas de las arenas negras del placer de Mejías, se logró confeccionar una carga metalúrgica para obtener una escoria útil como matriz de fundentes para la soldadura automática (SAW y una ferroaleación como carga aleante para diferentes consumibles de soldadura por arco eléctrico. La escoria obtenida presenta una composición de óxidos que garantiza las propiedades metalúrgicas y tecnológicas de la matriz de fundente deseado. La aleación compleja lograda por reducción carbotérmica en horno de arco eléctrico con crisol de grafito presenta relativamente altos contenidos de Mo (2,87 %, Nb(> 1,80 %, V(>1,20 %, entre otros elementos metálicos de alto valor metalúrgico para la soldadura manual (SMAW y automática (SAW.

  7. Analysing the Diana Turbay CAMI emergency and hospitalisation processes using an Arena 10.0 simulation model for optimal human resource distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Pantoja Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a simulation model describing the current emergency and hospitalisation procedure for the Diana Turbay Immediate Medical Attention Centre (CAMI, a first level health-providing entity, being a dependency of the state Rafael Uribe Uribe hospital (a social entity in Bogotá (Colombia. A summary of the study was made as well as an overall record of activities being carried out in current attention in the emergency and hospitalisation area and proposals for improving conditions for attending patients and helping to a optimise the institution’s resources in the aforementioned area. The foregoing was used for contrasting waiting times, the number of people queuing and how personnel were being used, aimed at structuring the triage procedure presented by the Rafael Uribe Uribe hos-pital’s Public Management and Self-control office as they wanted to implement such model within the framework of CAMI’s Remodelling and Extension project. Arena 10.0 simulation software was thus used for helping to measure the impact of such decisions on an organisation before implementing them; different scenarios were thus designed for evaluating the feasibility of reducing waiting times and the number of people queuing, different alternatives being tested regarding timetables and the availability of back-up resources, thereby revealing patients’ different attention and waiting times.

  8. 基于UML-ARENA的建模与仿真方法研究%Approach to modeling and simulation based on UML-ARENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方绍强; 卫克; 陈伟鹏; 赵尚弘; 胥杰

    2009-01-01

    为开发出便于复用、扩展的离散事件仿真系统,提出了一种新的建模与仿真方法--UML-ARENA.该方法利用统一建模语言UML对系统建模,利用仿真软件ARENA对所建模型进行仿真.该方法不仅规定了仿真系统的开发步骤,还设计了对象模型转换规则以及ARENA映射规则.整个开发过程分为建模与仿真两个阶段.在建模阶段,首先通过对系统进行概念分析,设计出系统的功能模型和动态模型.然后利用对象模型转换规则将功能模型和动态模型转化为对象模型.在仿真阶段,利用ARENA映射规则将对象模型转化为ARENA仿真程序.通过飞行保障过程的一个仿真实例对该方法的有效性进行了检验.

  9. Arena-based Simulation for Reconnaissance Satellite Ground Segments%基于Arena的卫星侦察地面系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢成钢; 李革; 刘宝宏

    2009-01-01

    侦察卫星地面应用系统仿真的目的,就是为了模拟控制数据的形成过程,以及有效载荷数据从接收、处理到按用户需要形成情报产品的流程,通过模拟系统的控制流和数据流,找出系统瓶颈并优化系统流程.通过讨论卫星侦察地面系统的组成和功能,分析系统工作原理,提出了将系统流程分成用户服务流程和数据接收处理流程两部分的思想.基于离散事件仿真软件Arena,设计并实现了卫星侦察地面系统的用户服务流程和数据接收处理流程.通过仿真结果分析,找出了系统瓶颈所在,提出了系统改进意见.

  10. Las Cumbres Mundiales y sus versiones latinoamericanas: ¿haciendo una montaña de un grano de arena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence WHITEHEAD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Momentos cruciales en la historia de la humanidad han estado asociados a «cumbres» o «reuniones de cúpula» –encuentros personales entre poderosos Jefes de Estado–. Sin embargo, desde 1990, el lenguaje y retórica de las Cumbres han sido apropiados por líderes regionales antes que mundiales, diluyendo aún más el contenido sustantivo de las cuestiones tratadas por los Jefes de Estado. Este artículo pone el foco sobre América Latina para reflexionar sobre la lógica subyacente, las funciones y las limitaciones de estos encuentros, así como sobre su impacto en la diplomacia regional del hemisferio occidental. Para concluir, se evalúa qué es lo que las Cumbres hacen y qué es lo que pueden conseguir en el contexto latinoamericano.ABSTRACT: Crucial moments in world history have sometimes been associated with summits –i.e. personal encounters between key heads of State–. Since 1990, however, the language and rhetoric of Summitry have increasingly been appropriated by regional as opposed to global leaders, introducing a further dilution of the substantive content of the business transacted by these heads of State. This article stands back from the details of any specific contemporary summit meeting and, focusing on Latin America, attempts to reflect on the underlying logic, functions, and limitations of such meetings, and on what they suggest about the current state of regional diplomacy in the Western hemisphere. Hence, it deals with what, if anything, Summits do and what they might achieve in the Latin American context.

  11. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine lymphoid cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2008-08-01

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent in part on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. BVDV are lymphotrophic and exist as two biotypes. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish persistent infections. The molecular mechanisms behind these different affects are unknown. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a powerful method for global gene expression analysis, was employed to examine gene expression changes in BVDV-infected BL3 cells, a bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma cell line. SAGE libraries were constructed from mRNA derived from BL3 cells that were noninfected or infected with the cytopathic BVDV2 strain 296c. Annotation of the SAGE data showed the expression of many genes that are characteristic of B cells and integral to their function. Comparison of the SAGE databases also revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed. Of particular interest was the increased numbers of transcripts encoding proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, junB, junD) in 296c-infected cells, all of which are constituents of the AP-1 transcriptional activation complex. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed these results and indicated that the actual increases were larger than that predicted by SAGE. In contrast, there was no corresponding increase in protein levels, but instead a significant decrease of c-jun and junB protein levels in the infected BL3 cells was observed. Rather than an increase in transcription of these genes, it appeared that these proto-oncogenes transcripts accumulated in the BVDV2-infected cells.

  12. Decision-making in the Forensic Arena.%法证科学领域的决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ton Broeders[荷; 李小恺(译); 王进喜(审校)

    2012-01-01

    In the real world, forensic science is increasingly criticized for its lack of a scientific basis, as much of what passes for forensic science does not on closer examination qualify as science. As a result of the growing prominence of the scientific paradigm associated with DNA evidence, traditional identification science is now lying heavily under siege. Any statement of the probability of a particular source attribution hypothesis necessarily involves two elements: the probability of the evidence under two competing hypotheses and an estimate of the prior probability of the hypothesis, i.e., the probability of the source attribution hypothesis before the scientific evidence becomes available. Forensic scientists should not be allowed or take it upon themselves to usurp the role of the judge but should always be aware that the role of the expert is to pronounce upon the weight of the forensic evidence, not to address the ultimate issue. Unlike traditional reporting formats, the model used in the interpretation of DNA evidence is ideally suited to do just that: it forces the expert to report on the probability of the findings under a particular set of hypotheses and leaves the determination of the probability of the (prosecution) hypothesis to the trier of fact.%随着法证DNA证据以及它所适用的概率模型日益凸显,反映了传统法证科学的局限性,并使人们对法证科学领域的决策产生了越来越多的质疑,焦点集中在对结论的解读方式和实际运用。分析表明.科学证据的本质不是绝对性或确定性的,而是概率性的;同时,事实审判者需要基于这些概率性的证据对事实作出明确的决定。因此,对于法证科学领域的决策,应当是专家在一系列归纳得出的特定假设基础上.就研究结果的概率进行恰当的报告,由事实审判者承担对概率作出决断的任务。

  13. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte II: Medidas clínicas y preventivas Outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part II: Clinical and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Base de Camp "Arena" en Herat (Afganistán presentó durante los pasados meses de julio y agosto de 2009 un total de 121 casos de gripe A H1N1, 22 de ellos casos confirmados y el resto diagnosticados por "vínculo epidemiológico". Presentamos en el presente artículo las medidas clínicas y preventivas que fueron tomadas en la Base, en el intento de controlar el número de casos y asegurar la operatividad de la Base y el cumplimiento de la misión encomendada al contingente. Se revisan las características de la Base, las medidas tomadas con los pacientes, las medidas tomadas con los contactos, reflejando las dos distintas organizaciones que se realizaron al inicio del brote y posteriormente, las medidas generales tomadas en la Base y las medidas especiales características por tratarse de una unidad militar en una Zona de Operaciones. Finalmente realizamos una reflexión sobre algunas de las medidas tomadas.The Base Camp "Arena" in Herat (Afghanistan presented during the months of July and August 2009 a total of 121 cases of Flu A H1N1 (22 confirmed cases and the rest were diagnosed by epidemiological link. We present in this article the clinical and preventive measures taken at the base in an attempt to control the number of cases and ensure the operability of the base and fulfilling the mission entrusted to the quota. We review the characteristics of the Base, measures taken with patients, the measures taken with the contacts reflecting the two different organizations taken initially and during the second period that conducted at the outset of the outbreak, the general measures taken on the base and special measures because it features of a military unit in an area of operations. Finally we perform a reflection of some taken actions.

  14. Possible involvement of convergent nociceptive input to medullary dorsal horn neurons in intraoral hyperalgesia following peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Ryuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroki; Omura, Shinji; Maruhama, Kotaro; Mizutani, Masahide; Iida, Seiji; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the number of c-Fos protein-like immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) evoked by noxious stimulation was increased after peripheral nerve injury, and such increase has been proposed to reflect the development of neuropathic pain state. The aim of this study was to examine the MDH for convergent collateral primary afferent input to second order neurons deafferented by peripheral nerve injury, and to explore a possibility of its contribution to the c-Fos hyperinducibility. Double immunofluorescence labeling for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed to detect convergent synaptic input. c-Fos expression and the phosphorylation of ERK were induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin and by electrical stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), respectively. The number of c-Fos-IR neurons in the MDH induced by the intraoral application of capsaicin was increased after IAN injury, whereas the number of p-ERK immunoreactive neurons remained unchanged. The number of double-labeled neurons, that presumably received convergent primary afferent input from the lingual nerve and the IAN, was significantly increased after IAN injury. These results indicated that convergent primary nociceptive input through neighboring intact nerves may contribute to the c-Fos hyperinducibility in the MDH and the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:25407627

  15. Research on the Grooming Strategy Effect of Three Gorges Ship′s Backlog Based on Arena%基于Arena的三峡船舶积压疏导策略效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清; 余燕平

    2016-01-01

    自2003年三峡船闸建成通航以来,库区通航需求逐年攀升,三峡船舶过闸需求和船闸通过能力不足之间的矛盾日益明显,过闸船舶积压趋于常态。为确保船舶签证取消后船舶通航的安全有序,提出水上交通管控线方案。通过分析2013年三峡船闸船舶过闸数据,设置A rena仿真参数,结合排队论建立船舶过闸A rena仿真模型,动态模拟船舶通过三峡船闸全过程。分别得到有、无管控线的作用下坝前锚地船舶排队时间和排队长度。对比分析表明,相对于未设置管控线方案,实施合理的管控线方案以后明显缓解了船舶的过闸积压问题,缩短了船舶在坝前锚地的排队时间和排队长度。%Since the T hree Gorges ship lock had been built and opened up for navigation in 2003 ,navi‐gation demand in the area has increased year by year .The problem between requirements for passing Three Gorges dam and lack of lock capacity is increasingly significant ,and the ship lockage backlog becomes normal .The scheme of traffic control line on the waterways is proposed to ensure that the ship passes the lockage efficiently and orderly after the cancellation of the ship visa .Through analy‐zing the data of ships passing the dam in 2013 and combining the queuing theory ,the Arena simulation model is established to verify the control line scheme and to dynamically simulate the w hole process of ship passing Three Gorges lockage .The waiting time and queue length of ships for the cases with and without the control line scheme are obtained ,respectively .Compared to the case without any control line scheme ,the ship lockage backlog for the case with reasonable control line scheme is mitigated sig‐nificantly and the waiting time and queue length of ships are also reduced for the case with control line scheme .

  16. Arenas de formulação de políticas regionais: uma proposição metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Randolph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ao analisar a experiência da formulação mais recente de políticas regionais no país, pode-se chegar à conclusão de que nem haja política de desenvolvimento regional no Brasil. É o propósito do presente ensaio travar uma discussão crítica a respeito da suposição da existência, ou não, dessa política. Será mostrado como o julgamento relativo a uma aparente existência, ou não, dessa política precisa ser “desnaturalizada”, à medida que a possível ausência precisa ser compreendida enquanto “não-acontecimento”. Ou seja, ao invés de ficar analisando os elementos de uma proposta que não se reconhece como política regional, é preciso desvendar os mecanismos – as “seletividades” – que impediram seu “acontecimento”. Para essa investigação utilizam-se os conceitos de Claus Offe sobre Estado capitalista, seletividade e arenas politicas que permitirão uma primeira comparação entre diferentes “démarches” na formulação de políticas voltadas ao desenvolvimento regional, realizadas nos últimos 10 a 20 anos, no Brasil. Com isso, visa-se identificar alguns determinantes dessa formulação de políticas regionais que podem contribuir para compreender os seus eventuais “não acontecimentos”. Código JEL | O18; O20; R58.

  17. Islamic ritual preaching (khuṭbas in a contested arena: Shī‘īs and Sunnīs, Fatimids and Abbasids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker, Paul E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In circumstances of political and religious conflict, the Islamic ritual sermon could be traumatic, especially when such sermons signaled a change in allegiance from a Sunni to a Shī‘ī ruler (or vice versa. For more than two centuries the Ismaili Fatimids confronted the Abbasids, each claiming for itself the right to be in invoked in the official sermon in the congregational mosques. One dramatic example of this change of loyalty is illustrated by a verbatim copy of what the preacher said on the occasion. This text, together with a few others that have been preserved, offer an opportunity to analysis this genre of preaching in a contested arena.En contextos de conflicto político y religioso, el sermón litúrgico islámico podía ser traumático, sobre todo si aludía a cambios de lealtad de un líder suní a otro chií (o viceversa. Durante más de dos siglos los fatimíes ismailíes se enfrentaron a los abasíes, reclamando respectivamente para sí el derecho a ser invocados en los sermones oficiales en las mezquitas. Un ejemplo dramático de este cambio de lealtades queda ilustrado en una copia literal de lo que dijo el predicador en aquel momento. Ese texto, junto con otros pocos que se han conservado, permite analizar este tipo de predicación en un terreno de confrontación.

  18. Um "elefante branco" nas dunas de Natal? Uma análise pós-desenvolvimentista dos discursos acerca da construção da Arena das Dunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maranhão de Souza Leão

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Uma das principais controvérsias relativas à realização da Copa do Mundo no Brasil diz respeito à construção de novos estádios, sobretudo aqueles indicados como potenciais "elefantes brancos", como é o caso da Arena das Dunas, em Natal. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os argumentos que constituem os diferentes discursos acerca da construção da Arena das Dunas. Para tal, acessamos três posições discursivas sobre o assunto: dos organizadores, da imprensa e da sociedade civil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas, observação direta e documentos. O método adotado foi a arqueologia foucaultiana e sua análise de discurso. Como lente teórica, adotamos a teoria do pós-desenvolvimento. Nossos achados apontam para duas formações discursivas antagônicas: uma favorável e outra contestadora ao investimento feito na construção da arena.

  19. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  20. Two Giants, A Global Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At the core of current China-U.S. relations are post-Cold War experiences and major differences when it comes to politics, economy and security. But despite these issues and the rhetoric that surrounds them, the potential for cooperation remains great In an article published by Global Times, Wu Xinbo, Deputy Principal of the International Relations and Public Affairs College of Shanghai Fudan University, shares his analysis of bilateral ties. Excerpts follow:

  1. Viljandi laululava = Viljandi festival arena

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Viljandi laululava Talli tänav 2, valminud 2013. Arhitektid Ott Kadarik, Mihkel Tüür, Tanel Trepp (Kadarik Tüür Arhitektid OÜ), insenerid Tõnu Peipman, Viljar Sepp (IB Printsiip OÜ). Eesti Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia 2014

  2. A REDESIGN LAYOUT TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentia Kitriastika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This project is conducted in Company X, a passenger cars wheel producing company located in Sunter, North Jakarta. With a view of increasing the productivity of the company, the focus of this project will be redesigned the layout of the factory. The main problem encountered is that the goods are not produced in single location, causing a considerable hindrance in terms of time and distance, and hence efficiency. The redesigning layout process will use SLP method and flow analysis while supported by analysis of assembly line balancing to optimize the layout. Regarding the evaluation process, ARENA software will be used to simulate and identify the bottleneck in the production process, and comparing the layout alternatives to decide the best layout. The best chosen layout according to the simulation and SLP method that supported with flow analysis and assembly line balancing will be used as the master draft layout that will be proposed to Company X.

  3. Caracterización de las arenas y arcillas minerales de los depósitos de canal y planicie de inundación del río Portuguesa, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José González Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investiga la relación entre la mineralogía de sedimentos fluviales, su área fuente y el clima, en un tramo del río Portuguesa en los llanos centro-occidentales venezolanos. Para este estudio se recolectaron los sedimentos más antiguos depositados en la planicie aluvial y los más recientes depositados en el canal actual. Las arenas fueron separadas por tamizado en seco y las arcillas por Bouyoucos (1962; la mineralogía se determinó por Difracción de Rayos X. Los resultados indican que las arenas están compuestas principalmente por cuarzo, formando arenas maduras o cuarzo-arenitas. Su origen se relaciona con la desintegración físico-mecánica de las rocas del orógeno andino y la Cordillera del Interior, probablemente durante el Pleistoceno Tardío. Las arcillas están constituidas por cuarzo y caolinita con cantidades menores de ilita, muscovita, clorita, vermiculita y montmorillonita. Se postula un origen detrítico para algunos de estos minerales ya que la caolinita, vermiculita y montmorillonita, también pueden ser neoformadas a partir de la alteración química experimentada por las micas y feldespatos durante el Pleistoceno Tardío-Holoceno. Se concluye que el origen y composición de los sedimentos de estos depósitos muestran estrecha relación con su área fuente y las condiciones climáticas que prevalecieron durante el Cuaternario Tardío.

  4. Increased regucalcin gene expression extends survival in breast cancer patients: Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses the proliferation and metastatic bone activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Osuka, Satoru; Weitzmann, M Neale; Shoji, Mamoru; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2016-08-01

    Human breast cancer is highly metastatic to bone and drives bone turnover. Breast cancer metastases cause osteolytic lesions and skeletal damage that leads to bone fractures. Regucalcin, which plays a pivotal role as an inhibitor of signal transduction and transcription activity, has been suggested to act as a suppressor of human cancer. In the present study, we compared the clinical outcome between 44 breast cancer patients with higher regucalcin expression and 43 patients with lower regucalcin expression. Prolonged relapse-free survival was identified in the patients with increased regucalcin gene expression. We further demonstrated that overexpression of full length, but not alternatively spliced variants of regucalcin, induces G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, suppressing the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, a commonly used in vitro model of human breast cancer that metastasize to bone causing osteolytic lesions. Overexpression of regucalcin was found to suppress multiple signaling pathways including Akt, MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK, and NF-κB p65 and β-catenin along with increased p53, a tumor suppressor, and decreased K-ras, c-fos and c-jun. Moreover, we found that co-culture of regucalcin-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells with mouse bone marrow cells prevented enhanced osteoclastogenesis and suppressed mineralization in mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. Taken together, the present study suggests that regucalcin may have important anticancer properties in human breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, these effects are likely mediated through suppression of multiple signaling pathways, upregulation of p53 and downregulation of oncogenes leading to anti-proliferative effects and reduced metastases to bone, a phenotype associated with poor clinical outcome. PMID:27221776

  5. Pied piper effect of the migration arena in northeastern China on Mythimna separata (Walker)%东北迁飞场对粘虫的Pied piper效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蕾; 武向文; 陈晓; 姜玉英; 曾娟; 翟保平

    2014-01-01

    analyzed with NOAA HYSPLIT. [Results] The wind directions in northern and northeastern China in July and August were basically southwesterly and southerly, making it practically impossible for the summer population of armyworms to emigrate into cropping areas in northern China. Meanwhile, the passage of immigrants was restricted to either northeastern China, unsuitable mountainous areas, or the ocean, by the constantly changeable winds and the frequently passage of cyclones. [Conclusion] The summer synoptic wind fields in northeastern China are unfavorable to the southward migration of the local summer armyworm population. Basically, the 3rd generation armyworm population in northern China is unrelated to the summer population in northeastern China. The migration arena in northeastern China shows a notable pied piper effect on armyworm populations and other insect immigrants.

  6. Disruption of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor phosphorylation prolongs ERK1/2 MAPK activation and enhances c-fos expression

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfeek, Hesham A.; Abou-Samra, Abdul B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PPR) stimulates G protein coupling, receptor phosphorylation, β-arrestin translocation, and internalization of the ligand/receptor complex. The extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 MAPK) are downstream effectors of PPR. In the current study, we investigated the role of PPR phosphorylation in the PTH regulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Sh...

  7. Neuroglobin-deficiency exacerbates Hif1A and c-FOS response, but does not affect neuronal survival during severe hypoxia in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Luuk, Hendrik; Ilmjärv, Sten;

    2011-01-01

    genetically Ngb-deficient (Ngb-null). Further, to evaluate whether the lack of Ngb has an effect on hypoxia-dependent gene regulation, we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of differential gene expression using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Differential expression was estimated by a novel data...... analysis approach, which applies non-parametric statistical inference directly to probe level measurements....

  8. Expression of AhR, CYP1A1, GSTA1, c-fos and TGF-alpha in skin lesions from dioxin-exposed humans with chloracne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Nai-Jun; Liu, Jing; Coenraads, P. J.; Dong, Li; Zhao, Li-Jun; Ma, Shi-Wei; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Ming; Wei, Wen-Guo; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Zhi-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to certain polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons such as dioxins has been suggested to cause chloracne which is a kind of skin disease. The molecular mechanisms of dioxin-mediated chloracne have not been clarified. It is possible that dioxins contribute to the pathogenesis thro

  9. The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie; Hansen, Henrik H; Kiss, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    The dominant nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype in the brain is the pentameric receptor containing both α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2). Due to the lack of selective agonists it has not been ruled out what neuronal circuits that are stimulated after systemic administration with nicotine. W...

  10. Arenas Pastor, Etnografía y alimentación entre los toba-ñachilamoleek y wichí-lhuku’tas del Chaco Central (Argentina), Edición del autor [], Buenos Aires, 2003, 562 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    La voluminosa obra de Pastor Arenas es fruto de una investigación etnobiológica sobre la alimentación entre dos grupos indígenas del Chaco central argentino : los wichís « carmeños » y los tobas-pilagás. Ambos grupos, cada uno de los cuales fue delimitado siguiendo el pertinente criterio de filiación histórica, lingüística y socio-política, están asentados en la banda sur del río Pilcomayo, al noroeste de la provincia argentina de Formosa. El enfoque etnobiológico adoptado para la investigaci...

  11. Comment on "The Late Devonian Variscan suture of the Iberian Massif: A correlation of high-pressure belts in NW and SW Iberia. Tectonophysics 654, 96-100" by R. Fernández and R. Arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas, J. F.; Azor, A.; Martínez Poyatos, D. J.; Expósito, I.; Pérez-Cáceres, I.; González Lodeiro, F.

    2016-01-01

    A vast Variscan nappe spreading from the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia to the Ossa-Morena Zone in SW Iberia has been proposed by Díez Fernández and Arenas (2015), based on the correlation of different outcrops of high-pressure and MORB-type rocks. This interpretation conflicts with well-known geological and geophysical data regarding the SW Iberian Variscides, which point to: i) major kinematic and geometric inconsistencies come up when interpreting the Ossa-Morena Zone as an allochthonous unit, ii) the outcrops of high-pressure and MORB-type rocks belong to two different sutures rather than a single one, and iii) SW Iberia is characterized by transpressional deformation related to a very oblique left-lateral continental collision, while NW Iberia features a rather frontal collision.

  12. Postratamiento en escala piloto del lixiviado del relleno sanitario Antanas (Pasto-Nariño por filtración-adsorción con arena, antracita y carbón activado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe López Guerrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación evaluó el postratamiento del lixiviado del relleno sanitario Antanas mediante tres filtros ascendentes en serie con arena, antracita y carbón activado granular. Se evaluaron rangos de tasas de filtración de 20-35, 60-100 y 150 300 m3/m2*d correspondientes a tiempos de contacto con el carbón de 48, 24 y 8 minutos. El seguimiento a cada condición se efectuó durante un mes, las remociones medias de DQO para dichas tasas y tiempos fueron 60,2, 54,3 y 31,4% respectivamente. El mejor desempeño del sistema dependió fundamentalmente del aumento del tiempo de contacto y no de la reducción de las tasas de filtración.

  13. Escorrentía y transporte sólido en la cuenca torrencial de la riera de las arenas. Metodología de investigación y primeros resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Vide, Juan Pedro; Niñerola Chifoni, Daniel; Bateman Pinzón, Allen; Gómez, L.

    1996-01-01

    Algunos ríos de la cuenca mediterránea española se caracterizan por ser de escasa longitud, gran pendiente y carácter torrencial, en sentido meteorológico, hidrológico e hidráulico, causando avenidas catastróficas. El artículo presenta el estudio realizado en la riera de Las Arenas durante tres años y medio con el objetivo de cuantificar el caudal y el transporte sólido de fondo en avenidas. Se trata especialmente la instrumentación de la cuenca (pluviómetros, pluviógrafos, estación de aforos...

  14. Transporte de arena en médanos litorales activos y colgados del sudeste de Buenos Aires Sand transport in active and hunged coastal dunes of southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Bértola

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El transporte de arena por el viento es la principal fuente de suministro de sedimentos para la existencia de médanos litorales en playas arenosas, así como un importante componente en los cálculos de balance sedimentario entre la playa (la fuente y el médano (el destino. Para evaluar esto, se analizaron médanos del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires mediante un novedoso método de muestreo, que permite percibir diferencias en la dinámica y textura de la arena que conforman el perfil de velocidad, diferencias debido a su génesis y características. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar si había diferencias apreciables cuantificables en las características de médanos costeros colgados en acantilados de Mar del Plata y en médanos frontales, de costas abiertas al sur de la misma zona, en el arroyo de La Ballenera. Se observó que las arenas de médanos frontales son más gruesas que las de los médanos colgados, debido a las zonas de aporte y emplazamiento topográfico. Los mayores volúmenes de arena transportados son por la cara de barlovento y cresta. El perfil del arroyo La Ballenera se halla más influenciado por el efecto marino que el médano colgado, donde predomina la acción eólica. Se observó que cuando la velocidad del viento se duplica, el volumen transportado es 5 veces mayor, lo mismo que el t o. El coeficiente de arrastre fue prácticamente despreciable a 2,6 m. La metodología empleada para entrampar el sedimento resultó ser aceptable como una fase inicial para el monitoreo de la dinámica de sectores costeros dominados por el viento.The sand transport by wind is the main sediment source of supply of silts for the presence of coast dunes in sandy beaches, as well as an important component in the calculations of sedimentary balance among the beach (the source and the dune (the destination. To evaluate this action, dunes of the southeast of Buenos Aires Province were analyzed by means of a new sampling method that

  15. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A TYPE OF GUN'S MAINTENANCE SUPPORT PROCESS BASED ON ARENA%基于ARENA的某火炮维修保障过程建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚彬; 刘文龙; 孙保琛; 王广彦

    2012-01-01

    Gun maintenance support process model is the basis of the research on gun maintenance support system structure and operation. Arena is a powerful tool to describe the equipment maintenance support process. The article analyzes a type of gun's maintenance support sys tem , constructs its maintenance support process, spare parts and maintenance personnel requirement model as well as availability model, de signs and implements a type of gun's maintenance support process simulation system based on Arena, displays the utilization status of all pri mary resources through simulation, finds out the weak points in the maintenance support system structure and operation, further improves and optimizes the support system so as to promote the operation efficiency of the equipment maintenance support system.%火炮维修保障过程模型是研究火炮维修保障系统结构与运行的基础,Arena是描述装备维修保障过程的有力工具.分析某火炮维修保障系统,构建其维修保障过程、备件与维修人员需求模型以及可用度模型,设计并实现基于Arena的某火炮维修保障过程仿真系统,通过仿真输出各主要资源的利用情况,找出了维修保障系统结构与运行的薄弱环节,进而对保障系统进行了改进与优化,提高了装备维修保障系统的运行效率.

  16. Fos and serotonin immunoreactivity in the raphe nuclei of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep: a double-labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; López-Rodríguez, F; Luppi, P H; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1995-07-01

    The microinjection of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis produces a state which is polygraphically and behaviorally similar to active sleep (rapid eye movement sleep). In the present study, using double-labeling techniques for serotonin and the protein product of c-fos (Fos), we sought to examine whether immunocytochemically identified serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of the cat were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during this pharmacologically-induced behavioral state (active sleep-carbachol). Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus. Whereas most of the c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis were small, those in the raphe magnus were medium-sized and in the raphe pallidus they were small and medium-sized. The mean number of serotonergic neurons that expressed c-fos (i.e. double-labeled cells) was similar in control and active sleep-carbachol cats. These data indicate that there is an increased number of non-serotonergic, c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus during the carbachol-induced state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7477901

  17. Algal wrack deposits and macroinfaunal arthropods on sandy beaches of the Chilean coast Depósitos de algas varadas y artrópodos macroinfaunales en playas de arena de la costa de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Four Chilean sandy beaches were sampled during the summer of 2000, to study the role of stranded algal wrack deposits on the population abundances of three detritus feeder species of the macroinfauna that inhabit the upper shore levels of that beaches: the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, the tylid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana and the tenebrionid insect Phalerisida maculata Kulzer. The beaches were Apolillado (ca. 29° S, Quidico (ca. 38° S, Guabún and Mar Brava (ca. 42° S. Replicated samples were collected with a plastic cylinder (25 cm in diameter from algal wrack deposits including the sediments beneath the wrack and nearby bare sand areas. Samples were collected at two beach levels, one closer to the sea with fresh deposits and other located on the upper beach with dry alga. Algal wrack deposits were mostly composed of the brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera (L., Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot and Lessonia nigrescens Bory. O. tuberculata was found in the algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico, Guabún and Mar Brava. On the other hand, T. spinulosus was just found at Apolillado, while P. maculata occurred in the sands beneath algal wrack deposits and bare sands collected from Apolillado, Quidico and Guabún. In general, the mean abundances of O. tuberculata, P. maculta and T. spinulosus were significantly higher in those samples collected from sands beneath algal wrack deposits; i.e., 56, 61 and 14 times higher (overall means than in bare sands, respectively. It is concluded that stranded algal wrack deposits indeed promote an increase in population abundances of sandy beach detritus feeders, either because that deposits provide their main food source or shelter against variable environmental conditions (e.g., air temperature and humidity during daylight hours. That might well explain the patchiness shown by these organisms, either across or along shore. This conclusion has important

  18. På lærerens arena. Hvordan opplever PP-rådgivere det å gi råd og veiledning til lærere?

    OpenAIRE

    Cannavo, Angelo Lund

    2012-01-01

    Summary The topic of this master thesis is the collaboration between schools and the pedagogicalpsychological service (PPS). The research question is: How do counsellors in the PPS experience giving advice and guidance to teachers? The share of pupils receiving special education in Norway has increased from 5.5% in 2006 to 8.6% in 2012. This has occurred despite concerted political efforts to decrease the percentage of pupils in special education through a better adapted edu...

  19. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  20. The Position and Development of Chinese Competitive Sports in International Sports Arena%我国竞技体育在国际体坛中的定位与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆明

    2012-01-01

    我国竞技体育经历了旧中国的"东亚病夫"和新中国的"体育强国"两个不同的发展阶段。1984年洛杉矶奥运会以来,新中国竞技体育在国际竞技体坛表现出迅猛的发展势头。本研究梳理了近30年来我国竞技体育代表团历届奥运会和亚运会的竞技表现,认为:(1)我国竞技体育已是国际体坛竞争力很强的国家;(2)我国竞技体育已跨入世界竞技体育强国之列;(3)我国竞技体育在亚洲地域范围,稳居亚洲竞技体坛排头兵的位置;(4)我国竞技体育已步入国际体坛格局的"发达国家"时期。%The Chinese competitive sports have undergone two stages——from the era of 'the sick man of East Asia in old China to a new era of Sports Giant in the world.Since the Los Angles Olympic Games in 1984,the competitive sports of New China presented a rocketing development in the world.Based on the excellent performance of Chinese sports delegations in each Olympic Games and the Asian Games,this article draws the conclusion that:(1) the Chinese competitive sports has already powerful enough.(2) the Chinese competitive sports have stridden into one of the powerful sports nations in the international sports arena.(3) the Chinese competitive sports have already a front runner in Asia,and continually maintained this position.(4) the Chinese competitive sports have stepped into the 'developed period' of the international sports arena.

  1. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  2. Effect of increased

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  3. 真空、低能离子注入对人宫颈癌(HeLa)细胞中p53及c -fos mRNA的表达影响%Effect of Vacuum and Low-energy Ion Implantation on p53 and c -fos mRNA Expression in HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤秋; 方华圣; 押辉远; 秦广雍

    2008-01-01

    在具有高效护水功能石蜡油的保护下进行了人宫颈癌细胞(HeLa细胞)的低能离子注入及真空处理, 用荧光定量PCR的方法分别研究了真空和30 keV N+的不同注入剂量下, 细胞中p53基因和 c -fos基因的mRNA表达变化.结果表明, 上述两个基因的表达与真空及低能离子注入之间存在着剂量关系.

  4. An Approach of Constructing Multi-Objective Pareto Optimal Solutions Using Arena's Principle%用擂台赛法则构造多目标Pareto最优解集的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金华; 蒋浩; 邝达; 史忠植

    2007-01-01

    针对多目标进化的特点,提出了用擂台赛法则(arena's principle,简称AP)构造多目标Pareto最优解集的方法,论证了构造方法的正确性,分析了其时间复杂度为O(rmN)(0<m/N<1).理论上,当AP与Deb的算法以及Jensen的算法比较时(它们的时间复杂度分别为O(rN2)和O(Nlog(r-1)N)),AP优于Deb的算法;当目标数r较大时(如r(5),AP优于Jensen的算法;此外,当m/N较小时(如m/N(50%),AP的效率与其他两种算法比较具有优势.对比实验结果表明,AP具有比其他两种算法更好的CPU时间效率.在应用中,AP可以被集成到任何基于Pareto的MOEA中,并能在较大程度上提高MOEA的运行效率.

  5. Sujeitos do crime e da notícia: casos PCC e Liga da Justiça e as apropriações da arena midiática contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Daemon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propomos investigar os gestos de apropriação da arena midiática por sujeitos criminosos como emergência do fenômeno de midiatização da sociedade contemporânea. Mais do que autores de trajetórias delinquentes, estes se engajam na produção de relatos sobre si numa campanha midiatizada, cujo objetivo principal é a disputa pelo controle das construções simbólicas a seu respeito. Ao se deslocarem do lugar de receptores de conteúdos informativos, rompem a fronteira da audiência e tornam-se produtores de relatos midiáticos como instrumento de disputa por espaços de produção e transmissão dos relatos midiáticos. Para tanto, elegemos dois eventos emblemáticos – o sequestro do jornalista Guilherme Portanova pelo PCC e a publicação dos vídeos com “entrevistas-defesa” pelo chefe da milícia carioca Liga da Justiça –, para iniciarmos a reflexão a respeito dos efeitos da midiatização também sobre sujeitos

  6. 基于Arena的集装箱码头内部道路运输系统仿真研究%Simulation Research on Road Transport in Container Port Based on Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 王晓东; 邱梦; 吴贝

    2010-01-01

    研究了一个基于Arena的集装箱码头内部道路运输系统的仿真模型.由于码头内部的车辆按照调度计划行驶,研究者选择了常用于物流领域的仿真软件Arena,而非专业的道路仿真软件,丰富了对该系统的研究手段.在建立集装箱码头物流系统的稳态仿真模型的前提下,以集装箱为实体,内卡为特殊实体一运输工具,建立码头内部道路运输系统的模型.模型经过实际的码头设计方案检验,具有较大的应用价值.

  7. "O maior incêndio do planeta": como a Volkswagen e o regime militar brasileiro acidentalmente ajudaram a transformar a Amazônia em uma arena política global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Acker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo das décadas de 1970 e 1980, a Amazônia se tornou um símbolo de debates sobre o futuro do planeta, destacando não apenas riscos ecológicos, mas também conflitos fundiários e exploração humana, e provocando indignação muito além das fronteiras brasileiras. Com base em um estudo da fazenda de criação de gado Cristalino, estabelecida em 1973 pela Volkswagen com o apoio do regime militar, o artigo explora as razões da "globalização política" da Amazônia. Ao tentar atrair atenção internacional para suas políticas de colonização da floresta, que apresentaram como um modelo universal, o governo brasileiro e seus parceiros de negócios contribuíram involuntariamente para transformar a Amazônia em uma arena de controvérsias globais.

  8. Elementos para una estructuración ideológica y programática de los partidos en la arena parlamentaria: México, 1997-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jiménez Badillo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se circunscribe en el marco de los gobiernos sin mayorías parlamentarias que desde 1997 rige las relaciones entre los poderes Ejecutivo y Legislativo en México. Se propone determinar cómo los partidos de oposición definen su disposición a cooperar o no con el partido del Presidente, criterio fundamental para dar cuenta de su rol en la formulación de las políticas públicas. Los posicionamientos ideológicos y programáticos en una dimensión espacial de izquierda a derecha son útiles predictores actitudinales de comportamiento político- institucional de las élites parlamentarias y en este sentido, se hace posible determinar la distancia o proximidad entre los grupos parlamentarios, reflejada en su capacidad de integrar coaliciones de votación. La expectativa que rige el estudio propuesto es que los partidos en la arena legislativa votan de acuerdo a la ideología con la que se identifican.

  9. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  10. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. PMID:24034945

  11. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  12. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  13. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  14. Increasing hygiene productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2003-03-01

    Dentists have many opportunities to expand the role of dental hygienists and provide patients with better oral health care, while increasing production and profits. But the proper business systems and verbal skills need to be incorporated. You must train hygienists to do all they can do for every patient. Begin with one service and add others, as the hygienists becomes familiar with each one. Set a goal of a 15% increase in production per year for the hygiene department. Clinicians using these strategies have experienced as much as a 100% to 200% increase in hygiene revenue during the first year of incorporating these services. An added benefit is that these dentists often see a substantial increase in dental treatment diagnosis and case acceptance. An effective and efficient hygiene department will often identify and help secure more than 50% of a doctor's production.

  15. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  16. Mineralogía de arenas y limos en suelos, sedimentos fluviales y eólicos actuales del sector austral de la cuenca Chacoparanense: Regionalización y áreas de aporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Etchichury

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis mineralógicos de las fracciones arena fina y limo grueso de suelos y sedimentos actuales fluviales y eólicos de la pampa húmeda del norte de Santa Fe y parte de la Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos y Corrientes, permiten establecer dos zonas caracterizadas por sendas asociaciones mineralógicas genéticamente diferentes. En el área que comprende las provincias de Buenos Aires, noroeste de La Pampa, Córdoba, centro y sur de Santa Fe y sur de Entre Ríos, tanto los componentes pesados (hornblenda verde, basáltica, castaña, hipersteno, enstatita, augita, magnetita, hematita, ilmenita, leucoxeno, epidoto, zoicita como livianos (plagioclasas, litoclastos de volcanitas, vitroclastos, cuarzo, ortosa, tienen un origen volcánico piroclástico y derivan en gran parte de sedimentos pampeanos y postpampeanos a los que se añaden materiales propios de las volcanitas mesozoicas norpatagónicas, del basamento de Sierras Pampeanas y de las erupciones piroclásticas cuaternarias. En Corrientes y el norte de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos, la suite de minerales pesados (estaurolita, cianita, sillimanita, andalusita, hornblenda, epidoto, opacos refleja aporte metamórfico y la asociación de livianos (cuarzo mono y policristalino, ortosa, microclino, metamorfitas cuarzo-micáceas, arenitas cuarzosas, indica además contribución ígnea y sedimentaria procedente del cratón aflorante en Brasil y Uruguay y de las sucesiones sedimentarias superpuestas. La particular distribución de los materiales está condicionada a las diferentes direcciones de las redes de drenaje y a la acción de los vientos dominantes. La isopleta correspondiente al 30% de frecuencia del cuarzo marca el límite de las dos asociaciones mineralógicas.

  17. MANEJO DE RESÍDUOS DE DEMOLIÇÃO GERADOS DURANTE OBRAS DA ARENA DE FUTEBOL PALESTRA ITÁLIA (ALLIANZ PARQUE LOCALIZADA NA CIDADE DE SÃO PAULO/BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o incremento do crescimento econômico brasileiro e, por consequência, do nível de atividade da construção civil, a geração de resíduos provenientes deste setor consiste em um importante problema a ser sanado. Formas de reaproveitamento destes resíduos, muitas vezes na composição de novos materiais, e o desenvolvimento de modelos e ferramentas de gestão têm sido a tônica de diversos trabalhos apresentados ao meio técnico no intuito de se mitigar os efeitos causados pelo impacto da construção civil no meio ambiente, tanto natural, quanto urbano. Contudo, a ausência de políticas públicas objetivas que considerem como problema real a geração, manuseio e deposição destes resíduos ainda se constituem como importantes empecilhos na adoção de práticas de sustentabilidade. Este trabalho apresenta os aspectos gerais do manejo de resíduos gerados por operações de demolição das obras de reforma da Arena Palestra Itália (Allianz Parque localizada na cidade de São Paulo por meio de atividades de reciclagem e reuso destes materiais no canteiro das obras. Através dos parâmetros obtidos pôde-se observar que os resíduos produzidos foram predominantemente do tipo Classe A. A gestão dos resíduos produzidos na obra proporcionou ganhos econômicos significativos, uma vez em que foram reduzidos custos de transporte e aquisição de matérias primas naturais.

  18. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  19. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  20. An Arena of Comfort during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has consistently shown parents' nurturance, acceptance, affection, support, and attention to be positively related to their children's self-esteem. Absent in these investigations of the relationship between parental nurturance and self-esteem, however, has been a consideration of whether the nurturance bases upon which these "reflected…