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Sample records for arena increases c-fos

  1. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons......Serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus are thought to play an important role in the regulation of anxiety states. To investigate responses of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus to a mild anxiety-related stimulus, we exposed rats to an open-field, under low-light or high-light conditions...... within subdivisions of the midbrain raphe nuclei compared with CO rats. However, the total numbers of serotonergic neurons involved were small suggesting that exposure to the open-field may affect a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons. To determine if exposure to the open-field activates a subset...

  2. Overexpression of c-fos increases recombination frequency in human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, S; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P; Kaina, B

    1993-05-01

    We have shown previously that overexpression of c-Ha-ras, v-mos or c-fos increases the spontaneous level of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in NIH 3T3 cells, and that reduction of the Fos protein level inhibits aberration induction by c-Ha-ras and v-mos and also by irradiation with ultraviolet light (van den Berg et al., Mol. Carcinogenesis, 4, 460-466). In order to examine whether fos is also involved in DNA recombination, thymidine kinase (tk) deficient human osteosarcoma cells containing two versions of the herpes simplex virus tk gene inactivated by base insertion were either transiently or stably transfected with various fos expression plasmids. The frequency of tk+ revertants was significantly enhanced both upon transient transfection with RSV-promoter-fos gene constructs and by stimulation of Fos synthesis in stably transfected cells harbouring an inducible metallothionein promoter-fos construct. No such increases were observed in cells transfected with plasmids containing a truncated version of c-fos. The data indicate that c-fos is involved in generating various types of genetic changes including homologous recombination; a role of c-fos in genetic instability may contribute to its action in tumor promotion and progression.

  3. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum

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    D Necchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC, whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  4. MPTP-induced increase in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like immunoreactivity in the monkey cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, Daniela; Soldani, C; Ronchetti, F; Bernocchi, G; Scherini, E

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been described to be overexpressed following many pathological stimuli, but whether they are required for neurodegeneration or neuroprotection is still open. In the present report, we analyzed the role of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in Purkinje cell degeneration caused by the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) in the monkey cerebellum, and determined the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant drug a-dihydroergocryptine (DHEC), whose prior and simultaneous administration reduced the MPTP-induced neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins showed persistent increased staining in Purkinje cells of MPTP-treated monkeys. The staining was greatly reduced in animals receiving DHEC. Similar results were observed in white matter glial cells after immunoreaction for c-Fos. The results suggest that, at least as far as the cerebellum is concerned, the increase in c-Fos and c-Jun expression correlate with cell damage, rather than with preservation.

  5. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  6. Increase in c-Fos and Arc protein in retrosplenial cortex after memory-improving lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Elisabeth; Vico-Varela, Eva; Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Post-training Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), a kind of rewarding deep-brain stimulation, potentiates learning and memory and increases c-Fos protein expression in specific memory-related brain regions. In a previous study, Aldavert-Vera et al. (2013) reported that post-acquisition LH-ICSS improved 48 h retention of a delay two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) and induced c-Fos expression increase in CA3 at 90 min after administration. Nevertheless, this c-Fos induction was only observed after the acquisition session and not after the retention test at 48 h, when the ICSS improving effect was observed on memory. This current study aims to examine the hypothesis that post-training ICSS treatment may stimulate c-Fos expression at the time of the TWAA retention test in retrosplenial cortex (RSC), a hippocampus-related brain region more closely related with long-lasting memory storage. Effects of ICSS on Arc protein, a marker of memory-associated synaptic plasticity, were also measured by immunohistochemistry in granular and agranular RSC. The most innovative results are that the ICSS treatment potentiates the c-Fos induction across TWAA conditions (no conditioning, acquisition and retention), specifically in layer V of the granular RSC, along with increases of Arc protein levels in the granular but not in agranular areas of RSC ipsilaterally few hours after ICSS. This leads us to suggest that plasticity-related protein activation in the granular RSC could be involved in the positive modulatory effects of ICSS on TWAA memory consolidation, opening a new approach for future research in ICSS memory facilitation.

  7. LPS-induced c-Fos activation in NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol increases in septic rats are suppressed by bilateral carotid chemodenervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Edison-Pablo; Abarzúa, Sebastián; Martin, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Cortés, Paula P; Fernández, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered I.P. increases significantly the activation of c-Fos in neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which in turn activates hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The vagus nerve appears to play a role in conveying cytokines signals to the central nervous system (CNS), since -in rodent models of sepsis- bilateral vagotomy abolishes increases in plasmatic glucocorticoid levels, but does not suppress c-Fos NTS activation. Considering that NTS also receives sensory inputs from carotid body chemoreceptors, we evaluated c-Fos activation and plasmatic cortisol levels 90 min after I.P. administration of 15 mg/kg LPS. Experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, in control conditions and after bilateral carotid neurotomy (BCN). LPS administration significantly increases the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol levels in animals with intact carotid/sinus nerves. When LPS was injected after BCN, the number of c-Fos positive NTS neurons, and plasmatic cortisol levels were not significantly modified. Our data suggest that carotid body chemoreceptors might mediate CNS activation during sepsis.

  8. Puerarin reduces increased c-fos, c-jun, and type Ⅳ collagen expression caused by high glucose in glomerular mesangial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-ping MAO; Zhen-lun GU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Increased expression of c-fos, c-jun and type Ⅳ collagen (CoⅣ) in glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) are important characteristics of diabetic nephropathy.Both c-fos and c-jun regulate the gene expression of extracellular matrix components, and CoⅣ is the main component of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that puerarin inhibits aggregation of the extracellular matrix in diabetic rats by an as yet unknown mechanism. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of puerarin on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression in GMC cultured in medium containing 5.6 or 27.8 mmol/L glucose. Methods: The expressions ofc-fos and c-jun were measured at the protein level using flow cytometry. CoⅣ content was detected using radioimmunoassay. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was measured using liquid scintillation counting. Results: Puerarin (10-5 mmol/L) significantly ameliorated the high-glucose effect on c-fos, c-jun and CoⅣ expression.This effect is accompanied by a reduced PKC activity in these cells. Conclusion:Our results suggest that reduced PKC activity and expression of c-fos and c-jun in GMC might participate in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of puerarin on diabetic nephropathy.

  9. CGRP infusion in unanesthetized rats increases expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarius and caudal ventrolateral medulla, but not in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Ramachandran, Roshni; Christensen, Sarah Louise Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    sites in the brain stem for processing cardiovascular signals. We also investigated Zif268 protein expression (another immediate early gene) in TNC. The protein expression of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-Fos was analyzed in dura mater, trigeminal ganglion (TG) and TNC samples using Western blot. RESULTS: CGRP...... in the TNC was also not changed after CGRP infusion. p-ERK was increased in the dura mater 30 minutes after CGRP infusion. CONCLUSION: CGRP infusion increased the early expression of p-ERK in the dura mater but did not increase c-Fos and Zif268 expression in the TNC. The rats may, thus, differ from migraine...

  10. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (phamster.

  11. The reducing agent Dithiothreitol (DTT) increases expression of c-myc and c- fos protooncogenes in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Frandsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the possible tumour promoting activity of the food mutagen 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), by studying its influence on the expression of three genes considered to be of relevance in the tumour promotion step....... However, when cells were treated with DTT alone, the expression of c-fos and c-myc was also transiently induced. We therefore conclude that DTT, and not N-OH-PhIP, induced oncogene expression. Induction of both c-fos and c-mye expression by a reducing agent, DTT, which is frequently used in in vitro...

  12. Brain development is impaired in c-fos -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Fabiola N; Prucca, César G; Etienne, Olivier; D'Astolfo, Diego S; Silvestre, David C; Boussin, François D; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2015-07-10

    c-Fos is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse cellular functions. Its deregulation has been associated to abnormal development and oncogenic progression. c-fos-/- mice are viable but present a reduction in their body weight and brain size. We examined the importance of c-Fos during neocortex development at 13.5, 14.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. At E14.5, neocortex thickness, apoptosis, mitosis and expression of markers along the different stages of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells (NSPCs) differentiation in c-fos-/- and wild-type mice were analyzed. A ~15% reduction in the neocortex thickness of c-fos-/- embryos was observed which correlates with a decrease in the number of differentiated cells and an increase in apoptosis at the ventricular zone. No difference in mitosis rate was observed, although the mitotic angle was predominantly vertical in c-fos-/- embryos, suggesting a reduced trend of NSPCs to differentiate. At E13.5, changes in differentiation markers start to be apparent and are still clearly observed at E16.5. A tendency of more AP-1/DNA complexes present in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex from c-fos-/- embryos with no differences in the lipid synthesis activity was found. These results suggest that c-Fos is involved in the normal development of NSPCs by means of its AP-1 activity.

  13. CB1 Cannabinoid Agonist (WIN55,212-2) Within the Basolateral Amygdala Induced Sensitization to Morphine and Increased the Level of μ-Opioid Receptor and c-fos in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Marzieh; Fatahi, Zahra; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is rich of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) and has reciprocal connections with the nucleus accumbens (NAc) which is involved in opioid sensitization. In this study, effects of intra-BLA administration of CB1R agonist on sensitization to antinociceptive effect of morphine and changes in the levels of μ-opioid receptor (MOR), p-CREB, and c-fos in the NAc were investigated. Animals received intra-BLA microinjection of CB1R agonist (WIN55,212-2) once daily for 3 days consecutively (sensitization period). After 5 days free of drug, tail-flick test was performed before and after the administration of an ineffective dose of morphine. Afterward, the levels of MOR, p-CREB, and c-fos proteins were measured in the NAc by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that intra-BLA injection of WIN55,212-2 during sensitization period resulted in the induction of antinociceptive responses by ineffective dose of morphine and caused a significant increase in the MOR and c-fos levels but not p-CREB/CREB ratio in the NAc. These finding revealed that CB1 receptor agonist in the BLA induces development of morphine sensitization and increases expression of MOR in the NAc. It seems that c-fos is one of the important factors involved in the induction of sensitization to antinociceptive effect of morphine.

  14. H-ras transfection of the rat kidney cell line NRK-52E results in increased induction of c-fos, c-jun and hsp70 following sulofenur treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Smith, M W; Phelps, P C; Berezesky, I K; Merriman, R L; Boder, G B; Trump, B F

    1996-09-10

    The effect of the antineoplastic drug sulofenur on the induction of the immediate-early genes (IEG) c-fos and c-jun and the stress gene hsp70 was compared in the rat kidney epithelial-like cell line NRK-52E and a derivative H-ras-transfected (H/1.2NRK-52E) cell line. Fold induction for each gene after sulofenur (500 microM) treatment was greater in H/1.2NRK-52E. The maximum increases for NRK-2E and H/1.2NRK-52E were as follows: c-fos, approximately 10-fold and approximately 18-fold; c-jun, approximately 2.5-fold and approximately 3.6-fold; hsp70, approximately 13-fold and approximately 30-fold. In cells loaded with EGTA/AM or treated in low or no Ca2+ HBSS, c-fos induction was reduced similarly in both cell types. However, inhibition of protein kinases with staurosporin and calphostin C reduced c-fos by 80% in NRK-52E but by only 10-20% in H/1.2NRK.52E. These results indicate that sulofenur-induced IEG elevation is Ca(2+)-dependent and that the requirement for protein kinase C activation is bypassed in H-ras-transfected cells.

  15. Using c-fos as a neural marker of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J A

    1998-01-01

    Just over a decade has past since Hunt et al. reported that the gene c-fos and its protein product Fos are expressed in the spinal cord of rats subjected to peripheral noxious stimulation. These authors showed that noxious stimulation (application of radiant heat or mustard oil) to the hind paw resulted in a massive increase in the expression of Fos in neurons in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Since then, there has been an explosion of studies in which c-fos has been used to study nociception (pain), and the number of such studies increases each year. The net result has been to establish c-fos expression as a valuable tool in pain research. Moreover, recent studies have provided evidence identifying the role of c-fos expression in spinal nociceptive processes. However, there are several important limitations to the practice of using c-fos to study nociception, and these limitations can be easily overlooked as the practice graduates to the status of an established technique. The increasing use of c-fos to study nociception necessitates a critical review of the practice, identifying the shortcomings as well as the strengths of this tool.

  16. Anxiogenic-like activity of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine ("Ecstasy") in the social interaction test is accompanied by an increase of c-fos expression in mice amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José Francisco; Rivera, Alicia; Maldonado, Enrique; Cavas, María; de la Calle, Adelaida

    2004-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic amphetamine popularly known as "Ecstasy." Animal studies examining acute effects of MDMA on anxiety are unclear because although an anxiolytic-like action of MDMA in different animal models of anxiety has been described, there is also substantial evidence supporting an anxiogenic-like effect of this drug. To date, several studies have examined c-fos expression following MDMA administration in rats. However, there is no information about the MDMA-induced c-fos expression in mice previously tested in an animal model of anxiety. In this study, male mice were injected with MDMA (1, 8 and 15 mg/kg ip) and assessed for changes on anxiety and for the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the amygdala (central, basolateral and basomedial). Anxiety was evaluated by the "social interaction test." Ten behavioral categories were recorded: body care, digging, nonsocial exploration, exploration from a distance, social investigation, threat, attack, avoidance/flee, defense/submission and immobility. As compared with the control group, mice treated with MDMA (all doses) showed a decrease in mean duration and total time spent in social investigation behaviors, whereas avoidance/flee behaviors were significantly increased after treatment with this compound (8 and 15 mg/kg). Likewise, a significant increase in c-fos expression was found in the basolateral (all doses) and central (15 mg/kg) amygdala after MDMA administration. Overall, these findings indicate that MDMA exhibits an anxiogenic-like profile in the social interaction test in mice, and that central and basolateral amygdala might be involved in these anxiogenic-like effects of the drug.

  17. The effect of c-fos on acute myocardial infarction and the significance of metoprolol intervention in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Zhang, Meiqi; Goldstein, Steven; Li, Yigang; Ge, Junbo; He, Ben; Ruiz, George

    2013-03-01

    Over-expression of c-fos may play a role in some diseases. Research pertaining to the expression of c-fos in acute myocardial ınfarction (AMI) is rare, and the detailed role of c-fos in AMI has not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to elucidate the detailed effect of c-fos on AMI rats and evaluate the effect of a metoprolol intervention. An AMI rat model was established for the purposes of this study. The expression of c-fos in AMI was evaluated via immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization. Simultaneously, we investigated the effect of c-fos on AMI rats via medicinal treatment with c-fos monoclonal antibody, isoproterenol, and metoprolol. Positive c-Fos protein expression and c-fos mRNA expression in cardiomyocytes were increased at 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after ligation in AMI rats compared with a sham-operated group. Peak expression occurred at 3 days after ligation. The weight percentage fraction of infarct size was decreased in rats treated with c-fos monoclonal antibody compared with the control normal saline treatment group. The weight percentage fraction of infarction size was increased after c-fos was increased via the administration of isoproterenol. c-Fos protein expression and the infarct size in rats treated with metoprolol were also decreased compared with the control normal saline treatment group. The results showed that c-fos expression rapidly increased after coronary ligation; c-fos plays an important role in myocardial lesions and is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AMI as well. Metoprolol can inhibit the expression of c-fos and has a positive therapeutic effect on rats after AMI; the involvement effect of metoprolol on myocardial infarction might be correlated with its effect on the inhibition of c-fos.

  18. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.;

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections...... amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual...

  19. A Simple Method for Immunohistochemical Staining of Zebrafish Brain Sections for c-fos Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Tran, Steven; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) are transcription factors whose own transcription is initiated rapidly, for example, in the brain in response to environmental stimuli. c-fos is an IEG often used as a marker of neuronal activation. c-fos mRNA expression has started to be quantified and localized in the zebrafish brain following environmental manipulations but analysis of the expression of c-fos protein in the zebrafish brain has rarely been attempted. Here, we describe an immunofluorescence staining method for quantifying c-fos protein expression in different regions of the zebrafish brain. In addition, we expose zebrafish to caffeine, a positive control for c-fos activation in the brain. To confirm cell nucleus specific binding of the c-fos antibody, we counterstained brain sections with the nuclear fluorescent stain DAPI. Furthermore, we describe a method for reducing background autofluorescence often observed in zebrafish brain tissue. Our analysis showed that exposure to caffeine increased the number of c-fos protein-positive cells in specific zebrafish brain regions detected by the immunofluorescence method. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of immunofluorescence-based methods in the analysis of neuronal activation in the zebrafish brain, and reinforce the utility of the zebrafish in behavioral neuroscience research.

  20. d-LSD-induced c-Fos expression occurs in a population of oligodendrocytes in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J; Rabin, Richard A; Winter, Jerrold C; Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2008-03-31

    Induction of mRNA or protein for immediate-early genes, such as c-fos, is used to identify brain areas, specific cell types, and neuronal circuits that become activated in response to various stimuli including psychoactive drugs. The objective of the present study was to identify the cell types in the prefrontal cortex in which lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces c-Fos expression. Systemic administration of d-LSD resulted in a dose-dependent increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity. Although c-Fos-positive cells were found in all cortical layers, they were most numerous in layers III, IV, and V. d-LSD-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in cells co-labeled with anti-neuron-specific enolase or anti-oligodendrocyte Oligo1. The Oligo1-labeled cells had small, round bodies and nuclear diameters characteristic of oligodendrocytes. Studies using confocal microscopy confirmed colocalization of c-Fos-labeled nuclei in NeuN-labeled neurons. Astrocytes and microglia labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody and OX-42 antibody, respectively, did not display LSD-induced c-Fos expression. Pyramidal neurons labeled with anti-neurofilament antibody also did not show induction of c-Fos immunoreactivity after systemic d-LSD administration. The present study demonstrates that d-LSD induced expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex occurs in subpopulations of neurons and in oligodendrocytes, but not in pyramidal neurons, astrocytes, and microglia.

  1. c-fos and its Consequences in Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Ismail, Zalina

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that c-fos, a proto-oncogene, has a role in pain, has triggered extensive research on the consequences of c-fos expression. It has been shown that c-fos, through its protein form, FOS, leads to expression of dynorphin gene and subsequently dynorphin protein which is implicated in the development of a pain state. This mini review looks at the properties of c-fos and the consequences of its expression following noxious (painful) stimulation.

  2. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States)); Janssen, Y.M. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (United States) Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1993-04-15

    To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, E; Bregains, J; Relova-Quinteiro, J L; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Jorge-Barreiro, F J; Ares-Pena, F J

    2009-05-01

    The action of the pulse-modulated GSM radiofrequency of mobile phones has been suggested as a physical phenomenon that might have biological effects on the mammalian central nervous system. In the present study, GSM-exposed picrotoxin-pretreated rats showed differences in clinical and EEG signs, and in c-Fos expression in the brain, with respect to picrotoxin-treated rats exposed to an equivalent dose of unmodulated radiation. Neither radiation treatment caused tissue heating, so thermal effects can be ruled out. The most marked effects of GSM radiation on c-Fos expression in picrotoxin-treated rats were observed in limbic structures, olfactory cortex areas and subcortical areas, the dentate gyrus, and the central lateral nucleus of the thalamic intralaminar nucleus group. Nonpicrotoxin-treated animals exposed to unmodulated radiation showed the highest levels of neuronal c-Fos expression in cortical areas. These results suggest a specific effect of the pulse modulation of GSM radiation on brain activity of a picrotoxin-induced seizure-proneness rat model and indicate that this mobile-phone-type radiation might induce regional changes in previous preexcitability conditions of neuronal activation.

  4. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Overexpression of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Li Yang; Bo Xu; Yu-Gang Song; Wan-Dai Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore dysregulation of c-fos in several human malignancies, and to further investigate the role of c-fos in Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori)-induced gastric precancerosis.METHODS: Four-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were H. pyloriNCTC 11 637 in Brucella broth were inoculated orally into 20 Mongolian gerbils. Another 20 gerbils were inoculated with Brucella broth as controls. 10 of the infected gerbils and 10 of the non- infected control gerbils were sacrificed at 25 and 45 weeks after infection. The stomach of each gerbil was removed and opened for macroscopic observation. The expression of c-fos was analyzed by RTPCR and immunohistochemical studies in H. pylori-induced gastric precancerosis of Mongolian gerbil. Half of each gastric antrum mucosa was dissected for RNA isolation and RTPCR. β-actin was used as the housekeeping gene and amplified with c-fos as contrast. PCR products of c-fos were analyzed by gel image system and the level of c-fos was reflected with the ratio of c-fos/β-actin. The immunostaining for c-foswas conducted using monoclonal antibody of c-fosand the StreptAvidin-Biotin-enzyme Complex kit.RESULTS: H. pyloriwas constantly found in all infected animals in this study. After infection of H. Pylorifor 25 weeks,ulcers were observed in the antral and the body of stomach of 60 % infected animals (6/10). Histological examination showed that all animals developed severe inflammation, especially in the area close to ulcers, and multifocal lymphoid follicles appeared in the lamina propria and submucosa. After infection of H. Pylorifor 45 weeks, severe atrophic gastritis in all infected animals, intestinal metaplasia in 80 % infected animals (8/10) and dysplasia in 60 % infected animals (6/10) could be observed. C-fos mRNA levels were significantlyhigher after infection of H. pylorifor 25 weeks (1.84±0.79),and for 45 weeks (1.59±0.37) than those in control-animals (0.74±0.22, P<0.01). C-fos mRNA levels were increased 2.5-fold by 25th

  6. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway.

  7. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Danfeng; Li, Meifang; Zhang, Yuehui; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Hua; Wu, Wanting; Ma, Wanying; Quan, Kewei; Ng, Ernest H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs) with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway. PMID:28167972

  8. Suppression of prostaglandin E(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction by interleukin-4 in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, D; Kawajiri, H; Takahashi, Y; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-03-01

    When murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated for 30 min with arachidonic acid, the growth-associated immediate early gene c-fos was induced in a concentration-dependent manner as assessed by Northern blot analysis. The arachidonic acid-induced c-fos mRNA expression was inhibited by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Macrophages produced prostaglandin (PG) E(2) from arachidonic acid as determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of PGE receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes, but not EP1 and EP3 in murine macrophages. PGE(2) brought about a marked elevation of cAMP, and c-fos mRNA expression was increased by PGE(2) and dibutyryl cAMP in these cells. These results suggest that arachidonic acid is transformed to PGE(2), which then binds to EP2 and EP4 receptors to increase intracellular cAMP and c-fos mRNA expression. Furthermore, the induction of c-fos by arachidonic acid, PGE(2), and cAMP was suppressed by pretreatment with interleukin (IL)-4. We also showed that the tyrosine phosphorylation of a Janus kinase, JAK3, is enhanced by IL-4 treatment, suggesting that the PGE(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction is inhibited by IL-4 through the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3.

  9. The expression of c-Fos and colocalisation of c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors in brain structures of low and high anxiety rats subjected to extinction trials and re-learning of a conditioned fear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Małgorzata; Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Taracha, Ewa; Maciejak, Piotr; Szyndler, Janusz; Skórzewska, Anna; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Hamed, Adam; Bidziński, Andrzej; Płaźnik, Adam

    2009-11-01

    We designed an animal model to examine the mechanisms of differences in individual responses to aversive stimuli. We used the rat freezing response in the context fear test as a discriminating variable: low responders (LR) were defined as rats with a duration of freezing response one standard error or more below the mean value, and high responders (HR) were defined as rats with a duration of freezing response one standard error or more above the mean value. We sought to determine the colocalisation of c-Fos and glucocorticoid receptors-immunoreactivity (GR-ir) in HR and LR rats subjected to conditioned fear training, two extinction sessions and re-learning of a conditioned fear. We found that HR animals showed a marked decrease in conditioned fear in the course of two extinction sessions (16 days) in comparison with the control and LR groups. The LR group exhibited higher activity in the cortical M2 and prelimbic areas (c-Fos) and had an increased number of cells co-expressing c-Fos and GR-ir in the M2 and medial orbital cortex after re-learning a contextual fear. HR rats showed increased expression of c-Fos, GR-ir and c-Fos/GR-ir colocalised neurons in the basolateral amygdala and enhanced c-Fos and GR-ir in the dentate gyrus (DG) in comparison with LR animals. Our data indicate that recovery of a context-related behaviour upon re-learning of contextual fear is accompanied in HR animals by a selective increase in c-Fos expression and GRs-ir in the DG area of the hippocampus.

  10. Neuronal expression of c-Fos after epicortical and intracortical electric stimulation of the primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyazi, Belal; Schwabe, Kerstin; Alam, Mesbah; Krauss, Joachim K; Nakamura, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex (V1) is an experimental approach for visual prostheses. We here compared the response to intracortical and epicortical stimulation of the primary visual cortex by using c-Fos immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. The primary visual cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats was unilaterally stimulated for four hours using bipolar electrodes placed either intracortically in layer IV (n=26) or epicortically (n=20). Four different current intensities with a constant pulse width of 200μs and a constant frequency of 10Hz were used, for intracortical stimulation with an intensity of 0μA (sham-stimulation), 10μA, 20μA and 40μA, and for epicortical stimulation 0μA, 400μA, 600μA and 800μA. Subsequently all animals underwent c-Fos immunostaining and c-Fos expression was assessed in layer I-VI of the primary visual cortex within 200μm and 400μm distance to the stimulation site. C-Fos expression was higher after intracortical stimulation compared to epicortical stimulation, even though ten times lower current intensities were applied. Furthermore intracortical stimulation resulted in more focal neuronal activation than epicortical stimulation. C-Fos expression was highest after intracortical stimulation with 20μA compared to all other intensities. Epicortical stimulation showed a linear increase of c-Fos expression with the highest expression at 800μA. Sham stimulation showed similar expression of c-Fos in both hemispheres. The contralateral hemisphere was not affected by intracortical or epicortical stimulation of either intensities. In summary, intracortical stimulation resulted in more focal neuronal activation with less current than epicortical stimulation. This model may be used as a simple but reliable model to evaluate electrodes for microstimulation of the primary visual cortex before testing in more complex settings.

  11. c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Wada

    Full Text Available The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5 that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2 or toward the second stimulus (n = 3 after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

  12. Effects of acute millimeter wave exposure on the expression of substance P and c-fos in rat spinal cord

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    Yan-wen ZHANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the expression changes in substance P (SP and c-fos in rat spinal cord after acute millimeter-wave (MMW exposure, and explore the mechanism of thermal hyperalgesia at the spinal level. Methods  The back skin of SD rats was exposed to 35 GHz MMW (40W/cm2 for 0s (control group, 30s, 1min, or 3min. The corresponding segment of the spinal cord was taken at 0min, 5min, 10min, 1h and 3h after MMW irradiation for total RNA and protein extraction. The expressions of SP and c-fos mRNA were measured by real-time RT-PCR, and the expression of c-fos protein was detected by Western blotting. Results  No significant difference was found between the control group and irradiation groups in SP and c-fos mRNA expression in the corresponding segment of spinal cord after MMW irradiation for 30s. After MMW irradiation for 1min, the SP and c-fos mRNA expressions in the corresponding segment of spinal cord increased significantly at 10min time point, and then decreased to the level of control group. After MMW irradiation for 3min, the SP and c-fos mRNA expression in the corresponding segment of spinal cord increased significantly at 5min, 10min and 1h time points, and decreased to the level of control group at 3h. No significant change was found in c-fos protein expression in the corresponding segment of spinal cord after MMW irradiation for 30s and 1min. After MMW irradiation for 3min, the c-fos protein expression in the corresponding segment of spinal cord increased significantly at 5min and 10min time point, and then decreased to the level of control group. Conclusion  The increase of SP expression in rat skin after MMW irradiation may be related to the increase of SP and c-fos expressions in the corresponding segment of the spinal cord induced by thermal pain stimulation.

  13. Expression and localization of c-Fos and NOS in the central nerve system following esophageal acid stimulation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Shuai; Peng-Yan Xie

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of neurons expressing c-Fos and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central nerve system (CNS) following esophageal acid exposure, and to investigate the relationship between c-Fos and NOS.METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. Hydrochloric acid with pepsin was perfused in the lower part of the esophagus for 60 min. As a control,normal saline was used. Thirty minutes after the perfusion,the rats were killed and brains were removed and processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry and NADPH-d histochemistry.Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) during the experimental procedures were recorded every 10 min.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in BP, HR and RR between the two groups. c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased in rats receiving acid plus pepsin perfusion in amygdala (AM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN),parabrachial nucleus (PBN), nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (NTS/DMV), nucleus ambiguous (NA), reticular nucleus of medulla (RNM) and area postrema (AP). NOS reactivity in this group was significantly increased in PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP. c-Fos and NOS had significant correlation between PVN, PBN, NTS/DMV, RNM and AP.CONCLUSION: Acid plus pepsin perfusion of the esophagus results in neural activation in areas of CNS,and NO is likely one of the neurotransmitters in some of these areas.

  14. [Expression of c-fos mRNA following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, G; Sun, G; Liu, M; Liao, Z; Wu, J; Wu, M

    2000-09-01

    This experiment was designed to study the expression of c-fos mRNA in brain following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats and to observe the temporal pattern of its expressions following percussion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury groups. The rats of the injury group were subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 MPa). The injury group was then subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA was studied with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) semi-quantitatively. c-fos mRNA in cortex and brain stem was expressed weakly in control groups. After 5 min of percussion, the expression of c-fos mRNA increased progressively and remained elevated up to 2 h after brain injury. This result suggested that the induction and expression of the c-fos mRNA in cortex and brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly. The temporal pattern of induction in cortex was similar to that in brain stem.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  16. Growth of peripheral and central nervous system tumors is supported by cytoplasmic c-Fos in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Silvestre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is also capable of associating to endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER and activating phospholipid synthesis. Herein we examined phospholipid synthesis status in brain tumors from human patients and from NPcis mice, an animal model of the human disease Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human samples, c-Fos expression was at the limit of detection in non-pathological specimens, but was abundantly expressed associated to ER membranes in tumor cells. This was also observed in CNS of adult tumor-bearing NPcis mice but not in NPcis fos(-/- KO mice. A glioblastoma multiforme and a malignant PNS tumor from a NF1 patient (MPNST showed a 2- and 4- fold c-Fos-dependent phospholipid synthesis activation, respectively. MPNST samples also showed increased cell proliferation rates and abundant c-Fos expression. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight a role of cytoplasmic c-Fos as an activator of phospholipid synthesis in events demanding high rates of membrane biogenesis as occurs for the exacerbated growth of tumors cells. They also disclose this protein as a potential target for controlling tumor growth in the nervous system.

  17. Effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in mice brain regions implicated in schizophrenia and antagonistic action of clozapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Dai-ying; CAO Yue; ZHANG Lan; WANG Hai-feng; WU Ying-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 on c-Fos protein expression in different brain regions of mice and antagonistic action of clozapine. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein. Results MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) acute administration produced a significant increase in the expression of c-Fos protein in the layers Ⅲ-Ⅳ of posterior cingulate and retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex, which was consistent with the previous reports. Moreover, we presented a new finding that MK-801 (0.6 mg·kg-1) chronic administration for 8 days produced a significant increase of c-Fos protein expression in the PC/RS cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus of mice. Among that, c-Fos protein expression in the PC/ RS cortex of mice was most significant. Compared acute administration with chronic administration, we found that MK-801 chronic administration significantly increased the expression of c-Fos protein in the PC/ RS cortex, PFC and hypothalamus. Furthermore, pretreatment of mice with clozapine significantly decreased the expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 acute and chronic administration. Conclusions Marked expression of c-Fos protein induced by MK-801 is associated with neurotransmitters' change noted in our previous studies, and c-Fos protein, the marker of neuronal activation, might play an important role in the chronic pathophysiological process of schizophrenic model induced by NMDA receptor antagonist.

  18. Bilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex differentially modify haloperidol- and olanzapine-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, A; Coutureau, E; Thiriet, N; Herbeaux, K; Zwiller, J; Di Scala, G; Will, B; Majchrzak, M

    2003-08-01

    Lesions of the entorhinal cortex are now an accepted model for mimicking some of the neuropathological aspects of schizophrenia, since evidence has accumulated for the presence of cytoarchitectonic abnormalities within this cortex in schizophrenic patients. The present study was undertaken to address the functional consequences of bilateral entorhinal cortex lesions on antipsychotic-induced c-fos expression. After a 15-day recovery period, the effect of a typical antipsychotic, haloperidol (1 mg/kg), on c-fos mRNA expression was compared with that of an atypical one, olanzapine (10 mg/kg), in both sham-lesioned and entorhinal cortex-lesioned rats. In sham-lesioned rats, both haloperidol and olanzapine induced c-fos expression in the caudal cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell and lateral septum. In addition, olanzapine, but not haloperidol, increased c-fos expression within the central amygdala. In entorhinal cortex-lesioned rats, haloperidol-induced c-fos expression was markedly reduced in most areas. In contrast, the olanzapine-induced c-fos expression was not altered in the nucleus accumbens shell and lateral septum of the lesioned rats. These findings reveal that entorhinal cortex lesions affect c-fos expression in a compound- and regional-dependent manner. Our results further emphasize the importance of the exploration of the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs in the context of an associated cortical pathology.

  19. Effect of growth hormone and serum on the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun was analysed in the insulin producing rat tumor cell line, RIN 5AH. Addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) to serum-starved cells in the presence of cycloheximid induced a modest increase in c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels, whereas growth hormone (GH......RNA levels. These results suggest that the effects of GH on insulin producing cells are not mediated by activation of c-fos and c-jun transcription....

  20. c-Fos positive nucleus reveals that contextual specificity of latent inhibition is dependent of insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Esperanza; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Diaz, Estrella; Escarabajal, María Dolores; Carrasco, Manuel; López, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The present study analyzed the functional activity of granular and agranular insular cortices in contextual specificity of latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. c-Fos immunolabeling was examined in insular cortex in preexposed and no preexposed groups under similar and different context conditions. Result showed that the exposition to a novel taste increased c-fos activity in insular cortex. However, a context shift caused an increase in immunolabeling in animals preexposed to saccharine. These results suggest insular cortex is part of a complex system to evaluate taste-response, and it may read the meaning of taste stimuli depending on the context.

  1. Peripheral injection of bombesin induces c-Fos in NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Kim-Marie; Kroczek, Arthur L; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas; Kobelt, Peter

    2016-10-01

    As anorexigenic hormones bombesin and nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 decrease food intake in rodents. Both hormones have been described in brain nuclei that play a role in the modulation of hunger and satiety, like the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). However, the direct interaction of the two hormones is unknown so far. The aim of study was to elucidate whether bombesin directly interacts with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and NTS. Therefore, we injected bombesin intraperitoneally (ip) at two doses (26 and 32nmol/kg body weight) and assessed c-Fos activation in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and NTS compared to vehicle treated rats (0.15M NaCl). We also performed co-localization studies with oxytocin or tyrosine hydroxylase. Bombesin at both doses increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in the PVN (pNTS (p0.05). In the PVN and NTS the number of c-Fos positive neurons colocalized with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increased after bombesin injection compared to vehicle treatment (pNTS (pNTS giving rise to a possible interaction between bombesin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the modulation of food intake.

  2. Anxiety-like behaviour and c-fos expression in rats that inhaled vetiver essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Pongmayteegul, Sirinun; Marsden, Charles A; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver essential oil (VEO) has been used in aromatherapy for relaxation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEO on an anxiety-related behavioural model (the elevated plus-maze, EPM) and immediate-early gene c-fos in amygdala, known to be involved in anxiety. Male Wistar rats were administered diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 30 min or inhalated with VEO (1%, 2.5% or 5% w/w) for 7 min prior to exposure to the EPM. Then, the effects of 2.5% VEO, the anxiolytic dose, on c-fos expression in amygdala were investigated. The rats given either 2.5% VEO or diazepam exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM. VEO and diazepam significantly increased c-fos expression in the lateral division of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeL). Therefore, the anxiolytic properties of VEO might be associated with altering neuronal activation in CeL. However, future studies are needed to investigate the precise mechanism of action of VEO.

  3. Thermal injuries induce gene expression of endogenous c-fos, c-myc and bFGF in burned tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 顾小曼; 孙同柱; 杨银辉; 孙晓庆; 盛志勇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression sequence and distribution characteristics of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and endogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF ) genes in burned tissues, and to explore the possible effects of changes in the se genes' functions on wound healing. Methods Partial-thickness burns of 30% TBSA were established on backs of Wistar rats. Insitu hybridization and histological methods were used to detect expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF genes in normal and burned tissue at 3 h, 6 h, 1 d, 3 d , 7 d and 14 d postburn. Results Although expression of c-fos and c-myc genes and bFGF gene could be found in normal skin, the expression of all three were markedly induced by burn wounds and the expression models in sequence and distribution were quite different. Expre ssion of c-fos gene increased and peaked at 6 h. Signals were mainly localiz ed in both nuclei of dermal fibroblasts and monocytes. The expression of bFGF gene increased at 6 h and peaked at 1 d postburn, and was distributed in the cyt oplasm of fibroblasts. C-myc gene peaked 3 d postburn and was also distributed in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. Conclusions These results indicated that thermal injury could induce the expression of c-fos, c-myc and bFGF at gene level, showing phasic control and regional distributi on. The phasic expression of these genes suggests that there is an interaction between protooncogenes and bFGF, which may play an important role in wound heali ng. The different expressions of c-fos and c-myc play an inducing role in reg ulating bFGF, and in turn affect wound healing.

  4. Expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes in the uteri of immature mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takayanagi, A; Shimizu, N

    2003-01-01

    We studied the cell-type-specific and temporal expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes after 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulation in the uteri of immature 3-week-old mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES), DES-mice, and the ontogenic expression of these genes in the uteri of DES-mice using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A single E2 injection induced the transient and rapid expression of c-fos mRNA and c-Fos protein in the endometrial epithelium and endothelial cells of the blood vessels in both 3-week-old vehicle-treated controls and DES-mice; a peak of mRNA expression was 2 hours after E2 injection and that of protein expression was 2 to 3 hours after the injection. The expression of c-fos mRNA and protein after E2 stimulation was lower in the DES-mice than in the control animals. There were no significant differences in the c-jun expression patterns in both experimental groups before and after the E2 injection. The E2 injection transiently down-regulated the c-jun expression in the epithelium and up-regulated it in the stroma and myometrium. The uterine epithelium of DES-mice showed much stronger c-Jun immunostaining on days 4 and 10, compared with those of controls. Neonatal DES treatment reduced c-Jun immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium on days 4 and 10, and increased the reaction in the stroma on day 4. These results suggested that the neonatal DES treatment induces permanent changes in the c-fos expression pattern independent of the postpuberal secretion of ovarian steroids. The changes in the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes, particularly during postnatal development, are likely to play important roles in the production of uterine abnormalities in the DES-mice.

  5. The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) induces the immediate-early gene c-Fos in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Paul S; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2002-12-27

    The hallucinogen d-lysergic acid diethylamide (d-LSD) evokes dramatic somatic and psychological effects. In order to analyze the neural activation induced by this unique psychoactive drug, we tested the hypothesis that expression of the immediate-early gene product c-Fos is induced in specific regions of the rat forebrain by a relatively low, behaviorally active, dose of d-LSD (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.); c-Fos protein expression was assessed at 30 min, and 1, 2 and 4 h following d-LSD injection. A time- and region-dependent expression of c-Fos was observed with a significant increase (PLSD administration. These data demonstrate a unique pattern of c-Fos expression in the rat forebrain following a relatively low dose of d-LSD and suggest that activation of these forebrain regions contributes to the unique behavioral effects of d-LSD.

  6. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

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    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. SUMOylation of the inducible (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex occurs on target promoters to limit transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempé, D; Vives, E; Brockly, F; Brooks, H; De Rossi, S; Piechaczyk, M; Bossis, G

    2014-02-13

    The inducible proto-oncogenic (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex binds 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) in its target genes. It is tightly controlled at multiple levels to avoid the deleterious effects of its inappropriate activation. In particular, SUMOylation represses its transactivation capacity in transient reporter assays using constitutively expressed proteins. This led to the presumption that (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation would be required to turn-off transcription of its target genes, as proposed for various transcription factors. Instead, thanks to the generation of an antibody specific for SUMO-modified c-Fos, we provide here direct evidence that SUMOylated c-Fos is present on a stably integrated reporter TPA-inducible promoter at the onset of transcriptional activation and colocalizes with RNA polymerase II within chromatin. Interestingly, (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation limits reporter gene induction, as well as the appearance of active transcription-specific histone marks on its promoter. Moreover, non-SUMOylatable mutant (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 dimers accumulate to higher levels on their target promoter, suggesting that SUMOylation might facilitate the release of (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 from promoters. Finally, activation of GADD153, an AP-1 target gene, is also associated with a rapid increase in SUMOylation at the level of its TRE and c-Fos SUMOylation dampens its induction by TPA. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation could serve to buffer transcriptional activation of AP-1 target genes.

  8. Expression of c-fos mRNA following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-fos mRNA in brain following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expression following percussion. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury group. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa). The injury groups were then subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1h, 2h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA was studied with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) semi-quantitatively.RESULTS: At 5 min after percussion, the induction of c-fos mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 2 h after brain injury.CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-fos mRNA in cortex and brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly.

  9. Reduced responsiveness to long-term monocular deprivation of parvalbumin neurons assessed by c-Fos staining in rat visual cortex.

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    Marco Mainardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that visual cortical cells homogeneously shift their ocular dominance (OD in response to monocular deprivation (MD, however little experimental evidence directly supports this notion. By using immunohistochemistry for the activity-dependent markers c-Fos and Arc, coupled with staining for markers of inhibitory cortical sub-populations, we studied whether long-term MD initiated at P21 differentially affects visual response of inhibitory neurons in rat binocular primary visual cortex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The inhibitory markers GAD67, parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB and calretinin (CR were used. Visually activated Arc did not colocalize with PV and was discarded from further studies. MD decreased visually induced c-Fos activation in GAD67 and CR positive neurons. The CB population responded to MD with a decrease of CB expression, while PV cells did not show any effect of MD on c-Fos expression. The persistence of c-Fos expression induced by deprived eye stimulation in PV cells is not likely to be due to a particularly low threshold for activity-dependent c-Fos induction. Indeed, c-Fos induction by increasing concentrations of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin in visual cortical slices was similar between PV cells and the other cortical neurons. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that PV cells are particularly refractory to MD, suggesting that different cortical subpopulation may show different response to MD.

  10. Expression of c-fos in Rat Brain as a Prelude Marker of Central Nervous System Injury in Response to Methylmercury-stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To probe into the prelude marker of central nervous system injury in response to methyl mercury chloride (MMC) stimulation and the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain induced by MMC. Methods The expression of c-fos mRNA in brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The control group was injected with physiological saline of 0.9%, while the concentrations for the exposure groups were 0.05 and 0.5,5 mg/kg MMC respectively, and the sampling times points were 20, 60, 240, 1440 min. Results The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus increased significantly, the accumulation of mercury in the brain induced by 0.05 mg/Kg MMC for 20 min had no significant difference compared with the control group. The mean value was 0.0044 mg/Kg, while the protein c-FOS expression had significant difference compared with the control group (P<0.01). More sensitive expression occurred in hippocampus and cortex, but not in ependyma. Conclusion The expression of c-FOS protein in cortex and hippocampus can predict the neurotoxicity of MMC in the early time, and immediately early gene (IEG) c-fos participates in the process of brain injury induced by MMC.

  11. Influence of sleep deprivation on expression of MKK4 and c-fos in the mandibular condylar cartilage of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinlong; Wu, Gaoyi; Zhu, Guoxiong; Wang, Peihuan; Chen, Hongyu; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and c-fos in the mandibular condylar cartilage of rats that had been subjected to sleep deprivation. One hundred and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups with 20 in each: sleep deprivation for 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days, large-platform controls, and cage controls. After sleep deprivation by the modified multiple platform method the sleep-deprived rats were killed. The large-platform and cage control rats were killed at the same time as the rats deprived of sleep for 8 days. Haematoxylin and eosin were used to record the morphological changes in cartilage, and immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect the expression of MKK4 and c-fos. Pathological alterations were apparent after 6 and 8 days of sleep deprivation. Compared with control groups, the expression of MKK4 in the sleep-deprived groups was lower, while that of c-fos was higher. As the duration of sleep deprivation increased, the expression of MKK4 decreased. These results indicate that the variation in expression of MKK4 and c-fos may be correlated with pathological changes induced by sleep deprivation in mandibular condylar cartilage in rats.

  12. A novel mouse c-fos intronic promoter that responds to CREB and AP-1 is developmentally regulated in vivo.

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    Vincent Coulon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The c-fos proto-oncogene is an archetype for rapid and integrative transcriptional activation. Innumerable studies have focused on the canonical promoter, located upstream from the transcriptional start site. However, several regulatory sequences have been found in the first intron. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe an extremely conserved region in c-fos first intron that contains a putative TATA box, and functional TRE and CRE sites. This fragment drives reporter gene activation in fibroblasts, which is enhanced by increasing intracellular calcium and cAMP and by cotransfection of CREB or c-Fos/c-Jun expression vectors. We produced transgenic mice expressing a lacZ reporter controlled by the intronic promoter. Lac Z expression of this promoter is restricted to the developing central nervous system (CNS and the mesenchyme of developing mammary buds in embryos 12.5 days post-conception, and to brain tissue in adults. RT-QPCR analysis of tissue mRNA, including the anlage of the mammary gland and the CNS, confirms the existence of a novel, nested mRNA initiated in the first intron. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for a novel, developmentally regulated promoter in the first intron of the c-fos gene.

  13. Environmental enrichment and gut inflammation modify stress-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse corticolimbic system.

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    Florian Reichmann

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS or an internal (systemic stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex - amygdala - hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external

  14. Social and environmental contexts modulate sleep deprivation-induced c-Fos activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurveilher, Samuel; Ryan, Nathan; Burns, Joan; Semba, Kazue

    2013-11-01

    People often sleep deprive themselves voluntarily for social and lifestyle reasons. Animals also appear to stay awake longer as a result of their natural curiosity to explore novel environments and interact socially with conspecifics. Although multiple arousal systems in the brain are known to act jointly to promote and maintain wakefulness, it remains unclear whether these systems are similarly engaged during voluntary vs. forced wakefulness. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we compared neuronal responses in rats deprived of sleep for 2 h by gentle sensory stimulation, exploration under social isolation, or exploration with social interaction, and rats under undisturbed control conditions. In many arousal, limbic, and autonomic nuclei examined (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex and locus coeruleus), the two sleep deprivation procedures involving exploration were similarly effective, and both were more effective than sleep deprivation with sensory stimulation, in increasing the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons. However, some nuclei (e.g., paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and select amygdala nuclei) were more responsive to exploration with social interaction, while others (e.g., histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus) responded more strongly to exploration in social isolation. In the rostral basal forebrain, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons responded preferentially to exploration with social interaction, whereas resident neurons in general responded most strongly to exploration without social interaction. These results indicate that voluntary exploration with/without social interaction is more effective than forced sleep deprivation with gentle sensory stimulation for inducing c-Fos in arousal and limbic/autonomic brain regions, and suggest that these nuclei participate in different aspects of arousal during sustained voluntary wakefulness.

  15. On the functional significance of c-fos induction during the sleep-waking cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, C; Tononi, G

    2000-06-15

    A striking finding in recent years has been that the transition from sleep to waking is accompanied in many brain regions by a widespread activation of c-fos and other immediate-early genes (IEGs). IEGs are induced by various electrical or chemical signals to which neural cells are exposed and their protein products act as transcription factors to regulate the expression of other genes. After a few hours of sleep, the expression of these transcription factors in the brain is absent or restricted to very few cells. However, after a few hours of spontaneous waking or sleep deprivation, the expression of c-fos and other IEGs is high in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, septum, and several thalamic and brainstem nuclei. While cells expressing c-fos during waking are widely distributed, they represent only a subset of all neurons in any given area. These observations raise several questions: Why is c-fos expressed during waking and not during sleep? Is waking always accompanied by c-fos induction? Which subset of cells express c-fos during waking and why only a subset? Once c-fos has been induced, what are the functional consequences of its activation? In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the meaning of c-fos activation in the brain in relation to the sleep-waking cycle and suggest that c-fos induction in the cerebral cortex during waking might be related to the occurrence of plastic phenomena.

  16. c-Fos expression in rat brainstem following intake of sucrose or saccharin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Chen; Jianqun Yan; Jinrong Li; Bo Lv; Xiaolin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the activation of brainstem neurons during intake of a sweet tastant is due to orosensory signals or post-ingestive factors,we compared the distribution of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI)in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of brainstem following ingestion of 0.25M sucrose or 0.005 M saccharin solutions.Immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in the middle zone of the PBN and four rostral-caudal subregions of the NST.Intake of sucrose increased the number of FLI neurons in almost every subnucleus of the PBN (F(2,13) =7.610,P =0.023),in addition to the caudal NST at the level of the area postrema (F(2,13) =10.777,P =0.003) and the NST intermediate zone (F(2,13) =7.193,P =0.014).No significantincrease in the number of c-Fos positive neurons was detected in response to saccharin ingestion,although there was a trend towards a modest increase in a few select NST and PBN nuclei.These results suggest that the PBN and NST may be involved in sweet taste perception and modulation of sweet tastant intake,but the significantlyenhanced intensity of Fos expression induced by sucrose indicates that PBN/NST neuronal activity is driven by the integrated effects of sweet taste sensation and post-ingestive signals.

  17. Periaqueductal gray c-Fos expression varies relative to the method of conditioned taste aversion extinction employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Biesan, Orion R; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna

    2011-11-14

    the PAG. The number of c-Fos-labeled cells in the PAG was generally low but there was a reliable increase in c-Fos expression in dorsolateral PAG (dlPAG) following the SR test in the brains of rats that went through the EU-EXT procedure as compared with those that either went through the more-traditional CSO extinction procedure or experienced no extinction at all. The number of c-Fos-labeled neurons in the dlPAG was significantly correlated with the amount of SAC consumed at the SR test. Surprisingly, the brains of EU-extinguished rats and CSO extinguished rats did not differ in the number of c-Fos-labeled neurons in gustatory neocortex, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, or the central nucleus of the amygdala. Thus, behavioral differences in SR between the EU and CSO extinction animals were not represented by corresponding changes in the neural activity of several brain nuclei classically associated with extinction learning. However a detailed analysis of PAG c-Fos expression provided hints about some of the physiological changes evoked by these 2 extinction paradigms that produce very different behavioral outcomes. The findings are clinically relevant as we seek the development of treatments for deficits in fear extinction (e.g. PTSD, phobias).

  18. Roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brendan F; Yamashita, Teruhito; Yao, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fang; Xing, Lianping

    2005-01-01

    NF-kappaB and c-Fos are transcription factors that are activated in immune cells and in most other cell types following stimulation by a variety of factors, including cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. They regulate the expression of a large number of genes, and both are activated in osteoclast precursors after RANKL, IL-1, or TNF bind to their respective receptors. However, of these cytokines, only RANKL is required for the induction of osteoclast formation in vivo. Nevertheless, it is likely that IL-1, TNF, and other cytokines participate in the upregulation of osteoclast formation seen in a variety of conditions that affect the skeleton in which cytokine production is increased, including estrogen deficiency and inflammatory bone diseases. In this review, the RANKL/ OPG/RANK system and roles for NF-kappaB and c-Fos in osteoclasts are reviewed along with our current understanding of how this system may be disrupted in common bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, inflammatory arthritis, and Paget's disease.

  19. Piperine alleviates osteoclast formation through the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C; Joubert, Annie; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Increased bone fracture is one of the health risk factors in patients with bone loss related disorders such as osteoporosis and breast cancer metastasis to bone. Over activity of osteoclasts leads to uncoupling of bone remodeling favoring bone loss over bone formation. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL) triggers the differentiation pathway leading to multinucleated osteoclast formation. Modulation of RANKL or its downstream signaling pathways involved in osteoclast formation is of significant interest in the development of anti-resorptive agents. In this study, the effects of piperine, an alkaloid present in Piper nigrum L. on osteoclast formation was investigated. Piperine inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14+ monocytes induced by RANKL and breast cancer cells. Piperine attenuated the p38-mitogen activated protein kinase pathway activation, while the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or NF-κβ pathways downstream of RANKL remained unaffected. Concomitantly, expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), the key transcription factors involved in osteoclastogenesis were remarkably inhibited by piperine. Furthermore, piperine disrupted the actin ring structure and bone resorption, a characteristic hallmark of osteoclasts. Collectively, these results suggested that piperine inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the p38/NFATc1/c-Fos signaling axis..

  20. Effects of electroacupuncture on c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and brain of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei Wang; Huirong Liu; Guanghong Ding; Yunfei Chen; Huangan Wu; Na Li; Enhua Zhou; Xiudi Qin; Lingsong Yuan

    2009-01-01

    hypersensitivity increased c-Fos staining (P 0.05). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores were significantly lower in the electroacupuncture and normal groups than in the model group (P 0.05).CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture decreases c-Fos expression in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex and increases pain threshold in a chronic visceral hypersensitivity model in rats.

  1. Pharmacopuncture of Anti-inflammatory Herbal Compounds Suppresses Colon Inflammation-induced c-Fos like Protein Expression in Rats

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    Song, Jeong-Bang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by colonic mucosal inflammation and chronic relapsing events represents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of pharmacopuncture of anti-inflammatory herbal compound (AiC applied to the different acupoints in the acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS intracolonic injection in rats. Methods: In Male Sprague - Dawley rats, weighing 250~400g, TNBS (5 mg/kg was infused intrarectally through a silicon rubber catheter into the anus under isoflurane anaesthesia. Acupoints of LI4 (Hapkok, ST25 (Cheonchu, ST36 (Joksamni, and BL25 (Daejangsu were intramuscularly injected by AiC, respectively (injection volume & times: 0.2 ml / acupoint, twice times on the 2nd & 3rd day. Expressions of cFos protein in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, locus coeruleus (LC, nucleus of solitary tract (Sol, and the 6th lumbar spinal cord (L6 s.c. were observed at 24 hr after TNBS induced colitis by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of c-Fos protein in the L6 s.c., Sol, LC and PAG increased 24 hr after TNBS injection into colorectum as compared to normal and 50% ethanol treated group. AiC to LI4 inhibited the expression of c-Fos protein in Sol and PAG but not L6 s.c. and LC. AiC to ST36 showed significant inhibition the c-Fos expression in L6 s.c., Sol and PAG. AiC to ST25 only showed the effects in L6 s.c. and PAG. AiC to BL25 inhibited significantly the expression of c-Fos protein all over the areas. To investigate whether or not endogenous opioids are involved, intrathecal injection of naltrexone (30ug/30ul was applied before the 2nd pharmacopuncture treatment 24 hr after TNBS-induced colitis in rat. Naltrexone reversed the inhibition of c-Fos protein expression in the spinal cord and brainstem. Conclusions: These data show that pharmacopuncture of Aic potently inhibits signal pathways ascending hypersensitivity of colorectum after TNBS induced colitis and depends

  2. miR-144 and targets, c-fos and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), modulate synthesis of PGE2 in the amnion during pregnancy and labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Zhou, Jiawei; Wei, Xiajie; Chen, Ran; Geng, Junnan; Zheng, Rong; Chai, Jin; Li, Fenge; Jiang, Siwen

    2016-06-14

    Labor is initiated as a result of hormonal changes that are induced by the activation of the inflammatory response and a series of biochemical events. The amnion, which is the primary source of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), plays an important role in the process of labor. In the present study, we uncovered a pathway in which c-fos, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and miR-144 function as hormonal modulators in the amnions of pregnant mice and humans. miR-144 down-regulated the synthesis of PGE2 during pregnancy by directly and indirectly inhibiting COX2 expression and by directly inhibiting the expression of c-fos, a transcriptional activator of COX2 and miR-144. Estrogen (E2) activated c-fos, thus promoting the expression of miR-144 and COX2 during labor. However, the increase in COX2 resulted in the partial inhibition of COX2 expression by miR-144, thereby slightly reducing the secretion of PGE2. These observations suggest that miR-144 inhibits PGE2 secretion by section to prevent the initiation of premature labor. Up-regulated expression of miR-144, c-fos and COX2 was also observed both in preterm mice and in mice undergoing normal labor. In summary, miR-144, c-fos and COX2 play important roles in regulating PGE2 secretion in the amnion during pregnancy and labor.

  3. c-Fos as a transcription factor: a stressful (re)view from a functional map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K J

    1998-10-01

    This article summarizes the achievements that have been accumulated about the role of c-Fos as a transcription factor and as a functional marker of activated neurons. Since its discovery, more than a decade ago, as an inducible immediate-early gene encoding a transcription factor, or third messenger, involved in stimulus-transcription coupling and mediation of extracellular signals to long-term changes in cellular phenotype, c-fos became the most widely used powerful tool to delineate individual neurons as well as extended circuitries that are responsive to wide variety of external stimuli. There still remain uncertainties as to how general is the c-fos induction in the central neurons, and whether the threshold of c-fos induction is comparable along a certain neuronal circuit. The major limitation of this technology is that c-fos does not mark cells with a net inhibitory synaptic or transcriptional drive, and c-fos induction, as a generic marker of trans-synaptic activation, does not provide evidence for transcriptional activation of specific target genes in a certain cell type of interest. The first part of the review focuses on recent functional data on c-fos as transcription factor, while the second part discusses c-fos as a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-related circuitry.

  4. Imipramine-induced c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex is decreased in the ACTH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Gomita, Yutaka; Araki, Hiroaki; Cui, Ranji

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the antidepressive-like effect of tricyclic antidepressants is blocked by repeated treatments with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). However, little is known about the neuroanatomy underlying the mechanism of the imipramine treatment-resistant depression model. In the present study, first experimental evidence showed no significant difference of the serum imipramine concentrations between the saline and ACTH-treated rats. In further study, imipramine produced significant increases in the c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DGH), and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), in rats repeatedly treated with saline. The imipramine-increased c-Fos immunoreactivity was suppressed in the mPFC of rats repeatedly treated with ACTH. However, there was no significant difference in c-Fos expression in the DGH and CeA between ACTH- and saline-treated rats. These results suggest that the mPFC is maybe involved in effects of the imipramine in the ACTH-treated rats.

  5. Intrathecal Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin Affect Formalin Induced c-Fos Expression in the Spinal Cord of Rats

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    Zahra Khoshdel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin belong to the calcitonin family of peptides and have high affinity binding sites in the rat spinal cord. The aim of this study was to characterize receptors for Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin functionally in the spinal cord of rats. We assessed the expression of c-Fos in response to intraplantar formalin in the lumbar regions of the spinal cord in conscious rats. Methods:Amylin (0.05 nmoles or Salmon Calcitonin (0.005 nmoles was administered intrathecally (i.t. 10 minutes before the start of the formalin test. Antagonists were injected intrathecally 10 minutes before the administration of either of the peptides. Results: Two hours after formalin stimulation, rats pretreated intrathecally by either Amylin or Salmon Calcitonin, showed lower numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in their lumbar spinal cord as compared to rats pretreated with saline. These effects were reversed upon co-administration of either of the Amylin antagonists AC187 or rat amylin8-37, but not rat α-CGRP8-37. A few cells with c-Fos immunoreactivity were found in the lumbar spinal cord of rats two hours after i.t. injection of saline, Amylin and/or Salmon Calcitonin. However, Fos-like immunoreactivity was increased in the lumbar spinal cord two hours after i.t. treatment of either of the antagonists AC187 and rat amylin8-37,when compared to saline treated rats. Conclusion:Both Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin inhibit formalin induced c-Fos expression in the rat lumbar spinal cord when administered intrathecally. Effects of the two peptides were possibly produced by undefined receptors.

  6. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum days 6-8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ON EXPRESSION OF C-MYC, C-FOS IN LEUKEMIC PROMYELOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国英; 徐荣婷; 孙关林; 欧阳仁荣; 应大明

    1992-01-01

    The expression of c-myc, c-fos of leukemic promyelocytes (HL-60 and acute promyelocytic leukemia cells) from 18 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in vitro was studied. There was no expression of c-fos in HL-60 cells and APL cells from 17 patients. But in one case, a slight expression of c-fos in leukemic cells was observed, and the alteration of expression level was found during the treatment of the cells with RA in vitro. The expression of c-myc in HL-60 cells induced by RA was altered, decrease in the early, increase in the middle, and decline in the later stage were found. The c-myc expression in leukemic cells of eighteen APL patients was variable. There was c-myc expression in eleven APL cells, but no expression in the others. The APL cells with c-myc expression were treated with RA in vitro to observe the kinetic changes of c-myc RNA level. The results showed that the expression of c-myc was gradually decreased except in few cases. Using in situ hybridization technique for detecting the alteration of c-myc expression in leukemic cells of two APL patients. the high level of c-myc before RA treatment and low level of c-myc expression after obtaining complete remission induced by RA were found. The possibility of different proto-oncogenes implicated differentiation was discussed.

  8. Effect of c-fos antisense probe on prostaglandin E2-induced upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in human liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qi Li; Kai-Shan Tao; Ning Ren; Yi-Hu Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells and the possible involvement of c-fos protein in this process.METHODS: Human HCC HepG2 cells were divided into three groups treated respectively with PGE2, a combination of PGE2 and c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO),and PGE2 plus c-fos sense oligodeoxynudeotide (SO). The expression of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells after different treatments was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relative expression level of VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells in each group was measured.RESULTS: Administration of PGE2 resulted in an increased expression of c-fosand VEGF mRNA in HepG2 cells. The relative expression level of c-fos mRNA reached the peak at 3 h (68.4±4.7%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (20.6±1.7%, P<0.01).Whereas, the highest expression level of VEGF mRNA was observed at 6 h (100.5±6.1%) after PGE2 treatment, which was significantly higher than that at 0 h (33.2±2.4%,P<0.01). C-fos ASO significantly reduced PGE2-induced VEGF mRNA expression in HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: PGE2 increases the expression and secretion of VEGF in HCC cells by activating the transcription factor c-fos, promotes the angiogenesis of HCC and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.

  9. TRPV4 mediates afferent pathways in the urinary bladder. A spinal c-fos study showing TRPV1 related adaptations in the TRPV4 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dick A W; Hoenderop, Joost G; Heesakkers, John P F A; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-10-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in urinary bladder afferent neural pathways was investigated using spinal c-fos measurements in mice. Anesthetized wild type and TRPV4 knockout (-/-) mice underwent noxious bladder distention and treatment with either intravesical instillation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX), vehicle or an intraperitoneal injected TRPV4 antagonist (HC067047). Mice underwent paraformaldehyde perfusion for rapid fixation and L6-S1 spinal cord sections were removed followed by immunohistochemical staining for c-fos. A number of c-fos expressing neurons in the dorsal horns of L6-S1 spinal cord transections were quantified. Groups were compared using univariate ANOVA. Even with the absence of bladder inflammation on H&E, the TRPV4 -/- mice still have a significant twofold higher c-fos expression (n = 39, SD 2) after noxious bladder distention compared to wild type mice (n = 20, SD 3). A twofold increase in c-fos expression was observed after LPS treatment in wild types (n = 42, SD 5), but no increase was seen in TRPV4 -/- mice (n = 42, SD 2). After desensitization of primary afferent C-nerve fibers with RTX, c-fos expression in TRPV4-/- mice decreased significantly (threefold) (n = 12, SD 4). Results imply that TRPV4 channels are important for bladder afferent signaling. TRPV4 -/- mice bladders generate more noxious sensory output, which is predominantly mediated through TRPV1 expressing high threshold nerve fibers. This study reveals TRPV1 related adaptive changes in afferent pathways of the TRPV4 -/- mouse. We propose that this effect is caused by a congenital impairment of low threshold nerves that mediate normal bladder filling sensations.

  10. Topography of methylphenidate (ritalin)-induced gene regulation in the striatum: differential effects on c-fos, substance P and opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Motoyo; Steiner, Heinz

    2005-05-01

    Dopamine action alters gene regulation in striatal neurons. Methylphenidate increases extracellular levels of dopamine. We investigated the effects of acute methylphenidate treatment on gene expression in the striatum of adult rats. Molecular changes were mapped in 23 striatal sectors mostly defined by their predominant cortical inputs in order to determine the functional domains affected. Acute administration of 5 and 10 mg/kg (i.p.) of methylphenidate produced robust increases in the expression of the transcription factor c-fos and the neuropeptide substance P. Borderline effects were found with 2 mg/kg, but not with 0.5 mg/kg. For 5 mg/kg, c-fos mRNA levels peaked at 40 min and returned to baseline by 3 h after injection, while substance P mRNA levels peaked at 40-60 min and were back near control levels by 24 h. These molecular changes occurred in most sectors of the caudate-putamen, but were maximal in dorsal sectors that receive sensorimotor and medial agranular cortical inputs, on middle to caudal levels. In rostral and ventral striatal sectors, changes in c-fos and substance P expression were weaker or absent. No effects were seen in the nucleus accumbens, with the exception of c-fos induction in the lateral part of the shell. In contrast to c-fos and substance P, acute methylphenidate treatment had minimal effects on the opioid peptides dynorphin and enkephalin. These results demonstrate that acute methylphenidate alters the expression of c-fos and substance P preferentially in the sensorimotor striatum. These molecular changes are similar, but not identical, to those produced by other psychostimulants.

  11. Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenomedullin increases the expression of c-Fos in the rat brain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation%侧脑室注射肾上腺髓质素增加大鼠心血管相关核团中c-FoS的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季淑梅; 管振龙; 槐瑞托; 牛丽静; 何瑞荣

    2004-01-01

    目的研究侧脑室注射肾上腺髓质素(1 nmol/kg,3 nmol/kg),对大鼠脑内心血管相关核团中c-fos表达的影响.方法应用Fos蛋白免疫组化技术.结果(1)侧脑室注射肾上腺髓质素诱发脑干的孤束核、最后区、蓝斑核、臂旁核和外侧巨细胞旁核,下丘脑的室旁核、视上核和腹内侧核以及前脑的中央杏仁核和外侧缰核等多个部位的心血管中枢出现大量Fos样免疫反应神经元.(2)降钙素基因相关肽受体拮抗剂CGRP8-37(30 nmol/kg)可明显减弱肾上腺髓质素(3 nmol/kg)的效应.结论肾上腺髓质素可兴奋脑内多个心血管相关核团的神经元,降钙素基因相关肽受体可能介导这一效应.%Objective To examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of adrenomedullin (AM)on the expression of c-fos gene in rat brain nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation. Methods Immunohistochemistry for Fos was applied. Results (1) Following icv administration of AM (1 nmol/kg, 3 nmol/kg), Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) neurons were markedly increased in various brain areas of the rat, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, the area postrema, the locus coeruleus, the parabrachial nucleus and the nucleus paragigantocelluaris laterialis in the brainstem, the paraventricular nucleus, the supraoptic nucleus and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the hypo thalamus, as well as the central amygdaloid nucleus and the lateral habenular nucleus in the forebrain. (2) Pretreatment with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 ( 30 nmol/kg ) significantly reduced the effects of AM ( 3nmol/kg) on the induction of Fos-LI in the brain. Conclusion Centrally administered AM may activate the neurons in the forebrain, the hypothalamus and the brainstem in part via CGRP receptors.

  12. Expression of c-Fos protein and nitricoxide synthase in neurons of cerebral cortex from fetal rats in hypoxia and protective role of Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Hongxian Zhao; Yuling Wu

    2006-01-01

    neurons of cerebral cortex from embryos of rats. OLYMPUS Bx-50 microscope was used to observe sections and DP12 digit camera was also used under 400 times to detect types of cells. Under microscope, the number of c-Fos, NOS, c-Fos/NOS positive neurons in cerebral cortex from embryos of rats were counted in 2 fields with magnification of 400 in one section per animal. ③ The data in experiments were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by q test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:① Results of immunohistochemical double-label staining of c-Fos/NOS from cerebral cortex; ② Comparison of amount immunohistochemical double-label staining of c-Fos/NOS positive cells from cerebral cortex.RESULTS:① The positive NOS cells and c-Fos/NOS cells in the three groups were mainly distributed in cerebral cortex, but positive c-Fos neurons were not observed. ② Positive NOS cells and c-Fos/NOS cells in hypoxia group were more than those in control group (76.55±12.02, 50.45±10.39; 33.35±7.42, 26.35±6.67, P < 0.05), but those in Angelica group were less than those in hypoxia group (51.70±9.82, 35.65±8.37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:Hypoxia can stimulate the increase of expression of c-Fos protein and NOS in neurons of cerebral cortex. However, Angelica sinensis can decrease this expression so as to play a protective role in cerebral neurons of hypoxic fetal rats.

  13. c-Fos induction by a 14 T magnetic field in visceral and vestibular relays of the female rat brainstem is modulated by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Angie M; Kwon, Bumsup; Smith, James C; Houpt, Thomas A

    2010-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that high magnetic fields interact with the vestibular system of humans and rodents. In rats, exposure to high magnetic fields of 7 T or above induces locomotor circling and leads to a conditioned taste aversion if paired with a novel taste. Sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure have been found, such that female rats show more locomotor circling and enhanced conditioned taste aversion compared to male rats. To determine if estrogen modulates the neural response to high magnetic fields, c-Fos expression after 14 T magnetic field exposure was compared in ovariectomized rats and ovariectomized rats with estradiol replacement. Compared to sham exposure, magnetic field exposure induced significantly more c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract and the parabrachial, medial vestibular, prepositus, and supragenualis nuclei. Furthermore, there was a significant asymmetry in c-Fos induction between sides of the brainstem in several regions. In ovariectomized rats, there was more c-Fos expressed in the right side compared to left side in the locus coeruleus and parabrachial, superior vestibular, and supragenualis nuclei; less expression in the right compared to left side of the medial vestibular; and no asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Chronic estradiol treatment modulated the neural response in some regions: less c-Fos was induced in the superior vestibular nucleus and locus coeruleus after estradiol replacement; estradiol treatment eliminated the asymmetry of c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus and supragenualis nucleus, created an asymmetry in the prepositus nucleus and reversed the asymmetry in the parabrachial nucleus. These results suggest that ovarian steroids may mediate sex differences in the behavioral responses to magnetic field exposure at the level of visceral and vestibular nuclei of the brainstem.

  14. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  15. Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins: c-Fos Protein Expression in the Brain of Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-21

    a biomarker of neuronal and regional brain activity when animals are exposed to different types of stressful stimuli (Martinez et al., 2002...2002). c-fos can be induced in rats through glutamate receptor agonists, ion channel flux, dioxins , and the mind altering drugs haloperidol and...Hashiguchi, W., Kuchiiwa, T., Nakagawa, S., 2002. 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin treatment induces c-Fos expression in the forebrain of the Long-Evans

  16. c-Fos expression correlates with performance on novel object and novel place recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Marta; Arias, Natalia; Uceda, Sara; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-08-01

    In rodents, many studies have been carried out using novelty-preference paradigms. The results show that the perirhinal cortex and the hippocampus are involved in the recognition of a novel object, "what", and its new position, "where", respectively. We employed these two variants of a novelty-preference paradigm to assess whether the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the dorsal hippocampus and perirhinal cortex correlates with the performance discrimination ratio (d2), on the respective versions of the novelty preference tests. A control group (CO) was added to explore c-fos activation not specific to recognition. The results showed different patterns of c-Fos protein expression in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. The Where Group presented more c-Fos positive nuclei than the What and CO groups in the CA1 and CA3 regions, whereas in the perirhinal cortex, the What Group showed more c-Fos positive nuclei than the Where and CO groups. The correlation results indicate that levels of c-Fos in the CA1 area and perirhinal cortex correlate with effective exploration, d2, on the respective versions of the novelty preference tests, novel place and novel object recognition. These data suggest that the hippocampal CA1 and perirhinal cortex are specifically related to the level of recognition of place and objects, respectively.

  17. Induction of C-FOS, C-MYC and P53 by US -adrenergic receptor (US -AR) stimulation of rat parotid acinar cells (RPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousvelari, E.E.; Louis, J.; Curran, T.; Baum, B.J.

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of rats with the US -agonist isoproterenol (ISO) results in dramatically increased parotid gland protein synthesis, processing and cell proliferation. The authors have shown that in RPAC in vitro, US -AR stimulation has similar effect on protein synthesis and processing. Proto-oncogenes have been implicated in growth regulation, differentiation and in mediating some extracellular stimulated events at the level of gene expression. To understand the regulation of cellular events after US -AR stimulation, the expression of c-fos, c-myc and p53 was investigated. RPAC were incubated with or without 10 VM ISO for 15, 30, 60 min. mRNA was isolated from cells and hybridization analysis was performed on nitrocellulose paper-transferred mRNA using TSP-labeled DNA probes. At early time points, the levels of c-fos gene activation in ISO-treated and control cells were comparable. After 60 min of ISO treatment, a sharp 20-30 fold induction of c-fos expression occurred. Similar increases in c-myc and p53 gene expression were observed after 60 min of ISO treatment. The authors data indicate that early effects of US -AR stimulation of RPAC include induction of c-fos, c-myc and p53 gene expression as well as enhanced protein synthesis and processing.

  18. Immediate expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA in a model of intestinal autotransplantation and ischemia-reperfusion in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Coelho, Maria Cecilia Mendonça; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Serafini, Suellen; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Tannuri, Uenis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:26039956

  19. Dynamic interaction between medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens as a function of both motivational state and reinforcer magnitude: A c-Fos immunocytochemistry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, Justin M.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of simultaneous variations in motivational state (food deprivation) and reinforcer magnitude (food presentation) on c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pre-and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core and shell, and dorsal striatum. In the first experiment, c-Fos was reliably increased in pre- and infralimbic mPFC of animals 12- and 36-h compared to 0-h deprived. In the second experiment, a small meal (2.5g) selectively increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in both mPFC subdivisions of 36-h deprived animals, as well as in both NAcc subdivisions of 12-h deprived animals. Correlational analyses revealed a changing relationship between mPFC subregions and the NAcc compartments to which they project. In subjects 12-h deprived and allowed a small meal, c-Fos counts in prelimbic mPFC and NAcc core were positively correlated, as were those in infralimbic mPFC and NAcc shell (r = . 83 and .76, respectively). The opposite was true of animals 36-h deprived, with prelimbic mPFC/NAcc core and infralimbic mPFC/NAcc shell negatively correlated (r = -.85 and -.82, respectively). The third experiment examined the effects of unrestricted feeding (presentation of 20g food) after 0, 12, or 36-h deprivation. No differences between mean c-Fos counts were found, though prelimbic mPFC/NAcc core, and mPFC/NAcc shell were positively correlated in animals 36-h deprived (r = .76 and .89, respectively). These data suggest that the activity within the mPFC and NAcc, as well as the interaction between the two, change as a complex combinatorial function of motivational state and reinforcer magnitude. Section: Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience PMID:17706947

  20. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M; Calu, Donna J; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Khuc, Thi; Pickel, James; Lupica, Carl R; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-06-20

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express GFP in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained to lever-press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, lever-pressing was extinguished and reinstatement of food seeking and mPFC neuronal activation was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or pellet priming (1-4 noncontingent pellets). Estrous cycle effects on reinstatement were also assessed in wild-type rats. Yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement was associated with Fos and GFP induction in mPFC; both reinstatement and neuronal activation were minimally affected by ovarian hormones in both c-fos-GFP and wild-type rats. c-fos-GFP transgenic rats were then used to assess glutamatergic synaptic alterations within activated GFP-positive and nonactivated GFP-negative mPFC neurons following yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking. This reinstatement was associated with reduced AMPA receptor/NMDA receptor current ratios and increased paired-pulse facilitation in activated GFP-positive but not GFP-negative neurons. While ovarian hormones do not appear to play a role in stress-induced relapse of food seeking in our rat model, this reinstatement was associated with unique synaptic alterations in strongly activated mPFC neurons. Our paper introduces the c-fos-GFP transgenic rat as a new tool to study unique synaptic changes in activated neurons during behavior.

  1. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice.

  2. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  3. Effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of c-Fos and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor of the Cerebral Cortex in Rats with Cerebral Infarct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqiao; MEI Yuanwu; LIU Chuanyu; YU Shanchun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the neurological functional recovery and expression of c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction was investigated. Cerebral infarction models were established by using left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and were randomly divided into a model group (n=40) and a TMS group (n=40). TMS treatment (2 times per day, 30 pulses per time) with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 1.33 Tesla was carried out in TMS group after MCAO. Modified neurological severity score (NSS) were recorded before and 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 day(s) after MCAO. The expression of c-Fos and BDNF was immunohistochemically detected 1, 7,14, 21, and 28 day(s) after infarction respectively. Our results showed that a significant recovery of NSS (P<0.05) was found in animals treated by TMS on day 7, 14, 21, and 28 as compared with the animals in the model group. The positive expression of c-Fos and BDNF was detected in the cortex surrounding the infarction areas, while the expression of c-Fos and BDNF increased significantly in TMS treatment group in comparison with those in model group 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (P<0.05) and 7,14, 21 days (P<0.01) after infarction, respectively. It is concluded that TMS has therapeutic effect on cerebral infarction and this may have something to do with TMS's ability to promote the expression of c-Fos and BDNF of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral infarction.

  4. Housing condition-related changes involved in reversal learning and its c-Fos associated activity in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Begega, A

    2015-10-29

    Our study examined how different housing conditions modulated the acquisition of a spatial reference memory task and also, a reversal task in the 4-radial arm water maze (4-RAWM). The animals were randomly assigned to standard or enriched cages, and, as a type of complementary stimulation along with the environmental enrichment (EE), a group of rats also ran 15 min/day in a Rotarod. Elevated-zero maze results allowed us to discard that our exercise training increased anxiety-related behaviors. 4-RAWM results revealed that the non-enriched group had a worse performance during the acquisition and also, during the first trial of each session with respect to the enriched groups. Regarding the reversal task, this group made more perseverative errors in the previous platform position. Interestingly, we hardly found differences between the two enriched groups (with and without exercise). We also analyzed how the reversal learning, depending on the previous housing condition, modulated the expression of c-Fos-positive nuclei in different subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (cingulate (Cg), prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices) and in the orbitofrontal (OF) cortex. The enriched groups had higher c-Fos expression in the Cg and OF cortices and lower in the IL cortex respect to the non-enriched animals. In the PL cortex, we did not find significant differences between the groups that performed the reversal task. Therefore, our short EE protocol improved the performance in a spatial memory and a reversal task, whereas the exercise training, combined with the EE, did not produce a greater benefit. This better performance seemed to be related with the specific pattern of c-Fos expression in brain regions involved in cognitive flexibility.

  5. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigé, Stéphanie; Bonnet, Marion S; Tardivel, Catherine; Pinton, Philippe; Trouslard, Jérôme; Jean, André; Guzylack, Laurence; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Dallaporta, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the cereal-contaminating Fusarium fungi, is a major trichothecene responsible for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, including swine. The main effect of DON-intoxication is food intake reduction and the consequent body weight loss. The present study aimed to identify brain structures activated during DON intoxication in pigs. To this goal, we used c-Fos staining which constitutes a useful approach to identify activated neurons. We showed that per os administration of Fusarium graminearum extracts (containing the equivalent of 1mg DON per kg of body weight) induced an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in several central structures, including the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), dorsal vagal complex (DVC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (Arc), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and amygdala (CeA). Moreover, we coupled c-Fos staining with phenotypic markers detection in order to specify the neuronal populations activated during DON intoxication. This phenotypic characterization revealed the activation of catecholaminergic but not of serotoninergic neurons in response to the toxin. In this context, we also paid a particular attention to NUCB2/nesfatin-1 positive cells, since nesfatin-1 is known to exert a satiety effect. We report here, for the first time in the pig brain, the presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the VLM, DVC, PVN, Arc and SON, and their activation during DON intoxication. Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin.

  6. Retrieval of morphine-associated context induces cFos in dentate gyrus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Phillip D; Raghavan, Ramya K; Yun, Sanghee; Latchney, Sarah E; McGovern, Mary-Katherin; García, Emily F; Birnbaum, Shari G; Eisch, Amelia J

    2015-04-01

    Addiction has been proposed to emerge from associations between the drug and the reward-associated contexts. This associative learning has a cellular correlate, as there are more cFos+ neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) after psychostimulant conditioned place preference (CPP) versus saline controls. However, it is unknown whether morphine CPP leads to a similar DG activation, or whether DG activation is due to locomotion, handling, pharmacological effects, or-as data from contextual fear learning suggests-exposure to the drug-associated context. To explore this, we employed an unbiased, counterbalanced, and shortened CPP design that led to place preference and more DG cFos+ cells. Next, mice underwent morphine CPP but were then sequestered into the morphine-paired (conditioned stimulus+ [CS+]) or saline-paired (CS-) context on test day. Morphine-paired mice sequestered to CS+ had ∼30% more DG cFos+ cells than saline-paired mice. Furthermore, Bregma analysis revealed morphine-paired mice had more cFos+ cells in CS+ compared to CS- controls. Notably, there was no significant difference in DG cFos+ cell number after handling alone or after receiving morphine in home cage. Thus, retrieval of morphine-associated context is accompanied by activation of hippocampal DG granule cell neurons.

  7. 侧脑室注射肾上腺髓质素增加大鼠心血管相关核团中c-fos的表达并激活脑内一氧化氮神经元%Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenomedullin increases the expression of c-fos and activates nitric oxide-producing neurons in rat cardiovascular related brain nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季淑梅; 王泽民; 李学平; 何瑞荣

    2004-01-01

    laterialis (PGL) in the brainstem, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN),the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus, as well as the central amygdaloid nucleus and the lateral habenular nucleus in the forebrain. Following i.c.v. injection of ADM (1 mol/kg, 3 nmol/kg), the number of double-labeled neurons for Fos and nNOS was increased in the PVN and SON. Small numbers of double-labeled neurons were also found in the NTS and PGL following i.c.v. injection of ADM (3 nmol/kg), while i.c.v. injection of ADM (1 nmol/kg) did not change the number of double-labeled neurons in the NTS and PGL. Pretreatment with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 (30 nmol/kg) significantly reduced the action of ADM (3 nmol/kg) in the brain. These results suggest that centrally administered ADM may increase the expression of c-fos in the forebrain, the hypothalamus and the brainstem and activate nitric oxide-producing neurons in the PVN, SON, NTS and PGL. These effects may be partly mediated by CGRP receptors.

  8. Alternative splicing of c-fos pre-mRNA: contribution of the rates of synthesis and degradation to the copy number of each transcript isoform and detection of a truncated c-Fos immunoreactive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pueyo Carmen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is a widespread mechanism of gene expression regulation. Previous analyses based on conventional RT-PCR reported the presence of an unspliced c-fos transcript in several mammalian systems. Compared to the well-defined knowledge on the alternative splicing of fosB, the physiological relevance of the unspliced c-fos transcript in regulating c-fos expression remains largely unknown. This work aimed to investigate the functional significance of the alternative splicing c-fos pre-mRNA. Results A set of primers was designed to demonstrate that, whereas introns 1 and 2 are regularly spliced from primary c-fos transcript, intron 3 remains unspliced in part of total transcript molecules. Here, the two species are referred to as c-fos-2 (+ intron 3 and spliced c-fos (- intron 3 transcripts. Then, we used a quantitatively rigorous approach based on real-time PCR to provide, for the first time, the actual steady-state copy numbers of the two c-fos transcripts. We tested how the mouse-organ context and mouse-gestational age, the synthesis and turnover rates of the investigated transcripts, and the serum stimulation of quiescent cells modulate their absolute-expression profiles. Intron 3 generates an in-frame premature termination codon that predicts the synthesis of a truncated c-Fos protein. This prediction was evaluated by immunoaffinity chromatography purification of c-Fos proteins. Conclusion We demonstrate that: (i The c-fos-2 transcript is ubiquitously synthesized either in vivo or in vitro, in amounts that are higher or similar to those of mRNAs coding for other Fos family members, like FosB, ΔFosB, Fra-1 or Fra-2. (ii Intron 3 confers to c-fos-2 an outstanding destabilizing effect of about 6-fold. (iii Major determinant of c-fos-2 steady-state levels in cultured cells is its remarkably high rate of synthesis. (iv Rapid changes in the synthesis and/or degradation rates of both c-fos transcripts in serum

  9. Mapping brain response to social stress in rodents with c-fos expression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Calvo-Torrent, A; Herbert, J

    2002-02-01

    Social defeat is an important event in the life of many animals, and forms part of the process of social control. Adapting to social defeat is thus an intrinsic part of social "homeostasis", and mal-adaptation may have pathological sequelae. Experimental models of social defeat (e.g. inter-male aggression) have existed for many years. However, very few studies have investigated the changes in brain activity in male animals exposed to the social stress of being defeated by another conspecific male, and in all these studies the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been used as the marker of neuronal activity. In general, the results obtained inform that many areas of the brain, especially those involved in the general stress response, increase their activity when animals are exposed to an acute defeat. However, when animals are defeated repeatedly over many consecutive days, the level of activation of the brain shows different patterns of adaptation depending on the brain areas (varying from complete habituation to persistent activation). Discrepancies between studies may be due to differences in the experimental procedure. On the other hand, further research has to be conducted in order to understand what these changes in the brain activity mean in relation to the other stress responses to social defeat. Furthermore, knowing that the corresponding protein products of many immediate-early genes are transcription factors that can promote or inhibit the expression of target genes, research following this approach is also necessary.

  10. Caffeine elicits c-Fos expression in horizontal diagonal band cholinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Leah R; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Fadel, Jim R

    2009-12-09

    Caffeine is a widely self-administered psychostimulant with purported neuroprotective and procognitive effects in rodent models of aging. The cholinergic basal forebrain is important for arousal and attention and is implicated in age-related cognitive decline. Accordingly, we determined the effects of caffeine on cholinergic neuron activation in the rat basal forebrain. Young adult (age 2 months) male rats were treated with caffeine (0, 10, or 50 mg/kg) and killed 2 h later. Caffeine significantly increased c-Fos expression in cholinergic neurons of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca but not other basal forebrain regions such as the medial septum or substantia innominata. The horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca provides cholinergic innervation to the olfactory bulb, suggesting that deficits in this structure may contribute to diminished olfactory function observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. These results suggest that part of the cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine may be mediated through activation of this part of the cholinergic basal forebrain.

  11. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  12. C-fos protein expression in central nervous system. Effects of acute whole-body irradiation; Expression de la proteine C-fos du systeme nerveux central. Effets de l`irradiation globale aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Chollat, S.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Baille Le Crom, V.; Fatome, M.

    1995-12-31

    Study of c-Fos protein expression in the rat striatum after gamma or (neutron-gamma) irradiation was carried on. c-Fos protein is expressed one hour after gamma exposure at the dose of 15 Gy but specificity of the response must be verified. (author). 7 refs.

  13. The mGlu2/3 Receptor Agonists LY354740 and LY379268 Differentially Regulate Restraint-Stress-Induced Expression of c-Fos in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets due to the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to modulate excitatory transmission at specific synapses. LY354740 and LY379268 are selective and potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonists that show both anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in animal models. We compared the efficacy of LY354740 and LY379268 in attenuating restraint-stress-induced expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the rat prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic (IL cortex. LY354740 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. showed statistically significant and dose-related attenuation of stress-induced increase in c-Fos expression, in the rat cortex. By contrast, LY379268 had no effect on restraint-stress-induced c-Fos upregulation (0.3–10 mg/kg, i.p.. Because both compounds inhibit serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR-induced c-Fos expression, we hypothesize that LY354740 and LY379268 have different in vivo properties and that 5-HT2AR activation and restraint stress induce c-Fos through distinct mechanisms.

  14. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  15. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...

  16. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived fro...

  17. c-Fos enhances the survival of thymocytes during positive selection by upregulating Bcl-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wang; Yafeng Zhang; Gang Xiao; Xiang Gao; Xiaolong Liu

    2009-01-01

    T cells are derived from progenitor thymocytes, of which only a minority receive the appropriate TCR signal, undergo positive selection and mature. Owing to the very short lifespan of thymocytes, the prerequisite for posi-tive selection is survival. TCR signal-induced Bcl-2 expression is believed to play a dominant role in the survival of positively selecting thymocytes, but how Bcl-2 is directly regulated is unknown. Here we report that the immediate early gene (lEG) c-Fos can stimulate the expression of Bcl-2, depending on a specific AP-l-binding site in the Bcl-2 promoter. In c-Fos transgenic (Fos-Tg) mice, c-Fos binds to this site and promotes the expression of Bcl-2. As a result, Fos-Tg thymocytes exhibited enhanced survival, and more mature single-positive (SP) thymocytes were generated, even on a unique TCR background. The TCR repertoire remained normal in Fos-Tg mice. Our results identified e-Fos as the mediator of the stimulatory effect of TCR signaling on Bcl-2 expression. Therefore, c-Fos, as an IEG, because of its early response ability, can quickly rescue the survival of short-lived thymocytes during positive selection. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism regulating the survival of positively selecting thymocytes.

  18. Effects of olanzapine on regional C-Fos expression in rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G S; Fibiger, H C

    1996-02-01

    Compared to typical antipsychotic drugs, clozapine produces a unique pattern of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the rat forebrain. It has been proposed, therefore, that this approach may be useful in identifying other agents with clozapine's therapeutic profile. In the present study, we examined the ability of olanzapine to increase the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, lateral septal nucleus, and prefrontal cortex. Olanzapine (5, 10 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent increases in the number of Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens and lateral septal nucleus, important components of the limbic system that may mediate some of the therapeutic actions of neuroleptics. Olanzapine also produced dose-dependent increases in the number of Fos-positive neurons in the dorsolateral striatum, an effect that correlates with the ability of neuroleptics to produce extrapyramidal side-effects. The effects of olanzapine on regional c-fos expression are not therefore identical to clozapine, which is without effect in the dorsolateral striatum. However, olanzapine-induced increases in the dorsolateral striatum were considerably smaller than those generated in the nucleus accumbens suggesting that at low, potentially therapeutic doses olanzapine may not generate significant extrapyramidal side effects. Olanzapine also increased the number of Fos-positive neurons in medical prefrontal cortex, an action unique to clozapine and a few other atypical antipsychotics. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic in the sense that it does not produce significant extrapyramidal side-effects at low therapeutic doses. However, extrapyramidal side-effects at higher doses can be predicted by these results. Finally, olanzapine's actions in the medial prefrontal cortex may be predictive of a clozapine-like profile with respect to actions on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Additional clinical

  19. Inhibition of neophobia-stimulated c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex in rats pretreated with midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Lehner, Małgorzata; Skórzewska, Anna; Bidziński, Andrzej; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Maciejak, Piotr; Szyndler, Janusz; Płaźnik, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The effect of an anxiolytic drug, midazolam, on the expression of c-Fos protein (the product of the immediate early gene, c-fos) in the rat brain was studied in animals that were exposed to the stress of neophobia using the open field test. Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, ip) selectively and significantly attenuated the neophobia-induced increase in the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex, but not in the primary motor cortex, the piriform cortex or the amygdalar nuclei. Overall, the effects of midazolam indicate that the prefrontal cortex is a likely candidate region in which drugs exert their anxiolytic action, and that the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex may participate in the formation and expression of acute innate fear responses.

  20. Receptor systems mediating c-fos expression within trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animal models of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, D D; Sanchez del Rio, M

    2001-03-01

    In intracranial structures unmyelinated C- and Adelta-fibers of the trigeminal nerve transmit pain stimuli from meninges to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Peripheral nerve endings surround meningeal vessels (the so-called trigeminovascular system) and contain vasoactive neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neurokinin A). Activation of the trigeminovascular system promotes a meningeal sterile inflammatory response through the release of neuropeptides by peripheral endings. Orthodromic conduction along trigeminovascular fibers transmits information centrally with induction of immediate early c-fos gene within post-synaptic Sp5C neurons, as a marker of neuronal activity within central nociceptive pathways. In laboratory animals the system is activated by either electrical stimulation of the TG, chemical stimulation of the meninges, electrical or mechanical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus or by induction of cortical spreading depression. All these techniques induce c-fos within Sp5C and are used as a rodent/feline model of vascular headache in humans. Up-to-date there is evidence that at least ten receptors (5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(lF), 5-HT(2B), NK-1, GABA(A), NMDA, AMPA, class III metabotropic glutamate receptors, and opioids mu receptors) modulate c-fos expression within Sp5C. These receptors represent potential targets for anti-migraine drugs as shown by triptans (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and ergot alkaloids (5-HT(1A1B/1D/1F)). This review discusses the importance of c-fos expression within Sp5C as a marker of cephalic nociception, the different cephalic pain models that induce c-fos within Sp5C, the receptors involved and their potential role as targets for anti-migraine drugs.

  1. Treatment with neuropeptides attenuates c-fos expression in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Vink, Joy; Roberson, Robin; Abebe, Daniel; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-10-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common nongenetic cause of mental retardation and is characterized by neurodevelopmental anomalies. C-FOS is a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-signal pathway. Previously, we showed the treatment with NAP (NAPVSIPQ) + SAL (SALLRSIPA) reversed the learning deficit after prenatal alcohol exposure in FAS. Our objective was to evaluate if the mechanism of actions of NAP + SAL involves the stress-signal pathway differentiating C-FOS expression in mouse brains after prenatal alcohol exposure. C57Bl6/J mice were treated with alcohol (0.03 mL/g) or placebo on gestational day 8. On postnatal day 40, in utero alcohol-exposed males were treated via gavage with 40 μg D-NAP and 40 μg D-SAL ( N = 6) or placebo ( N = 4); controls were gavaged with placebo daily ( N = 12). After learning evaluation, hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex were isolated. Calibrator-normalized relative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed. Statistics included analysis of variance and post hoc Fisher analysis. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS in the hippocampus after prenatal alcohol exposure ( P < 0.05), but not in the cerebellum. There was no difference in C-FOS expression in the cortex. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS expression in hippocampus attenuating the alcohol-induced alteration of the stress-signal pathway.

  2. [The Role of c-fos in the Production of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and the Related Signal Transduction Pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Quan; Huang, Jun-Qin; Yi, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Jun

    2015-12-01

    As an immediate early gene, c-fos plays a critical role in stimulating the synthesis and release of pituitary FSH via GnRH. To better understanding the mechanism how c-fos works in the transcription of FSHbeta under different frequency of pulsatile GnRH stimulation, this paper reviewed the signal trans- ductions initiated by c-fos in pituitary, which include cAMP pathway, MAPK pathway, Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinases pathway and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway. It will be helpful for research in molecular targeted immunotherapy and eventually effective treatment to the infertility which resulted from defection or mutation of c-fos and c-fos related signal pathway elements.

  3. Excessive novelty-induced c-Fos expression and altered neurogenesis in the hippocampus of GluA1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Chiara; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Jaako-Movits, Külli; Zharkovsky, Alexander; Panhelainen, Anne; Sprengel, Rolf; Linden, Anni-Maija; Korpi, Esa R

    2011-01-01

    α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluA1 subunit-deficient (GluA1-/-) mice display novelty-induced hyperactivity, cognitive and social defects and may model psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression/mania. We used c-Fos expression in GluA1-/- mice to identify brain regions responsible for novelty-induced hyperlocomotion. Exposure to a novel cage for 2 h significantly increased c-Fos expression in many brain regions in both wild-type and knockout mice. Interestingly, the clearest genotype effect was observed in the hippocampus and its main input region, the entorhinal cortex, where the novelty-induced c-Fos expression was more strongly enhanced in GluA1-/- mice. Their novelty-induced hyperlocomotion partly depended on the activity of AMPA receptors, as it was diminished by the AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) and unaffected by the AMPA receptor potentiator 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl-1-piperidinylmethanone (CX546). The hyperlocomotion of GluA1-/- mice was normalised to the level of wild-type mice within 5-6 h, after which their locomotion followed normal circadian rhythm and was not affected by acute or chronic treatments with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We propose that hippocampal dysfunction, as evidenced by the excessive c-Fos response to novelty, is the major contributor to novelty-induced hyperlocomotion in GluA1-/- mice. Hippocampal dysfunction was also indicated by changes in proliferation and survival of adult-born dentate gyrus cells in the knockout mice. These results suggest focusing on the functions of hippocampal formation, such as novelty detection, when using the GluA1-/- mouse line as a model for neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders.

  4. Repeated forced swim stress enhances CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and affects the expressions of pCREB and c-Fos in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Kaneoke, Y

    2014-02-14

    Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and c-Fos in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in the rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced an increase in the expression of pCREB and c-Fos in the anterior IC (AIC). CFA injection into the hindpaw after the FS shows significantly enhanced thermal hyperalgesia and induced a decrease in the expression of c-Fos in the AIC and the posterior IC (PIC). Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the left AIC and PIC were significantly lower in the FS+CFA group (L AIC, 95.9±6.8; L PIC, 181.9±23.1) than those in the naive group (L AIC, 151.1±19.3, pthermal hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system.

  5. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B VanElzakker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24 hr later. Rat brains were extracted 30 min after the 24 hr memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: 1 Rats given standard training (Standard; 2 Rats given cat exposure (Predator Stress 30 min prior to training (Pre-Training Stress; 3 Rats given water exposure only (Water Yoked; and 4 Rats given no water exposure (Home Cage. The Standard trained group exhibited excellent 24 hr memory which was accompanied by increased c-fos mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA. The Water Yoked group exhibited no increase in c-fos mRNA in any brain region. Rats in the Pre-Training Stress group were classified into two subgroups: good and bad memory performers. Neither of the two Pre-Training Stress subgroups exhibited a significant change in c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus or BLA. Instead, stressed rats with good memory exhibited significantly greater c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS compared to stressed rats with bad memory. This finding suggests that stressed rats with good memory used their DLS to generate a non-spatial (cue-based strategy to learn and subsequently retrieve the memory of the platform location. Collectively, these findings provide evidence at a molecular level for the involvement of the hippocampus and BLA in the retrieval of spatial memory and contribute novel observations on the influence of pre-training stress in activating the DLS in response to long-term memory retrieval.

  6. Effect of water restrictions on the physiological parameters, psychological behavior and brain c-Fos expression in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua ZHU; Bai-Ren WANG; Qing-Rong TAN; Xiao-Li DUAN; Fang KUANG; Zhen XU; Gong JU

    2006-01-01

    Objective In order to characterize the feature of stress response induced by stressor with both physical and psychological natures, the effect of water restriction performed in different experimental modes on the physiological parameters, psychological behavioral manifestations and brain c-Fos expressions were observed and compared. Methods 58 male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n= 18 for each) and a control group (n=4). In control group, the rats were allowed to access drinking water freely at all experimental period. In the experimental groups the water supply to the rats was restricted. In timed water supply (TW) group, the water was supplied twice a day,10 min for each in fixed hours every day. In empty bottle-served (EB) and water-restricted (WR) groups, the water was served only once a day for 10 min, either in the early morning or evening, and in the other time point scheduled for water supply only an empty bottle without water was provided in the EB group and nothing was given in the WR group. The quantities of drank water and eaten food, weight-gaining, and behavior score were observed every day. The serum level of corticosterone was assayed and the rats were sacrificed with fixative perfusion of 3 d, 7 d or 14 d respectively, following water restriction (n=6 for each time point in each group). The brain c-Fos expressions were examined with immunohistochemistry. Results The slowing down of weight-gaining, rise of serum corticosterone level, occurrence of psychological behavioral manifestations of unpeaceful restlessness such as exploring and attacking, enhance of c-Fos expression in the subfornical organ (SFO), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), area postrema (AP), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), medial (MeA) and central (CeA) amygdaloid nucleus and ventrolateral septum (LSV) were noticed in both EB and WR groups, except the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) in which the Fos

  7. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yun Ahn; Seongkweon Hong; Jae-Chul Lee; Jeong Yeol Seo; Hyun-Jin Tae; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Joon Ha Park; Dong Won Kim; Jun Hwi Cho; Moo-Ho Won

    2015-01-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disor-ders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cin-gulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histolfuorescence staining. c-Fos-immunore-active cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction.

  8. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yun Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction.

  9. C-fos and the Digestive Disease%c-fos与消化系疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海玲; 邓春发; 骆黎

    2011-01-01

    c-fos是一种存在于正常神经核内的原癌基因,属于即刻早期基因,可被多种刺激诱导而快速表达.c-fos原癌基因及其蛋白产物不仅参与细胞的正常生长、分化过程,而且也参与细胞内信息传递过程和细胞的能量代谢过程,在生命活动中起着极为基本而重要的作用.c-fos是反映细胞活性的一种标志,近年来被广泛用作神经元异常兴奋标记物,用于探讨多种疾病的发生机制,尤其在神经病学及麻醉医学中,被广泛应用于脑缺血发作及其他有害刺激对脑细胞的损伤及药物疗效评价.近些年随着对其生物学功能认识的逐渐深入,c-fos逐渐用于探索内脏敏感性异常的起源、胃肠伤害性信号传递的神经通路、脊髓和高级中枢如何调节及其关键的活性物质的研究.本文综述了近年来国内外c-fos 在探讨消化系疾病的发病机制中的异常表达及其生物学意义的研究进展.%c-fos was a normal neural kernel inside protocarcinogenic gene,belongs to the immediate early gene, can be quickly and induction of stimulation expression. c-fos protocarcinogenic gene and their protein products not only in the normal cell differentiation process,but also in the information transfer within the cell and the cells in the process of energy metabolism, life activity plays very basic and important role. c-fos is a symbol of the cell. In recent years,c-fos has been widely used for neuron abnormalities excited marker and used to explore the mechanism of various diseases and evaluation the drug efficacy. Especially in neurology and anesthesia in medicine, c-fos have been widely applied in ischemic attacks and other noxious stimulation of the brain damage and drug efficacy evaluation. In recent years with the understanding of their biological functions,c-fos gradually used to explore the internal abnormal origin, gastrointestinal sensitivity to harm the signaling pathways, spinal cord and senior central

  10. Using c-fos to study neuronal ensembles in corticostriatal circuitry of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fabio C; Javier Rubio, F; Hope, Bruce T

    2015-12-01

    Learned associations between drugs and environment play an important role in addiction and are thought to be encoded within specific patterns of sparsely distributed neurons called neuronal ensembles. This hypothesis is supported by correlational data from in vivo electrophysiology and cellular imaging studies in relapse models in rodents. In particular, cellular imaging with the immediate early gene c-fos and its protein product Fos has been used to identify sparsely distributed neurons that were strongly activated during conditioned drug behaviors such as drug self-administration and context- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Here we review how Fos and the c-fos promoter have been employed to demonstrate causal roles for Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in conditioned drug behaviors. This work has allowed identification of unique molecular and electrophysiological alterations within Fos-expressing neuronal ensembles that may contribute to the development and expression of learned associations in addiction.

  11. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. Effect of acute and chronic bilateral visual deafferentation on c-Fos immunoreactivity in the visual system of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Rhea; Rosahl, Steffen K; Brinker, Thomas; Samii, Madjid; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    In our study we examined acute and chronic changes in c-Fos expression patterns in the visual system of the rat after complete visual deafferentation. In 20 male Lewis rats, the retro-bulbar part of the optic nerve was sectioned bilaterally. Ten animals underwent c-Fos immunohistochemistry after 3 days and 10 animals after 3 weeks examining time-dependent changes. The control group consisted of 10 animals, which did not undergo any surgical manipulation. c-Fos expression in the rat visual system experienced significant changes after acute and chronic bilateral complete visual deafferentation. Acute decrease in c-Fos level was observed in the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and layers IV and V of the primary visual cortex. After chronic deafferentation, c-Fos expression was also found to be decreased in the optic and deep layers of the superior colliculus and layer VI of the primary visual cortex. No change in c-Fos expression was observed in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and layers I, II and III of the primary visual cortex. This work shows that secondary complete blindness does not lead to uniform decrease in c-Fos levels in all subcortical and cortical brain regions related to vision. These findings provide important information concerning expression of the immediate-early gene product c-Fos in secondary blind rodent models. It may further serve as a relevant baseline finding when electrical stimulation of the visual system is performed, aiding the assessment of visual neuroprosthesis using c-Fos as a functional mapping tool when evaluating different stimulus parameters in blind rodent models.

  13. ENaC-expressing neurons in the sensory circumventricular organs become c-Fos activated following systemic sodium changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca L; Wang, Michelle H; Gray, Paul A; Salkoff, Lawrence B; Loewy, Arthur D

    2013-11-15

    The sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized collections of neurons and glia that lie in the midline of the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, lack a blood-brain barrier, and function as chemosensors, sampling both the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. These structures, which include the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP), are sensitive to changes in sodium concentration but the cellular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-expressing neurons of the CVOs may be involved in this process. Here we demonstrate with immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods that ENaC-expressing neurons are densely concentrated in the sensory CVOs. These neurons become c-Fos activated, a marker for neuronal activity, after various manipulations of peripheral levels of sodium including systemic injections with hypertonic saline, dietary sodium deprivation, and sodium repletion after prolonged sodium deprivation. The increases seen c-Fos activity in the CVOs were correlated with parallel increases in plasma sodium levels. Since ENaCs play a central role in sodium reabsorption in kidney and other epithelia, we present a hypothesis here suggesting that these channels may also serve a related function in the CVOs. ENaCs could be a significant factor in modulating CVO neuronal activity by controlling the magnitude of sodium permeability in neurons. Hence, some of the same circulating hormones controlling ENaC expression in kidney, such as angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide, may coordinate ENaC expression in sensory CVO neurons and could potentially orchestrate sodium appetite, osmoregulation, and vasomotor sympathetic drive.

  14. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J. [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda (United States); Lord, Rebecca L. [Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom); Chawla, Sangeeta, E-mail: sangeeta.chawla@york.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited

  15. c-Fos expression associated with reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior by response-contingent conditioned cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufahl, Peter R; Zavala, Arturo R; Singh, Akanksha; Thiel, Kenneth J; Dickey, Erin D; Joyce, Jeffrey N; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-10-01

    The capability of cocaine cues to generate craving in cocaine-dependent humans, even after extended abstinence, is modeled in rats using cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. We investigated neural activity associated with incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues using c-fos mRNA and Fos protein expression as markers. Unlike preceding studies, we used response-contingent presentation of discrete cues to elicit cocaine seeking. Rats were first trained to press a lever, resulting in cocaine reinforcement and light and tone cues. Rats then underwent extinction training, during which lever presses decreased. On the test day, rats either received response-contingent cocaine cues or received no cues. The cues reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior on the test day. In general, cue-elicited c-fos mRNA and protein expression were similar and both were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum, and nucleus accumbens. Cues elicited more widespread Fos protein expression relative to our previous research in which cues were presented noncontingently without prior extinction training, including increases in the VTA, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and lateral entorhinal cortex. We also observed a correlation between cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos in the agranular insula (AgI) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The findings suggest that connections between BLA and AgI play a role in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine and that reinstatement of cocaine seeking by response-contingent cues activates a similar corticolimbic circuit as that observed with other modes of cue presentation; however, activation of midbrain and ventral hippocampal regions may be unique to reinstatement by response-contingent cues.

  16. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and the alterations of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus: the effects of physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, P; Fatahi, Z; Moradi, M; Haghparast, A

    2014-12-08

    The hypothalamus and hippocampus are important areas involved in stress responses and reward processing. In addition, ERK/CREB pathway plays a critical role in the control of cellular responses to stress and reward. In the current study, effects of acute and subchronic stress on the alteration of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of saline- or morphine-treated animals during morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure were investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups. Each supergroup includes of control, acute stress and subchronic stress groups. In all of groups, the CPP procedure was done, afterward the alternation of p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were estimated by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level increased after application of acute and subchronic stress (except for p-ERK/ERK ratio in morphine-control group). Our findings revealed that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, acute and subcronic stress increased the p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and this enhancement in morphine-treated animals, was more considerable than that in saline-treated animals.

  17. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  18. c-FOS expression in the visual system of tree shrews after monocular inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Toru; Kaas, Jon H

    2017-01-01

    Tree shrews possess an unusual segregation of ocular inputs to sublayers rather than columns in the primary visual cortex (V1). In this study, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and V1 were examined for changes in c-FOS, an immediate-early gene, expression after 1 or 24 hours of monocular inactivation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tree shrews. Monocular inactivation greatly reduced gene expression in LGN layers related to the blocked eye, whereas normally high to moderate levels were maintained in the layers that receive inputs from the intact eye. The SC and caudal pulvinar contralateral to the blocked eye had greatly (SC) or moderately (pulvinar) reduced gene expressions reflective of dependence on the contralateral eye. c-FOS expression in V1 was greatly reduced contralateral to the blocked eye, with most of the expression that remained in upper layer 4a and lower 4b and lower layer 6 regions. In contrast, much of V1 contralateral to the active eye showed normal levels of c-FOS expression, including the inner parts of sublayers 4a and 4b and layers 2, 3, and 6. In some cases, upper layer 4a and lower 4b showed a reduction of gene expression. Layers 5 and sublayer 3c had normally low levels of gene expression. The results reveal the functional dominance of the contralateral eye in activating the SC, pulvinar, and V1, and the results from V1 suggest that the sublaminar organization of layer 4 is more complex than previously realized. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:151-165, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of Touch-stimulus on the Expression of C-fos and TrkA in Spinal Cord Following Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the innoxious touch-stimulus on the modulation of hyperalgesia and the expression of the C-fos and the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor-TrkA in the spinal dorsal horn neurons following the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats, 60female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group and CCI group, with each group being further divided into 3 subgroups on the 7th, 14 th and 28th day after operation (n=10). The mechanical and the thermal withdrawal threshold were assessed following the touch stiumulation after the CCI, immunohistochemical methods were employed to observe the expression of the C-fos and TrkA in spinal dorsal horn. Our results showed that the hyperalgesia appeared on the 4th day and reached the maximal level on the 14th day after operation. The expression of the C-fos also increased significantly and reached its maximal level on the 14th day after the touch-stimulus.Meanwhile, the TrkA expression was elevated significantly in both groups, as compared with basic data, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). It is concluded that the level of the C-fos expression changed with the paw withdrawal threshold variation and increased markedly following the innoxious touch-stimulus. The expression of the TrkA receptors also increased gradually following the development of the neuropathic pain. The results suggest that C-fos may play a crucial role in the development of the hyperalgesia in the earlier-time of the neuropathic pain, but TrkA receptors may be involved in the long-lasting adaptive changes of the central pathway in neuropathic pain.

  20. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task

    OpenAIRE

    Conejo Jiménez, Nélida María; González Pardo, Héctor; López Ramírez, Matías; Cantora Castellanos, Raul; Arias Pérez, Jorge Luis

    2007-01-01

    Se analiza la implicación de la amígdala basolateral y medial en el condicionamiento al miedo empleando diferentes marcadores de activación neuronal. El método que describimos es una combinación de la histoquímica citocromo oxidasa (CO) y la inmunocitoquímica c-Fos en secciones de tejido cerebral. La conducta de inmovilización se usó como índice del condicionamiento auditivo y contextual. Las puntuaciones obtenidas fueron significativamente mayores en ratas expuestas a emparejamientos tono-de...

  1. The effect of alcohol on c-fos gene expression in rat embryo neuroglial%酒精对鼠胚胎神经胶质细胞c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈卫东; 吴德生; 翁贵武; 谢芳莉; 肖帮良; 魏大鹏

    2001-01-01

    Objective This paper is aimed to explore the mechanisms of brain development abnormality induced by alcohol.Methods Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of 19-day rat embryo were exploited and cultured in vitro,and alcohol and its metabolite product (acetaldehyde) were added to DMEMF12 medium.After different exposure times,c-fos expression of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes was measured by the immunocytochemistry technique.Results Changes in c-fos gene expression induced by alcohol and acetaldehyde was time and dose dependent.After 1 hr exposure,alcohol and acetaldehyde affected c-fos gene expression in two kinds of neuralglia.C-fos positive expression reached peak value after 2 hr,but recovered after 72 hr and showed special time phase expression.Conclusions Alcohol and acetaldehyde cause abnormal increase of c-fos gene expression in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.This abnormal expression may play an important role in abnormal brain development induced by alcohol.%目的探讨酒精致脑发育异常机制。方法从孕19 d鼠胚胎脑组织分离培养星形、少突胶质细胞体外分别施不同剂量酒精及其代谢产物乙醛,应用免疫细胞化学技术研究二者作用不同时间对星形、少突胶质细胞原癌基因 c-fos 表达影响。结果酒精对星形、少突胶质细胞c-fos表达与时间和剂量有关。各剂量酒精、乙醛作用1 h既可影响两种细胞c-fos 基因表达,2 h表达至峰值,72 h恢复正常呈现特异时相性。结论酒精、乙醛均可致星形、少突胶质细胞c-fos表达增强。c-fos异常表达很可能在酒精所致脑发育异常担当重要作用。

  2. Injections of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala induce anxiety-like behavior and c-Fos expression in brainstem serotonergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, F; Lightman, S L; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2006-01-01

    The amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Previous studies have shown that injections of the anxiety-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor or the related neuropeptide urocortin 1 into the region of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus induce anxiety-like behavior in several behavioral paradigms. Brainstem serotonergic systems in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus may be part of a distributed neural system that, together with the basolateral amygdala, regulates acute and chronic anxiety states. We therefore investigated the effect of an acute bilateral injection of urocortin 1 into the basolateral amygdala on behavior in the social interaction test and on c-Fos expression within serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae directed at the region of the basolateral amygdala; 72 h after surgery, rats were injected with urocortin 1 (50 fmol/100 nl) or vehicle (100 nl of 1% bovine serum albumin in distilled water). Thirty minutes after injection, a subgroup of rats from each experimental group was exposed to the social interaction test; remaining animals were left in the home cage. Two hours after injection rats were perfused with paraformaldehyde and brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry. Acute injection of urocortin 1 had anxiogenic effects in the social interaction test, reducing total interaction time without affecting locomotor activity or exploratory behavior. These behavioral effects were associated with increases in c-Fos expression within brainstem serotonergic neurons. In home cage rats and rats exposed to the social interaction test, urocortin 1 treatment increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive serotonergic neurons within subdivisions of both the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the

  3. Upregulation of miR-181 decreases c-Fos and SIRT-1 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; LaFerla, Frank M; Kitazawa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a group of small RNAs that regulate diverse cellular processes including neuronal function. Recent studies have shown that dysregulation of specific microRNAs is critically involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of these reports have focused on microRNAs implicated in alterations of amyloid-β and tau. However, studies exploring the relation between microRNAs dysregulation in AD and synaptic plasticity are scarce despite the well-known involvement of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity. Since impairments in synaptic plasticity and neuronal loss are two important features displayed in AD patients, it is feasible to hypothesize that alterations in plasticity-related microRNAs underlie AD progression. Here, levels of a small number of microRNAs implicated in normal neuronal function and/or plasticity were examined in an AD model. Twelve-month old 3xTg-AD mice with plaques and tangles presented a significant upregulation of miR-181 in the hippocampus compared to age-matched wild type mice. Increased miR-181 was not detected in pre-pathological 3xTg-AD mice. Analysis of predicted targets of miR-181 identified c-Fos and SIRT-1, proteins critically involved in memory formation. Both c-Fos and SIRT-1 levels were significantly decreased in the ventral hippocampus of twelve-month old 3xTg-AD mice. Overexpression of miR-181 in SH-SY5Y cells significantly decreased c-Fos and SIRT-1, strongly suggesting that miR-181 directly regulates the expression of these two proteins. These findings indicate a connection between miR-181 and proteins involve in synaptic plasticity and memory processing in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Our results suggest that microRNAs involved in synaptic plasticity might be an important factor that contributes to AD neuropathology.

  4. Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Abdelli

    Full Text Available Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.

  5. Long-term suppression of methamphetamine-induced c-Fos expression in rat striatum by the injection of c-fos antisense oligodeoxynucleotides absorbed in water-absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Jun'ichi; Wakuta, Maki; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2004-10-01

    The use of water-absorbent polymer (WAP) as a hydrogel carrier for the slow delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in the brain, was recently developed. In this experiment, 15-mer phosphorothioate ODN, complementary to c-fos gene absorbed in WAP, was injected in the rat striatum. The expression of c-Fos-immunoreactivity induced by methamphetamine (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) around the injection site was suppressed until 5 days after injection. Using this method, it was observed that unilateral injection with c-fos antisense ODN into the rat striatum caused robust ipsilateral rotations after methamphetamine challenge 4 days post injection. This method is simple, and the biological and behavioral effects of antisense ODN in WAP can be maintained for several days even after a single injection into the brain.

  6. HPV16E6-Dependent c-Fos Expression Contributes to AP-1 Complex Formation in SiHa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixin Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the major role of HPV16E6 in cancer has been considered to be its ability to inhibit the p53 tumor-suppressor protein, thereby thwarting p53-mediated cytotoxic responses to cellular stress signals. Here, we show that HPV16E6-dependent c-fos oncogenic protein expression contributes to AP-1 complex formation under oxidative stress in SiHa cells (HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. In addition, we examined the role of HPV16E6 in TGF-α-induced c-fos expression and found that the c-fos protein expression induced by TGF-α is HPV16E6 dependent. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that HPV16E6 contributes to AP-1 complex formation after both ligand-dependent and independent EGFR activation, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of HPV-associated tumors.

  7. Endomorphins suppress nociception-induced c-Fos and Zif/268 expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama, Shingo; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Kosai, Kazuko; Nakamura, Tadashi; Kasaba, Toshiharu; Takasaki, Mayumi; Nishimori, Toshikazu

    2002-09-06

    We evaluated the potency of endomorphin-1 and -2 as endogenous ligands on c-Fos and Zif/268 expression in the spinal dorsal horn by formalin injection to the rat hind paw. Endomorphin-1, -2, or morphine was administered intrathecally or intracerebroventricularly 5 min before formalin injection (5%, 100 microl). All drugs produced marked reductions of formalin-induced c-Fos and Zif/268 immunoreactivity in laminae I and II, and laminae V and VI in the rat lumbar spinal cord. The reductions of Zif/268 expression by endomorphins were greater than those by morphine, while the reductions of c-Fos expression by endomorphins were smaller than those by morphine. These effects of endomorphins were attenuated by pretreatment with naloxone. These results indicate that endomorphin-1 and -2 act as endogenous ligands of mu-opioid receptor in neurons of the spinal dorsal horn and suppress the processing of nociceptive information in the central nervous system.

  8. c-fos modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in mouse hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mei; Wu, Yongfei; Fan, Yunxia; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jianhua

    2006-05-29

    Excess neuronal excitation by glutamate induces neuron cell death, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous studies using a mouse with hippocampal c-fos gene deletion showed that c-fos regulates neuronal excitability and excitotoxicity. Moreover, a delayed induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression in response to kainic acid (KA) treatment was found in c-fos mutant mice compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that c-fos is important in the temporal control of BDNF induction. To further investigate mechanisms of in vivo regulation of c-fos on BDNF expression, we studied the expression of BDNF mRNA and its colocalization with c-Fos protein in the hippocampal formation in the presence and absence of KA. By in situ hybridization, we observed that the c-fos mutant and wildtype mice exhibited similar basal expression of BDNF in the absence of KA. In contrast, the KA-induced BDNF mRNA levels were significantly different in wildtype and c-fos mutant mice in CA3 and dentate gyrus regions. Our findings indicate that c-fos regulates expression of BDNF in distinct neuron populations of the hippocampal formation in vivo.

  9. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  10. Taste neophobia and c-Fos expression in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Chris; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2012-04-11

    Taste neophobia refers to a reduction in consumption of a novel taste relative to when it is familiar. To gain more understanding of the neural basis of this phenomenon, the current study examined whether a novel taste (0.5% saccharin) supports a different pattern of c-Fos expression than the same taste when it is familiar. Results revealed that the taste of the novel saccharin solution evoked more Fos immunoreactivity than the familiar taste of saccharin in the basolateral region of the amygdala, central nucleus of the amygdala, gustatory portion of the thalamus, and the gustatory insular cortex. No such differential expression was found in the other examined areas, including the bed nucleus of stria terminalis,medial amygdala, and medial parabrachial nucleus. The present results are discussed with respect to a forebrain taste neophobia system.

  11. Single-dose and chronic corticosterone treatment alters c-Fos or FosB immunoreactivity in the rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Réka; Fazekas, Ildikó; Mihály, András; Krisztin-Péva, Beáta; Juhász, Anna; Janka, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of single-dose and chronic corticosterone treatment on the inducible transcription factor c-Fos and FosB, and thereby to estimate the effects of high-doses of corticosterone on calcium-dependent neuronal responses in the rat cerebral cortex. At the same time we investigated the distribution of interneurons containing calretinin (CR), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in chronically treated animals in order to collect data on the involvement of inhibitory neurons in this process. Adult male rats were injected subcutaneously with 10mg corticosterone, whereas controls received the vehicle (sesame oil). The animals were fixed by transcardial perfusion 12 and 24h following single corticosterone injection, and the brains were processed for c-Fos and FosB immunohistochemistry. To investigate the effects of repeated corticosterone administration, rats were daily treated with the same amount of corticosterone (10mg/animal, subcutaneously) for 21 days. Controls were injected with vehicle. At the end of the experiment, the rats were perfused and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of the FosB protein, CR, VIP and NPY. Quantitative evaluation of immunolabelled cells was performed in the neocortex and the hippocampus. The number of immunoreactive nuclei per unit area was used as a quantitative measure of the effects of corticosterone. It was found that a single-dose administration of corticosterone resulted in a significant, time-dependent increase of c-Fos protein immunoreactivity in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, as well as in regions CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus 12 and 24h post-injection with respect to control animals. Significant enhancement of c-Fos immunoreactivity was also observed in the neocortex at 12 and 24h post-injection. Single-dose treatment did not significantly alter FosB immunolabelling. Repeated administration of corticosterone produced a complex

  12. Dentin bonding agents induce c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2003-01-01

    An important requirement for a dentin bonding agent is biologic compatibility; the bonding agent usually remains in close contact with living dental tissues over a long period of time. Information on the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potentials of dentin bonding agents is rare. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to dentin bonding agents. Therefore, we used primary human gingival fibroblasts to examine the effect of six dentin bonding agents on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to evaluate the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity potential of the dentin bonding agents. The levels of mRNA were measured by the quantitative RT-PCR analysis. c-fos and c-jun mRNA expression in dentin bonding agents-treated cells revealed a rapid accumulation of the transcript, a significant signal first was detectable after 1h of exposure. Persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by dentine bonding agents may distribute systemically to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. It would be necessary to identify the severely toxic compounds and replace these substances by better biocompatible components. Otherwise, leaching of those genotoxicity/mutagenicity and cacinogenicity components must be minimized or prevented.

  13. The cellular protooncogenes c-fos and egr-1 are regulated by prostacyclin in rodent osteoblasts and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantschnig, H; Varga, F; Klaushofer, K

    1996-11-01

    PGs are local regulators of various cellular functions. They exert their effects via specific PG receptor subtypes. Induction of c-fos gene expression has been described for arachidonic acid and its metabolite PGE2. We demonstrate that another very short half-lifed prostanoid metabolite, namely prostacyclin (PGI2), is a regulator of immediate-early genes. PGI2 transiently induced the growth-associated immediate-early genes c-fos and egr-1 in osteoblastic as well as fibroblastic cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that PGI2 dose dependently stimulated new DNA synthesis in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. Although PGI2 is known to be a potent inducer of cyclooxygenases, we showed that this pathway is not necessary for protooncogene induction by PGI2. Our data indicate a direct effect of PGI2 on immediate-early gene expression, which does not depend on the synthesis of other prostanoids. Intracellular signal transduction mechanisms were studied with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7, a potent inhibitor of PGI2-induced c-fos expression. Experiments with phorbol esters revealed that protein kinase C activity is not obligatory for the effect of PGI2 on c-fos expression. We conclude from these results that PGI2, a rapidly inactivated prostanoid, has a major impact on cellular oncogene expression and growth in mesenchymally derived cells.

  14. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R cooperates with mediator to facilitate transcription reinitiation on the c-Fos gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Fukuda

    Full Text Available The c-fos gene responds to extracellular stimuli and undergoes robust but transient transcriptional activation. Here we show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R facilitates transcription reinitiation of the c-fos promoter in vitro in cooperation with Mediator. Consistently, hnRNP R interacts with the Scaffold components (Mediator, TBP, and TFIIH as well as TFIIB, which recruits RNA polymerase II (Pol II and TFIIF to Scaffold. The cooperative action of hnRNP R and Mediator is diminished by the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8 module, which is comprised of CDK8, Cyclin C, MED12 and MED13 of the Mediator subunits. Interestingly, we find that the length of the G-free cassettes, and thereby their transcripts, influences the hnRNP R-mediated facilitation of reinitiation. Indeed, indicative of a possible role of the transcript in facilitating transcription reinitiation, the RNA transcript produced from the G-free cassette interacts with hnRNP R through its RNA recognition motifs (RRMs and arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG domain. Mutational analyses of hnRNP R indicate that facilitation of initiation and reinitiation requires distinct domains of hnRNP R. Knockdown of hnRNP R in mouse cells compromised rapid induction of the c-fos gene but did not affect transcription of constitutive genes. Together, these results suggest an important role for hnRNP R in regulating robust response of the c-fos gene.

  15. Ethanol-induced c-Fos expression in catecholamine- and neuropeptide Y-producing neurons in rat brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, TE; Cubero, [No Value; van Dijk, G; Mediavilla, C; Bernstein, IL; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2000-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have used c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (cFLI) to examine the neuroanatomical location of cells that are activated in response to ethanol administration. However, the use of cFLI alone fails to reveal the phenotypical identity of cells. Tn the present study we used double-

  16. Reversal of novelty-induced hyperlocomotion and hippocampal c-Fos expression in GluA1 knockout male mice by the mGluR2/3 agonist LY354740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, C; Maksimovic, M; Aitta-Aho, T; Korpi, E R; Linden, A-M

    2013-10-10

    Dysfunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia and mood disorders. As a putative model for these disorders, a mouse line lacking the GluA1 subunit (GluA1-KO) of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor displays a robust novelty-induced hyperlocomotion associated with excessive neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Agonists of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors (mGluR2/3) inhibit glutamate release in various brain regions and they have been shown to inhibit neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Here, we tested a hypothesis that novelty-induced hyperlocomotion in the GluA1-KO mice is mediated via excessive hippocampal neuronal activation by analyzing whether an mGluR2/3 agonist inhibits this phenotypic feature. GluA1-KO mice and littermate wildtype (WT) controls were administered with (1S,2S,5R,6S)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740) (15 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before a 2-h exposure to novel arenas after which c-Fos immunopositive cells were analyzed in the hippocampus. LY354740 (15 mg/kg) decreased hyperactivity in male GluA1-KO mice, with only a minimal effect in WT controls. This was observed in two cohorts of animals, one naïve to handling and injections, another pre-handled and accustomed to injections. LY354740 (15 mg/kg) also reduced the excessive c-Fos expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer in maleGluA1-KO mice, while not affecting c-Fos levels in WT mice. In female mice, no significant effect for LY354740 (15 mg/kg) on hyperactive behavior or hippocampal c-Fos was observed in either genotype or treatment cohort. A higher dose of LY354740 (30 mg/kg) alleviated hyperlocomotion of GluA1-KO males, but not that of GluA1-KO females. In conclusion, the excessive behavioral hyperactivity of GluA1-KO mice can be partly prevented by reducing neuronal excitability in the hippocampus with the mGluR2/3 agonist suggesting that the hippocampal

  17. [Antagonistic effects of selenium on the expression of c-fos in central nerval system of rat included by mercury contaminated rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-ping; Wang, Wen-hua; Jia, Jin-ping; Qu, Li-ya; Zheng, Min; Shen, Zhe-ming; Shi, Wei

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the antagonisms between selenium and mercury and the effect of different species mercury on the brain injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA and c-FOS protein in rat brain induced by Hg-contaminated rice was observed by using reverse transcriptions polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results show the Hg-contaminated rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-FOS protein; selenium could antagonize mercury accumulative level in brain. Antagonistic effects of selenium on the expression of c-fos included by mercury and the molecule mechanism of the antagonisms between selenium and mercury was probed, too.

  18. Combined Expression of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 Improves Estimation of Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Xin; Xu, Fei; Meng, Yan; Sun, Changsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Eryang

    2016-09-13

    To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Simultaneous coexpression of these markers in OSCCs might prove to be a useful indicator for differentiation of low and high-risk patients.

  19. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-07-01

    Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos are immediate early gene (IEG) products induced by novelty in the hippocampus and involved in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. We investigated whether induction of arc and c-fos after exposure to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels in APP/PS1ΔE9 as in the wild-type mice. In contrast, synaptophysin levels did not differ between mutant and wild type mice, suggesting that the observed effect was not due to a general decrease in the number of presynapses. These data suggest a reduction in basal and novelty-induced neuronal activity in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, which is most pronounced in cortical regions, indicating that a decreased functional response in IEG expression could be partly responsible for the cognitive deficits observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  20. 转录因子c-fos/c-jun调控成釉细胞基质金属蛋白酶20基因的表达%c-fos/c-jun regulates extracellular matrix metalloproteinase 20 expression in ameloblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐培娟; 王长磊; 宫春梅; 唐培倩; 郝建忠

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Matrix metaloproteinase 20 is a protease specificaly expressed in ameloblasts, which has an important role in dental enamel development. To study the regulatory mechanisms for matrix metaloproteinase 20 at the molecular level lays the foundation for further animal experiments. OBJECTIVE:To explore the regulatory effects of transcription factor c-fos/c-jun for matrix metaloproteinase 20 in mouse ameloblasts and to preliminarily confirm the role of c-fos/c-jun in enamel development. METHODS:First of al, a recombinant plasmid containing c-fos was established, and then dual-luciferase reporter assay system and RT-PCR were used to analyze the effects of c-fos, c-jun transfection of ameloblasts on the activity of matrix metaloproteinase 20. Furthermore, the effect of c-fos, c-jun on matrix metaloproteinase 20 was explored based on gene site-directed mutation and dual-luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Double luciferase report assay system and RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of matrix metaloproteinase-20 was significantly upregulated after c-fos, c-jun transfection of ameloblasts, but c-fos/c-jun could not upregulate the transcriptional activity of matrix metaloproteinase 20 promoter when mutation occurred at AP1 binging site. These findings indicate that c-fos/c-jun has significant effects in regulating the mRNA expression of matrix metaloproteinase 20, which shows c-fos/c-jun plays an important biological meaning in enamel development.%背景:基质金属蛋白酶20是在成釉细胞中特异性表达的一种蛋白酶,其在牙齿釉质发育过程中具有重要作用。从分子角度研究基质金属蛋白酶20可受到的调控机制,为进一步做动物实验奠定基础。目的:通过研究转录因子c-fos/c-jun对小鼠成釉细胞基质金属蛋白酶20基因的调控作用,初步确定c-fos/c-jun在牙釉质发育中的作用。方法:首先构建 c-fos 真核表达载体重组质粒,分别利

  1. Functional organisation of central cardiovascular pathways: studies using c-fos gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, R A L; Horiuchi, J

    2003-12-01

    Until about 10 years ago, knowledge of the functional organisation of the central pathways that subserve cardiovascular responses to homeostatic challenges and other stressors was based almost entirely on studies in anaesthetised animals. More recently, however, many studies have used the method of the expression of immediate early genes, particularly the c-fos gene, to identify populations of central neurons that are activated by such challenges in conscious animals. In this review we first consider the advantages and limitations of this method. Then, we discuss how the application of the method of immediate early gene expression, when used alone or in combination with other methods, has contributed to our understanding of the central mechanisms that regulate the autonomic and neuroendocrine response to various cardiovascular challenges (e.g., hypotension, hypoxia, hypovolemia, and other stressors) as they operate in the conscious state. In general, the results of studies of central cardiovascular pathways using immediate early gene expression are consistent with previous studies in anaesthetised animals, but in addition have revealed other previously unrecognised pathways that also contribute to cardiovascular regulation. Finally, we briefly consider recent evidence indicating that immediate early gene expression can modify the functional properties of central cardiovascular neurons, and the possible significance of this in producing long-term changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system both in normal and pathological conditions.

  2. Arenas of Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2002-01-01

    The Arena of Development constitutes a cognitive space for innovation and shaping of technology. The article presents and debate the notion of development arena and explores the nature of locations and spaces where technology and innovation can be mapped, analysed and managed.......The Arena of Development constitutes a cognitive space for innovation and shaping of technology. The article presents and debate the notion of development arena and explores the nature of locations and spaces where technology and innovation can be mapped, analysed and managed....

  3. EXPRESSION OF c-fos IN BRAIN STEM FOLLOWING MODERATE LATERAL FLUID PERCUSSION BRAIN INJURY IN RATS%大鼠液压冲击脑损伤脑干c-fos mRNA表达的定位观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 李灵芝; 刘敏; 廖志钢; 汪秉康; 吴梅筠; 吴家

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究大鼠中度侧位液压冲击脑损伤时脑干c-fos mRNA及其表达产物Fos变化规律.方法:雄性SD大鼠,随机分为正常对照组、手术对照组和损伤组 .损伤组动物均给以0.2 MPa液压冲击脑损伤,按冲击后处死时间不同再分为5 min、15 min 、30 min、1 h、2h、4h、8 h和12 h组.应用免疫组织化学和原位杂交方法观察c-fos 在脑干的表达.结果:脑冲击后15 min~12 h,Fos阳性细胞数逐渐增多,12 h达高峰.冲击后5 min,c-fos mRNA表达开始增强,1~2 h达高峰.结论:侧位液压冲击脑损伤后c-fos在脑干表达迅速增强,持续时间较长.

  4. Cell-type-specific expression and regulation of a c-fos-NGF fusion gene in neurons and astrocytes of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onténiente, B; Horellou, P; Neveu, I; Makeh, I; Suzuki, F; Bourdet, C; Grimber, G; Colin, P; Brachet, P; Mallet, J

    1994-02-01

    A mouse line transgenic for nerve growth factor (NGF) was developed using the mouse prepro-NGF cDNA inserted within a plasmid containing the proximal region (-10 to -550 bp) of the c-fos promoter and the transcription termination and polyadenylation signals of the rabbit beta-globin gene. No significant modification of gross behavior or central nervous system anatomy was detected in adult animals as assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for NGF and choline acetyltransferase. The expression of the transgene and the possible regulation of its expression by agents acting on the promoter were investigated in vitro. Despite the presence of an additional pool of NGF mRNA specific to the transgene, basal levels of NGF in the supernatant of transgenic astrocytes were similar to normal ones. On the other hand, transgenic neurons spontaneously synthesized and released levels of NGF two to three times higher than normal neurons, while mRNA levels were barely detectable by conventional Northern blotting. The tissue-specificity of NGF expression was respected, with higher levels in hippocampal than neocortical neurons. Increases of NGF mRNA by agents acting on the promoter could be observed in normal and transgenic astrocytes only after inhibition of the protein synthesis by cycloheximide, suggesting a similar rapid turnover of normal and transgenic transcripts. Cyclic AMP agonists specifically increased the secretion of NGF protein by transgenic astrocytes and neurons, while activators of the protein kinase C had a similar effect on transgenic and normal cells. Differences between amounts of NGF secreted by neurons and astrocytes with regards to their respective content in mRNA suggest that transgenic transcripts are subject to normal cell- and tissue-specific post-transcriptional regulations. Agents acting on the c-fos promoter through the protein kinase C or cyclic AMP routes differentially increased the secretion of NGF by transgenic astrocytes or

  5. CILOSTAZOL INDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN THE TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS CAUDALIS AND BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES SUGGESTIVE OF HEADACHE WITH MIGRAINE-LIKE MANIFESTATIONS IN RATS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S. L. T.; Petersen, S.; Sorensen, D. B.;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research in migraine therapeutics is hindered by the lack of knowledge on migraine pathophysiology and suitable predictive animal models. As headache and migraine can be provoked in healthy humans and migraine patients the aim of this study was to see if it can also provoke headache...... in rats. Also, we tested the response to sumatriptan in order to evaluate the predictive properties of the model. Methods: The effect of cilostazol (125 mg/kg p.o.) was evaluated on a range of spontaneous behavioural parameters, light sensitivity and mechanical sensitivity thresholds. To assess headache...... specificity we evaluated the c-fos expression in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. All experiments were done in female Sprague Dawley rats and the oestrous cycle was included in the analyses. Results: We found that cilostazol increased the light sensitivity and grooming behaviour of the rats and decreased...

  6. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 - PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function.

  7. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum Days 6–8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of ster...

  8. Fisetin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation via Downregulation of p38 and c-Fos-NFATc1 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sik-Won Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevention or therapeutic treatment of loss of bone mass is an important means of improving the quality of life for patients with disorders related to osteoclast-mediated bone loss. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Continus coggygria, exhibits various biological activities, but its effect on osteoclast differentiation is unknown. In this study, fisetin dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of the activity or expression of p38, c-Fos, and NFATc1 signaling molecules. The p38/c-Fos/NFATc1-regulated expression of genes required for cell fusion and bone resorption, such as DC-STAMP and cathepsin K, was also inhibited by fisetin. Considering the rescue of fisetin's inhibitory action by NFATc1 over-expression, the cascade of p38-c-Fos-NFATc1 could be strongly involved in the inhibitory effect of fisetin on osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In conclusion, fisetin may be of use in the treatment of osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis.

  9. Chronic cannabinoid treatment in adolescent attenuates c-Fos expression in nucleus accumbens of adult estrous rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Brook

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence may negatively impact brain development and alter adult motivation and behavior. We present evidence that treatment with a cannabinoid agonist during adolescence attenuates estrous-mediated expression of c-Fos within the nucleus accumbens of female rats exposed to a male conspecific. Thirty-two female Long-Evans rats were administered either 0.4 mg/kg of CP-55,940 or vehicle on a daily basis between the ages of 35-45 days. When subjects reached adulthood (days 71-76, they were tested within an exposure paradigm designed to invoke sexual motivation wihtout allowing for consummatory behavior. Female subjects were naturally-cyclins; half were tested when in behavioral estrus (as determined by vaginal cytology and half were tested outside of estrus. c-Fos expression was then quantified in multiple brain regions associated with female sexual motivation, in addition to two control regions. Analyses revealed that untreated females showed more c-Fos-positive neurons when estrous (versus non-estrous within the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the nucleus accumbens core and shell. Significant attenuation of this estrous effect was observed within the nucleus accumbens core and shell of drug-treated females. This suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may negatively impact research in our laboratory which indicated that chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence persistently attenuates the expression of sexual motivation in female rats and provide a potential neurobiological substrate for those behavioral deficits.

  10. Acute antipsychotic treatments induce distinct c-Fos expression patterns in appetite-related neuronal structures of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; See, Lionel Kee Yon; Dawe, Gavin Stewart

    2013-05-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs are known to perturb appetite regulation causing greater hyperphagia in humans and rodents than earlier generation typical agents. However, the neuronal structures that underlie hyperphagic effects are poorly understood. Arcuate nucleus (ArcN), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) and nucleus incertus (NI) have been implicated in appetite regulation. The NI is the principal source of the relaxin-3 (RLN3) peptide, which is reported to have orexigenic effects. Moreover, ArcN, PVN, and PVA receive RLN3 immunoreactive fibers from the NI and express relaxin family peptide type 3 (RXFP3) receptor. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of clozapine (atypical), chlorpromazine (typical) and fluphenazine (typical) on c-Fos expression (a marker of neuronal response) in these appetite-related centers of the rat brain. The numbers of c-Fos expressing neurons in these structures were counted in immunofluorescence stained brain sections. Acute treatment with clozapine, chlorpromazine and fluphenazine differentially influenced c-Fos expression in these brain structures. This study is also the first demonstration that antipsychotics influence the NI. The patterns of the effects of these antipsychotics are related to their reported hyperphagic properties.

  11. Extinction of conditioned taste aversion is related to the aversion strength and associated with c-fos expression in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamitzky, M; Bösche, K; Engler, A; Schedlowski, M; Engler, H

    2015-09-10

    Taste aversion learning is a type of conditioning where animals learn to associate a novel taste (conditioned stimulus; CS) with a stimulus inducing symptoms of poisoning or illness (unconditioned stimulus; US). As a consequence animals later avoid this taste, a reaction known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). An established CTA extinguishes over time when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US. However, inter-individual differences in CTA extinction do exist. Using a model of behavioral conditioning with saccharin as CS and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A as US, the present study aimed at further elucidating the factors underlying individual differences in extinction learning by investigating whether extinction of an established CTA is related to the strength of the initially acquired CS-US association. In addition, we analyzed the expression of the neuronal activation marker c-fos in brain structures relevant for acquisition and retrieval of the CTA, such as the insular cortex and the amygdala. We here show that animals, displaying a strong CS-US association during acquisition, maintained a strong CTA during unreinforced CS re-exposures, in contrast to animals with moderate CS-US association. Moreover, the latter animals showed increased c-fos mRNA expression in the insular cortex. Our data indicate that CTA extinction apparently depends on the strength of the initially learned CS-US association. In addition, these findings provide further evidence that the memory for the initial excitatory conditioning and its subsequent extinction is probably stored in those structures that participate in the processing of the CS and the US.

  12. c-fos expression in specific rat brain nuclei after intestinal anaphylaxis: involvement of 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, N; Fioramonti, J; Fargeas, M J; Bueno, L

    1995-08-07

    The c-fos immediate-early gene is acutely induced in brain after various stimuli from the digestive tract. 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferents have been found involved in intestinal motor disturbances induced by intestinal anaphylaxis. Our aim was to determine whether intestinal anaphylaxis activates brain structures, using c-fos expression, and to evaluate the modulation of c-fos induction by 5-HT3 receptors and vagal afferents. The effects of antigen challenge on intestinal motility were evaluated in ovalbumin-sensitized Hooded Lister rats chronically fitted with NiCr electrodes in the jejunal wall. Intestinal motility was assessed in conscious rats pretreated or not by perivagal capsaicin or a 5-HT3 antagonist (ondansetron). In sensitized rats, ovalbumin disrupted for 62.4 +/- 9.5 min the jejunal migrating motor complexes (MMC) and an important c-fos expression was detected in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Intraperitoneal administration of ondansetron or perivagal capsaicin treatment significantly reduced the duration of MMC disruption and attenuated markedly c-fos staining in the 3 brain sites. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of ondansetron significantly reduced jejunal motor alterations but did not diminish the c-fos expression, suggesting a role of central 5-HT3 receptors in the efferent control of the intestinal disturbances. Blockade of both c-fos expression and MMC disruption by systemic ondansetron and by perivagal capsaicin indicates that some brainstem nuclei are involved in digestive disturbances after intestinal anaphylaxis, and reflects an involvement of peripheral 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferents. The reduction of c-fos staining in NTS as well as in LPB and PVN after perivagal capsaicin suggests that the NTS is the primary relay in the activation of the central nervous system during intestinal allergic challenge.

  13. Caffeine induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 down-regulation in human leukemia U937 cells via Ca2+/ROS-mediated suppression of ERK/c-fos pathway and activation of p38 MAPK/c-jun pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Long-Sen

    2010-09-01

    Caffeine attenuated invasion of human leukemia U937 cells with characteristic of decreased protein expression and mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U937 cells was abrogated by abolishment of caffeine-elicited increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and ROS generation. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM (Ca(2+) chelator) and N-acetylcysteine (ROS scavenger) abolished caffeine-induced ERK inactivation and p38 MPAK activation. Moreover, caffeine treatment led to MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) down-regulation and protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) up-regulation, which were involved in cross-talk between p38 MAPK and ERK. Transfection of constitutively active MEK1 or pretreatment with SB202190 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) restored MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression in caffeine-treated cells. Caffeine treatment repressed ERK-mediated c-Fos phosphorylation but evoked p38 MAPK-mediated c-Jun phosphorylation. Knock-down of c-Fos and c-Jun by siRNA reflected that c-Fos counteracted the effect of c-Jun on MMP-2/MMP-9 down-regulation. Taken together, our data indicate that MMP-2/MMP-9 down-regulation in caffeine-treated U937 cells is elicited by Ca(2+)/ROS-mediated suppression of ERK/c-Fos pathway and activation of p38 MAPK/c-Jun pathway.

  14. Long-lasting c-fos and NGF mRNA expressions and loss of perikaryal parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the development of epileptogenesis after ethacrynic acid-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, J; Omori, K; Okugawa, G; Fujiseki, Y; Heizmann, C W; Inagaki, C

    1999-07-10

    A single cerebroventricular injection of ethacrynic acid (EA), a Cl(-)-ATPase inhibitor, induces generalized tonic-clonic convulsions in mice. To clarify whether such convulsive stimulus triggers a long-lasting rearrangement of the neural circuitry culminating in seizure susceptibility, we examined molecular, cellular and behavioral changes following the EA-induced seizure. The expression of immediate early gene c-fos mRNA as an index for cellular activation increased biphasically, with an early transient increase at 60 min and a late prolonged increase on the 10th to 14th day post-EA administration, most remarkably in the hippocampus and pyriform cortex. On the 14th day post-EA seizure, subconvulsive dose of kainic acid (5-17.5 mg/kg) caused severe (stage 5) seizure in 77% of the mice, with 70% mortality. In addition, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) also showed biphasic increases with close spatiotemporal correlation with c-fos expression. Moreover, the number of cell somata and the density of axon fibers of parvalbumin (PARV)-positive cells, a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, decreased in area dentata, CA1 and CA3 on the 7th and 14th day post-EA seizure. In area dentata and CA1, the density of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive cells also decreased on the 14th day. Thus, the transient EA-induced seizures appear to develop seizure susceptibility by causing damage of a subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons along with increases in the expression of c-fos and NGF in limbic structures.

  15. Differential effects of a selective dopamine D1-like receptor agonist on motor activity and c-fos expression in the frontal-striatal circuitry of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Heijtz Rochellys

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genetic studies suggest the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R may be implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. As little is known about the potential motor role of D1R in ADHD, animal models may provide important insights into this issue. Methods We investigated the effects of a full and selective D1R agonist, SKF-81297 (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, on motor behaviour and expression of the plasticity-associated gene, c-fos, in habituated young adult male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, the most commonly used animal model of ADHD, and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY; the strain from which SHR were derived. Results SHR rats were more behaviourally active than WKY rats after injection with vehicle. The 0.3 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 increased motor behaviour (locomotion, sifting, rearing, and sniffing in both SHR and WKY rats. Total grooming was also stimulated, but only in WKY rats. The same dose increased c-fos mRNA expression in the piriform cortex of both strains. The 3 mg/kg dose increased sifting and sniffing in both strains. Locomotion was also stimulated towards the end of the testing period. The intermediate dose decreased total rearing in both strains, and produced a significant increase in c-fos mRNA in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tuberculum, and in the cingulate, agranular insular and piriform cortices. The 10 mg/kg dose of SKF-81297 produced a biphasic effect on locomotion, which was characterized by an initial decrease followed by later stimulation. The latter stimulatory effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY rats when compared to their respective vehicle-injected groups. The 10 mg/kg dose also stimulated sifting and sniffing in both strains. Both the 3 and 10 mg/kg doses had no effect on total grooming. The 10 mg/kg dose induced significantly higher levels of c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens and adjacent cortical regions (but not striatum of SHR when compared to WKY rats

  16. C-fos protein expression in the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens in the hypoxic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Siniša S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. By examining the production of c-Fos protein, we analyzed the response to the ischemic attack in different brain tissue, two of which are regions of the limbic system: the anterior amygdaloid area and nc. accumbens. Material and Methods. We used the model of rat brain ischemia - four-vessel occlusion, and Pulsinelli’s method. The rats were treated in two ways, according to which they were divided into two groups: a total ischemia (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery with bilateral ligation of the carotid artery - the so-called R-group rats, and transient ischemic attack (ligation of four blood vessels, i.e. electrocauterization of the vertebral artery, with mutual re-ligation of the carotid arteries in the form of transient ischemia - the so-called T-group rats, which can also be called “pre-conditioned group”. Both groups had their own control group. Conclusion. We have concluded that parts of the brain with an important role for the survival have a strong expression of c-fos gene.

  17. Chlorella vulgaris reduces the impact of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain c-fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Queiroz, Julia; Marín Blasco, Ignacio; Gagliano, Humberto; Daviu, Nuria; Gómez Román, Almudena; Belda, Xavier; Carrasco, Javier; Rocha, Michelle C; Palermo Neto, João; Armario, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Predominantly emotional stressors activate a wide range of brain areas, as revealed by the expression of immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is considered a biological response modifier, as demonstrated by its protective activities against infections, tumors and stress. We evaluated the effect of acute pretreatment with CV on the peripheral and central responses to forced swimming stress in adult male rats. Pretreatment with CV produced a significant reduction of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation, demonstrated by decreased corticotrophin releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower ACTH response. Hyperglycemia induced by the stressor was similarly reduced. This attenuated neuroendocrine response to stress occurred in parallel with a diminished c-fos expression in most evaluated areas, including the PVN. The data presented in this study reinforce the usefulness of CV to diminish the impact of stressors, by reducing the HPA response. Although our results suggest a central effect of CV, further studies are necessary to understand the precise mechanisms underpinning this effect.

  18. mTOR regulates TLR-induced c-fos and Th1 responses to HBV and HCV vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; He; Aiping; Zang; Min; Du; Dapeng; Ma; Chuanping; Yuan; Chun; Zhou; Jing; Mu; Huanjing; Shi; Dapeng; Li; Xulin; Huang; Qiang; Deng; Jianhua; Xiao; Huimin; Yan; Lijian; Hui; Ke; Lan; Sidong; Xiong; Xiaoxia; Li; Zhong; Huang; Hui; Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Although IL-12 plays a critical role in priming Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) responses, Toll-like receptor(TLR) signaling only induces low amounts of IL-12 in dendritic cells and macrophages, implying the existence of stringent regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we sought to uncover the mechanisms underlying TLR-induced IL-12 expression and the Th1 response. By systemic screening, we identified a number of protein kinases involved in the regulation of TLRinduced IL-12 expression. In particular, PI3 K, ERK, and m TOR play critical roles in the TLR-induced Th1 response by regulating IL-12 and IL-10 production in innate immune cells. Moreover, we identified c-fos as a key molecule that mediates m TOR-regulated IL-12 and IL-10 expression in TLR signaling. Mechanistically, m TOR plays a crucial role in c-fos expression, thereby modulating NFκB binding to promoters of IL-12 and IL-10. By controlling the expression of a special innate gene program, m TOR can specifically regulate the TLR-induced T cell response in vivo. Furthermore, blockade of m TOR by rapamycin efficiently boosted TLR-induced antigen-specific T and B cell responses to HBV and HCV vaccines. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism through which m TOR regulates TLR-induced IL-12 and IL-10 production, contributing new insights for strategies to improve vaccine efficacy.

  19. Changing the general factor of personality and the c-fos gene expression with methylphenidate and self-regulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A deepening in the biological nature of the general factor of personality (GFP) is suggested: the activation level of the stress system is here represented by the gene expression of c-fos. The results of a single case experimental design are reported. A model of four coupled differential equations that explains the human personality dynamics as a consequence of a single stimulant drug intake has been fitted to psychological and biological experimental data. The stimulant-drug conditioning and its adaptation to the considered mathematical model is also studied for both kinds of measures. The dynamics of the c-fos expression presents a similar pattern to the dynamics of the psychological measures of personality assessed by the GFP-FAS (Five-Adjective Scale of the General Factor of Personality) as a consequence of a single dose of stimulant drug (methylphenidate). The model predicts similar dynamic patterns for both psychological and biological measures. This study proves that describing mathematically the dynamics of the effects of a stimulant drug as well as the effects of a conditioning method on psychological or subjective variables and on gene expression is possible. It verifies the existence of biological mechanisms underlying the dynamics of the General Factor of Personality (GFP).

  20. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and β-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Maryam Shams; Farivar, Shirin; Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh

    2011-09-01

    Reports have demonstrated occurrences of abnormalities in the early stages of chicken embryonic development due to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article was designed to investigate the effects of sinusoidal EMF on the histopathology, apoptosis, and expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes of the livers of preincubated White Leghorn chicken embryos, based on our published experiments. 300 healthy, fresh fertilized eggs were divided into control (n = 70), sham (n = 70), and four experimental (1-4,days 13, 14, 5, and 19, n = 40) groups. Experimental eggs were exposed to the most effective intensity in a coil with 7.32 mT density, and sham groups were also located in the same coil with no exposure, both for 24 h before incubation. Control, sham, and experimental groups were then incubated in an incubator (37°C, humidity 60%) for 13,14,15, and 19 days. Livers of 13-15 and 19 day-old chicken embryos were removed by C-section and fixed in formalin (10%), stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and TUNEL for histopathological and apoptosis studies. Others were used for investigating c-Fos and β-Catenin expressions, using RT-PCR. Results showed extensive hemorrhages all over the chicken embryos' bodies and livers, more lymphoid tissues, disturbed parenchymal tissues, sinusoid denaturation, vesiculizad cytoplasm, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and a decrease on the levels of expressions of c-Fos and β-Catenin genes in experimental groups of 1-4, comparing control and sham groups.

  1. The Role of JNK and p38 MAPK Activities in UVA-Induced Signaling Pathways Leading to AP-1 Activation and c-Fos Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Silvers

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available To further delineate ultraviolet A (UVA signaling pathways in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, we examined the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in UVA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression. UVA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK proteins was detected immediately after irradiation and disappeared after approximately 2 hours. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly inhibited for up to 1 hour post-UVA irradiation. To examine the role of p38 and JNK MAPKs in UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations, the selective pharmacologic MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 (p38 inhibitor and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor, were used to independently treat stably transfected HaCaT cells in luciferase reporter assays. Both SB202190 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations. SB202190 (0.25–0.5 MM and SP600125 (62-125 nM treatments also primarily inhibited UVA-induced c-Fos expression. These results demonstrated that activation of both JNK and p38 play critical role in UVA-mediated AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression in these human keratinocyte cells. Targeted inhibition of these MAPKs with their selective pharmacologic inhibitors may be effective chemopreventive strategies for UVA-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  2. Effects of mercury contaminated rice from typical chemical plant area in China on nitric oxide changes and c-fos expression of rats brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; WANG Wen-hua; JIA Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; SHI Wei; Lin Xue-yu

    2005-01-01

    China is one of countries with the highest mercury production in the world. The Guizhou Province in Southwestern China is currently one of the world's most important mercury production areas. In order to study the neurotoxicity of rice from Qingzhen Chemical Plant area and probe into the signal transduction molecular mechanism of injury in rat brain stimulation by mercury contaminated rice. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated rice for 20 d. Both of the measurements of NO and NOS were processed according to the protocol of the kit. The effect of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods.The results showed the neural transmitter NO and NOS in brain were significantly change between exposure groups and control group; the mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group( p < 0.01). It could be concluded that nitric oxide was involved in mercury contaminated rice induced immediate early gene c-fos expressions in the rat brain. Through food chain, local ecosystem and health of local people iave been deteriorated seriously by mercury. This serious situation will last a long period. In order to alleviate mercury pollution, more work needs to do.

  3. Function of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like Proteins on Trichostatin A-induced G2/M Arrest in Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue LI; Jun LU; Yan-Mei ZHAO; Bai-Qu HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The homologs of transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun have been detected in slime mold Physarum polycephalum during progression of the synchronous cell cycle. Here we demonstrated that cFos-like and c-Jun-like proteins participated in G2/M transition by the regulation of the level of Cyclin B1 protein in P. polycephalum. The study of antibody neutralization revealed that interruption of the functions of c-Fos-like and c-Jun-like proteins resulted in G2/M transition arrest, implicating their functional roles in cell cycle control. When G2/M transition was blocked by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, changes in c-Fos- and c-Jun-like protein levels, and hyperacetylation of c-Jun-like protein, were observed. The data suggest that in P. polycephalum, c-Fos- and c-Jun-like proteins may be the key factors in the regulation of histone acetylation-related G2/M transition, involving the coordinated expression and hyperacetylation of these proteins.

  4. Transient down-regulation of sound-induced c-Fos protein expression in the inferior colliculus after ablation of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Clarkson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether lesions of the excitatory glutamatergic projection from the auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus induce plastic changes in neurons of this nucleus. Changes in neuronal activation in the inferior colliculus deprived unilaterally of the cortico-collicular projection were assessed by quantitative c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Densitometry and stereology measures of sound-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus showed diminished labeling at 1, 15, 90 and 180 days after lesions to the auditory cortex suggesting protein down-regulation, at least up to 15 days post-lesion. Between 15 and 90 days after the lesion, c-Fos labeling recovers, approaching control values at 180 days. Thus, glutamatergic excitation from the cortex maintains sound-induced activity in neurons of the inferior colliculus. Subdivisions of this nucleus receiving a higher density of cortical innervation such as the dorsal cortex showed greater changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity, suggesting that the anatomical strength of the projection correlates with effect strength. Therefore, after damage of the corticofugal projection, neurons of the inferior colliculus down-regulate and further recover sound-induced c-Fos protein expression. This may be part of cellular mechanisms aimed at balancing or adapting neuronal responses to altered synaptic inputs.

  5. The effects of a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1 on endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI in intensive care units. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a major pathogenetic factor in septic AKI. c-Fos/activator protein (AP-1 controls the expression of these cytokines by binding directly to AP-1 motifs in the cytokine promoter regions. T-5224 is a new drug developed by computer-aided drug design that selectively inhibits c-Fos/AP-1 binding to DNA. In this study, we tested whether T-5224 has a potential inhibitory effect against LPS-induced AKI, by suppressing the TNF-alpha inflammatory response and other downstream effectors. Methods To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice at 7 weeks old were divided into three groups (control, LPS and T-5224 groups. Mice in the control group received saline intraperitoneally and polyvinylpyrrolidone solution orally. Mice in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with a 6 mg/kg dose of LPS and were given polyvinylpyrrolidone solution immediately after LPS injection. In the T-5224 group, mice were administered T-5224 orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg immediately after LPS injection. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Moreover, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA in kidney was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated renal histological changes. Results LPS injection induced high serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the administration of T-5224 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in these cytokine levels. The serum levels of IL-10 in the LPS group and T-5224 group were markedly elevated compared with the control group. T-5224 also inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore histological studies supported an anti-inflammatory role of T-5224. Conclusions In endotoxin

  6. Regulation of glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression in cells with mutated or endogenous growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, T W; Meyer, D J; Liao, J;

    1998-01-01

    To identify mechanisms by which GH receptors (GHR) mediate downstream events representative of growth and metabolic responses to GH, stimulation by GH of c-fos and egr-1 expression and glucose transport activity were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing mutated GHR. In CHO cells......, whereas P11 inhibits the GH-dependent tyrosyl phosphorylation of only some proteins, including extracellular signal regulated kinases ERK1 and -2, but not JAK2. Taken together, these results implicate association of GHR with JAK2 and GH-stimulated tyrosyl phosphorylation of an additional cellular protein...... in GH-stimulated glucose transport and c-fos and egr-1 expression. These studies also indicate that, in contrast to spi-2.1, the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR is sufficient to mediate stimulation of c-fos and egr-1 expression and Elk-1 activation, supporting multiple mechanisms for GH...

  7. Expression of c-fos and oxidative stress on brain of rats reared on food from mercury-selenium coexisting mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jin-ping; HU Wei-xuan; LIU Xiao-jie; ZHENG Min; SHI Wei; WANG Wen-hua

    2006-01-01

    Wanshan mercury mine is the largest mercury deposit in Guizhou Province of China, but there were few reports on mercury toxic effect in the mining area. In order to study the neurotoxicity of food from Wanshan mercury mine area and probe into the effect of food from Wanshan mercury miner area on the changes of brain oxidative damage and expression of c-fos gene. The rats were exposed to mercury contaminated food for 20 d. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD),GSH-peroxidase (GSH-px) and Glutathione (GSH) in rat brain was measured, and the effect of mercury contaminated rice on the expression of c-fos mRNA in rat brain and the expression of c-FOS protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed the levels of GSH, MDA,SOD and of GSH-dependent enzymes in the rat brain changed between exposure groups and control group; The mercury polluted rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA; the c-FOS positive cells in hippocampus and cortex of exposure groups were significant different from control group (P<0.01). It could be concluded that oxidative stress signals could contribute to the induction of immediate early genes (IEGs); free radicals and their by-products might not only cause oxidative damage, but also influenced gene expression; IEGs c-fos participated in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted food.

  8. Induction of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tai, Kuo-Wei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2002-03-01

    An important requirement for a root-canal sealer is biologic compatibility; most evaluations have focused on general toxicological and local tissue irritating properties. There is only scant information about mutagenicity or carcinogenicity testing for root-canal sealer. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Numerous works have extensively investigated the induction mechanisms of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes by these agents; however, little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to root-canal sealers. Therefore, we used osteoblastic cell line U2-OS to examine the effect of zinc-oxide eugenol-based (N2 and Endomethasome), epoxy resin-based (AH Plus), and calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex) root-canal sealers on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to understand in more detail the molecular mechanisms of root-canal sealer-induced genotoxicity. The cytotoxicity decreased in an order of N2 > Endomethasome > AH Plus > Sealapex. In addition, N2, Endomethasome, and AH Plus rapidly induced c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels in cells. However, Sealapex did not induce c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression at detectable levels all time points. Taken together, persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers may be distributed systemically via apex to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. These data should be taken into consideration when choosing a root-canal sealer.

  9. Prolonged induction of c-fos in neuropeptide Y- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons of the rat dentate gyrus after electroconvulsive stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Greisen, M H; Bolwig, T G;

    1996-01-01

    Induction of c-fos mRNA and Fos was studied in the hilus and granular layer of the dentate gyrus at various times up to 24 h after single electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. In both areas of the dentate gyrus, a prominent induction of c-fos m....../or somatostatin (SS). Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we examined to what extent Fos was induced in these hilar neurons after ECS. Although a minor population of non-NPY non-SS cells displayed Fos induction early after ECS, prolonged induction of Fos almost exclusively occurred in NPY or SS neurons...

  10. The transcription factors CREB and c-Fos play key roles in NCAM-mediated neuritogenesis in PC12-E2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, U; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N;

    2001-01-01

    roles in this process by estimating NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells grown in co-culture with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PC12-E2 cells were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding wild-type or dominant negative forms of CREB and c-Fos or an activated...... thus present evidence that NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth involves a series of signal transduction pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway, targeting c-Fos and CREB....

  11. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained...

  12. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipigorngoson Suwiwek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham. Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin.

  13. Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casalotti Stefano O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoephedrine is a drug commonly prescribed as a nasal decongestant and bronchodilator and is also freely available in cold remedies and medications. The structural and pharmacological similarity of pseudoephedrine to amphetamine has led to evaluation of its psychomotor stimulant properties within the central nervous system. Previous investigations have shown that the acute responses to pseudoephedrine were similar to those of amphetamine and other psychostimulants. Results This study examined the effect of chronic administration of pseudoephedrine in rat nucleus accumbens and striatum and identified three further similarities to amphetamine. (i Chronic exposure to pseudoephedrine reduced the c-Fos response to acute pseudoephedrine treatment suggesting that pseudoephedrine induced tolerance in the animals. (ii In animals chronically treated with amphetamine or pseudoephedrine the acute c-Fos response to pseudoephedrine and amphetamine was reduced respectively as compared to naïve animals indicating cross-tolerance for the two drugs. (iiiThe known involvement of the dopamine system in the response to amphetamine and pseudoephedrine was further confirmed in this study by demonstrating that pseudoephedrine similarly to amphetamine, but with lower potency, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake in synaptosomal preparations. Conclusion This work has demonstrated further similarities of the effect of pseudoephedrine to those of amphetamine in brain areas known to be associated with drug addiction. The most significant result presented here is the cross tolerance effect of amphetamine and psudoephedrine. This suggests that both drugs induce similar mechanisms of action in the brain. Further studies are required to establish whether despite its considerable lower potency, pseudoephedrine could pose health and addiction risks in humans similar to that of known psychostimulants.

  14. The recognition of a novel-object in a novel context leads to hippocampal and parahippocampal c-Fos involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, N; Méndez, M; Arias, J L

    2015-10-01

    Contextual memory implies recognition based on the association between past and present events experienced. It is important for daily functioning and dysfunctional in many neuropsychological disturbances. The network related to this memory is still open for debate, even though it has been associated with medial temporal lobe regions, including the perirhinal, entorhinal and temporal association cortices, as well as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Our work tries to elucidate whether a change in the context, such as differences in the amount of stimuli presented on the walls and floor of an open field during object exploration, affects the recognition of an object that has been experienced before, and whether this context manipulation could be linked to changes in c-Fos expression. For this purpose, we used a one-trial novel-object recognition task. The animals were divided into two different experimental conditions; in the OR-NORMAL group, the sample and probe test were performed in the same context. However, in the OR-CONTEXT group, the probe test was performed in a different context. Our results showed that the OR-NORMAL group presented a greater exploration of objects than the OR-CONTEXT group. However, both groups presented significant exploration of the novel object. To label the brain regions involved in novel-object recognition under these conditions, we marked the expression of c-Fos protein. Results suggest that a neural circuit that includes the hippocampus, entorhinal and temporal association cortices is involved in the recognition of the novel-object in a novel context.

  15. Arenas of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the notion 'development arena' is presented and discussed. The notion is suggested to function as a cognitive space for research. It seeks to catch and describe the relational, unstable and heterogeneous character of the development process. It should sensitize both researchers...... and managers towards processes of technology development that are poorly accounted for in economic and management theory. Thereby, we wish to contribute to critical discussions about the role of management and the directions it chooses for development of technologies and products. The elements...... and transformations involved in shaping and restructuring activities in a development arena are described and discussed based on a case study of the development of HDTV as the next generation television. It exemplifies different moments and aspects of technology development. A number of configurations of specific...

  16. Effect of rosiglitazone on protein expression of renal ERK and c-fos in the type 2 diabetic rats%罗格列酮对2型糖尿病大鼠肾脏ERK/c-fos蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王隽; 王战建; 徐焕宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察罗格列酮对糖尿病大鼠肾脏细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)、c-fos蛋白表达的影响.方法 应用高糖高脂饮食加小剂量链脲佐菌素建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型,用免疫组化方法检测肾脏ERK、c-fos蛋白表达.结果:(1)成模动物具有高血糖、胰岛素抵抗、肾脏病变等特点.(2)糖尿病组大鼠肾组织中ERK、c-fos表达较对照组明显增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK、c-fos活性降低,肾功能及组织病理学损害改善.结论 2型糖尿病大鼠模型肾组织ERK/c-fos蛋白表达增加.罗格列酮治疗后ERK/c-fos表达降低,伴肾功能和肾脏病理损害改善.%Objective To investigate the effect of rosiglitazone on activation of renal ERK and c-fos in the experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods The rats of model groups were intraperitoneally given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) after taking the sucrose-and fat-rich diets for one month.Immunohistochemistry and computer image-pattern analysis system were used to analyze expression of ERK and c-fos in renal tissues. Results (1)This rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus showed hyperglycemia, IR and typical renal lesions. (2)Compared to normal group, the protein expression of ERK and c-fos were increased in glomeruli of type 2 diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone inhibited significantly the activation of ERK and c-fos, partly improved the renal function and matrix accumulation. Conclusions (1) A rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus presents the increased protein expression of ERK and c-fos of diabetic nephropathy. (2) The kidney protection of rosiglitazone is associated, at least in part, with down-regulating ERK/c-fos activation in renal tissues.

  17. A role for the immediate early gene product c-fos in imprinting T cells with short-term memory for signal summation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn E Clark

    Full Text Available T cells often make sequential contacts with multiple DCs in the lymph nodes and are likely to be equipped with mechanisms that allow them to sum up the successive signals received. We found that a period of stimulation as short as two hours could imprint on a T cell a "biochemical memory" of that activation signal that persisted for several hours. This was evidenced by more rapid induction of activation markers and earlier commitment to proliferation upon subsequent stimulation, even when that secondary stimulation occurred hours later. Upregulation of the immediate early gene product c-fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, was maximal by 1-2 hours of stimulation, and protein levels remained elevated for several hours after stimulus withdrawal. Moreover, phosphorylated forms of c-fos that are stable and transcriptionally active persisted for a least a day. Upon brief antigenic stimulation in vivo, we also observed a rapid upregulation of c-fos that could be boosted by subsequent stimulation. Accumulation of phosphorylated c-fos may therefore serve as a biochemical fingerprint of previous suboptimal stimulation, leaving the T cell poised to rapidly resume its activation program upon its next encounter with an antigen-bearing DC.

  18. Modulation of c-Fos and BDNF Protein Expression in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Mice following the Treatment with Novel Antiepileptic Compound HHL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Mahmood Malhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos are shown to promote epileptogenesis and are taken as a marker of neuronal activity. The present study investigated the expression of BDNF and c-Fos in mice brain with pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced generalized seizure and evaluated the effect of novel tryptamine derivative HHL-6 on the expression of these two markers. The subconvulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg was administered on alternate days in the experimental groups until the seizure scores 4-5 developed in the PTZ-control group. At the end of each experiment, animals were sacrificed, brain samples were collected and cryosectioned, and immunohistochemical analysis of BDNF and c-Fos protein was performed. Data obtained from two sections per mouse (n=12 animals/group is presented as means ± S.E.M. The test compound HHL-6 demonstrated a potent anticonvulsant activity in the PTZ-induced seizure in mice. Significant reduction in the BDNF (P<0.003 and c-Fos (P<0.01 protein expression was observed in the HHL-6 treated group. Based on these results we suggest that one of the possible mechanisms of HHL-6 to inhibit epileptogenesis might be due to its controlling effect on the cellular and molecular expression of the factors that contribute to the development of epileptogenic plasticity in the CNS.

  19. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  20. Reciprocal Patterns of c-Fos Expression in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala after Extinction and Renewal of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapska, Ewelina; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    After extinction of conditioned fear, memory for the conditioning and extinction experiences becomes context dependent. Fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in other contexts. This study characterizes the neural circuitry underlying the context-dependent retrieval of extinguished fear memories using c-Fos immunohistochemistry.…

  1. A dual-immunocytochemical method to localize c-fos protein in specific neurons based on their content of neuropeptides and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Larsen, P J; Sørensen, G G;

    1994-01-01

    -immunocytochemical staining technique has been developed with avidin-biotin-peroxidase labelling using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen for c-fos protein located in the nucleus, and benzidine dihydrochloride (BDHC) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside to reveal cytoplasmic antigens (neuropeptide or retrograde tracer...

  2. Central serotonin depletion modulates the behavioural, endocrine and physiological responses to repeated social stress and subsequent c-fos expression in the brains of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K K; Martinez, M; Herbert, J

    1999-01-01

    Intraspecific confrontation has been used to study effect of depleting central serotonin on the adaptation of male rats to repeated social stress (social defeat). Four groups of adult male rats were used (serotonin depletion/sham: stressed; serotonin depletion/sham: non-stressed). Central serotonin was reduced (by 59-97%) by a single infusion of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine (150 microg) into the cerebral ventricles; levels of dopamine and noradrenaline were unaltered (rats received appropriate uptake blockers prior to neurotoxic infusions). Sham-operated animals received solute only. Rats were then either exposed daily for 10 days to a second larger aggressive male in the latter's home cage, or simply transferred to an empty cage (control procedure). Rats with reduced serotonin failed to show the increased freezing behaviour during the pre-defeat phase of the social interaction test characteristic of sham animals. There was no change in the residents' behaviour. Core temperature increased during aggressive interaction in sham rats, and this did not adapt with repeated stress. By contrast, stress-induced hyperthermia was accentuated in serotonin-reduced rats as the number of defeat sessions increased. Basal core temperature was unaffected by serotonin depletion. Heart rate increased during social defeat, but this did not adapt with repeated stress; serotonin depletion had no effect on this cardiovascular response. Basal corticosterone was increased in serotonin-depleted rats, but the progressive reduction in stress response over days was not altered. C-fos expression in the brain was not altered in control (non-stressed) rats by serotonin reduction in the areas examined, but there was increased expression after repeated social stress in the medial amygdala of 5-HT depleted rats. These experiments show that reduction of serotonin alters responses to repeated social stress in male rats, and suggests a role for serotonin in the adaptive process.

  3. Simulation modeling and arena

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti, Manuel D

    2015-01-01

    Emphasizes a hands-on approach to learning statistical analysis and model building through the use of comprehensive examples, problems sets, and software applications With a unique blend of theory and applications, Simulation Modeling and Arena®, Second Edition integrates coverage of statistical analysis and model building to emphasize the importance of both topics in simulation. Featuring introductory coverage on how simulation works and why it matters, the Second Edition expands coverage on static simulation and the applications of spreadsheets to perform simulation. The new edition als

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SJ Moghaddam; EN Haghighi; S Samiee; N Shahid; AR Keramati; S Dadgar; MR Zali

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of some genes especially those involved in cell cycle regulation on hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 25 patients (18 males and 7 females) with hepatocellular carcinoma were collected from 22 pathology centers in Tehran during 2000-2001, and stained using immunohistochemistry method (avidin-biotin-peroxidase)for detection of p53, cyclinD1, RB1, c-fos and N-ras proteins.RESULTS: Six (24%), 5 (20%), 12 (48%) and 2 samples (8%) were positive for p53, cyclinD1, C-fos and N-ras expression, respectively. Twenty-two (88%) samples had alterations in the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint protein expression (RB1 or cyclinD1). P53 positive samples showed a higher (9 times) risk of being positive for RB1 protein than p53 negative samples. Loss of expression of RB1 in association with p53 over-expression was observed in 4 (66.7%) of 6 samples. Loss of expression of RB1 was seen in all cyclinD1 positive, 20 (90.9%) N-ras negative, and 11 (50%) C-fos positive samples,respectively. CyclinD1 positive samples showed a higher (2.85 and 4.75 times) risk of being positive for c-fos and N-ras expression than cyclinD1 negative samples.CONCLUSION: The expression of p53, RB1 and c-fos genes appears to have a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran. Simultaneous overexpression of these genes is significantly associated with their loss of expression during development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock down-mice are more susceptible to inflammation, c-Fos expression and sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina de; Pereira, Luciana de Melo; Oliveira, Vinícius Elias de Moura; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antônio Máximo; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the well-known functions as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) can modulate of the immune system. Nonetheless, how endogenous ACh release inflammatory responses is still not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of an animal model with a decreased ACh release due a reduction (knockdown) in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression (VAChT-KD(HOM)). These animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Afterwards, we evaluated sickness behavior and quantified systemic and cerebral inflammation as well as neuronal activation in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). VAChT-KD(HOM) mice that were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) showed increased mortality rate as compared to control mice. In line with this result, a low dose of LPS (0.1mg/kg) increased the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the spleen and brain of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice in comparison with controls. Similarly, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in VAChT-KD(HOM) mice. This excessive cytokine production was completely prevented by administration of a nicotinic receptor agonist (0.4mg/kg) prior to the LPS injection. Three hours after the LPS injection, c-Fos expression increased in the DVC region of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice compared to controls. In addition, VAChT-KD(HOM) mice showed behavioral changes such as lowered locomotor and exploratory activity and reduced social interaction after the LPS challenge, when compared to control mice. Taken together, our results show that the decreased ability to release ACh exacerbates systemic and cerebral inflammation and promotes neural activation and behavioral changes induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that activity of cholinergic pathways, which can be modulated by VAChT expression, controls inflammatory and neural responses to LPS challenge.

  6. Experiment study of effect of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia on expression of C-Fos, C-Jun in hippocampus zone after focal cerebral ischemia%宽叶缬草对局灶性脑缺血后海马区C-Fos,C-Jun表达的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云甫; 严洁; 黄朝芬; 何国厚

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study influence of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia(VOL) on expression of C-Fos, C-Jun after focal cerebral ischemia. METHODs: Inducing rat model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) using Koizumi' s intraluminal suture occlusion method. 48 male rats were divided into 5 groups randomly, pseudo-operation group, MCAO group, saline control group, VOL group. 2 hours after MCAO, we took gastric gavage with VOL and saline, 8 hour per time, and took out of brain to test C-Fos, C-Jun expression immunohistochemically at the 5th day after oper-ation. RESULTS: There was no positive cell in each hippocampus zone of ormal group; we observed C-Fos, C-Jun positive cells in each Hip-pocampus zone after MCAO; Density of C-Fos, C-Jun positive cells of VOL group were apparently lower than that of simple ischemia group. CON CLUSION: VOL can relieve histopathological lesions after cerebral is-chemia and promote protection function of rat through inhibiting the ex-pression of C-Fos, C-Jun expression.

  7. In vivo study on the effects of microcystin extracts on the expression profiles of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in liver, kidney and testis of male Wistar rats injected i.v. with toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a potent liver tumor promoter, possessing potent tumor-promoting activity and weak initiating activity. Proto-oncogenes are known to be involved in the tumor-promoting mechanisms of microcystin-LR. However, few data are available on the effects of MCs on proto-oncogenes in the whole animal. To investigate the effects of MCs on the expression profile of the proto-oncogenes in different organs, male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with microcystin extracts at a dose of 86.7 mug MC-LR eq/kg bw (MC-LR eq, MC-LR equivalents). mRNA levels of three proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun and c-myc in liver, kidney and testis were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR at several time points post-injection. Significant induction of these genes at transcriptional level was observed in the three organs. In addition, the increase of mRNA expression of all three genes was much higher in liver than in kidney and testis. Meanwhile, the protein levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were investigated by western blotting. Both proteins were induced in the three organs. However, elevations of protein levels were much lower than those of mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc might be one possible mechanism for the tumor-promoting activity and initiating activity of microcystins.

  8. Cytotoxicity and Expression of c-fos, HSP70, and GADD45/153 Proteins in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells Exposed to Dinitrotoluenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dinitrotoluenes (DNTs are byproducts of the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT, and exist as a mixture of 2 to 6 isomers, with 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT being the most significant. The main route of human exposure at ammunition facilities is inhalation. The primary targets of DNTs toxicity are the hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, nervous system and reproductive system. In factory workers, exposure to DNTs has been linked to many adverse health effects, including: cyanosis, vertigo, headache, metallic taste, dyspnea, weakness and lassitude, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms including pain or parasthesia in extremities, abdominal discomfort, tremors, paralysis, chest pain, and unconsciousness have been documented. An association between DNTs exposure and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomas and subcutaneous tumors in rats, as well as renal tumors in mice, has been established. This research was therefore designed targeting the liver to assess the cellular and molecular responses of human liver carcinoma cells following exposure to 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, LC50 values of 245 + 14.72μg/mL, and 300 + 5.92μg/mL were recorded for 2,6-DNT and 2,4-DNT respectively, indicating that both DNTs are moderately toxic, and 2,6-DNT is slightly more toxic to HepG2 cells than 2,4-DNT. A dose response relationship was recorded with respect to the cytotoxicity of both DNTs. Western blot analysis resulted in a significant expression (p<0.05 of the 70-kDa heat shock protein in 2,6-DNT-treated cells compared to the control cells and at the 200 μg/mL dose for 2,4-DNT. A statistically significant expression in c-fos was also observed at the 200 and 250 μg/mL treatment level for 2,4- and 2,6-DNT, respectively. However, no statistically significant expression of this protooncogene-related protein was observed at the doses of 0, 100, or 300

  9. Actions of agonists and antagonists of the ghrelin/GHS-R pathway on GH secretion, appetite and cFos activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim eHassouna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stimulatory effects of ghrelin, a 28-AA acylated peptide originally isolated from stomach, on GH secretion and feeding are exclusively mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue 1a receptor (GHS-R1a, the only ghrelin receptor described so far. Several GHS-R1a agonists and antagonists have been developed to treat metabolic or nutritional disorders but their mechanisms of action in the central nervous system remain poorly understood.In the present study, we compared the activity of BIM-28163, a GHS-R1a antagonist and of several agonists, including native ghrelin and the potent synthetic agonist, BIM-28131, to modulate food intake, GH secretion and c-Fos activity in ArcN, NTS and AP in wild-type and NPY-GFP mice.BIM-28131 was as effective as ghrelin in stimulating GH secretion, but more active than ghrelin in inducing feeding. It stimulated cFos activity similarly to ghrelin in the NTS and AP but was more powerful in the ArcN, suggesting that the super-agonist activity of BIM-28131 is mostly mediated in the ArcN. BIM-28163 antagonized ghrelin-induced GH secretion but not ghrelin-induced food consumption and cFos activation, rather it stimulated food intake and cFos activity without affecting GH secretion. The level of cFos activation was dependent on the region considered: BIM-28163 was as active as ghrelin in the NTS, but less active in the ArcN and AP. All compounds also induced cFos immunoreactivity in ArcN NPY neurons but BIM-28131 was the most active.In conclusion, these data demonstrate that two peptide analogs of ghrelin, BIM-28163 and BIM-28131, are powerful stimulators of appetite in mice, acting through pathways and key brain regions involved in the control of appetite that are only partially superimposable from those activated by ghrelin. A better understanding of the molecular pathways activated by these compounds could be useful in devising future therapeutic applications, such as for cachexia and anorexia.

  10. Effect of Qi-protecting powder (Huqi San) on expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in diethylnitrosamine-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Zheng-Ming Shi; Ping Feng; Zhao-Yang Wen; Xue-Jiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of Huqi San (Qiprotecting powder) on rat prehepatocarcinoma induced by diethylinitrosamine (DEN) by analyzing the mutational activation of c-fos proto-oncogene and over-expression of c-jun and c-myc oncogenes.METHODS: A Solt-Farber two-step test model of prehepatocarcinoma was induced in rats by DEN and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to investigate the modifying effects of Huqi San on the expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc in DEN-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Huqi San was made of eight medicinal herbs containing glycoprival granules, in which each milliliter contains 0.38 g crude drugs. γ-glutamy-transpeptidase-isoenzyme (γ-GTase)was determined with histochemical methods. Level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (OHdG) formed in liver and c-jun, c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogenes were detected by immunohistochemical methods.RESULTS: The level of 8-OHdG, a mark of oxidative DNA damage, was significantly decreased in the liver of rats with prehepatocarcinoma induced by DEN who received 8 g/kg body weight or 4 g/kg body weight Huqi San before (1 wk) and after DEN exposure (4 wk). Huqi Santreated rats showed a significant decrease in number of γ-GT positive foci (P < 0.001, prevention group: 4.96 ±0.72 vs 29.46 ± 2.17; large dose therapeutic group: 7.53± 0.88 vs 29.46 ± 2.17). On the other hand, significant changes in expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc were found in Huqi San-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Activation of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer.Huqi San can inhibit the over-expression of c-jun, c-fos and c-myc oncogenes and liver preneolastic lesionsinduced by DEN.

  11. Delayed wave of c-Fos expression in the dorsal hippocampus involved specifically in persistence of long-term memory storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katche, Cynthia; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Slipczuk, Leandro; Goldin, Andrea; Izquierdo, Ivan A; Cammarota, Martin; Medina, Jorge H

    2010-01-05

    Memory formation is a temporally graded process during which transcription and translation steps are required in the first hours after acquisition. Although persistence is a key characteristic of memory storage, its mechanisms are scarcely characterized. Here, we show that long-lasting but not short-lived inhibitory avoidance long-term memory is associated with a delayed expression of c-Fos in the hippocampus. Importantly, this late wave of c-Fos is necessary for maintenance of inhibitory avoidance long-term storage. Moreover, inhibition of transcription in the dorsal hippocampus 24 h after training hinders persistence but not formation of long-term storage. These findings indicate that a delayed phase of transcription is essential for maintenance of a hippocampus-dependent memory trace. Our results support the hypothesis that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place late after learning in the dorsal hippocampus to maintain memories.

  12. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5nr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Comba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 – PND24.  The purpose of the current work was 1 to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2 to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3 to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20 then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function.

  13. Dimerumic Acid Inhibits SW620 Cell Invasion by Attenuating H2O2-Mediated MMP-7 Expression via JNK/C-Jun and ERK/C-Fos Activation in an AP-1-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ying Ho, Yao-Ming Wu, King-Jen Chang, Tzu-Ming Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the tumor microenvironment play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. Recently, ROS have been reported to cause a significant increase in the production and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, which is closely correlated with metastatic colorectal cancer. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the scavenging activity of dimerumic acid (DMA for H2O2 isolated from Monascus-fermented rice to investigate the inhibitory effects of DMA on the invasive potential of SW620 human colon cancer cells, and to explore the mechanisms underlying both these phenomena. Our results showed that increased MMP-7 expression due to H2O2 exposure was mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK, and p38 kinase. DMA pretreatment suppressed activation of H2O2-mediated MAPK pathways and cell invasion. Moreover, H2O2-triggered MMP-7 production was demonstrated via JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos activation in an activating protein 1 (AP-1-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that DMA suppresses H2O2-induced cell invasion by inhibiting AP-1-mediated MMP-7 gene transcription via the JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos signaling pathways in SW620 human colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that DMA may be useful in minimizing the development of colorectal metastasis. In the future, DMA supplementation may be a beneficial antioxidant to enhance surgical outcomes.

  14. Parthenolide inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity by down-regulation of NFATc1 induction and c-Fos stability, during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2014-08-01

    Parthenolide, a natural product derived from Feverfew, prevents septic shock and inflammation. We aimed to identify the effects of parthenolide on the RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand)-induced differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts. In this study, parthenolide dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in BMMs, without any evidence of cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and IκB, as well as IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. Parthenolide suppressed the expression of NFATc1, OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-treated BMMs. Furthermore, parthenolide down-regulated the stability of c-Fos protein, but could not suppress the expression of c-Fos. Overexpression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs reversed the inhibitory effect of parthenolide on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Parthenolide also inhibited the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Parthenolide inhibits the differentiation and bone-resolving activity of osteoclast by RANKL, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for bone destructive disorders associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  15. Evidence for a role of inhibition of orexinergic neurons in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of diazepam: A c-Fos study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhelainen, Anne E; Korpi, Esa R

    2012-03-01

    The classical benzodiazepine diazepam (DZ) induces anxiolysis at low doses and sedation and hypnosis at higher doses. Different brain areas and neuronal populations most likely mediate these different behavioral effects. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an indirect way to study neuronal activation or inhibition induced by DZ at anxiolytic and sedative doses (0.5 and 5mg/kg, respectively) in various brain areas involved in anxiety, arousal, sedation and addiction in C57BL/6J mice. We also focused on the two neuronal populations, orexinergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations, with the help of double-immunohistochemistry using c-Fos and orexin-A antibodies and c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies. We found that different brain areas of unhabituated mice reacted differently to the mild stress induced by vehicle injection. Also the response to anxiolytic or sedative doses of DZ differed between the areas, suggesting that distinct brain areas mediate the behavioral effects of low and high DZ doses. Our findings propose a role for inhibition of orexin neurons in the anxiolytic and sleep-promoting effects of DZ. In addition, the activation of central amygdala neurons by DZ treatment was associated with anxiolytic and sedative effects. On the other hand, the ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, ventral tegmental area and prefrontal cortex were sensitive even to the mild injection stress, but not to the anxiolytic dose of DZ.

  16. Effects of niflumic acid on the expression of c-fos in the proliferative airway smooth muscle cells of experimental rat%尼氟灭酸对增殖的大鼠气道平滑肌细胞原癌基因C-fOS表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈节; 刘建; 盛文超

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observed the effects of nifluniic acid (NFA) on the expression of c-fos in the prolifera-tive airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) of experimental rat. Methods: ASMCs of rats were isolated and cultured in DMEM containing 15% fetal bovine serum. Well growth cells after 3~5 passage were in the experiment. The cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing different concentrations of NFA (0,10,50,100 umol/L ) for 1,2 and 3 hours. Then total RNA of ASMCs was isolated, and the c-fos gene expression levels were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results:The c-fos gene expression levels of ASMCs in high,middle and low concentrations of NFA groups were significantly lower than those in control group. With the increase of NFA concentration, the expression of c-fos decreased. Conclusion :Niflumic acid could significantly inhibit the gene expression of c-fos in ASMCs.%目的:观察尼氟灭酸(NFA)对增殖的大鼠气道平滑肌细胞(3-5代ASMC)原癌基因c-fos表达的影响.方法:分离大鼠气道平滑肌细胞,放入含15%胎牛血清的培养基中培养,第35代细胞用于实验.向细胞中加入不同浓度NFA(0、10、50、100 μmol/L),分别作用1、2、3h后,收集细胞,提取总RNA,通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)的方法检测原癌基因c-fos的表达.结果:高、中、低浓度的NFA组气道平滑肌细胞中c-fos基因的表达水平在3个时间点均明显低于对照组,且随着NFA浓度的增高,表达量逐渐减少.结论:NFA对增殖的大鼠气道平滑肌细胞c-fos基因的表达有明显的抑制作用.

  17. 硝普钠控制性降压对兔脑神经元c-fos及细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of induced hypotension on brain neuronal c-fos and apoptosis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宏艳; 肖晓山; 周代伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the brain's tolerance and the safe low limit to the hypotension through observing the effect of four different levels of sodium nitroprusside induced hypotension on neuronal ultrastructure and apoptosis and expression of c-fos in rabbits' hippocampal CA1 field. Methods Thirty New Zealand rabbits were equally randomized into five groups: mean arterial pressure fell to 70% (group I), 60% (group Ⅱ), 50% (group Ⅱ ) and 45% (group Ⅳ) of the baseline and normal control group (group V ). After maintaining target blood pressure for 1 h, the rabbits were sacrificed 2 h after boosting pressure. The ultrastructure of CA1 field was observed with transmission electron microscopy. The expression of c-fos was assayed by immunohistochemical SP and apoptosis was detected by Tunel immunofluorescence in hippocampal CA1 neuron. Results In the transmission electron microscopy of hippocampal CA1 neuron, group [I appeared cellular swelling and groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ appeared karyopyknosis and apoptosis. The c-fos expression in CA1 neuron significantly increased in hypotension groups (P<0. 01). The TUNEL mean fluorescence intensity was much strengthen in groups H , III and IV than that in groups I and V ( P <0.01). Conclusion Controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside can cause apoptosis in partial hippocampal CA1 neurons. C-fos can make rapid respond according to changes of brain blood and oxygen supply, and its expression may produce protective effects on neurons.%通过观察硝普钠诱导的四种低血压水平对兔脑海马CA1区神经元超微结构、细胞凋亡及c-fos表达的影响,了解脑组织对低血压的耐受性以及探讨安全的降压低限.方法30只新西兰兔随机均分为五组,MAP分别降至基础值的70%(Ⅰ组)、60%(Ⅱ组)、50%(Ⅲ组)、45%(Ⅳ组)和不降压(Ⅴ组).目标血压维持1h,复压2h处死兔.透射电镜观察海马CA1区神经元超微结构,SP法测定该

  18. Effect of pre-electroacupuncture on p38 and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-da; LIANG Tao; WANG Kun; TIAN De-an

    2010-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is an effective way to relieve pain, but the mechanism by which electroacupuncture (EA) decreases the visceral pain state still remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pre-electroacupuncture on pain behaviors, p38 phosphorylation, and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn of rats suffering from visceral pain. This study also investigated the probable signaling regulatory mechanism of the analgesic effect induced by electroacupuncture. Methods All rats were randomized into the control (Con) group, the Con+EA group, the visceral pain (VP) group, and VP+EA group (n=8 for all groups). The visceral pain model was established using 40 ul of 5% formalin solution injected into the colon of rats. EA was applied to the bilateral Jiaji acupoints for 20 minutes before application of visceral pain. Parameters for EA were set at a continuous wave (20 Hz) and intensity where the rats shook their whiskers but did not scrabble (≤1 mA). The visceral pain score was recorded and the expressions of p38 and c-Fos protein were detected using Western blotting. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to determine the expression of c-Fos mRNA. Results Rats in the VP group immediately presented with obvious visceral pain behaviors after being injected with formalin. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression in both the colonic wall and spinal dorsal horn were higher in the VP group than in the Con group (P <0.05). By contrast, visceral pain behaviors were delayed in rats from the VP+EA group. p38 activity and c-Fos protein and mRNA expression were lower in the VP+EA group than that in the VP group (P<0.01). Conclusions Pre-electroacupuncture of the Jiaji acupoint has prophylactic analgesic effects on rats suffering from visceral pain. The p38 signal transduction pathway may be partly involved in the regulatory mechanism of this analgesic effect.

  19. 哮喘大鼠大脑和肺组织c-fos蛋白表达与神经免疫调节%Cerebral and lung c-fos protein expression and neuroimmunomodulation in asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊卫文; 杨志军; 罗荣城; 魏玲; 邓火金

    2005-01-01

    经免疫调节密切相关.%BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence identifies the immune system not as an isolated system with automodulations, but one that interacts with the central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of c-fos expression in the lung and brain tissues of asthmatic rats and explore is significance.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of Oncology, Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted Department of Oncology,Southern Hospital, and Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital,Southern Medical University, between January and August 2004. Fourteen healthy male rats were randomized into experimental group (n=10) and control group (n=4).METHODS: On the first day of experiment, the rats in experimental group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL of the suspension containing 10 mg albumen, 200 mg aluminum hydroxide powder and inactivated pertussis vaccine (5×109), and subjected to inhalation of ultrasonically atomized 10 g/L albumen from on the 15th day, 2 times per hour for totally 3 days, to induce asthma in the rats. The rats in the control group received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL normal saline on the 1st day and inhalation of ultrasonically normal saline on the 15th day, 30 mL a day for totally 3 days. The lung and brain tissues of all the anesthetized rats were fixed by perfusion, and immunohistochemical method with ovin-biotin-peroxidase complex and imaging analysis system were used to observe the distribution of Fos protein in the lung and brain.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of c-Fos protein in lung and cerebrum.c-Fos in the lung and brain tissues was obviously higher in asthmatic group than in the control group (P < 0.05), located mainly in the parietal-fontal cortex, limbic forebrain (cingulum cortex, pyriform cortex and central amygdaloid nucleus and so on), thalamus paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus

  20. Beta-adrenoceptor Activation by Norepinephrine Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Through the ERK/JNK-c-Fos Pathway in Human THP-1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiang; Zhou, Linli; Han, Fei; Han, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zewei; Zhao, Wenting; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to thrombosis and acute coronary syndrome. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in the stability of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and atherosclerosis plaque. Until now, it is established that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and norepinephrine (NE) are associated with the pathological process of atherosclerosis. However, the combined effect of LPS and NE on MMP-9 is unclear. We investigated the combined effect of LPS and NE on MMP-9 expression in human monocytes and the mechanism involved in the process. Methods: THP-1 cells were cultured and treated with LPS and/or NE. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 gene and protein expression were detected by real time PCR and ELISA, respectively. MMP-9 activity was detected by gelatin zymography. Adrenoceptor antagonists and MAPKs inhibitors were used to clarify the mechanism. Pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot. Results: We found that NE enhances LPS-induced MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression as well as MMP-9 activity in THP-1 cells. This effect is reversed by the beta (β)-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) inhibitor U0126, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. NE enhances LPS-induced ERK/JNK phosphorylation. NE up-regulates LPS-induced c-Fos expression, which is counteracted by propranolol, U0126, and SP600125. Furthermore, c-Fos silence reverses the effect of NE on MMP-9 activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NE enhances LPS-induced MMP-9 expression through β-adrenergic receptor and downstream ERK/JNK-c-Fos pathway. This study may help us to understand the combined effect and mechanism of NE/LPS on MMP-9 expression. PMID:27237101

  1. Reversal of novelty-induced hippocampal c-Fos expression in GluA1 subunit-deficient mice by chronic treatment targeting glutamatergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, Milica; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

    2014-12-15

    Malfunction of glutamate transmission is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Gria1-/- mouse line with knocked-out GluA1 subunits of ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor displays several behavioural features of schizoaffective disorder. Typically, these mice show hyperactivity provoked by environmental novelty, which is attenuated after 4-week treatment with the standard mood-stabilisers lithium and valproate and the mood-stabilising anticonvulsants topiramate and lamotrigine (Maksimovic, M., Vekovischeva, O.Y., Aitta-Aho, T., Korpi, E.R., 2014. Chronic treatment with mood-stabilizers attenuates abnormal hyperlocomotion of GluA1-subunit deficient mice. PloS One. 9, e100188). Here, we complement our study by treating these mice chronically with perampanel, a novel non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, for 4 weeks at the dose of 60 mg/kg diet, and found reduced locomotor hyperactivity in the Gria1-/- animals, while not affecting the wild-type littermates. To study the cellular mechanism by which chronic treatments with glutamate-modulating mood-stabilizing drugs alleviate this hyperactivity, we used the immediate early gene c-Fos protein expression as a marker of neuronal activity in the brain. Chronic lithium, valproate and topiramate blunted the c-Fos expression especially in the dorsal hippocampus of the Gria1-/- mice, with all of them reducing the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the CA3 region and valproate and topiramate also in the dentate gyrus (DG). Lamotrigine and perampanel treatments had the same effect in the all CA1, CA3 and DG subfields of the dorsal hippocampus of Gria1-/- mice. The results suggest that abnormal (hippocampal) glutamatergic transmission underlies the hyperactive phenotype of the Gria1-/- mice in a novel environment, and based on the efficacies of the present chronic drug treatments, this mouse model may serve as a predictive tool for studying novel mood-stabilisers.

  2. Effects of antipsychotic drugs on neurotoxicity, expression of fos-like protein and c-fos mRNA in the retrosplenial cortex after administration of dizocilpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, M; Hashimoto, K; Yamagami, K

    2000-06-09

    In this study, we examined the effect of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol on the neuropathology (i.e. neuronal vacuolization) and the expression of Fos-like protein and c-fos mRNA in the retrosplenial cortex of female Sprague-Dawley rats induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine. Pretreatment (15 min) with clozapine or olanzapine, but not risperidone or haloperidol, blocked the neuronal vacuolization produced by dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) in the rat retrosplenial cortex in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, pretreatment (15 min) with clozapine or olanzapine, but not risperidone or haloperidol, significantly attenuated the expression of Fos-like protein in the retrosplenial cortex induced by dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) in a dose-dependent manner. The marked expression of c-fos mRNA in the rat retrosplenial cortex induced by the administration of dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) was significantly attenuated by pretreatment (15 min) with clozapine (10 mg/kg) or olanzapine (10 mg/kg), but not risperidone (10 mg/kg) or haloperidol (10 mg/kg). The present results suggest that pharmacologically relevant doses of clozapine or olanzapine, but not risperidone or haloperidol, block the neuropathological changes and the expression of Fos-like protein and c-fos mRNA in the rat retrosplenial cortex elicited by the administration of dizocilpine. It is possible that the blockade of dizocilpine-induced neuropathological changes by clozapine and olanzapine may be related to the unique antipsychotic actions of these drugs in schizophrenic patients, although this remains to be verified.

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine on expression of nNOS and c-fos in lcuos cruleus in a rat model of endotoxic shock%右美托咪定对内毒素性休克大鼠蓝斑nNOS及c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊波; 史琪清; 缪长虹

    2014-01-01

    sacrificed and their brains were removed for determination of brain water content,the number of nNOS and c-fos positive cells and expression of nNOS and c-fos in the LC by immuno-histochemistry.Results Compared with group C,the brain water content was significantly increased,the number of nNOS and c-fos positive cells in the LC was enlarged,and the expression of nNOS and c-fos in the LC was up-regulated in group L (P < 0.05).The brain water content was significantly lower,the number of nNOS and c-fos positive cells in the LC was smaller,and the expression of nNOS and c-fos in the LC was lower in LD and HD groups than in group L (P < 0.05).The number of nNOS and c-fos positive cells in the LC was significantly smaller,and the expression of nNOS and c-fos in the LC was lower in HD group than in group LD (P < 0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can down-regulate the expression of nNOS and c-fos in the LC,which may be one of brain-protective mechanisms of dexmedetomidine in a rat model of endotoxic shock.

  4. Effects of nasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone/testosterone propionate on expression efficacy of c-Fos in rat brain%经鼻及皮下给予睾丸酮/丙酸睾丸酮对大鼠相关脑区c-Fos表达效能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 牛小龙; 康云霄; 薛岩; 方卉; 石葛明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy of intranasal administration or subcutaneous injection of testosterone (T) / testosterone propionate (TP) on different brain regions in rats. Methods:Radioimmunoassay was used to detect testosterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum after intranasal administration of TP. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of c-Fos protein in different brain regions. Results:Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was decreased in gonadectomized (GDX) rats compared to the normal control rats. Subcutaneous injection of TP in GDX rats only increased testosterone in serum. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid and in serum was increased after intranasal administration of TP in GDX rats and in the normal control rats. Testosterone in cerebrospinal fluid of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was higher than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP, however testosterone in serum of GDX rats after intranasal administration of TP was lower than that in GDX rats after subcutaneous injection of TP. After intranasal administration of TP or T, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased in more brain regions. However, after subcutaneous injection of TP, the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells and the c-Fos immunoreactive intensity were increased only in a few brain regions. Conclusion:Intranasal administration of TP or T could induce the expression of c-Fos and activate more brain regions. That can provide a new therapy method for some central nervous system diseases.%目的:探讨经鼻和皮下给予睾丸酮(T)或丙酸睾丸酮(TP)对大鼠中枢神经系统相关脑区激活的效能.方法:利用放射免疫分析法检测大鼠经鼻滴注给予TP后脑脊液和血清睾丸酮浓度的变化;以免疫组织化学观察大鼠各脑区cFos的表达.结果:放射免疫结果显示去势组大鼠脑脊液和血清中睾丸酮含量比正

  5. Fluorescent visualisation of the hypothalamic oxytocin neurones activated by cholecystokinin-8 in rats expressing c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein and oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fusion transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, A; Shoguchi, K; Matsuoka, H; Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J-I; Matsuura, T; Maruyama, T; Ishikura, T; Aritomi, T; Fujihara, H; Hashimoto, H; Suzuki, H; Murphy, D; Ueta, Y

    2014-05-01

    The up-regulation of c-fos gene expression is widely used as a marker of neuronal activation elicited by various stimuli. Anatomically precise observation of c-fos gene products can be achieved at the RNA level by in situ hybridisation or at the protein level by immunocytochemistry. Both of these methods are time and labour intensive. We have developed a novel transgenic rat system that enables the trivial visualisation of c-fos expression using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) tag. These rats express a transgene consisting of c-fos gene regulatory sequences that drive the expression of a c-fos-eGFP fusion protein. In c-fos-eGFP transgenic rats, robust nuclear eGFP fluorescence was observed in osmosensitive brain regions 90 min after i.p. administration of hypertonic saline. Nuclear eGFP fluorescence was also observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) 90 min after i.p. administration of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8, which selectively activates oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurones in the hypothalamus. In double transgenic rats that express c-fos-eGFP and an OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene, almost all mRFP1-positive neurones in the SON and PVN expressed nuclear eGFP fluorescence 90 min after i.p. administration of CCK-8. It is possible that not only a plane image, but also three-dimensional reconstruction image may identify cytoplasmic vesicles in an activated neurone at the same time.

  6. Hippocampal activation of immediate early genes Zenk and c-Fos in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during learning and recall of a spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Watanabe, Shigeru; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to learn the position of food by orienting on spatial cues in a 'dry water maze'. In the course of spatial learning, the hippocampus shows high expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) Zenk and c-Fos, indicating high activation of this area during learning. In contrast, the IEG activity is nearly absent if the birds do not have to rely on spatial cues. In the present experiment it was investigated whether hippocampal activation can also be observed if the learned spatial task is recalled. For this purpose, the hippocampal Zenk and c-Fos activation of birds in an early learning stage was compared with that of others having well reached their maximal performance. The results show that the avian hippocampus is also active during recall of a learned spatial task, but the activation is significantly lower than in animals learning actually. As in previous experiments, hippocampal IEG expression showed strong variation not only in the position of the active patches of neurons, but also in size and cell density. The observed difference contributes to the view that immediate early genes may not be indicators of activation alone, but may be due to a combination of activation and plastic changes.

  7. Changes of calcium binding proteins, c-Fos and COX in hippocampal formation and cerebellum of Niemann-Pick, type C mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Daesik; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjaigal; Oh, Jeehyun; Kim, Jisun; Kwak, Grace; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Jo, Seung-Mook; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) is an intractable disease that is accompanied by ataxia, dystonia, neurodegeneration, and dementia due to an NPC gene defect. Disruption of calcium homeostasis in neurons is important in patients with NPC. Thus, we used immunohistochemistry to assess the expression levels of calcium binding proteins (calbindin D28K, parvalbumin, and calretinin), c-Fos and cyclooxygenase-1,2 (COX-1,2) in the hippocampal formation and cerebellum of 4 and 8 week old NPC+/+, NPC+/-, and NPC-/- mice. General expression of these proteins decreased in the hippocampus and cerebellum of NPC-/- compared to that in both young and adult NPC+/+ or NPC+/- mice. Parvalbumin, COX-1,2 or c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons were widely detected in the CA1, CA3, and DG of the hippocampus, but the immunoreactivities were decreased sharply in all areas of hippocampus of NPC-/- compared to NPC+/+ and NPC+/- mice. Taken together, reduction of these proteins may be one of the strong phenotypes related to the neuronal degeneration in NPC-/- mice.

  8. Genome-wide analysis reveals PADI4 cooperates with Elk-1 to activate c-Fos expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4 catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. To broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of PADI4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (ChIP-chip analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of PADI4 target genes across the genome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that PADI4 is enriched in gene promoter regions near transcription start sites (TSSs; and, surprisingly, this pattern of binding is primarily associated with actively transcribed genes. Computational analysis found potential binding sites for Elk-1, a member of the ETS oncogene family, to be highly enriched around PADI4 binding sites; and coimmunoprecipitation analysis then confirmed that Elk-1 physically associates with PADI4. To better understand how PADI4 may facilitate gene transactivation, we then show that PADI4 interacts with Elk-1 at the c-Fos promoter and that, following Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulation, PADI4 catalytic activity facilitates Elk-1 phosphorylation, histone H4 acetylation, and c-Fos transcriptional activation. These results define a novel role for PADI4 as a transcription factor co-activator.

  9. Dynamic acetylation of all lysine 4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus: analysis at c-fos and c-jun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of current research into gene induction relates to chromatin and nucleosomal regulation, especially the significance of multiple histone modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation during this process. We have discovered a novel physiological characteristic of all lysine 4 (K4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus, distinguishing it from lysine 9-methylated H3. K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to continuous dynamic turnover of acetylation, whereas lysine 9-methylated H3 is not. We have previously reported dynamic histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation as a key characteristic of the inducible proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. We show here that dynamically acetylated histone H3 at these genes is also K4-methylated. Although all three modifications are proven to co-exist on the same nucleosome at these genes, phosphorylation and acetylation appear transiently during gene induction, whereas K4 methylation remains detectable throughout this process. Finally, we address the functional significance of the turnover of histone acetylation on the process of gene induction. We find that inhibition of turnover, despite causing enhanced histone acetylation at these genes, produces immediate inhibition of gene induction. These data show that all K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to the continuous action of HATs and HDACs, and indicates that at c-fos and c-jun, contrary to the predominant model, turnover and not stably enhanced acetylation is relevant for efficient gene induction.

  10. Cyclophosphamide cystitis as a model of visceral pain in rats: model elaboration and spinal structures involved as revealed by the expression of c-Fos and Krox-24 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantéri-Minet, M; Bon, K; de Pommery, J; Michiels, J F; Menétrey, D

    1995-01-01

    The evoked expression of the immediate early gene (IEG)-encoded proteins c-Fos and Krox-24 was used to monitor spinal visceronociceptive processing that results from cyclophosphamide cystitis in behaving rats. Animals received a single dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. of cyclophosphamide and survived for 30 min to 5 h. Longer survival times were not considered because of ethical considerations. Cyclophosphamide-injected animals developed characteristic behavioral signs in parallel with development of bladder lesions and spinal evoked expression of IEG-encoded proteins. Histological examination of the urinary bladder was used to evaluate the degree of cystitis and as a criterion for selection of groups of animals to be quantitatively analyzed. Controls consisted of freely behaving animals including control (un-injected), sham (saline-injected) or diuretic (furosemide-injected) animals. Behavioral modifications consisted of lacrimation, piloerection, assumption of a peculiar "rounded-back" posture, which was accompanied by head immobility and various brief "crises" (tail hyperextension, abdominal retractions, licking of the lower abdomen, backward withdrawal movements). Abnormal behaviors, which first appeared (lacrimation, piloerection) at the end of postinjection hour 1, progressively increased in severity (rounded-back posture) over the following 90 min to reach a plateau at about postinjection hour 2; the rounded-back posture was maintained up to time of death. Histological modifications of bladder tissue were assessed using a 4-grade scale in a blind setting. The 1st grade consisted of control or sham animals with no bladder lesion; 2nd grade, animals with simple chorionic edema; 3rd grade, animals with chorionic edema associated with mucosal abrasion, fibrin deposit, and onset of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration; 4th grade, animals with complete cystitis corresponding to an increase in severity and spread of all the signs of cystitis described above plus

  11. Changes of p-CREB and c-Fos expression in brain regions of morphine-reactlvated conditioned place preference in rats%大鼠相关脑区p-CREB和c-Fos在吗啡点燃条件性位置偏爱条件下的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永娜; 方正梅; 邵晓霞; 李晓红; 李顺英

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes of phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and c-Fos in two brain regions of morphine-reactivated conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. METHODS: Morphine was administered by subcutaneous injection at gradually increasing dose for 6 days to establish morphine CPP. From the 7th day, the rats were administered saline instead of morphine for 10 days to induce CPP extinction. The rats were given a single priming injection of morphine to reactivate the morphine CPP. The p-CREB and c-Fos were assayed with immunohistochemistry method in the phase of recurrence of CPP rekindled by morphine. RESULTS: Increasing dose of morphine conditioning for 6 days resulted in acquisition of CPP and morphine (4 mg/kg) reactivated CPP following 10 days drug free period. Compared with saline control, morphine -reactivated CPP elevated the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in hippocampus and amygdala in rats ( P < 0.05 ). CONCLUSION: p-CREB and c-Fos expression in hippocampus and amygdala may be involved in the mechanisms of recurrence of CPP.%目的:研究磷酸化cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(phospho-cAMP response element binding protein,p-CREB)和c-Fos在吗啡点燃条件性位置偏爱激活大鼠海马、杏仁核表达的变化.方法:以剂量递增连续皮下(s.c.)注射吗啡6 d建立吗啡诱导大鼠条件位置性偏爱(conditioned place preference, CPF,)模型,第7天用生理盐水替代吗啡训练大鼠10 d,使CPP消退,单次s.c.吗啡(4 mg/kg)激发已消退的CPP.采用免疫组化技术测定吗啡激发CPP重现时大鼠海马、杏仁核p-CREB和c-Fbs的变化.结果:吗啡可使大鼠产生CPP效应,吗啡4 mg/kg可使已消失的CPP效应激活;吗啡诱发CPF激活时大鼠海马、杏仁核p-CREB和c-Fos的表达增加.结论:海马、杏仁核p-cREB和c-Fos蛋白的表达参与了吗啡点燃CPP重现.

  12. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called dikar

  13. The arena of everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butijn, C.A.A.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Casimir, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 'The arena of everyday life' nine authors look back and forward at developments in the sociology of consumers and households. Nine chapters show variety in the employed methods, from multivariate analyses of survey data to classical essays. The contributions are organised around four themes. In t

  14. Expressão dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos Expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc and c-jun in human normal miometrium and leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Ferrari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão gênica (mRNA e protéica dos protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc e c-jun em miométrio normal e mioma humanos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo caso-controle. O material foi coletado de 12 pacientes submetidas a histerectomia no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. A expressão do mRNA específico para c-myc, c-fos, c-jun e beta-microglobulina foi avaliada pela técnica de RT-PCR, utilizando primers específicos para cada gene. A expressão protéica destes protooncogenes foi avaliada através de Western blot com anticorpos específicos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa para expressão gênica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 0,87 ± 0,08 vs 0,87 ± 0,08, p = 0,952; c-fos: 1,10 ± 0,17 vs 1,01 ± 0,11, p = 0,21; c-jun: 1,03 ± 0,12 vs 0,96 ± 0,09, p = 0,168, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para expressão protéica desses protooncogenes entre miométrio normal e mioma (c-myc: 1,36 ± 0,48 vs 1,53 ± 0,29, p = 0,569; c-fos: 8,85 ± 5,5 vs 6,56 ± 4,22, p = 0,434; e c-jun: 6,47 ± 3,04 vs 5,42 ± 2,03, p = 0,266, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão gênica (transcrição e a expressão protéica (tradução dos protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos e c-jun em mioma e miométrio normal são semelhantes.Uterine myomas are common benign tumors of the female genital tract. The expression of growth factor signal transduction cascade components including the protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun seem to be involved in the development of myomas. PURPOSE: To compare the gene (mRNA and protein expression of the protooncogenes c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun in human normal myometrium and leiomyoma. METHOD: A case-control study was performed. Samples were collected from 12 patients submitted to hysterectomy at the Hospital de Clínicas at Porto Alegre. The expression of the specific mRNA for c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, and beta-microglobulin was assessed through the RT

  15. Effect of ketamine anesthesia in early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in offsprings of rats%孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 赵为禄; 罗佛全

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨孕早期氯胺酮麻醉对子代大鼠海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达的影响.方法 孕5~13 d的SD大鼠30只,体重250~300 g,随机分为2组(n=15):对照组(C组)和氯胺酮组(K组).K组经尾静脉注射氯胺酮20 mg/kg,随后以130 mg·kg-1·h-1的速率静脉输注2 h;C组以等量生理盐水替代氯胺酮.子代大鼠于出生后20和30 d时测定认知功能,取海马组织,测定c-fosmRNA和c-jun mRNA表达水平并观察超微结构.结果 与C组比较,K组子代大鼠出生后30 d时认知功能测定第2天逃避潜伏期延长(P<0.05),海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA的表达水平差异无统计学意义,出生后20 d上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).K组海马神经元发生损伤.结论 孕早期氯胺酮麻醉抑制子代大鼠认知功能的机制与海马神经元受损有关,但与海马c-fos mRNA和c-jun mRNA表达无关.%Objective To investigate the effect of ketamine anesthesia in the early pregnancy on the c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA expression in the offsprings of rats. Methods Thirty pregnant SD rats at 5-13 days of gestation were randomly divided into control group and ketamine group (n = 15 each). Ketamine 20 mg/kg was injected intravenously through tail vein followed by 2 h infusion at a rate of 130 mg·kg-1 ·h-1 in ketmine group.While the equal volume of normal saline was given instead of ketamine in control group. The learning and memory function of the offsprings were tested by Morris water maze test on postnatal day 20 and 30. The hippocampal tissues were taken to detect the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA and to observe the ultrastructure. Results Compared with group C, the escape latency was significantly prolonged at 2 days during the test which was performed on postnatal day 30, but there was no significant difference in the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-jun mRNA on postnatal day 20 and 30 and in the indices mentioned above on postnatal day 20 in ketamine group (P >0.05). The

  16. cFos Mediates cAMP-Dependent Generation of ROS and Rescue of Maturation Program in Retinoid-Resistant Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Line NB4-LR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Jean-Luc; Javadi, Pasha; Bourrier, Emilie; Camus, Céline; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Karniguian, Aïda

    2012-01-01

    A determining role has been assigned to cAMP in the signaling pathways that relieve resistance to anti-leukemia differentiation therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Here, we identify cFos as a critical cAMP effector, able to regulate the re-expression and splicing of epigenetically silenced genes associated with maturation (CD44) in retinoid-resistant NB4-LR1 leukemia cells. Furthermore, using RNA interference approach, we show that cFos mediates cAMP-induced ROS generation, a critical mediator of neutrophil maturation, and in fine differentiation. This study highlights some of the mechanisms by which cAMP acts to overcome resistance, and reveals a new alternative cFos-dependent pathway which, though nonexistent in retinoid-sensitive NB4 cells, is essential to rescue the maturation program of resistant cells. PMID:23209736

  17. cFos mediates cAMP-dependent generation of ROS and rescue of maturation program in retinoid-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4-LR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Carrier

    Full Text Available A determining role has been assigned to cAMP in the signaling pathways that relieve resistance to anti-leukemia differentiation therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Here, we identify cFos as a critical cAMP effector, able to regulate the re-expression and splicing of epigenetically silenced genes associated with maturation (CD44 in retinoid-resistant NB4-LR1 leukemia cells. Furthermore, using RNA interference approach, we show that cFos mediates cAMP-induced ROS generation, a critical mediator of neutrophil maturation, and in fine differentiation. This study highlights some of the mechanisms by which cAMP acts to overcome resistance, and reveals a new alternative cFos-dependent pathway which, though nonexistent in retinoid-sensitive NB4 cells, is essential to rescue the maturation program of resistant cells.

  18. Norisoboldine suppresses osteoclast differentiation through preventing the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and activation of MAPKs/NF-κB/c-Fos/NFATc1 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Feng Wei

    Full Text Available Norisoboldine (NOR is the main alkaloid constituent in the dry root of Lindera aggregata (Sims Kosterm. (L. strychnifolia Vill.. As reported previously, orally administered NOR displayed a robust inhibition of joint bone destruction present in both mouse collagen-induced arthritis and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis with lower efficacious doses than that required for ameliorating systemic inflammation. This attracted us to assess the effects of NOR on differentiation and function of osteoclasts, primary effector cells for inflammatory bone destruction, to get insight into its anti-rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms. Both RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs were stimulated with RANKL (100 ng/mL to establish osteoclast differentiation models. ELISA, RT-PCR, gelatin zymography, western blotting, immunoprecipitation and EMSA were used to reveal related signalling pathways. NOR (10 and 30 µM, without significant cytotoxicity, showed significant reduction of the number of osteoclasts and the resorption pit areas, and it targeted osteoclast differentiation at the early stage. In conjunction with the anti-resorption effect of NOR, mRNA levels of cathepsin K and MMP-9 were decreased, and the activity of MMP-9 was attenuated. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies indicated that NOR obviously suppressed the ubiquitination of TRAF6, the accumulation of TRAF6-TAK1 complexes and the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK, and reduced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. However, NOR had little effect on expressions of TRAF6 or the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Moreover, NOR markedly inhibited expressions of transcription factor NFATc1, but not c-Fos. Intriguingly, the subsequent nuclear translocations of c-Fos and NFATc1 were substantially down-regulated. Hence, we demonstrated for the first time that preventing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts at the early stage was an

  19. Phytoestrogens directly inhibit TNF-α-induced bone resorption in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing c-fos-induced NFATc1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W

    2011-02-01

    TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis is central to post-menopausal and inflammatory bone loss, however, the effect of phytoestrogens on TNF-α-induced bone resorption has not been studied. The phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol directly suppressed TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. TRAP positive osteoclast formation and resorption area were significantly reduced by genistein (10(-7)  M), daidzein (10(-5)  M), and coumestrol (10(-7)  M), which was prevented by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. TRAP expression in mature TNF-α-induced osteoclasts was also significantly reduced by these phytoestrogen concentrations. In addition, in the presence of ICI 182,780 genistein and coumestrol (10(-5) -10(-6)  M) augmented TNF-α-induced osteoclast formation and resorption. However, this effect was not observed in the absence of estrogen antagonist indicating that genistein's and coumestrol's ER-dependent anti-osteoclastic action normally negates this pro-osteoclastic effect. To determine the mechanism mediating the anti-osteoclastic action we examined the effect of genistein, coumestrol, and daidzein on caspase 3/7 activity, cell viability and expression of key genes regulating osteoclast differentiation and fusion. While anti-osteoclastic phytoestrogen concentrations had no effect on caspase 3/7 activity or cell viability they did significantly reduce TNF-α-induced c-fos and NFATc1 expression in an ER dependent manner and also inhibited NFATc1 nuclear translocation. Significant decreases in NFκB and DC-STAMP levels were also noted. Interestingly, constitutive c-fos expression prevented the anti-osteoclastic action of phytoestrogens on differentiation, resorption and NFATc1. This suggests that phytoestrogens suppress TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of c-fos-dependent NFATc1 expression. Our data provides further evidence that phytoestrogens have a potential role in the treatment of post-menopausal and inflammatory

  20. Effect of different therapies of Chinese medicine on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus of rats with post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Mei Chen; Binhui Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: c-fos and c-jun, the important immediate early genes (IEG), are regarded as the markers for the location and function of neuronal activity, as well as the third signal messengers, they couple the stress stimulation and the gene expression in neuron, and hippocampus is involved in the process of signal transmission after stress stimulation induced depression.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effects of Bushen Yiqi (tonifying kidney to benefit qi), Huoxue Huayu (promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis) and Ditan Kaiqiao (eliminating phlegm for resuscitation) on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus and spontaneous behaviors of rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and compare the results with those of fluoxetine, which is known to have definite effect on depression.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETrING: Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The trial was completed in Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January to July in 2003. Fifty-six healthy adult Wistar male rats of clean grade, weighing (250±50) g, were randomly divided into 7 groups with 8 rats in each group: control group, model group, forced swimming group,Bushen Yiqi group; Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine group. The Bushen Yiqi Tang con tained Renshen, Huangqi, Heshouwu, Gouqi, Shudi, etc., crude drugs 1 800 g/L. The Huoxue Huayu Tang contained Danshen, Chuanxiong, Chishao, Yujin, etc., crude drugs 3 600 g/L. The Dian Kaiqiao Tang contained Banxia, Danxing, Changpu, Yuanzhi, etc., crude drug 1 000 g/L.METHODS: ① Except the control group and forced swimming group, rats in the other groups were made into PSD models by deligating the bilateral common carotid arteries permanently. ② Rats in the control group, model group and forced swimming group were intragastrically perfused by saline (3 mL for each time); those in the Bushen Yiqi group, Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine

  1. Laguerre Filter Analysis with Partial Least Square Regression Reveals a Priming Effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takamasa; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Wada, Takumi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Masashi; Saito, Takeshi H; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Signaling networks are made up of limited numbers of molecules and yet can code information that controls different cellular states through temporal patterns and a combination of signaling molecules. In this study, we used a data-driven modeling approach, the Laguerre filter with partial least square regression, to describe how temporal and combinatorial patterns of signaling molecules are decoded by their downstream targets. The Laguerre filter is a time series model used to represent a nonlinear system based on Volterra series expansion. Furthermore, with this approach, each component of the Volterra series expansion is expanded by Laguerre basis functions. We combined two approaches, application of a Laguerre filter and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and applied the combined approach to analysis of a signal transduction network. We applied the Laguerre filter with PLS regression to identify input and output (IO) relationships between MAP kinases and the products of immediate early genes (IEGs). We found that Laguerre filter with PLS regression performs better than Laguerre filter with ordinary regression for the reproduction of a time series of IEGs. Analysis of the nonlinear characteristics extracted using the Laguerre filter revealed a priming effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS induction. Specifically, we found that the effects of a first pulse of ERK enhance the subsequent effects on c-FOS induction of treatment with a second pulse of ERK, a finding consistent with prior molecular biological knowledge. The variable importance of projections and output loadings in PLS regression predicted the upstream dependency of each IEG. Thus, a Laguerre filter with partial least square regression approach appears to be a powerful method to find the processing mechanism of temporal patterns and combination of signaling molecules by their downstream gene expression.

  2. Effect of Ningxian Particles on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨东东

    2013-01-01

    weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats. Results: Immunohisto-chemistry experiments: resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group, increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippoeampal CA3 region compared to the sham group, was densely distributed, deeply stained, while lower than that of the model group; Ningxian particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein and was superior to CBZ group ( P<0.05 ). No significant differences among groups, Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference. Conclusion: Ningxian particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression significantly and enhance efficacy, the treatment groups indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.

  3. 黄芪对大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤c-fos和Bcl-2表达及细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of astragalus on apoptosis and c-fos, Bcl-2 expression after focal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春军; 董琦; 董凯; 杨国宏

    2011-01-01

    c-fos and Bcl-2 of other four groups were increased (P <0. 01) ;the positive expression rates of c-fos and Bcl-2 of astragalus group were lower than those in group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ (P <0.01). The apoptotic index of group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ , group Ⅲ and astragalus group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01) ;the apoptotic index of astragalus group was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ (P < 0.01). Conclusion Astragalus can inhibit the expression of c-fos and increase the expression of Bcl-2 in cerebral ischemia reperfusion and lessen brain cell apoptosis.

  4. 不同形式游泳运动对大鼠延髓腹外侧区c-fos表达的影响%The effects on the expression of c-fos in ventrolateral medulla of rats treating with different swimming exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧芳; 李楠; 杨李旺; 王迎春; 闫八一; 杨桂姣

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同形式游泳运动后大鼠延髓腹外侧区c-fos的表达及其时效性分布规律.方法:选取正常成年雄性SD大鼠55只,随机分为对照组(5只)、持续游泳运动组(25只)和间歇游泳运动组(25只).运动组进行6周游泳训练建立运动模型.运动结束后0、0.5、1、2、4h等不同时间点取材,免疫组化SABC法检测延髓腹外侧区c-fos阳性神经元数目的变化.结果:(1)延髓腹外侧区头端(RVLM)持续组大鼠c-fos阳性神经元数目在运动结束后逐渐增多,至0.5h达高峰,之后缓慢回落,至2h后接近对照组水平.间歇组运动后即刻即可见c-fos阳性神经元数目显著增高至峰值,之后维持于较高的水平范围内呈现缓慢下降趋势,至4h恢复至对照水平;(2)延髓腹外侧区尾端(CVLM)持续游泳运动组大鼠c-fos阳性神经元数目在运动结束后略有增加(P>0.05),0.5h迅速下降至低于对照组水平(P<0.05),之后重新回升至对照水平,并逐渐降低.间歇游泳运动组,运动后c-fos阳性神经元数目缓慢上升,至lh达高峰,之后回落至2h后再次略微升高.结论:不同形式游泳运动可引起大鼠延髓腹外侧区c-fos信号通路不同程度的活化.%Objective; To explore the expression of c-fos and the chronergy distribution pattern in ventrolateral medulla (VLM) of rats that treating with different kinds of swimming exercises. Methods; Fifty-five adult male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 5 ) , endurance swimming group ( n = 25) and interval swimming group ( n = 25 ). The rats in the latter two groups were trained for 6 weeks. The brains were removed at the moments of 0,0.5, 1 , 2, 4 h after swimming, the changes of the number of c-fos immunopositive neurons in VLM were detected by immunohistochemi-cal SABC techniques. Results: (1) In the endurance swimming group the number of c-fos immunopositive neurons increased gradually and reached to the top at 0.5 h, then reduced to

  5. A comparative study of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to expressions of c-fos and c-jun products and bone matrix proteins: a clinicopathologic review and immunohistochemical study of c-fos, c-jun, type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, A; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1999-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia are both benign fibro-osseous lesions of the bone and are generally seen during childhood or adolescence. Histologically, the features of these bone lesions sometimes look quite similar, but their precise nature remains controversial. We retrospectively studied clinicopathologic findings in 62 cases of fibrous dysplasia and 20 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia with regard to their anatomic location and histological appearance. From among these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogene products and bone matrix proteins of type I collagen, osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were evaluated in 20 typical fibrous dysplasias and 17 osteofibrous dysplasias using paraffin sections, and these expressions were then assessed semiquantitatively. Microscopically, fibrous dysplasia showed various secondary changes, such as hyalinization, hemorrhage, xanthomatous reaction, and cystic change in 22 of the 62 cases (35%). This was a higher incidence than in osteofibrous dysplasia, in which only 2 of the 20 cases (10%) showed such changes. In the elderly fibrous dysplasia cases, the cellularity of fibroblast-like cells was rather low, and those cases were hyalinized. Almost all of the cases of fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia showed positive expressions of c-fos and c-jun products. The expressions of type I collagen and osteopontin showed no difference between fibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia. Immunoreactivity for osteonectin in bone matrix was detected in only 1 case of fibrous dysplasia (1 of 20), whereas it was recognized in 14 of the 17 cases of osteofibrous dysplasia. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity for osteocalcin in bone matrix and fibroblast-like cells was higher in fibrous dysplasia than it was in osteofibrous dysplasia, semiquantitatively. Our immunohistochemical results regarding osteonectin and osteocalcin suggest that the bone matrix of fibrous dysplasia is

  6. Subd iaphragmatic vagotomy reduce the responses of fever and c-Fos expression inrat PVN and NTS to LPS%膈下迷走神经切断降低LPS所致大鼠发热及室旁核、孤束核c-Fos蛋白表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路秀英; 杨贵贞

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the possibility that responses of fever and c- Fos expression in rat PVN and NTS to intraperitoneal administration of LPS are rnediated by vagal afferents. Methods: Rectal temperature was detected by digital temperature detecting instrument. c-Fos expressis was detected by immunohistochemistry staining.Results:The rectal temperature change value in vagotomy LPS gnoup was significantlydecreased compared with that in sham IPS group,and there was striking difference betwen them, p <0.05.It was increased significantlycompared with that in vagotomy NS group, P < 0.05.The percentage of c-Fos positive neurons in rat PVN and NTS in vagotomy LPS group wassignificantly decreased compared with that in sham LPS group,and there were difference between them, p <0.01.Itwas stnkingly increased compared with that in vagotomy conrol group,respectively, P <0.01.Conclusion:The results indicate that vagus nerve is one of thepathways of peripheal LPS signal communicating to CNS.%探讨迷走神经作为LPS信息由外周传入中枢的桥梁。方法:实验组为膈下迷走神经切断并给予LPS组,3个对照组为假手术生理盐水组,假手术LPS组,膈下迷走切断生理盐水组。测体温用数字体温检测仪测定大鼠肛温。c-Fos蛋白表达用免疫组织化学法检测。结果:实验组肛温变化值与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.05;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.05。c-Fos蛋白表达:实验组PVN和NTS中c-Fos阳性细胞百分率与假手术LPS组相比明显降低,差异显著,P<0.01;与迷走神经切断生理盐水对照组相比明显增高,P<0.01。结论:迷走神经是外周LPS信息向脑传递的途径之一。

  7. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE/NaCl MIXTURES STIMULATION ON C-FOS-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE TASTE-RELATED NUCLEI IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋恩社; 闫剑群; 宋新艾

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of neuronal activation in taste-related nuclei following intraoral taste stimulation with binary taste mixtures of sucrose and NaCl. Methods Neuronal activation in response to intraoral taste stimulation with 0.5 mol*L-1 sucrose, 0.3 mol*L-1 NaCl, sucrose+NaCl mixture and distilled water was evaluated in taste-related nuclei by using c-Fos-like immunoreactivity(c-FLI) in the rats deprived of water overnight. Results The consumption of sucrose+NaCl mixture was lower than that of sucrose solution. Intraoral sucrose or NaCl stimulation induced more c-FLI than distilled water in the external lateral subnucleus of the rostral parabrachial nucleus (PBN), but the c-FLI induced by intraoral sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation was less than that induced by sucrose solution in this subnucleus. Compared with distilled water, the intraoral sucrose or sucrose+NaCl mixture stimulation induced more c-FLI in the central amygdala. ConclusionThese results suggest that salty taste has a suppressive effect on the neuronal activations induced by sweet taste in the external lateral subnucleus of rostral PBN in rats.

  8. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  9. 靶向人原癌基因c-fos的shRNA表达质粒的构建及鉴定%Construction and Identification of Short Hairpin RNA Expression Vector Targeting to Human Proto-oncogene c-fos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景志杰; 刘田福; 师锐赞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting to human protooncogene c-fos. Methods Recombinant shRNA expression vector Psilencer3.l-sic-fos targeting to human c-fos gene was constructed and transfected to breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The expression of c-fos mRNA in stably transfected cell was determined by RT-PCR.Results PCR, restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid Psilencer3. 1-sic-fos was constructed correctly.The recombinant plasmid inhibited the expression of c-fos gene at mRNA level in MCF-7 cells significantly. Conclusion The recombinant shRNA expression vector for human c-fos gene was successfully constructed, which provided a technical tool for further study on the role of c-fos gene in genesis and progress of tumors.%目的 构建靶向人原癌基因c-los的短发夹RNA(Short hairpin RNA,shRNA)重组真核表达质粒,并进行鉴定.方法 构建靶向人c-fos基因的shRNA重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos,转染乳腺癌MCF-7细胞,采用RT-PCR法检测稳定转染细胞中c-fos基因mRNA的表达.结果 重组表达质粒Psilencer 3.1-sic-fos经PCR、双酶切及测序证明构建正确;重组表达质粒在mRNA水平明显抑制了MCF-7细胞c-fos基因的表达(P<0.05).结论 已成功构建了人c-fos基因shRNA重组表达质粒,为深入研究c-fos基因在肿瘤发生、发展过程中的作用提供了技术手段.

  10. The effect of chronic ketamine injection on the change of behavior and expressions of PV and c-Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice%成年小鼠氯胺酮慢性注射后行为改变以及海马CA3区小清蛋白和c-Fos的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 刘阳; 张志龙; 王德广

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the expressions of parvalbumin (PV) and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 in mice after they showed symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . Methods Sixty adult Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group of saline ( NS) injection and the three groups of ketamine in - jection including 50 mg/kg (Kl) , 100 mg/kg (K2) and 150 mg/kg (K3). The mice were administered by intraperito - neal injection once every five days for 6 times. Then stereotyped behavior was observed and the open field test was per -formed after 5 days from the last injection. The expression of PV and c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 of mice were detected by immunohistochemical staining in different groups . Results Compared to the control group , the scores of stereotyped behavior and open field test of ketamine groups increased significantly (P <0.01) , and tended to increase with the increasing dosage of ketamine. The expressions of PV in hippocampal CA 3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of ketamine , with significant difference between K2 group and K3 group (P <0.01). The expressions of c - Fos in hippocampal CA3 were lower than that of the control group , and presented a negative correlation with the dosage of katamine (P <0.05). Conclusion The adult mice can show symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine administration . The expressions of PV and c -Fos are suppressed with the increasing ketamine dosage, which may be related to the symptoms similar to schizophrenia induced by chronic ketamine poisoning.%目的 观察小鼠氯胺酮慢性中毒产生精神分裂症样症状后,海马CA3区小清蛋白(parvalbumin,PV)和c-Fos蛋白的表达.方法 将60只成年昆明小鼠随机分为生理盐水组(NS)和氯胺酮给药组:50 mg/kg(K1)、100 mg/kg(K2)和150 mg/kg(K3).每5天腹腔给药1次,连续注射6次,于给药完成后第5天,观察刻板行为

  11. Induction of c-fos mRNA expression in an in vitro hippocampal slice model of adult rats after kainate but not gamma-aminobutyric acid or bicuculline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massamiri, T; Khrestchatisky, M; Ben-Ari, Y

    1994-01-17

    Levels of gene expression following in vitro treatment of rat hippocampal slices with kainate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), or bicuculline were measured by the reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction method. Following a short-term exposure to kainate, c-fos gene expression was induced by 12-fold in the adult, but not the newborn, hippocampus. Under the same experimental conditions, zifl268 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression were unchanged. Our results also demonstrate a lack of induction of c-fos, zifl268 and BDNF after short-time treatment of either adult or newborn hippocampal slices with GABA or bicuculline. The relevance of the differential induction of gene expression in the adult and newborn in an in vitro hippocampal slice model as compared to previously described in vivo models is discussed.

  12. Forebrain patterns of c-Fos and FosB induction during cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsman, Jan Pieter; Blomqvist, Anders

    2005-05-01

    Forebrain structures are necessary for the initiation of food intake and its coupling to energy expenditure. The cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome is typified by a prolonged increase in metabolic rate resulting in body weight loss which, paradoxically, is accompanied by reduced food intake. The aim of the present work was to study the forebrain expression of Fos proteins as activation markers and thus to identify potential neurobiological mechanisms favouring catabolic processes or modulating food intake in rats suffering from cancer-related anorexia-cachexia. Neurons in forebrain structures showing most pronounced induction of Fos proteins were further identified neurochemically. To provoke anorexia-cachexia, cultured Morris hepatoma 7777 cells were injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats. This resulted in a slowly growing tumour inducing approximately 7% body weight loss and a 20% reduction in food intake when the tumour represented 1-2% of body mass. Anorexia-cachexia in these animals was found to be accompanied by Fos induction in several hypothalamic nuclei including the paraventricular and ventromedial hypothalamus, in the parastrial nucleus, the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventral striatal structures and the piriform and somatosensory cortices. Neurochemical identification revealed that the vast majority of FosB-positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate-putamen and other ventral striatal structures contained prodynorphin or proenkephalin mRNA. These findings indicate that forebrain structures that are part of neuronal networks modulating catabolic pathways and food ingestion are activated during tumour-associated anorexia-cachexia and may contribute to the lack of compensatory eating in response to weight loss characterizing this syndrome.

  13. The forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response involves histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Yalini; Droste, Susanne K; Arthur, J Simon C; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2008-05-01

    The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. Previously, we have shown that the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response after a forced swim experience is associated with chromatin modifications and transcriptional induction in dentate gyrus granule neurons. Given that both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling pathway are involved in neuroplasticity processes underlying learning and memory, we investigated in rats and mice whether these signalling pathways regulate chromatin modifications and transcriptional events participating in the acquisition of the immobility response. We found that: (i) forced swimming evoked a transient increase in the number of phospho-acetylated histone H3-positive [P(Ser10)-Ac(Lys14)-H3(+)] neurons specifically in the middle and superficial aspects of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer; (ii) antagonism of NMDA receptors and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling blocked forced swimming-induced histone H3 phospho-acetylation and the acquisition of the behavioural immobility response; (iii) double knockout (DKO) of the histone H3 kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK) 1/2 in mice completely abolished the forced swimming-induced increases in histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in dentate granule neurons and the behavioural immobility response; (iv) blocking mineralocorticoid receptors, known not to be involved in behavioural immobility in the forced swim test, did not affect forced swimming-evoked histone H3 phospho-acetylation in dentate neurons; and (v) the pharmacological manipulations and gene deletions did not affect behaviour in the initial forced swim test. We conclude that the forced swimming-induced behavioural immobility response requires histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction in distinct dentate granule neurons through recruitment of the NMDA/ERK/MSK 1/2 pathway.

  14. 电针对氯胺酮成瘾大鼠海马CA1区酪氨酸羟化酶、C-fos表达的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture on Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and c-fos in Hippocampal CA 1 Area in Ketamine-addiction Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽发; 徐臣利; 熊克仁

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨电针对氛胺酮滥用成瘾戒毒治疗的物质基础.方法:将40只SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、生理盐水(10mL/kg)对照组、氛胺酮(100mg/kg)组、氯胺F1(100mg/kg)加电针组.按上述设定剂量,经腹腔注射给药,每天1次,连续7d,氯胺酮加电针组于给药1周开始低频(2Hz)电针交替刺激双侧"足三里"与"三阴交"穴位,每次30min,每天1次,连续1周.采用免疫组织化学染色方法显示大鼠海马CA1区酪氨酸0化酶(TH),c-fo、的表达.结果:与正常对照组和生理盐水对照组比,氛胺酮组大鼠海马CA 1区TH,c-fos免疫反应阳性神经元的数目和阳性产物的表达水平明显增强(P<0.05,P<0.01).与氯胺酮组比,氛胺酮加电针组TH,c-fo:免疫反应阳性神经元的数目和阳性产物的表达显著减弱(P<0.01).结论:电针"足三里","三阴交"可明显抑制氛胺酮成瘾引起的海马CA 1区TH,C-foS表达的增强,提示电针可能通过抑制海马多巴胺神经元的活动改善氛胺酮成瘾.%Objective To explore the morphological basis of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving addiction of ketamine.Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into normal control, normal saline ( 10 mL/kg), model and ketamine+ EA groups.Ketamine-addiction model was established by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg/kg), once a day for 7 days.EA (2 Hz) was applied to "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao"(SP 6) for 30 min, once a day for 7 days.The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and c-fos in the hippocampal CA 1 region was detected by immunohistochemistry.Results In comparison with the normal control group and normal saline group, the numbers of both TH immuno-reaction (IR)-positive and cfos IR-positive neurons in the hippocampal region in the model group were increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01).Correspondingly, the expression of both TH IR-positive and c-fos IR-positive products in the hippocampal CA 1 region in the model group

  15. Effect of morphine-reactivated conditioned place preference on P-CREB. c-Fos expression in rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex%吗啡诱发条件性位置偏爱激活时大鼠伏隔核前额叶皮层p-CREB、c-Fos的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永娜; 李晓红; 方正梅; 魏辉明; 邵晓霞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To detect the effect of morphine-reactived conditioned place preference(CPP)on phospho-cAMP response element binding protein(p-CREB)and c-Fos expression in rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal codex. Methods Morphine was administered by subcutaneous injection at gradually increasing dose tered saline instead of morphine for 10 days to induce CPP extinction. The rats were given a single priming injection immunohistochemistry method in the phase of reoccurrence of CPP. Results(1)Increasing dose of morphine days drug free period. (2)Compared to saline control, morphine-reactivated CPP elevated the expression of PCREB and c-Fos in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal codex in rats(P<0. 05). Conclusion p-CREB and c-Fos expression in nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex may be involved in the mechanisms of reoccurrence of CPP.%目的 探讨吗啡诱发条件性位置偏爱激活时大鼠伏隔核、前额叶皮层磷酸化cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(phospho-cAMP response element binding protein,p-CREB)和c-Fos表达的变化.方法 以剂量递增法连续皮下注射(SC)吗啡6d建立大鼠条件性位置偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)模型,第7天用生理盐水替代吗啡训练大鼠10d,使形成的cPP逐渐消退,单次SC 4mg·kg-1吗啡激发已消退的CPP.采用免疫组化技术测定吗啡激发CPP重现时大鼠伏隔核、前额叶皮层p-CREB和c-Fos的变化.结果 (1)吗啡可使大鼠产生CPP效应,吗啡4mg·kg-1可使已消失的CPP效应激活;(2)与对照组相比吗啡诱发的CPP激活时大鼠伏隔核、前额叶皮层p-CREB(161.18±5.37,179.75±7.68)和c-Fos(176.63±8.42,185.11±5.61)的表达增加,与NS组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 伏隔核、前额叶皮层p-CREB和c-Fos蛋白表达参与了吗啡的CPP重现.

  16. Anxiety- and depressive-like responses and c-fos activity in preproenkephalin klockout mice: Oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyu Bai-Chuang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study used the preproenkephalin knockout (ppENK mice to test whether the endogenous enkephalins deficit could facilitate the anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. On Day 1, sixteen wildtype (WT and sixteen ppENK male mice were given a 3 mA or no footshock treatment for 10 seconds in the footshock apparatus, respectively. On Days 2, 7, and 13, all mice were given situational reminders for 1 min per trial, and the freezing response was assessed. On Day 14, all mice were tested in the open field test, elevated plus maze, light/dark avoidance test, and forced swim test. Two hours after the last test, brain tissues were stained to examine c-fos expression in specific brain areas. The present results showed that the conditioned freezing response was significant for different genotypes (ppENK vs WT. The conditioned freezing effect of the ppENK mice was stronger than those of the WT mice. On Day 14, the ppENK mice showed more anxiety- and depressive-like responses than WT mice. The magnitude of Fos immunolabeling was also significantly greater in the primary motor cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-lateral division, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-supracapsular division, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus-lateral magnocellular part, central nucleus of the amygdala, and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in ppENK mice compared with WT mice. In summary, animals with an endogenous deficit in enkephalins might be more sensitive to PTSD-like aversive stimuli and elicit stronger anxiety and depressive PTSD symptoms, suggesting an oversensitivity hypothesis of enkephalin deficit-induced PTSD.

  17. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection.

  18. Light pulses do not induce c-fos or per1 in the SCN of hamsters that fail to reentrain to the photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; O'Hara, Bruce F; Cao, Vinh H; Larkin, Jennie E; Heller, H Craig; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-08-01

    Circadian activity rhythms of most Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase shift of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Instead, their rhythms free-run at periods close to 25 h despite the continued presence of the LD cycle. This lack of behavioral reentrainment necessarily means that molecular oscillators in the master circadian pacemaker, the SCN, were unable to reentrain as well. The authors tested the hypothesis that a phase shift of the LD cycle rendered the SCN incapable of responding to photic input. Animals were exposed to a 5-h phase delay of the photocycle, and activity rhythms were monitored until a lack of reentrainment was confirmed. Hamsters were then housed in constant darkness for 24 h and administered a 30-min light pulse 2 circadian hours after activity onset. Brains were then removed, and tissue sections containing the SCN were processed for in situ hybridization. Sections were probed with Siberian hamster c-fos and per1 mRNA probes because light rapidly induces these 2 genes in the SCN during subjective night but not at other circadian phases. Light pulses induced robust expression of both genes in all animals that reentrained to the LD cycle, but no expression was observed in any animal that failed to reentrain. None of the animals exhibited an intermediate response. This finding is the first report of acute shift in a photocycle eliminating photosensitivity in the SCN and suggests that a specific pattern of light exposure may desensitize the SCN to subsequent photic input.

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of cellular transcription NFκB (p65), AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and JAK/STAT in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana Mota; Hirai, Kelly Emi; de Sousa, Jorge Rodrigues; de Souza, Juarez; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; de Souza Aarão, Tinara Leila; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2015-05-01

    Leprosy is a disease whose clinical spectrum depends on the cytokine patterns produced during the early stages of the immune response. The main objective of this study was to describe the activation pattern of cellular transcription factors and to correlate these factors with the clinical forms of leprosy. Skin samples were obtained from 16 patients with the tuberculoid (TT) form and 14 with the lepromatous (LL) form. The histologic sections were immunostained with anti-c-Fos and anti-c-Jun monoclonal antibodies for investigation of AP-1, anti-NFκB p65 for the study of NFκB, and anti-JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 for investigation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Cells expressing STAT1 were more frequent in the TT form than in LL lesions (P = .0096), in agreement with the protective immunity provided by IFN-γ. STAT4 was also more highly expressed in the TT form than in the LL form (P = .0098). This transcription factor is essential for the development of a Th1 response because it is associated with interleukin-12. NFκB (p65) and STAT4 expression in the TT form showed a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.7556 and P = .0007). A moderate and significant correlation was observed between JAK2 and STAT4 in the TT form (r = 0.6637 and P = .0051), with these factors responding to interleukin-12 in Th1 profiles. The results suggest that STAT1, JAK2, and NFκB, together with STAT4, contribute to the development of cell-mediated immunity, which is able to contain the proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae.

  20. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos are immediate early gene (IEG) products induced by novelty in the hippocampus and involved in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. We investigated whether induction of arc and c-fos after exposure...... to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 as in the wild-type mice. In contrast, synaptophysin levels did not differ between mutant and wild type mice, suggesting that the observed effect was not due to a general decrease in the number of presynapses. These data suggest a reduction in basal and novelty-induced neuronal activity...

  1. Effect of scopolamine on expression of p-CREB, c-Fos in rat hippocampus in recurrence of Conditioned place preference induced by morphine%东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现大鼠海马p-CREB及c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方正梅; 李晓红; 邵晓霞; 李顺英; 赵永娜

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To deetect the effect of scopolamine on expression of phospho-cAMP response element binding pro-tein (p-CREB) and c-Fos in rat hippoeampus(Hip) in recurrence of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. METHODS Morphzine was administered by subcutaneously injection(sc)at gradually increasing dose( from 10 mg·kg-1 to 60 mg·kg-1)for 6 days to establish morphine CPP. From dT, the rats were administered saline instead of morphine for 10 days to induce CPP extinction. The rats were given a single priming injection of morphine (4 mg·kg-1) to reinstate the morphine CPP, some rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection(ip) scopolamine (1,2,3 mg·kg-1) prior to priminging injection of morphine. The expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in Hip were assayed with immunohistochemistry method in the phase of recurrence of CPP. RESULTS (1) After priming injection of morphine 4 mg·kg-1, the time spent on the drug paired side was significantly reduced because of the treatment with scopolamine, compared with morphine group(P<0. 05);(2) Compared to morphine group, scopolamine could decrease the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos of Hip in rats (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION The effect of scopolamine inhibited morphine-induced CPP recurrence probably relates to its inhibitory effect on p-CREB and c-Fos expres-sion of Hip in rats.%目的:探讨东莨菪碱对吗啡诱发条件位置性偏爱激活大鼠海马(hippocampus.Hip)cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(phos-pho-cAMP response element binding protein,p-CREB)和c-Fos表达的变化.方法:以吗啡剂量递增法6 d建立大鼠条件位置性偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)模型.生理盐水替代吗啡训练大鼠10 d.使形成的CPP逐渐消退,小剂量吗啡激发已消退的CPP.采用免疫组化技术检测不同剂量东茛菪碱对吗啡诱发CPP重现时大鼠海马p-CREB和c-Fos表达的变化.结果:东莨菪碱可抑制吗啡点燃诱发大鼠CPP重现行为;并可减少吗啡诱发的CPP重现时大鼠

  2. Effects of Herbs Invigorating Kidney on the Sports Ability and C - fos Expression within PVN in Over Trained Rats%补肾中药对过度训练大鼠运动能力及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 李中华; 于芳; 汪晓阳; 刘鸿宇

    2012-01-01

    .05 ) ; the amount and area of c - fos within PVN obviously decreased ( P 〈0.05, P 〈0.01 ), the gray degree was not significant different ( P 〉0.01 ) in the Chinese - medicine and training group. Conclusion: Taking Xuefurong capsules may enhance the sports ability, its mech- anism might be that Xuefurong capsules increase the serum testoster- one and decrease the serum cortisol and excessive expression of c - fos within PVN at the same time.

  3. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  4. Expression of ERK and c-fos and effect of brain derived neurotrophic factor in early retinal neuropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat%糖尿病早期大鼠视网膜中细胞外信号调节激酶与c-fos的变化及脑源性神经营养因子的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万超; 刘宁宁; 柳力敏; 才娜; 陈蕾

    2012-01-01

    phosphatized extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and c-fos in the retina after injection of BDNF into the vitreous in STZ induced Wistar diabetic rats. Methods Wistar rats aged 9 weeks-old were randomly divided into BDNF injection group,diabetes mellitus (DM) control group and normal control group and 20 rats for each group.STZ was intraperitoneally injected in the rats of BDNF injection group and DM control group to create the experimental DM.BDNF was intravitreously injected in the rats of BDNF group 2 weeks after administration of STZ in three-day interval for 5 times,and BSS containing O.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used at the same way in the DM control group and normal control group.The retina was isolated for hybridization in situ for BDNF,and TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos.Levels in retina were detected using sandwich method ELISA. Results The number of BDNF positive cells and the gray scale were lower obviously in the rat retina of DM control group than those of BDNF injection group and normal control group,showing significant differences among the 3 groups ( F =102.36,92.55 ;P<0.05 ).ELISA assay showed that TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values in retina were statistically significantly different among the 3 groups ( F =92.54,95.46,94.84,P<0.05 ).The TrkB level in retina was statistically reduced,but the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos levels in retina were increased statistically in DM control group compared with BDNF injection group and normal control group( P<0.05 ).No statistical difference was found in TrkB,p-ERK1/2 and c-fos values between the BDNF injection group and normal control group(P>0.05). Conclusions The injection of BDNF into the vitreous cavity can protect retina from downregulating BDNF and TrkB levels and up-regulating the p-ERK1/2 and c-fos protein levels in the early stage of DM.

  5. The preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma%中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤c-fos表达的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶峰; 徐春; 梁立武

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究中药降乳散对大鼠催乳素瘤表达癌基因c-fos的抑制作用.[方法]用皮下植入雌激素的方法制备大鼠催乳素瘤模型,将成功诱发出催乳素瘤的大鼠随机分2组,分别给予安慰剂和降乳散灌胃,用药治疗4周后处死动物,垂体称重,用放免法测定血清催乳素(prolactin,PRL)水平.用反转录-PCR方法分析原癌基因c-fos mRNA水平.[结果]降乳散组血清PRL水平为(67.9±9.6)ng/ml,垂体重量为(33.7±5.0)mg均明显低于安慰剂组[血清PRL水平为(5 667.1±860)ng/ml,垂体重量为(67.1±3.5)mg(P<0.001),降乳散组c-fos mRNA水平为(2.1±0.6)较安慰剂组(6.2±0.5)明显降低(P<0.001).[结论]降乳散具有抗高PRL血症和抑制PRL瘤生长的作用,降低原癌基因c-fos的表达水平可能是降乳散抗PRL瘤的重要机制之一.%[Objective] To study the preventive effect of Jiangrusan on expression of c-fos in rat prolactinoma. [Methods] To prepare prolactinoma model in rats. The Prolactinomas were divided into 2 groups at random. Jiangrusan was orally adminstrated to rats in Jiangrusan group(n = 5). Water were adminstrated to rats in placebo group(n = 5). After 4 weeks of treatment, all the animals were executed. Each pituitary gland was weighted. Serum prolactin(PRL) levels were measured by RIA method. C-fos mRNA levels in pituitary tissue were measured by RT-PCR method. [Results] The weight of pituitary gland and PRL level in Jiangrusan group were individually lower than those in placebo group(F <0.001 repectively). The expression level of c-fos mRNA in Jiangrusan group was obviously lower than that in placebo group(P < 0.001). [Conclusion] Jiangrusan has potential preventive effect on estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma. The decrease of c-fos mRNA level may be involved in the mechanism of anti-prolactinoma effect of Jiangrusan.

  6. Simulation modeling and analysis with Arena

    CERN Document Server

    Altiok, Tayfur

    2007-01-01

    Simulation Modeling and Analysis with Arena is a highly readable textbook which treats the essentials of the Monte Carlo discrete-event simulation methodology, and does so in the context of a popular Arena simulation environment.” It treats simulation modeling as an in-vitro laboratory that facilitates the understanding of complex systems and experimentation with what-if scenarios in order to estimate their performance metrics. The book contains chapters on the simulation modeling methodology and the underpinnings of discrete-event systems, as well as the relevant underlying probability, statistics, stochastic processes, input analysis, model validation and output analysis. All simulation-related concepts are illustrated in numerous Arena examples, encompassing production lines, manufacturing and inventory systems, transportation systems, and computer information systems in networked settings.· Introduces the concept of discrete event Monte Carlo simulation, the most commonly used methodology for modeli...

  7. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myeung Su [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young, E-mail: kimjy1014@gmail.com [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  8. Clozapine regulation of p90RSK and c-Fos signaling via the ErbB1-ERK pathway is distinct from olanzapine and haloperidol in mouse cortex and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Avril; Zhang, Betty; Malcolm, Peter; Sundram, Suresh

    2013-01-10

    Treatment of the positive psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia with standard antipsychotic drugs (APDs) is ineffective in a proportion of cases. For these treatment resistant patients the alternative is the APD clozapine which is superior to other agents but carries serious side effects. Why clozapine is uniquely effective is unknown, but we have previously postulated may involve G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (ErbB1) transactivation signaling to the mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal regulated kinase (MAPK-ERK) cascade. This was based upon clozapine induced initial down-regulation and delayed ErbB1 mediated activation of the cortical and striatal ERK response in vivo distinct from other APDs. This study investigated if modulation of the ErbB1-ERK1/2 pathway by clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol affected expression of the ERK substrates p90RSK and c-Fos, factors that regulate transcription of proteins associated with neuroplasticity and synapse formation in C57Bl/6 mice. In cortex and striatum, acute clozapine treatment induced biphasic p90RSK phosphorylation via MEK that paralleled ERK phosphorylation independent of EGF receptor blockade. By contrast, olanzapine and haloperidol caused p90RSK phosphorylation that was not concomitant with ERK signaling over a 24-hour period. For c-Fos, clozapine elevated expression 24h after administration, a timeframe consistent with ERK activation at 8h. Alternatively, haloperidol stimulation of c-Fos levels limited to the striatum was in accord with direct transcriptional regulation through ERK. The unique spatio-temporal expression of downstream nuclear markers of the ErbB1-ERK pathway invoked by clozapine may contribute to its effectiveness in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

  9. 游泳运动对D-半乳糖致衰老大鼠学习记忆及伏隔核c-fos表达的影响%Effects of the Swimming Exercise on Learning and Memory and c-fos Expression within Nac of the Aging Rats Induced by D-galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 任颖慧

    2012-01-01

    immunohistochemical technique and semi quantita- tive. Resuhs:l ) Compared with the C group, the level of testosterone of blood plasma decreased (P 〈 0.01 ) , VME, RME and TE significantly increased (P 〈 0.01 )in the AC group; Compared with the AC group, the level of testosterone of blood plasma increased ( P 〈 0. 05 ) , VME, RME and TE significantly decreased ( P 〈 0.05 ) in the AT group; 2) Compared with the C group, the amount and area of c-fos within Nac obviously decreased ( P 〈 0.05 ) , the gray degree was not significant different ( P 〉 0.05 ) in the AC group ; Compared with the AC group, the amount and area of c-fos within Nae obviously increased ( P 〈 0.05 ) , the gray degree increased but it was not significant different ( P 〉 0. 05 ) in the AT group. Conclusion : The swimming exercise may enhance the learning and memory ability of the aging rats, its mechanism might be that swimming exercise increase the level of serum testosterone and reinforced expression of c-fos within Nac at the same time.

  10. 电针对雌性去势大鼠行为学和下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响%Effect of electroacupuncture on behavioral and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in female ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 许浩; 胡光明; 尹刚; 王海颖; 刘艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察电针对雌性切除卵巢(去势)大鼠行为学、血浆雌二醇(E)及下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达的影响,探讨电针的抗抑郁效应及其机制.方法:SPF级SD雌性成年大鼠40只,随机分为正常对照组、去势组、电针组及美雌醇组.除正常对照组外大鼠均行双侧卵巢切除术.2周后,给予双侧内关、三阴交穴位电针干预处理2周.强迫游泳实验(FST)观察行为学变化;免疫组化观察下丘脑室旁核c-fos表达;放射免疫方法检测m浆E、FSH及LH变化.结果:大鼠卵巢切除4周后,FST显示不动时间明显增加(P水平降低(P水平明显升高(P<0.01),FSH(P<0.05,P<0.01)和LH(P<0.01,P<0.05)水平明显降低,室旁核c-fos阳性表达明娃增强.结论:去卵巢后,可致大鼠行为学改变,表现为抑郁倾向;电针干预具有明显抗抑郁效应,调整下丘脑轴是其可能机制.%Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on depression-like behavior, estradiol (E2) and the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Methods: SPF grade SD female rats were ovariectomized. After two weeks recovery, the rats in APU group were treated by EA in bilateral Neiguan and Sanyinjiao for two weeks and the rats in E group were treated by mestranol. Later let ail the rats in every group to undergo FST. To measure the sum of time about immobility, struggling and swimming in the second FST (within 5 minutes), the levels of Ej, FSH, LH in blood serum were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expressions of proto-oncogene c-fos in PVN were ovserved by immunohistochemistry. Results: The time of immobility increased significantly in OVX group after rats were ovariectomized for 4 weeks (P<0.01), the levels of E, in blood plasma decreased (P<0.05), and the levels of FSH (P<0.01) and LH (P<0.05) increased significantly. After treated by EA, the levels of Ej increased significantly

  11. Arenas vs. Multi-functional Stadia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    or cultural events. Officials of clubs often argue that the atmosphere in an arena is significantly better than that of a multipurpose facility and that spectators prefer such an atmosphere. Estimated panel regressions with fixed effects show a significant positive effect of a mono-functional soccer stadium...

  12. Correlation of expression VEGF to expression of protooncogenes of c-fos and c-myc at protein level among various grades of liver cirrhosis%硬变肝组织VEGF的表达与原癌基因c-fos,c-myc 以及肝功能分级的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施宝民; 杨镇; 张黎; 李大鹏

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)在肝硬化发生发展中的作用以及肝脏原癌基因(c-fos,c-myc)与肝功能Child分级的相关关系。方法通过对54例硬变肝组织中的VEGF、c-fos、c-myc蛋白的免疫组化检测,观察VEGF的蛋白水平表达与肝脏功能Child 分级的相关性,同时分析VEGF阳性病例组与阴性病例组c-fos、c-myc的不同表达,来了解二者的相互作用关系。结果 Child A级与Child B级VEGF的表达显著高于Child C级和对照组(P<0.05),而Child A级与Child B级之间差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。c-fos 及c-myc的表达在VEGF阳性组和阴性组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05)。结论 VEGF的水平可以反映肝脏功能的代偿状态,可能在肝硬化的进程中起着保肝作用;原癌基因c-fos、c-myc与VEGF作用在不同环节。

  13. 右美托咪啶对神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角pERK、c-fos表达的影响%Effection of dexmedetomidine on expression of pERK, C-FOS in spineal cord dorsal horn in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高毅; 孙丽

    2015-01-01

    into 3 groups (n=18 ): sham operation group (group S), chronic constriction injury group (group C) and dexmedetomidine group (group D).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10%chloral hydrate 350 mg/kg.Four ligatures were placed on right sciat-ic nerve at 1 mm intervals with 4-0 silk thread in group C and group D.In group D, Dex 50 μg/kg was injected intraperitoneally ( IP) once a day starting from the end of operation until the animals were sacrificed.50%paw withdrawal threshold ( PWT) to mechanical stim-ulation with von Frey filament and paw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation ( TWL) were measured on the preoperative day and the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after operation.Animals of three groups were killed at each time points after the measurement of PWT and TWL. Their lumbar segments (L4-6) were removed for measure the expression of pERK,c-fos by immunohistochemistry.Resutl s:CCI signifi-cantly decreased PWT and PWL, increased the expression of pERK,c-fos on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day in spinal dorsal horn in group C and group D compared with group S.Intraperitoneal injection Dex significantly attenuated CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperal-gesia in group D as compared with group C.Intraperitoneal injection of Dex further decreased pERK,c-fos expression in group D com-pared with group C.Conc lusion:Intraperitoneal injection DEX could reduce the chronic neuropathic pain in rat, the mechanism may probably related to inhibition the expression of pERK,c-fos in spinal dorsal horn.

  14. 芝麻素对自发性高血压大鼠心肌氧化应激损伤的保护作用%Effect of sesamin on the protein iNOS and c-fos expression in myocardia of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 杨解人; 李文星; 张俊秀; 唐丽娟; 杨慧; 熊莺

    2015-01-01

    synthase ( iNOS) and c-fos.Results:SHR group demonstrated hypertrophied myocardia with disordered arrangement .Large quantity of inflammatory cells and adipose tissue infiltration were seen in the myocardial tissues,and the expression of T-SOD was significantly reduced (P<0.01 ),whereas the protein iNOS and c-fos expression in myo-cardia was significantly up-regulated(P <0.01).Myocardial pathological lesions were improved to a certain degree in the rats treated with sesamin and captopril,and T-SOD content was significantly increased (P<0.01),whereas the expression of iNOS and c-fos was notably reduced in dose-dependent manner(P <0.01) .Co nclusion:Sesamin could decrease the expression of iNOS and c-fos protein and enhance the ability of T-SOD, suggesting that it can be protective effect on myocardial injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  15. Effect of Ningxian Particles Combined with CBZ on Expression of C-fos Gene of Drug-resistant Epilepsy Rats%宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 刘福友; 杨旭红; 钟振东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the Ningxian Particles combined with Carbamazepin (CBZ)on immediate early gene c-fos expression of drug-resistant epilepsy in rats,and to explore its mechanism.Methods:42 male Wister rats were randomly divided into sham group,model group,Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ high[(0.03+4.80) g · kg-1 · d-1],medium[(0.03+2.40) g · kg-1 · d-1] and low dose groups [(0.03 +1.20)g · kg-1 · d-1],Ningxian Particles group (2.40 g · kg-1 · d-1)and CBZ group (0.03 g · kg-1 · d-1) (n=6).Epilepsy model in rats was established by injection of kainic acid into hippocampal CA3.PHT drug screen was made 14 days after the production of drug-resistant epilepsy model.Immunohistochemical method in each group was given two weeks after the detection of the immediate early gene c-fos expression in rats.Results:Immunohisto-chemistry experiments:resistant epilepsy model temporal cortex of rats in each treatment group,increased expression of c-fos positive cells in hippocampal CA3 region compared to the sham group,and were densely distributed,deeply stained,while lower than that of the model group.Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ inhibited the expression of c-fos protein which was superior to that of CBZ group (P<0.05).No significant differences among groups,Ningxian particles group with CBZ group had no significant difference.Conclusion:Ningxian Particles combined with CBZ can inhibit the immediate early gene c-fos expression and significantly enhance combination of efficacy,the efficacy of high-dose group of the United Ningxian Particles treatment group indicators are fully restored to the sham-operated group level.%目的:观察宁痫颗粒联合卡马西平对耐药性癫痫大鼠即早基因c--fos表达的影响,并探讨其作用机制.方法:Wistar雄性大鼠42只,按体质量随机分为假手术组,模型组,卡马西平+宁痫颗粒高[(0.03+4.80)g·kg-1·d-1]、中[(0.03+2.40)g·kg-1·d-1]、低剂量组[(0.03+1.20)g·kg-1·d-1],

  16. Effects of voluntary wheeling exercise on the learning and memory and c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of depression model rats%自愿转轮运动对抑郁模型大鼠学习记忆及基底外侧杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建梅; 药宏慧; 李中华; 庞立杰; 贺继平

    2013-01-01

    automatic movement ability and explorative behavior of the rats, ap-plied the 8-arm radial maze experiment to measure the space learning and memorizing ability of the rats, applied immunohistochemical and image semi-quantitative methods to measure and analyze the number, area and grey level of c-fos neurons of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, and revealed the following findings:1) as compared with the rats in the stress model group, the rats in the stress exercise group had a significantly increased number of squares crossed, number of times of standing up, number of times of decoration (P0.05) although it decreased. The said findings indicated the followings: voluntary wheeling exercise can enhance the learning and memorizing ability of depressive rats;its mechanism may be related to that long-term voluntary wheeling exercise decreases the level of blood serum cortisol of depressive rats and enhances the c-fos expression of basolateral amygdaloid nucleus of their brains.

  17. Effect of Suanzao-Rentang on Neuronal Apoptosis and c-fos Gene Expression of Aged Rats with Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation%酸枣仁汤对REM睡眠剥夺老年大鼠脑神经细胞凋亡及c-fos基因表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游秋云; 王平; 张舜波; 黄攀攀; 章程鹏

    2014-01-01

    48h to produce model of old rats with homemade improved multi-platform.The nerve cells apoptosis of cortex and hippocampus in the rats from each group are determined by situ end labeling ( TUNEL) and level changes in c-fos gene expression to Fos protein are detected by using immunohistochemistry and explore the effect of suanzao-Rentang on the nerve damage and c-fos gene expression change in elder,which caused by insomnia.Results Compared with the control group,the cerebral cortex and hippocampus nerve cells apoptosis of rats, which are from REM sleep deprivation group, increased, and their Fos protein expression was significantly.Compared with REM sleep deprivation older group,Suanzao-Rent-ang group’s nerve cells apoptosis and Fos protein expression in brain significantly decreased,but still higher than the normal con-trol group.Conclusion C-fos gene is likely involved in the process of apoptosis in old REM sleep deprivation rats and Suanzao-Rentang inhibit neuronal apoptosis and play a protective role in the brain possibly by inhibiting brain upregulation of c-fos gene.

  18. Pyrroloquinoline quinine inhibits RANKL-mediated expression of NFATc1 in part via suppression of c-Fos in mouse bone marrow cells and inhibits wear particle-induced osteolysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbo Kong

    Full Text Available The effects of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and on wear particle-induced osteolysis were examined in this study. PQQ inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, and TRAP in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by PQQ treatment. Moreover, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by PQQ. PQQ additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. Further a UHMWPE-induced murine calvaria erosion model study was performed to assess the effects of PQQ on wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro-CT and histologic analysis of calvaria. These results collectively suggested that PQQ demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and may suppress wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo, indicating that PQQ may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  19. Experiences in Deploying Test Arenas for Autonomous Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Experiences in Deploying Test Arenas for Autonomous Mobile Robots Adam Jacoff, Elena Messina, John Evans Intelligent Systems Division National...test arenas for autonomous mobile robots . The first set of arenas was modeled after the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) application and was designed to...00-00-2001 to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experiences in Deploying Test Arenas for Autonomous Mobile Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  20. Reinaldo Arenas e il trauma delle dittature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Andrea Spadola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinaldo Arenas is a Cuban writer known for his opposition to Fidel Castro’s regime. In his work Antes queanochezca. Autobiografía, written as a book of memories, the author recalls his life and minutely recounts his traumatic experience in prison as a homosexual protester, and his new life in the USA, experienced as being in exile. This article concentrates on a comparative study of the novel and screen adaptation, entitled Before Night Falls, directed by Julian Schnabel in 2000. If at the very beginning, Arenas is engaged against Cuban Communism, at the end of his life, he will consider that all political systems repressing freedom and dignity are equally reprehensible.

  1. Implementing and Designing Interactive Governance Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    of the oldest research questions in public administration research: how and why are the high hopes of central policy-makers (not) translated into practice? By combining insights from the public policy implementation literature, network governance literature and theories of multi-actor institutional design...... of the interactive arenas. A longitudinal case-analysis of the implementation of ten Local Crime Prevention Councils in one of twelve Danish police districts is conducted to demonstrate how the perspective may be deployed in empirical studies....

  2. Effects of IHT on skeletal muscle metabolism and c-fos expression in rats%间歇性低氧训练对大鼠骨骼肌相关代谢及c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金柱

    2012-01-01

    采用间歇性低氧复合常氧训练的方法,下高原调整后以25m/min的速度一次性力竭,紫外分光光度法测定大鼠骨骼肌匀浆液中SOD、MDA、SDH、CCO指标变化,免疫组织化学ABC法测定骨骼肌c-fos基因表达.结果表明:IHT组能明显提高大鼠抗氧化和清除自由基以及有氧代谢的能力,降低了c-fos表达,有效改善了大鼠对中等强度耐力运动的适应能力,旨在为运动员间歇性低氧训练后平原耐力参赛提供参考.%This research adopts the intermittent hypoxia compound normoxic training method, next plateau after adjustment with the speed of 25m/min exhaustive, UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of rat skeletal muscle homogenate in SOD, MDA, SDH, CCO index changes, the immunohistochemical ABC method for the determination of c-fos gene expression in skeletal muscle of. Results: the IHT group can obviously improve the antioxidant and free radical scavenging and aerobic metabolism ability, reduces the expression of c-fos, can effectively improve the rats to moderate-intensity endurance exercise capacity to adapt, designed for athletes of interval hypoxic training in endurance race to provide reference.

  3. Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of c-fos protein in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia%电针对慢性内脏痛敏大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁德波; 李为民

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Acupuncture is widely used in clinics to suppress chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however,the exact neurobiological mechanisms for its therapeutic effects need further exploration.The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of spinal neurons in the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving chronic visceral hyperalgesia in a rat model of IBS.METHODS:Colon mechanical irritation was applied to male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to establish the IBS model.Behavioral test of the abdominal withdraw reflex (AWR) response to colorectal distention stimuli was conducted to judge the degree of colorectal sensitivity.EA at acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) was applied bilaterally in a total of four times every other day,while sham-EA at similar acupoints was done by inserting needles without electrical stimulation.Immunohistochemical methods were used to display the expression of proto-oncogene protein c-fos in the spinal dorsal horn.RESULTS:It was found that AWR scores were significantly increased in the IBS model rats (P<0.01),accompanied with significant increase in the expression of c-fos protein in the superficial laminae (SDH,laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ) and nucleus proprius (NP,laminae Ⅲ and Ⅳ),the neck of the dorsal horn (NECK,laminae V and Ⅵ) at lumbosacral (L6-S2) spinal level,and in NECK at thoracolumbar (T13-L2) spinal level,when compared with normal rats (P<0.05).After EA treatment,AWR scores and the expression of c-fos protein in SDH,NP and NECK at similar spinal levels were significantly decreased in the IBS model rats (P<0.05).No such effects on either AWR scores or the expression of c-fos protein were observed in IBS model rats after sham-EA treatment.CONCLUSION:The abnormally high neuronal excitability in the spinal dorsal horn may be an important reason underlying the visceral hyperalgesia in IBS model rats.EA treatment can relieve the chronic visceral hyperalgesia in

  4. Increased number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area after deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Hescham, S; Adriaanse, B; Campos, F L; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F; Temel, Y; Jahanshahi, A

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been long implicated with the processes of memory. In long-term memory, the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) use DA to enhance long-term potentiation, while prefrontal DA D1 receptors are involved in working memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of specific brain areas have been shown to affect memory impairments in animal models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DBS could reverse memory impairments by increasing the number of dopaminergic cells in the VTA. Rats received DBS at the level of the mammillothalamic tract, the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and entorhinal cortex before euthanasia. These regions are part of the so-called memory circuit. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry in the VTA and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). c-Fos, TH and c-Fos/TH immunoreactive cells were analyzed by means of stereology and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus induced substantial higher numbers of TH-immunoreactive cells in the VTA, while there were no significant differences between the experimental groups in the number of TH immunoreactive cells in the SNc, c-Fos immunoreactive cells and c-Fos/TH double-labeled cells in both the SNc and VTA. Our findings suggest a phenotypic switch, or neurotransmitter respecification, of DAergic cells specifically in the VTA which may be induced by DBS in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

  5. Effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats%薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑及杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操礼琼; 杨莹; 程文文; 李光武; 傅佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核即早基因(c-fos)表达的影响,探讨其发挥生物活性的中枢机制.方法:将24只SD大鼠随机分为薰衣草精油组、蒸馏水组和空白组,免疫组化法观察各组大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos表达并对结果进行灰度半定量分析.结果:c-fos阳性细胞呈棕黄色染色,薰衣草组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞主要分布在杏仁核、下丘脑处,其它脑组织有散在分布,蒸馏水组和空白组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞散在分布于各处脑组织.与蒸馏水组和空白组比较,薰衣草组下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos灰度值降低(P<0.05).结论:大鼠吸入薰衣草精油后可能通过下丘脑及杏仁核发挥各种生物活性.%Objective: To study the effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats, explore the biological activity of the central mechanisms to lavender essential oil. Methods: Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: lavender essential oil group, distilled water group and control group. The immuno histochemical methods were used to detect the c-fos expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala and was semi-quantitative analysed for grey value. Results: The c-fos positive neurons were dyed in brown. For lavender essential oil group, c-fos positive neurons were mainly distributed in the hypothalamus and amygdala; others brain were scattered. For distilled water and control group, c-fos positive neurons were dispersed in brain tissue. Compared to distilled water and control group, grey value of c-fos of lavender was significantly reduced (/><0.05) in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Conclusion: Rats after inhalation of lavender essential oil may play a variety of biological activity through the hypothalamus and amygdala.

  6. Standardization as an Arena for Open Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøtnes, Endre

    This paper argues that anticipatory standardization can be viewed as an arena for open innovation and shows this through two cases from mobile telecommunication standardization. One case is the Android initiative by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, while the second case is the general standardization work of the Open Mobile Alliance. The paper shows how anticipatory standardization intentionally uses inbound and outbound streams of research and intellectual property to create new innovations. This is at the heart of the open innovation model. The standardization activities use both pooling of R&D and the distribution of freely available toolkits to create products and architectures that can be utilized by the participants and third parties to leverage their innovation. The paper shows that the technology being standardized needs to have a systemic nature to be part of an open innovation process.

  7. Taking the Temperature of Sports Arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke

    is automatic analysis of the use of sports arenas. This work is organised under three themes: Occupancy analysis, Activity recognition and Tracking. Finally, the thesis demonstrates how thermal imaging can also be applied efficiently for analysing humans in the Smart City. This thesis starts by introducing...... presents a real-time tracking algorithm based on Kalman filtering and it suggests two methods for improving global offline tracking. At the end of this thesis five different applications of thermal imaging in the Smart City are presented. Methods for counting and tracking pedestrians are presented......Measuring and mapping human activities are essential steps towards constructing an intelligent and efficient society. Using thermal imaging, the privacy issues often related to surveillance can be eliminated and public acceptance of such systems is easier to obtain. The main focus of this thesis...

  8. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on c-fos gene expression and cAMP levels in rat hippocampus%人参皂苷Rg1对大鼠海马c-fos基因表达和cAMP含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忞; 张均田

    1996-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of Rg1 antiaging and nootropic function. METHODS: Using Northern and Western blot analyses, the levels of cfos mRNA and fos protein were determined in the hippocampus of young and old rats treated with or without ginsenoside Rg1. RESULTS: The expression of c-fos gene and protein was decreased in the hippocampus of aged rats, but dose-dependently increased in young and aged rats after the administration of Rg1. Furthermore, Rg1 increased the level of cAMP in the hippocampus of both young and old rats. CONCLUSION: The changes at the genomic and protein levels, arisen from the increase of cAMP, provide an explanation of the mechanisms of Rg1 nootropic and antiaging function.%探讨Rg1对神经系统作用的机制.方法:采用Northern和Western印迹分析法,检测了Rg1处理前后大鼠海马组织的c-fos基因和蛋白的表达.结果:老年鼠c-fos基因和蛋白的表达明显低于青年鼠,但给Rg1后老年鼠和青年鼠均呈现显著性增强效应.此外,Rg1还明显增加青年鼠和老年鼠海马组织的cAMP含量.结论:Rg1升高cAMP水平及促进c-fos基因和蛋白的表达有助于阐明其促智和抗衰老作用的机制.

  9. Effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in ischemia reperfusion myocardium of rats%参附注射液影响大鼠缺血再灌注心肌Bcl-2,Bax与c-Fos蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉培; 牟崇明; 季道如; 但伶; 龚文婷; 王莉莎

    2006-01-01

    injection of Shenfu parenteral injection (8 mL/kg) at 15 minutes before ligation, and then the left coronary artery anterior descending branch was ligated for 40 minutes and reperfused for 30 minutes. ③ Shenfu parenteral injection 120-minute group: The rats were reperfused for 120 minutes, and the others were the same as those in the Shenfu parenteral injection 30-minute group. ④ Saline 30-minute control group: The rats were treated with intravenous injection of saline (8 mL/kg) at 15 minutes before ligation, and then the left coronary artery anterior descending branch was ligated for 40 minutes and reperfused for 30 minutes. ⑤ Saline 120-minute control group: The rats were reperfused for 120 minutes, and the others were the same as those in the saline 30-minute control group. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and c-Fos proteins in myocardial tissues were detected with immunohistochemical method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and cFos proteins in myocardial tissues of rats in each group were observed.RESULTS: All the 35 rats were involved in the analysis of results without deletion. ①As compared with the sham-operated group, the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax or c-Fos protein in myocardium were significantly increased(P < 0.01), but the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were significantly decreased (P <0.01) in the saline 30 and 120-minute groups. ② As compared with corresponding saline groups, the expressions of Bcl-2 protein in the Shenfu parenteral injection 30 and 120-minute groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01), the expressions of Bax and c-Fos proteins were remarkably decreased (P < 0.01), and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were significantly increased (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Protective effect of Shenfu parenteral injection on ischemia/reperfusion myocardium may be correlated with its promotion of Bcl-2 protein expression, restrain to Bax and c-Fos protein expressions, and increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and it restrains the apoptosis of myocardial cells.

  10. Relationship between c-fos gene expression in hippocampus in rabbit and various depths of propofol anesthesia%兔脑海马c-fos基因表达与异丙酚不同麻醉深度影响的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建颜; 姚尚龙; 曾邦雄

    2005-01-01

    . In deep anesthesia group, a large number of c-fos positive cells in great dense could be observed. ③Under various depths of anesthesia, grayscale scores of different regions of the hippocampus in rabbits: Compared with control group, grayscale scores of Area CA1 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were significantly decreased in both light and deep anesthesia groups [(168±5), (80±7), (59±5)% ,P < 0.05; (163±8),(103±15), (67±6)%,P < 0.05,P < 0.01]. This was more significant in deep anesthesia group than in light anesthesia group (P < 0.01 ). For Area CA3, the grayscale scores in each group were similar.CONCLUSION: ①With the increasing depth of propofol anesthesia, c-fos gene expression is increased in hippocampus in rabbits. ② After anesthesia, the average grayscale score of Area CA1 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are significantly decreased, and this is more significant after deep anesthesia. However, there is no significant change in Area CA3. This indicates that the central inhibitory receptor sites of propofol are various in different brain regions, which supposes that the Area CA3 is not the central receptor sites of propofol.

  11. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Pai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im], but not colchicine (oral [po], significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  12. Pim-1 kinase inhibits the activation of reporter gene expression in Elk-1 and c-Fos reporting systems but not the endogenous gene expression: an artifact of the reporter gene assay by transient co-transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the molecular mechanism and signal transduction of pim-1, an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine kinase. This is a true oncogene which prolongs survival and inhibits apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. In order to determine whether the effects of Pim-1 occur by regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we used a transcriptional reporter assay by transient co-transfection as a screening method. In this study, we found that Pim-1 inhibited the Elk-1 and NFkappaB transcriptional activities induced by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in reporter gene assays. However, Western blots showed that the induction of Elk-1-regulated expression of endogenous c-Fos was not affected by Pim-1. The phosphorylation and activation of neither Erk1/2 nor Elk-1 was influenced by Pim-1. Also, in the gel shift assay, the pattern of endogenous NFkappaB binding to its probe was not changed in any manner by Pim-1. These data indicate that Pim-1 does not regulate the activation of Erk1/2, Elk-1 or NFkappaB. These contrasting results suggest a pitfall of the transient co-transfection reporter assay in analyzing the regulation of transcription factors outside of the chromosome context. It ensures that results from reporter gene expression assay should be verified by study of endogenous gene expression.

  13. Soft coral-derived lemnalol alleviates monosodium urate-induced gouty arthritis in rats by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Pai; Huang, Shi-Ying; Lin, Yen-You; Wang, Hui-Min; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wu, Shu-Fen; Duh, Chang-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-10

    An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol-an extract from Formosan soft coral-has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im]), but not colchicine (oral [po]), significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  14. Preschool as an Arena of Gender Policies: The Examples of Sweden and Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstrom, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    As many countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development have developed more universal provision for early childhood education during the last decades, preschool increasingly has become a central policy arena. Gender politics, especially with an aim to promote female labour market participation, but also policies addressing…

  15. Data Mining-an Evolutionary Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Govindarajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a survey of information retrieval and its various methodologies. In today’s escalating world, tracking of information should be done with ease. Keeping that as a constraint, most of the qualms can be deciphered with the aid of Machine Learning (ML. ML can be envisioned as a tool, which identifies and disseminates all information through computerized systems, which can be integrated in the respective domains, in order to get a better and more proficient retrieval of content. This study summarizes the well-known methods used in feature extraction and for classification of text. ML can be portrayed as a major tracker for surveillance, with the aid of some trained ML algorithms. In order to strengthen the response policies for any queries, which is being surrounded with two main issues like policy matching and policy administration, can be prevailed over Joint Threshold Administration Model, JTAM (i.e., Principle of separation of duty. This study gives an overall review about tracking of information with respective to semantic as well as syntactic perspective. It revolves around some of the application as well as administrative mechanism involved in Information Retrieval for mining the data. Data mining techniques in various arenas has been explored; this survey explores the various techniques and evolution of mining in detail.

  16. Effects of c-fos Down-regulation via shRNA on P-gp-mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7/ADR Cells%shRNA抑制c-fos表达对P-gp介导的乳腺癌多药耐药的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师锐赞; 胡晓玲; 范彦英

    2012-01-01

    多药耐药(multidrug resistance,MDR)是导致化疗失败的重要原因,多药耐药基因(multidrug resistance gene,mdr1)产物P-糖蛋白(P-glycoprotein,P-gp)过表达是最主要的耐药机制.原癌基因c-fos在肿瘤MDR中的作用渐受重视.主要选用人乳腺癌敏感株MCF-7和阿霉素(adriamycin,ADR)筛选的、mdr1/P-gp高表达的耐药株MCF-7/ADR,探讨c-fos在P-gp介导的乳腺癌MDR中的作用.相对于MCF-7,c-fos在MCF-7/ADR高表达.采用shRNA法下调c-fos表达后,MCF-7/ADR对ADR的敏感性大大增强,且mdr1/P-gp表达减少、P-gp外排功能降低.c-fos表达下调可逆转对P-gp介导的乳腺癌MDR的实验结果,为c-fos成为逆转肿瘤耐药诊断和治疗的新靶标,对实现耐药乳腺癌的分子靶向治疗提供了理论基础.%Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main reason of chemotherapy failure. The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) , encoded by the multidrug resistance (mdrl) gene, is thought to be the major cause of MDR phenotype. Since much attention has been paid to the role of proto-oncogene c-fos in MDR, adriamycin (ADR)-selected resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) with mdrl/P-gp overexpression and parental drug-sensitive cells ( MCF-7) were chosen to analyze the role of c-fos in P-gp-mediated MDR. Elevated c-fos expression is observed in MCF-7/ADR compared to MCF-7 cells. Down-regulation of c-fos expression via shRNA resulted in sensitization of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR and decreased the expression of mdrl/P-gp and efflux function of P-gp. Based on these results, c-fos may represent a potential molecular target for resistant cancer therapy, and suppressing c-fos gene expression may therefore be an effective means for targeted molecular therapy.

  17. Acute Nicotine Enhances Spontaneous Recovery of Contextual Fear and Changes "c-fos" Early Gene Expression in Infralimbic Cortex, Hippocampus, and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Tumolo, Jessica M.; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence…

  18. RESISTENCIA A LICUACIÓN DE ARENAS CALCÁREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIMAR SANDOVAL VALLEJO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las arenas calcáreas son únicas en términos de su origen, mineralogía, forma, fragilidad y porosidad interna de sus granos. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un programa experimental llevado a cabo para estudiar la resistencia a licuación de una arena calcárea de Cabo Rojo en Puerto Rico. El programa experimental involucró caracterización mineralógica, propiedades índice y ensayos triaxiales cíclicos no drenados sobre muestras reconstruidas consolidadas isotrópicamente. Debido a la gran variación en las propiedades de las arenas calcáreas, los resultados se comparan con investigaciones realizadas sobre otras arenas calcáreas del mundo. Los resultados mostraron un amplio rango en la variación de la resistencia a licuación de las arenas calcáreas estudiadas. La arena de Cabo Rojo tuvo mayor resistencia a licuación que la mayoría de las arenas calcáreas utilizadas para la comparación. También se encontraron diferencias importantes en las características de generación de excesos de presión de poros.

  19. Antagonistic Effects of Selenium on the Expression of c-fos in Central Nerval System of Rat Included by Mercury Contaminated Rice%硒拮抗汞污染的粮食诱导大鼠中枢神经系统c-fos基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金平; 王文华; 贾金平; 瞿丽雅; 郑敏; 申哲民; 施玮

    2005-01-01

    为了从分子水平探讨硒与汞的拮抗效应和不同形态汞对脑的损伤,应用RT-PCR方法和免疫组织化学方法研究了大鼠在汞污染粮食诱导下脑中c-fos mRNA表达和 c-FOS蛋白表达.结果表明,汞污染粮食能够显著诱导大鼠脑c-fos mRNA表达和 c-FOS蛋白表达;硒能够拮抗汞在脑中的蓄积水平;硒能够拮抗汞诱导c-fos表达.同时分析了硒汞拮抗的分子机制.

  20. 癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B、c-fos表达的影响%Dianxianqing Granule on Behavior, NMDAR2B and c-fos Expression in PTZ Kindling Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄寓; 薛彦杰; 齐越; 王健; 贾冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃癫痫大鼠行为学及脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos表达的影响,探讨其抗癫痫的作用机理.方法:腹腔注射戊四唑建立癫痫大鼠点燃模型,连续灌胃给药30 d后,观察癫痫清颗粒对大鼠行为学及脑组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的影响.结果:癫痫清颗粒可延长癫痫大鼠惊厥潜伏期,缩短惊厥持续时间,减少组织NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达.结论:癫痫清颗粒对戊四唑点燃大鼠模型具有抗癫痫作用,作用机制与减少脑内NMDAR2B和c-fos的表达有关.%Objective:To study the anti-epileptic mechanism of DianxianqingGranule by observing the effects on behavior,NMDAR2B and c-fos expression in brain of epilepsy model rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol(PTZ).Methods:Kindling models were established by intraperitoneal injection of PTZ on rats,intragastric administration for 30 days,continuously.The expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in the hippocampus of rats were measured with immunohistochemistry assay.Results:DianxianqingGranule can prolong the latencyof seizure,shorten the duration of seizure and reduce the expressions of NMDAR2B and c-fos in brain.Conclusion:DianxianqingGranule has anti-epileptic effect on PTZ kindling epileptic model rats through inhibition of NMDAR2B and c-fos expression.

  1. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  2. 模拟失重对猕猴脊髓c-fos基因表达的影响%Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on c-fos Gene Expression in Spinal Cord of Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红琴; 蔡艺灵; 马华松; 刘丽; 李晶晶; 张晓蕴; 陈志明; 郑燕华

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨猕猴模拟失重后脊髓中c-fos基因mRNA和蛋白表达的变化.方法 选用15只雄性猕猴,随机分为3组:模拟失重组,模拟失重后恢复组以及对照组.通过HE染色法观察脊髓颈膨大及腰膨大组织学的改变,通过免疫组织化学染色及实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)技术检测3组猕猴脊髓颈膨大及腰膨大中c-fos基因的表达情况.结果 模拟失重组及失重后恢复组脊髓颈膨大及腰膨大神经元较对照组皱缩,组织间隙增宽,恢复组较失重组有所减轻;FOS蛋白在脊髓颈膨大及腰膨大3组中均呈阳性表达,主要表达于神经胶质细胞;失重组及恢复组中脊髓颈膨大和腰膨大c-fos mRNA表达量较对照组有所增加,但差异无明显统计学意义.结论 模拟失重引起猕猴颈段及腰段脊髓一定程度的组织学损伤,终止负荷后有所恢复,对c-fos基因的表达无明显影响.

  3. Effect of c-fos expression in the hipporampus on cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in rats%海马区c-fos基因表达在大鼠脑创伤后认知功能障碍中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 崔建忠; 高俊玲; 周云涛

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨大鼠脑创伤后海马区c-fos基因表达及对学习记忆功能的影响.方法 建立Marmarou大鼠脑创伤模型,采用分子原位杂交技术和Morris水迷宫分别观察大鼠伤后海马区c-fos基因表达变化及空间学习记忆能力的改变. 结果 伤后30 min海马区神经元即出现c-fos mRNA的表达,1~3 h达高峰,伤后24 h表达基本消失;Morris水迷宫实验,大鼠伤后存在空间学习记忆功能障碍.结论 脑创伤可引起c-fos基因在海马区的表达上调,通过介导延迟性神经元细胞死亡,影响细胞间的信息传递,参与认知功能的损害.%Objective To explore the effect of c-fos mRNA expression in the hippocampus on the impairment of learning and memory of rats following traumatic brain injury. Methods The model of traumatic brain injury was established in rats by using Marmarou's method. Then, c-fos mRNA expres-sion was detected by means of in situ hybridization and cognitive dysfunction evaluated by Morris water maze. Results After traumatic brain injury, c-fos mRNA expression was detected in the hippocampus at 30 minutes, reached peak at 1-3 hours and almost disappeared at 24 hours. Morris water maze test showed significant impairment of spatial learning and memory in rats. Conclusions Traumatic brain injury can induce up-regulated expression of c-fos mRNA in the hippocampus of the rats and lead to cogni-tive impairment by mediating delayed neural cell death and influencing intercellular signal transmission.

  4. The change of c-fos expression in mammillary body after single prolonged stress%单次延长应激导致的创伤后应激障碍行为伴随乳头体神经元活化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊丽; 夏亮; 王莉颖; 田菲; 翟明珠; 鲁亚成; 李云庆; 朱霞; 王文

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the behavioral change of anxiety and depression in the rats model of posttraumatic stress disorders ( PTSD) and the neuronal activation in the mammillary body. Methods: By using single prolonged stress (SPS) to establish the PTSD animal model, open-field test (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used to evaluate rats' spontaneous acitivity and anxiety & depression behavior, and the expression of c-Fos actived in the mammillary neuron after single prolonged stress were identified by immunofluorescence staing. Results; The spontaneous activity were significantly reduced, and the anxiolytic behavior were significantly increased, at the same time, the expression of Fos im-munoreactive neurons were increased significantly in the mammillary body in the SPS group compared to the control group. Conclusion; The neurons in the mammillary body in the SPS group were sigificantly activated, and it may be involved in the PTSD response caused by the SPS.%目的:探讨创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)模型大鼠的焦虑抑郁行为改变以及乳头体神经元的活化情况.方法:采用单次延长应激(SPS)建立大鼠PTSD模型,采用自发活动、高架十字迷宫方法评价大鼠的自发活动能力和焦虑或抑郁行为;同时利用Fos蛋白免疫荧光染色方法观察乳头体神经元的活化情况.结果:SPS大鼠自发活动明显减少,焦虑样行为明显增多,乳头体内Fos免疫反应阳性神经元数量较正常大鼠显著增加.结论:SPS大鼠乳头体神经元显著激活,可能参与SPS所造成的PTSD反应.

  5. c-fos癌基因在雌激素诱导的大鼠催乳素瘤中的表达%Expression of c-fos oncogene in estrogene induced rat prolactinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟良; 张韶峰; 徐春

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究c-fos癌基因在雌激素诱发的大鼠催乳素(prolactin, PRL)瘤中的表达,以及多巴胺受体激动剂诺果宁对其表达的影响.方法:1)制备雌激素诱发的大鼠PRL瘤模型;2)放免法测定大鼠血清PRL水平;3)垂体称重并做组织病理学观察,用免疫组化方法显示垂体组织PRL蛋白的表达和分布;4)用RT-PCR方法检测c-fos mRNA在各组垂体组织中的表达,以β-actin 作为内参照,借助于计算机凝胶成像系统分析表达量.结果: 用药8周后,PRL瘤组大鼠血清PRL水平、垂体质量以及垂体PRL(+)细胞计数均明显高于对照组,t值分别为32.63、29.77和25.27,P值分别为3.7×10-14、1.2×10-13和9.7×10-13,根据大鼠垂体质量以及组织学和免疫组化的改变,证实已诱发出PRL瘤模型.在PRL瘤组中,c-fos的表达量明显高于对照组,t=39.70,P=2.96×10-15;诺果宁组c-fos表达量较PRL瘤组有所降低,两者差异有统计学意义,t=-16.01,P=9.2×10-10.结论:雌激素刺激垂体PRL细胞表达c-fos癌基因,在雌激素诱导PRL瘤中起一定的作用.雌激素诱导垂体PRL细胞表达c-fos受到下丘脑神经递质和垂体内环境等诸多因素的影响.

  6. Occupancy Analysis of Sports Arenas Using Thermal Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anders; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system for automatic analysis of the occupancy of sports arenas. By using a thermal camera for image capturing the number of persons and their location on the court are found without violating any privacy issues. The images are binarised with an automatic threshold method....... Reflections due to shiny surfaces are eliminated by analysing symmetric patterns. Occlusions are dealt with through a concavity anal- ysis of the binary regions. The system is tested in five different sports arenas, for more than three full weeks altogether. These tests showed that after a short...

  7. Geometrical dependence of quantum decoherence in circular arenas with side-wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuantao; Le Priol, Clément; Heremans, Jean J.

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature quantum phase coherence lengths were experimentally measured in mesoscopic circular arenas fabricated on InGaAs quantum wells. The arenas are connected to wide sample regions by short side-wires, to investigate the effects of geometry in comparison to intrinsic materials properties on quantum decoherence. Universal conductance fluctuations were used to quantify the phase coherence lengths as a function of temperature and geometry. The experimental data show a dependence of phase coherence lengths on side-wire length and width-to-length ratio, which is accounted for by the competing effects of decoherence by coupling to the classical environment and Nyquist decoherence in ergodic wires. The observed decay of phase coherence lengths with the increasing temperature is consistent with expectations. The work demonstrates that geometrical effects influence the measured mesoscopic quantum decoherence.

  8. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borjesson, Mats; Serratosa, Luis; Carre, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs...... implementation of the chain of survival....

  9. Finished Genome Sequence of Collimonas arenae Cal35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Je-Jia; de Jager, Victor; Deng, Wen-ling; Leveau, Johan

    2015-01-01

    We announce the finished genome sequence of soil forest isolate Collimonas arenae Cal35, which comprises a 5.6-Mbp chromosome and 41-kb plasmid. The Cal35 genome is the second one published for the bacterial genus Collimonas and represents the first opportunity for high-resolution comparison of geno

  10. Expression of ET-1 mRNA、ETA-R mRNA and c-fos mRNA in uterine leiomyoma%ET-1、ETA-R、c-fos原癌基因mRNA在子宫肌瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚世芳; 高英敏; 王秀华

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨ET-1及ETA-R表达在子宫肌瘤发生中的病理生理作用及其与肌瘤中c-fos原癌基因之间的关系.方法:应用半定量RT-PCR方法检测30例子宫肌瘤组织及邻近正常子宫肌组织中ET-1、ETA-R 、c-fos mRNA的表达强度,对照其差异.结果:(1)子宫肌瘤组织中ET-1mRNA的表达强度(2.717±0.520)与正常子宫肌组织(2.483±0.623)差异有显著性(P<0.05);ETA-R mRNA在子宫肌瘤组织中表达为2.217±0.468,明显高于正常子宫肌组织的1.617±0.486(P<0.001);c-fos mRNA在子宫肌瘤组织中表达为4.900±0.403,也明显高于正常子宫肌组织的4.183±0.594,(P<0.001);(2)相关分析表明:肌瘤组织中ETA-R mRNA与c-fos mRNA之间呈正相关,而ET-1 mRNA与ETA-R mRNA、c-fos mRNA之间无相关性.结论:子宫肌瘤组织中ETA-R 的表达上调对子宫肌瘤细胞的分裂增殖起促进作用,ET-1/ETA-R 系统可能是子宫肌瘤发生发展的机理之一.

  11. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  12. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  13. Effects of electroacupuncture on expression of c-fos protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the rostral ventromedia medulla of rats with chronic visceral hyperalgesia%电针对慢性内脏痛觉敏感大鼠延髓头端腹内侧核c-fos蛋白和NR1受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁德波; 李为民

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Acupuncture has been clinically proved to be effective in treating abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS).However,its neurobiological mechanism remains largely unexplored.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving chronic visceral hyperalgesia and the possible involvement of N-methyi-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in rostral ventromedia medulla (RVM) of the brain in an IBS rat model.METHODS:To establish the IBS rat model,male Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats received colon mechanical irritation on a daily basis from the 9th to the 22nd day after their birth.After a resting period of another two to four weeks,behavioral tests of pain threshold pressure (PTP)and abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) responding to colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli were conducted to judge the colorectal sensitive situation.Then administration of EA at acupoints of Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) bilaterally in the hind limbs was repeated four times every other day,while sham-EA was done by inserting needles at similar acupoints without electrical stimulation.Immunohistochemical method was used to display the expression of protooncogene protein c-fos and NR1 in RVM of rats.RESULTS:The results demonstrated that the PTP values and AWR scores,in response to the CRD stimuli,significantly decreased and increased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.01),while the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos protein and NR1 significantly increased in nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (Gi),nucleus lateralis paragigantocellulari (LPGi),nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (GiA) and nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) of RVM in IBS model rats compared with the normal rats (P<0.05).After EA treatment,PTP values and AWR scores significantly increased and decreased,respectively (P<0.01,P<0.05) ; the number of immunoreactive neurons of c-fos and NR1 significantly decreased respectively in Gi,LPGi and GiA and in Gi

  14. THE ARENAS BUSINESS: SPORTS PROFESSIONALISM, CULTURE AND ENTERTAINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubens Camargo Gonçalves da Motta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No matter how elaborate is any study, the point is that if it is not applicable, of little served the entire effort. In this way, the Business Plan of Multipurpose Arenas proposes to demonstrate marketing and financial viability of its concept. In the aspect of business return on investment, it was proved by three indicators that it represents a project with positive return and better than conservative investments. Moreover, the analysis were founded and applied by the theory that had its importance in the definition and validation of the proposed model of multipurpose arenas. As Blake (1985, Image, Leisure Management, pp. 14-15 "sports centers, theaters, art galleries, libraries, museums, are mere installations containing tangible and intangible products that have no value, except what the customers attribute". This is, in fact, the best way to represent what was intended to highlight through this study.

  15. Lokalt nybrott? Sosiale medier som arena for lokal valgkamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segaard, Signe Bock; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    campaigns. The article investigates the use of selected social media, political election blogs, as arenas for campaigns in the Norwegian local elections of 2011. For that purpose we first develop two models of political communication in social media that conceptualise the horizontal and vertical......Social media as democratic arenas for opinion sharing and discussions between elected politicians and voters have been described as a vision of the new media. The topic has been a research subject in several years, but there is a lack of research on how social media is used in local election...... that the election blogs primarily are used by those who are most politically active in advance and that the majority of participation consists of one-way information dissemination with little exchange of information and opinions. But we also find that the blogs provide an information space more detailed than...

  16. Corporations and Citizenship Arenas in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Whelan, Glen; Grant, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the importance of social media in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. This deficit is redressed in the present paper through utilizing the notion of ‘citizenship arenas’ to identify three dynamics in social media-augmented corporate......–society relations. First, we note that social media-augmented ‘corporate arenas of citizenship’ are constructed by individual corporations in an effort to address CSR issues of specific importance thereto, and are populated by individual citizens as well as (functional/formally organized) stakeholders. Second, we...... highlight that, within social media-augmented ‘public arenas of citizenship’, individual citizens are empowered, relative to corporations and their (functional/formally organized) stakeholders, when it comes to creating, debating, and publicizing, CSR-relevant issues. Third, we posit that information...

  17. Towards a more dynamic stakeholder model : Acknowledgning multiple issue arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma-aho, Vilma; Vos, Marita

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The paper suggest that corporate communications is becoming less predictable as interaction with stakeholders is moving from organizational control toward ‘issue arenas’, places of interaction where an issue is discussed by stakeholders and organizations both online and within the traditional media. The role of corporate communications and public relations is broadening beyond the traditional relationship management to issue arena monitoring. Design/methodology/approach – Theor...

  18. Young mothers with a history of substance use - establishing arenas of comfort.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    -using lifestyle (which for most of the women include several years of dependency and misuse of cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, ecstasy and heroin) because they manage to create a new arena of comfort based on their relation to their child.[1] All people take part in different social arenas. But an arena...

  19. Neurodegenerative actions of interleukin-1 in the rat brain are mediated through increases in seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H C; Ross, F M; Heenan, L E; Davies, R E; Rothwell, N J; Allan, S M

    2006-02-15

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an established and important mediator of diverse forms of neuronal injury in experimental animals. However, its mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. We have reported previously that IL-1 markedly enhances excitotoxic injury induced in the rat by striatal administration of the excitotoxin alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), leading to widespread neuronal loss throughout the ipsilateral cortex. Here we tested the hypothesis that IL-1 causes this injury through induction and/or enhancement of seizure activity in the rat. Consistently with this hypothesis, intrastriatal injection of AMPA or AMPA with IL-1 in the rat brain increased c-Fos expression in regions similar to those in which c-Fos has been reported previously in response to seizures. A significant increase in cortical neuronal activity (number of c-Fos positive cells) was observed in response to AMPA with IL-1 compared with AMPA (8 hr after injection). Increased seizure duration [3,522 +/- 660 sec (SEM) vs. 1,415 +/- 301 sec; P neuronal injury, including cerebral ischemia.

  20. Effect of zinc on expression of c-fos and c-jun in spermatogenic cell in rats exposed to fluorine%锌对染氟大鼠生精细胞c-fos和c-jun蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鸿镖; 侯俊; 冯亚静; 段丽菊; 程学敏; 巴月; 崔留欣

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the antagonism mechanism of zinc on reproductive toxicity of fluorine through observing the effects of appropriate amount zinc to the c-fos and c-jun protein expression level. Methods: Randomly divided fifty SD male rats into control group, fluorine treatment group, fluorine and low-dose zinc treatment group, fluorine and middle-dose zinc treatment group, fluorine and high-dose zinc treatment group. The content of NaF in testis was measured by using fluorine selective electrode. The levels of LDH were examined by the reagent box. The c-fos and c-jun protein expression level in germ cells are measured by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we observed the quality of spermatozoa and the micro-structure of testis. Results: The c-fos and c-jun protein expression in germ cells of every treatment groups was higher than that of control group,and the difference has the statistical significance,mid-dose zinc treatment group was lower than that of fluorine treatment groups, low-dose zinc and high-dose zinc treatment groups,and the difference has the statistical significance(F = 130. 251 ,P =0.031 ;F = 301. 141 , P = 0. 018 ). Conclusion: Middle-dose zinc can antagonize the reproductive toxicity of fluorine in male rats by lowering the fluorine burden, lowering the expression level of c-fos and c-jun protein expression in testis spermatogenic cell.%目的:观察锌对染氟大鼠生精细胞c-fos、c-jun蛋白表达水平的影响.方法:选用4周龄雄性SD大鼠50只,随机分为对照组、染氟组、氟加低锌组、氟加中锌组、氟加高锌组,灌胃染毒6周后处死动物,采用氟离子选择电极法测定各组大鼠睾丸组织中氟的含量,用试剂盒检测睾丸组织中的乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活力,做精于质量分析及睾丸组织病理学镜检,免疫组化法检测生精细胞中c-fos、c-jun蛋白的表达水平.结果:氟加中锌组和氟加高锌组睾丸氟含量明显低于染氟组;氟加低锌组和氟加高锌组睾丸

  1. c-fos与c-jun癌蛋白在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面联合表达的特征与意义%Expression of oncoproteins c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨c-fos与c-jun两种原癌基因产物在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面表达的特征与规律以及与不同组织修复结局发生的关系。 方法 16例标本均取自于外科手术患者,其中增生性瘢痕8例,溃疡创面8例,另有正常对照皮肤5例取自增生性瘢痕患者作为对照。用免疫组化法(ABC法)检测c-fos与c-jun两种癌蛋白以及bFGF在三种组织切片的分布特征。 结果在正常皮肤c-fos与c-jun的阳性表达主要见于表皮基底细胞和少量皮下成纤维细胞,但在相应部位c-jun的表达较c-fos为弱。在增生性瘢痕,c-fos与c-jun均出现强阳性表达,主要见于成纤维细胞。在溃疡组织,c-fos与c-jun的联合表达多见于毛细血管内皮细胞、部分炎症细胞以及成纤维细胞胞浆。 结论增生性瘢痕与溃疡创面c-fos与c-jun表达量与部位同正常皮肤存在显著差异,提示这两种原癌基因产物在影响和调控组织修复中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the characteristics of oncoprotein expression of c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods Tissues of hypertrophic scars (n=8), chronic dermal ulcers (n=8) and normal skin (n=5) were taken from 21 patients with burns and chronic dermal ulcers in operation. The ABC immunohistochemical method was used to characterize the gene product expression of c-fos, c-jun and bFGF in the above tissues. Results In normal skin, both c-fos and c-jun protein expression and bFGF protein expression were observed. The signals of both oncoproteins were localized mainly in subcutaneous fibroblasts, but, positive expression of the bFGF protein was mainly in keratinocytes. In hypertrophic scars, positive expression of both oncoproteins could be found mainly in fibroblasts, but bFGF was mainly in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In chronic dermal ulcers, endothelial cells, some

  2. 表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽诱导人白细胞c-fos基因表达的研究%EFFECTS OF EGF AND MEK ON C-FOS PROTOONCOGENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BLOOD LEUCOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史学义; 吴景兰; 丁一; 王一菱; 丰艳

    1997-01-01

    由健康人外周血分离淋巴细胞及溶血处理后的全白细胞,以外源性表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽培育后取细胞悬液制成滴片和滴膜,用生物素标记的c-fos cDNA探针进行原位杂交和斑点印迹杂交.结果显示表皮生长因子和甲硫氨酸脑啡肽两组c-fos原癌基因的表达均较对照组增强(P≤0.05).

  3. 鞘内注射艾司洛尔对福尔马林疼痛大鼠脊髓背角C-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of intrathecal esmolol on spinal c-fos expression in a formalin-induced pain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 邹聪华; 陈彦青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intrathecal estnolol on the expression of c-fos in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in a formalin-induced pain model. Methods Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 each. Every mouse received intrathecal catheter placement and was infused with saline 10 L(group N), esmolol 300 g/kg(group A), or 600 g/kg(group B), respectively. Pain was induced by 50 L of 5% formalin solution injected into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. The nociceptive behaviors including licking, biting and lifting of the injected paw were cumulatively recorded during phase I (0-5 min) and phase Ⅱ (15 50 min) by Dubuisson's method. The expression of c-fos protein in the spinal dorsal horn was detected with immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with group N, the pain-related behaviors in phase II were decreased significantly in group A and B. The expression of c-fos in the L4-5 spinal dorsal horn was significantly lower in group A and B compared with group N(P<0. 01). Conclusion Intrathecal morphine can inhibit c-fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a formalin-induced pain model.%目的 探索大鼠鞘内注射艾司洛尔能否抑制福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.方法 雄性SD大鼠,鞘内置管成功后,随机分为三组(n=8):生理盐水组(N组),艾司洛尔300μg/kg组(E1组),艾司洛尔600 μg/kg组(E2组).在异氟醚麻醉下,鞘内注射上述药物10μl,5d后,所有大鼠一侧后肢爪掌背侧皮下注射福尔马林(5%,50 μl),观察大鼠在Ⅰ相(0~5 min)和Ⅱ相(15~50min)疼痛行为学变化(包括添足、咬足、抬腿动作等),并进行Dubuisson评分.采用免疫组织化学方法检测脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.结果 与N组比较,E1、E2组大鼠Ⅱ相阶段的疼痛相关行为均有减少,呈量效关系(P<0.05),且E1、E2组L4~5节段脊髓表达的c-fos蛋白均较N组减少(P<0.05).结论 鞘内注射艾司洛尔可减少福尔马林大鼠脊髓背角c-fos蛋白表达.

  4. ARENA - A Collaborative Immersive Environment for Virtual Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Whenever a geoscientific study area is not readily accessible, as is the case on the deep seafloor, it is difficult to apply traditional but effective methods of fieldwork, which often require physical presence of the observer. The Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis (ARENA), developed at GEOMAR | Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel within the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean", provides a backend solution to robotic research on the seafloor by means of an immersive simulation environment for marine research: A hemispherical screen of 6m diameter covering the entire lower hemisphere surrounds a group of up to four researchers at once. A variety of open source (e.g. Microsoft Research World Wide Telescope) and commercial software platforms allow the interaction with e.g. in-situ recorded video, vector maps, terrain, textured geometry, point cloud and volumetric data in four dimensions. Data can be put into a holistic, georeferenced context and viewed on scales stretching from centimeters to global. Several input devices from joysticks to gestures and vocalized commands allow interaction with the simulation, depending on individual preference. Annotations added to the dataset during the simulation session catalyze the following quantitative evaluation. Both the special simulator design, making data perception a group experience, and the ability to connect remote instances or scaled down versions of ARENA over the Internet are significant advantages over established immersive simulation environments.

  5. Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptin's role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.

  6. Planta de lavado para arena silícea

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo García, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto fin de carrera trata sobre la instalación de una planta móvil de lavado para arena silícea. Este recurso está presente en el Monte Público nº 90 denominado “RAJICA DE EN MEDIO” en el Término Municipal de Jumilla (Murcia), donde se ubica la cantera “Los Mochuelos” de la que es concesionaria y explotadora la empresa JUMILLANA DE SÍLICE, S.L, con C.I.F. nº B-25.646.720, con domicilio social en C/ Canalejas nº 83, Bajo, de Jumilla (Murcia). Por ello, el presente proyecto tien...

  7. Chemical Source Localization using Mobile Robots in Indoor Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a virtual-physics force based control strategy for swarm robotic chemical source localization. The control force includes: structure formation force, goal force, and obstacle avoidant force. For swarm formation, the robots maintain the regular polygon formation and a virtual robot is located at the center of the polygon. The motion of the virtual robot depends on the goal force which obtained from the sensor observations of the robots. Once the virtual robot moved to a new place, the robots would also move as a single body with the structure formation force and obstacle avoidant force. In this paper, we adopted chemotaxis as plume tracing algorithms. Simulation experiments in indoor arena without obstacle and with obstacles using different robot number are carried out respectively, and the results show that the proposed strategy can effectively navigate the mobile robotics swarms to the chemical source once selecting proper number of robots.  

  8. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years...... attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking...

  9. Partidos fracos na arena eleitoral e partidos fortes na arena legislativa: a conexão eleitoral no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the determinants of voting positions in the Brazilian House of Representatives (Chamber of Deputies in relation to the preferences of the Executive Branch, focusing on the reasons leading Deputies to cooperate with or resist the President's interests on votes. The article examines the role played by political parties in the Deputies' behavior both inside and outside Congress, as well as the main instruments used by the Executive to encourage cooperative legislative behavior, applying a multivariate econometric model to estimate the determinants of Deputies' votes. The authors conclude that Deputies, especially those belonging to parties in the government coalition, cooperate with the President, following the orientation provided by their party leaders, as a strategy to access political and financial benefits controlled by the Executive, which in turn can be used in the electoral arena in order to maximize their odds of political survival, and that these same Deputies are the ones with the greatest odds of being reelected.

  10. [Benchmarking in the clinical arena. A potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredl, K; Hüsig, S; Angele, M K; Lüring, C

    2010-08-01

    Current changes in the health system due to economic restrictions leading to increased competition require the introduction of intelligent management tools in the clinical arena. In a world where change and development are the only constants, flexibility and critical judgment of one's own achievements are requirements for success in all parts of society. Benchmarking, a management tool widely used in industry, represents a potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health system. This article deals with the theoretic basis and the clinical implications of benchmarking. The strategic background of benchmarking is the systematic process of comparison and identification with the best (best practice) leading to improved processes and results in one's own department and hospital. It is the aim of benchmarking in the clinical arena to achieve higher quality and patient directed innovation with less financial resources. This might result in better patient care. In summary, the management tool of benchmarking will be introduced into the clinical arena to keep hospitals competitive. Successful benchmarking will result in a leading position of a certain department in a special field.

  11. Lobbying Across Arenas. Interest Group Involvement in the Legislative Process in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Binderkrantz, Anne Skorkjær

    2014-01-01

    . The article investigates the factors that lead groups to engage in these phases based on group proceedings for 225 bills presented to the Danish parliament in the 2009/2010 session. We conclude that resourceful groups are clearly more active in both arenas, but the parliamentary arena is also a venue...

  12. Effects of rizatriptan on cortical spreading depression and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对皮质扩布性抑制及中脑导水管周围灰质c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤鹏; 刘若卓; 姜磊; 于生元; 管维平; 石宏; 陈淑莉; 晋志高; 吴士文; 董钊; 邱恩超

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rizatriptan has an effect on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and c-Fos expression within periaqueductal grey (PAG) induced by CSD in rats. Methods The experimental SD rats were randomly divided into group A injected with KCl, group B KCl plus rizatriptan and group C NaCL The number and amplitude of CSD were recorded after KCl or NaCl injection. C-Fos positive neurons of different layer were identified by the immunohistochemical technique 2 hours after the first injection of KCl or NaCl. Results There was no CSD in group C. The number of CSD in group A ( 10.70±3.23 ) was significantly more than that in group B (6.10±2.56, t = - 3.528, P < 0.01 ). The amplitude of CSD in group A ( 17.33 (95% CI 11.45--23.11 ) mV) was significantly greater than that in group B (11.82 (95%CI 9.24--14.70) mV, Z= -4.360, P< 0.01). There were more cFos-like immnoreactive neurons in every layer in group A than in group C (P < 0.01 ) and in group B (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rizatriptan has an inhibitory effect on CSD, which might induce the headache through exciting the neurons in PAG.%目的 观察苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对大鼠皮质扩布性抑制(cortical spreading depression,CSD)和CSD引起中脑导水管周围灰质(periaqueduetal grey,PAG)内c-Fos表达的影响.方法 实验选用的SD大鼠随机分为3组,A组:氯化钾刺激组;B组:氯化钾刺激+苯甲酸利扎曲普坦组;C组:氯化钠刺激组.对各组大鼠使用氯化钾(或氯化钠)刺激,以观察CSD出现的个数和波幅;第1次刺激2 h后使用免疫组织化学法检测各组PAG内不同层面c-Fos阳性神经元.结果 C组未记录到CSI).A组CSD个数(10.70±3.23)较B组(6.10±2.56)显著增多(t=-3.528,P<0.01);A组CSD波幅[17.33(95%CI 11.45~23.11)mV]较B组[11.82(95%CI 9.24~14.70)mV]显著增加(Z=-4.360,P<0.01).A组各层面c-Fos阳性细胞数较B、C组显著增多(P<0.05).结论 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦对CSD有抑制作用,可使CSD引起PAG内神经元兴奋作用减弱.

  13. Effect of Salusin-β on the expression of c-fos, c-jun and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vascular smooth muscle cells of thoracic aorta of rat%Salusin-β对大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞c-fos、c-jun和增殖细胞核抗原表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳红; 王海昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Salusin-β on c-fos, c-jun and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic aorta of rat. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS)group (n=25) and Salusin-β group (n= 25) . Rats in Salusin-β group were injected Salusin-β(5nmol/kg) uia the femoral vein, while in NS group were injected equal amount of NS. All the rats were infused with paraform at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 24h after the injection, and then the thoracic aortas were harvested. The expressions of c-fos, c-jun and PCNA in VSMCs of rats' thoracic aorta were detected by immunocytochemistry and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus 5.0 image software. Results Compared with NS group, in Salusin-β group, the expression of c-fos at 1h and 2h, of c-jun at 1h, 2h and 4h, and of PCNA at 24h were up-regulated significantly (P<0.0001). Conclusion Salusin-β may promote the proliferation of VSMCs.%目的 观察Salusin-β对大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞(VSMCs)中c-fos、c-jun和增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)表达的影响.方法 健康雄性Wiser大鼠50只,随机均分为生理盐水(NS)组(n=25)和Salusin-β组(n=25).经股静脉向Salusin-β组大鼠体内注射Salusin-β(5nmol/kg),NS组注射等量生理盐水.分别于0.5、1、2、4、24h后用多聚甲醛灌注大鼠,取其胸主动脉,采用免疫组织化学方法,检测两组大鼠胸主动脉VSMCs中c-fos、c-jun和PCNA的表达情况,使用Image-Pro Plus 5.0图像分析软件对结果进行面积密度分析.结果 Salusin-β组c-fos表达量在1、2h明显高于NS组(P<0.0001),c-jun表达量在1、2和4h Salusin-β组明显高于NS组(P<0.0001),PCNA表达量在24h明显高于NS组(P<0.0001).结论 Salusin-β可促进胸主动脉VSMCs的增殖.

  14. 蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经元形态及c-fos蛋白表达的影响%Effects of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 李霞; 甘子明

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉对兔脊髓神经细胞的生物学影响.方法:选用健康新西兰大白兔30只,随机分为实验组和对照组.每组15只.基础麻醉后实验组用5 g/L布比卡冈进行蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉(腰麻),对照组用生理盐水代替局麻药.于麻醉后30 min灌注取材,HE染色观察2组兔L5-7节段脊髓神经元形态的变化,免疫组化法检测脊髓神经元中c-fos蛋白的表达.结果:与对照组相比,实验组L5-7节段脊髓灰质后角Ⅲ、Ⅳ板层的小圆细胞及前角Ⅸ板层外侧大多角细胞胞质中均有尼氏体减少、神经元c-fos蛋白阳性细胞数减少[(68.9±1.4) vs (12.3±1.6),t=60.352,P<0.001]和脊髓软脊膜分层或断裂现象(P<0.001).结论:蛛网膜下腔神经阻滞麻醉后,兔脊髓相应节段的神经细胞功能受到抑制,脊髓软脊膜有分层或断裂现象.%Aim: To obsereve the effect of spinal nerve block anesthesia on morphology of spinal cord nerve cells and expression of c-fos in rabbits. Methods :Thity healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control group,15 in each group. After basal anesthesia,the rabbits in the experimental group were given 5 g/L bupiva-caine for subarachnoid nerve block anesthesia( spinal anesthesia for short) ,and those in the control group were given normal saline. After 30 minutes, spinal cord samples were prepared. HE staining and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the morphological changes of neurons and the expression of c-fos,respectively. Results;Compared with those of the control group, Nissl bodies reduced and nuclear bias in the horn of lumbosacral spinal cord gray matter III , IV plate layer of small round cells and anterior horn of the lateral lamina mostly IX horn cells in experimental group. The expression of c-fos protein in the control group was higher than that in the experimental group [ (68. 9 ±1.4) vs ( 12. 3 ± 1. 6) , t = 60. 352, P < 0

  15. Mapping and navigating transitions - The multi-level perspective compared with arenas of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Transitions of socio-technical systems imply the reconfiguration of institutions and politics making made evident the need to understand and intervene in existing patterns of growth and socio-technical practices in more sustainable directions. In recent decades, theories of transitions have been ...... that support sustainable transitions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Transitions of socio-technical systems imply the reconfiguration of institutions and politics making made evident the need to understand and intervene in existing patterns of growth and socio-technical practices in more sustainable directions. In recent decades, theories of transitions have been...... introduced, which include the multi-level approach indicating ways to govern transitions through understanding the interactions between niches, regimes and landscapes. An alternative approach is suggested, which takes its outset in arenas of development and increased awareness of actors and their way...

  16. Influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugai pathway%不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥佳利; 胡满; 李慧超; 刘春凌; 张利卫

    2011-01-01

    为进一步探究光照对母鸡生产性能影响的神经调节机制,采用神经标记和免疫组化技术相结合的方法,对不同强度光照对母鸡离顶盖通路c-fos基因表达的影响进行了观察研究.将120日龄母鸡右眼遮光5d后向丘脑圆核引入微量30%HRP,48 h后解除遮光并给予不同强度的光照刺激1~1.5 h,暗适应1.5h后灌流固定,取脑制作连续冰冻切片,用TMB法检测离顶盖通路HRP逆行标记神经细胞,通过Fos蛋白免疫组化方法检测c-fos基因在这些部位的表达.结果显示,母鸡离顶盖通路各核团对不同强度的光刺激有不同的反应,SGC层和ROT核对30 lx光照最为敏感,而SP/IPS核对40 lx光照反应较为明显.%In order to further understand the nerve regulation mechanism in effect of light on hen production performance,influence on the expression of c-fos gene by the different intensity light stimulation in hen tectofugal pathway was studied using nervous labeling combining with the immunohistochemistry method. The right eyes of hens in 120 day-old were shaded to keep dark for 5 d, then small amount of 30% HRP was injected into the thalamencephalon nucleus rotundus (ROT). After a 48 h survival period, light stimulation of different intensities was given for 1-1. 5 h, afterwards kept in dark again for 1. 5 h. Following perfusing with fixative, their brains were removed and made into continuous frozen sections. TMB method was used to show the HRP retrograde labeling nervous cells, and the immunohistochemical reaction of Fos protein was employed to detect the expression of c-fos gene in these regions. The results showed that there are different reactions to different light stimulation in the nucli of hen tectofugal pathway. Stratum griseum centrale (SGC) and ROT are most sensitive to the light of 30 lx, while the nucleus SP/IPS is more sensitive to the light of 40 lx.

  17. 不同波长光照对开产初期母鸡间脑c-fos基因表达的影响%Effect of light stimulation by different wavelength on expression of c-fos gene in hen diencephalon at early laying period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 胡满; 程金金; 郭洁; 兰晓宇

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nervous mechanism in the effect of light on egg-laying, the response of hen diencephalon to light stimulation by different wavelength were investigated by u-sing c-Fos and GnRH method. Unilateral eyes of 150 days old hens were kept dark for seven days. Then they accepted different wavelength light stimulation of 20 lx for 1. 5 hours and dark adaptation 1. 5 hours. After perfusion with fixative, their brains were removed from the skulls and were made into continuous paraffin sections. The distribution of imunoreactive positive neurons of Fos protein and GnRH in mesencephalon were examined using immunohistochemical method. The results showed that expression of c-fos gene and the release of GnRH could be in-fluenceed by different wavelength light stimulation. The expression induced by green and blue light stimulation was more significant than that by red one.%为深入了解不同波长光照对母鸡生产性能的影响机理,用c-Fos法探讨了母鸡间脑对不同波长光照的反应,同时检测GnRH免疫反应神经元的动态变化.将150日龄母鸡右眼遮光7 d后接受20 lx 的不同波长光照刺激1.5 h, 暗适应1.5 h后灌流固定,取脑制作石蜡切片,采用免疫组化方法检测Fos 蛋白和 GnRH 样免疫反应阳性神经元在间脑的分布.结果显示,不同波长光照均影响c-fos基因表达和GnRH的释放,绿光组和蓝光组的表达均高于红光组.

  18. Italian agri-food exports in the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the positioning of the so-called Made in Italy agro-food exports in foreign markets considering global world tendencies as well as country specific trends. Besides, we aim at disentangling the role of product quality from price competition as a driver of competitive advantages.To these ends, the work combines two different methodologies, applied in three steps. First, we estimate the elasticities of Italian exports, with respect to world imports, Italian export prices and the competitors’ prices. Second, an index of the sophistication of exports’ flows that captures the role of quality in global competition is calculated. Third, the estimated elasticities are compared with the changes in the sophistication levels.Results allow for product-specific trends to stem out from the overall picture. Exports’ performance varies according to the type of product and to the degree of market completion. Although, the Made In Italy aggregate seems overall competitive, the analysis pinpoints some drawbacks in the positioning of some products in the world arena. Focus on wine and on olive oil, two major Italian exporting sectors, helps in understanding the potential of the joint methodology adopted.

  19. Bringing History Home. Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legêne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing History Home: Postcolonial Immigrants and the Dutch Cultural ArenaThree Dutch-language monographs published in 2008-2009 by Ulbe Bosma, Lizzy van Leeuwen and Gert Oostindie in the context of the interdisciplinary research programme Bringing History Home, present a history of identity politics in relation to ‘postcolonial immigrants’. This term refers to some 500,000 people who since 1945 arrived in the Netherlands from Indonesia and the former Dutch New Guinea, Suriname or the Antillean islands in the Caribbean. Bosma traces the development of postcolonial immigrant organizations. In interaction with government policies, these organizations moved from mere socioeconomic emancipation struggles to mere cultural identity politics. Van Leeuwen takes such cultural identity politics as the starting point for her analysis of Indo-Dutch and Dutch Indies cultural initiatives and the competing interests at stake in the Indies heritage discourse. Oostindie discusses these developments in terms of community development and change within Dutch society at large. He introduces the notion of a ‘postcolonial bonus’. In postcolonial Netherlands, this bonus was available to immigrants on the grounds of a shared colonial past. Today, this bonus is (almost spent. The review discusses the three monographs, as well as the coherence of Bringing History Home as a research programme. Legêne argues, that notwithstanding valuable research outcomes, the very category of postcolonial immigrants does not constitute a convincing category of analysis.

  20. Connecting Territorial Knowledge Arenas – the Interrelationship between CEMAT and EU Activities in Spatial Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Fritsch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the increasing importance of evidence, knowledge and learning in both domestic and transnational policy development processes, this paper analyses how non-EU and intra-European Union knowledge arenas in spatial development policy and planning are connected by focussing specifically on the interrelationship between CEMAT and European Union activities and arenas of co-operation. The Council of Europe Conference of Ministers Responsible for Spatial/Regional Planning (CEMAT has long served as a platform for pan-European (including both EU members and non-members co-operation in spatial development, but has recently been sidelined by EU initiatives in this field of activity and even faced the possibility of discontinuation. Analysing potential areas of competition and complementarities/synergies and reviewing the recent Russian CEMAT Presidency, the paper argues that CEMAT retains an important role in connecting EU debates, practices and research with actors outside the European Union. However, institutionalised collaborative mechanisms and the systematic exchange of information between CEMAT and the EU in this field should be strengthened, particularly in a direction from EU to CEMAT and in the domain of research and evidence. Continuing with a sub-optimal level of co-operation between CEMAT and the EU in this field or even discontinuation of CEMAT would undoubtedly hamper the involvement and integration of non-EU members in the debate on European spatial development policy and would probably rather quickly lead to the significant disruption of the territorial knowledge channel linking the EU and Russia as well as that with the EU neighbourhood more broadly, while also significantly inhibiting the processes of learning on a pan-European level and stalling the development of a trajectory towards the emergence of something that would resemble a pan-European ‘epistemic community’ in spatial development policy and planning.

  1. Fisetin经c-Fos/NFATc1信号通路抑制小鼠巨噬细胞分化为破骨细胞的研究%Fisetin suppresses the differentiation of mouse macrophages through the c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 殷悦; 赵凤朝; 郑伟; 郭开今

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impacts of Fisetin on titanium particles -induced differentiation of mouse macrophages into osteoclasts via the c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathway.Methods Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages cul-tivated in vitro were divided into five groups according to their different processing conditions:Group A (blank control), Group B (titanium particles alone), Group C (1.25μmol/L Fisetin +titanium particles), Group D (2.5μmol/L Fi-setin +titanium particles), and Group E (5 μmol/L Fisetin +titanium particles).The proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in each group was examined using CCK-8 assay.After six days of treatment, the number of osteoclasts in each group was measured by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase ( TRAP) staining.The amounts of c-Fos/NFATcl mRNA and protein were detected by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively.Results According to CCK-8 results, no sta-tistical differences were seen as to the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells among the five groups (P>0.05).Although mul-tinucleated cells with positive TRAP staining formed in each group, Group B produced the largest number of the cells.As the concentrations of Fisetin rose, the number of multinucleated cells with positive TRAP staining was declined from Group C to Group E.The number of the cells in Group A was the least.Furthermore, according to RT-PCR and West-ern blotting analysis, Group B presented the quantities of c-Fos/NFATc1 mRNA and protein which were substantially higher than those of Groups C, D, and E (P<0.05).Conclusion Fisetin can suppress titanium particles-induced differentiation of mouse macrophages into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner, which may be associated with the c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathway.%目的:探讨Fisetin阻断c-Fos/NFATc1信号通路对钛颗粒诱导小鼠巨噬细胞向破骨细胞分化的影响。方法体外培养小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7,根据处理条件不同分为5组:A组(空白对照组)、B组(钛颗粒对照组)、C组(1

  2. 白血病抑制因子对人早孕绒毛滋养层细胞c-jun、c-fos基因表达的调节%Effects of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor on the expression of c-jun and c-fos in the trophoblast cells of early pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋恩学; 王丽; 刘银坤; 周剑萍; 张炜

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨重组人白血病抑制因子(LIF)对人早孕滋养层细胞着床相关分子原癌基因c-jun、c-fos表达的影响及其作用环节.方法将人早孕滋养层细胞培养于DMEM培养液中,加入不同浓度LIF(1、10和100ng)作用1 h后,分别提取总RNA;逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法检测原癌基因c-jun和c-fos的表达. 结果正常培养的人早孕滋养层细胞有一定水平的c-jun、c-fos基因表达;LIF对人早孕滋养层细胞c-jun、c-fos的表达均有上调作用,c-jun、c-fos mRNA水平增加1.5~3倍,并且调节呈剂量依赖性.结论UF可能通过调节滋养层细胞原癌基因c-jun和c-fos表达而影响胚胎的植入

  3. A learning arena for knowledge development by the use of didactics and situated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    This paper unfolds the concept of a learning arena as a means of building robust and effec-tive global operations networks through a focus on organizational didactics and situated learning. The paper builds on six case studies in three MNEs which have come far in establishing capabilities...... for the transfer of operations activities. However, they have tended to take a piecemeal and substance-based approach in relation to learning. A new model shows the contours of a learning arena, and case studies illustrate how different learning arenas may be used for supporting knowledge development....

  4. Energy use and management at large sports facilities. Load projections for the BayArena; Moeglichkeiten des Energieeinsatzes in Grosssportstaetten. Lastprognosen fuer die BayArena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollekamp, H. [Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fussball GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    2002-05-21

    The article describes energy management aspects ensuring uninterrupted energy supply during events in the BayArena, one of Germany's most modern sports arenas and a huge soccer stadium. (orig./CB) [German] Die BayArnea in Leverkusen ist eines der modernsten Fussballstadien und erfuellt die hohe Anforderung, einen unterbrechungsfreien Spielbetrieb zu gewaehrleisten. Grosssportstaetten sind heute ein wichtiger Faktor fuer die Freizeitindustrie. Der Spielbetrieb in den Bundesligastadien benoetigt nur kurzzeitig einige MW Energie. Dabei ist allerdings eine sichere Versorgung unabdingbar. Der zu erwartende Energiebedarf sollte mit einer fundierten Lastprognose ermittelt werden. Der Verfasser beschreibt die Energieversorgung und -lastverlaeufe einer multifunktionalen Fussballarena. (orig.)

  5. Examining dopamine D3 receptor occupancy by antipsychotic drugs via [3H]7-OH-DPAT ex vivo autoradiography and its cross-validation via c-fos immunohistochemistry in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Nima; te Riele, Paula; Langlois, Xavier

    2014-10-05

    Dopamine D3 receptors are a major target for drug discovery programs related to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. The ability of a compound to occupy significant levels of D3 receptors is important for achieving therapeutic efficacy in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. Here we attempt to characterise antipsychotic drug-effects at D3 receptors by measuring receptor occupancy via ex-vivo [3H]7-OH-DPAT autoradiography, and further validating this outcome via analysis of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the rat major islands of Calleja (ICjM), a brain structure with high D3 expression. Rats were treated subcutaneously with haloperidol (0.04 mg/kg), clozapine (20 mg/kg) and olanzapine (0.63 mg/kg), the selective D2 antagonist L-741626 (2.5 mg/kg) and the selective D3 antagonist SB-277011-A (10 mg/kg). Doses were based on levels of D2 occupancy considered clinically relevant (60-80%). When measuring D3 occupancy, clozapine and SB-277011-A displayed meaningful levels of occupancy (60% and 77%, respectively), haloperidol and olanzapine showed limited occupancy (16% and 27%, respectively), whereas L-741626 showed no occupancy. There were no significant changes in ICjM Fos-LI after L-741626 and haloperidol treatment, minor but significant increases after olanzapine treatment, whereas highly significant increases were seen with SB-277011-A and clozapine. Additionally, pre-treating clozapine with the D1 antagonist SCH23390 caused a significant, albeit non-complete, reduction in Fos-LI, highlighting the D1 agonist property of clozapine. In conclusion, it appears that drugs occupying >50% D3 receptors produce robust increases in ICjM Fos-LI. This study may help to identify the appropriate D3 receptor antagonists that have the potential to be tested in the clinic.

  6. Performance, Expectation, Interaction and Intimacy: On the Opportunities and Limitations of Arena Stand-up Comedy for Comedians and Audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lockyer, S

    2015-01-01

    Live stand-up comedy has become increasingly popular over the last few years. A significant trend related to this heightened interest in stand-up comedy is the diversification of stand-up comedy venues. In addition to small rooms in pubs and small/medium-sized designated comedy clubs, stand-up comedy is now often performed in large arenas with audience capacities of 10,000 plus. Through a series of semi-structured interviews with stand-up comedians and stand-up comedy audiences this explorato...

  7. 标准化科学攻坚的战略高地%StrategicHeights of Standards Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春田

    2015-01-01

    The article explains the meaning and its extreme importance of the strategic heights for the standardization ifeld, deliberates over the challenges for traditional standardization, and proposes the ur-gency of the transformation towards modernized standardization. Affirming the limited role of existing methods like modularization and comprehensive standardization, the author insists on the necessity of accelerating the development of modernized standardization to meet the increasing demand of modern so-ciety towards standardization. It is a historical mission for current standardizers to focus on theories, meth-odologies and innovations in the modern standardization arena.

  8. Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Birgitta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

  9. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Owen-Smith

    Full Text Available An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant and plains zebra (a non-ruminant, using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no

  10. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  11. Solving Stochastic Büchi Games on Infinite Arenas with a Finite Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider games played on an infinite probabilistic arena where the first player aims at satisfying generalized Büchi objectives almost surely, i.e., with probability one. We provide a fixpoint characterization of the winning sets and associated winning strategies in the case where the arena satisfies the finite-attractor property. From this we directly deduce the decidability of these games on probabilistic lossy channel systems.

  12. A multidisciplinary approach to the air quality and health problems in indoor arenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Alm, S.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Husman, T.; Jantunen, M.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Eklund, T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lee, Kiyoung; Spengler, J.D. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1995-12-31

    Most ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas have internal combustion engines. They use either propane or petrol as fuel. The main exhaust pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and fine particles. In general, propane engines emit more NO{sub x} than petrol engines, but their CO emissions are smaller. The levels of these pollutants in indoor air depend on total amount of emissions volume of arena and effectiveness of ventilation. However, due to large variations in engine emissions the air quality in any single arena cannot be estimated without direct measurements. High levels of CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) have been measured in indoor ice arenas of North America since 1960`s, and it is only recently that high NO{sub 2} levels have been measured also in Sweden. In health studies, attention has been paid mostly to epidemic acute poisonings among ice hockey players and spectators caused by large concentrations of CO. However, some cases of acute NO{sub 2} poisonings have also been described. The aims of this project are: (1) to examine the air quality in Finnish indoor ice arenas, (2) to study associations between the air quality and the major technical features of the arenas, (3) to assess personal exposures of ice hockey players, spectators and maintenance personnel to CO and NO{sub 2}, (4) to investigate short-term and longer-term health effects of CO and NO{sub 2} exposures on ice hockey players and maintenance personnel, (5) to inform the managers of ice arenas and the health authorities on the current air quality problems and health risks in Finnish indoor ice arenas. (author)

  13. Impaired satiation and increased feeding behaviour in the triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Adebakin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with non-cognitive symptoms such as changes in feeding behaviour that are often characterised by an increase in appetite. Increased food intake is observed in several mouse models of AD including the triple transgenic (3×TgAD mouse, but the mechanisms underlying this hyperphagia are unknown. We therefore examined feeding behaviour in 3×TgAD mice and tested their sensitivity to exogenous and endogenous satiety factors by assessing food intake and activation of key brain regions. In the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS, 3×TgAD mice consumed more food after a fast compared to Non-Tg controls. Feeding and drinking behaviours were increased and rest decreased in 3×TgAD mice, but the overall sequence of behaviours in the BSS was maintained. Exogenous administration of the satiety factor cholecystokinin (CCK; 8-30 µg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently reduced food intake in Non-Tg controls and increased inactive behaviour, but had no effect on food intake or behaviour in 3×TgAD mice. CCK (15 µg/kg, i.p. increased c-Fos protein expression in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS and area postrema of the brainstem to the same extent in Non-Tg and 3×TgAD mice, but less c-Fos positive cells were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of CCK-treated 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. In response to a fast or a period of re-feeding, there was no difference in the number of c-Fos-positive cells detected in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, NTS and area postrema of 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. The degree of c-Fos expression in the NTS was positively correlated to food intake in Non-Tg mice, however, this relationship was absent in 3×TgAD mice. These data demonstrate that 3×TgAD mice show increased feeding behaviour and insensitivity to satiation, which is possibly due to defective gut-brain signalling in response to endogenous satiety factors released

  14. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans : early progeny choice in a filamentous fungus = Selectie arena in Aspergillus nidulans : vroege selectie van nakomelingen in een filamenteuse schimmel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:selection arena, progeny choice, Aspergillus nidulans , fungus, spores, ascospore, conidiospore, asexual, sexual, fruiting body, cleistothecium, zygote, dikaryon, self-sterility, self-fertility, mutation accumulation, fitness,

  15. 电针对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture on c-fos Expression in Nucleus of the Solitary Tract and Electrocardiogram ST_Ⅱin Myocardial Ischemia Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江山; 严洁; 何军锋; 彭娜

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察针刺"内关""足三里"对心肌缺血模型大鼠孤束核(nucleus of the solitary tract,NTS)c-fos表达及心电图ST_Ⅱ的影响,阐明延髓初级中枢在"内关""足三里"穴共同调节心功能中的作用.方法:将36只雄性SD大鼠随机分为生理盐水组、模型组、足三里组、内关组、偏历组及合阳组,每组6只,腹腔注射异丙肾上腺素造成心肌缺血模型.电针治疗20 min,采用抗Fos蛋白免疫组织化学技术观察大鼠NTS内c-fos表达和电生理技术观察大鼠心电图ST_Ⅱ的变化.结果:心肌缺血模型大鼠NTS内c-foS的表达明显增加(P<0.01),而足三里组、内关组与模型组比较,NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数均明显减少(P<0.01);足三里组、内关组NTS内c-foS阳性细胞数显著低于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).足三里组、内关组大鼠缺血性心电图ST_Ⅱ电位值显著降低(P<0.01),其电位降低值大于偏历组、合阳组(P<0.01).结论:NTS是针刺内关、足三里共同调节心功能的整合中枢之一.%Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on c-fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)and ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) rats, so as to study the role of NTS in EA-induced improvement of AMI. Methods Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, ST 36, PC 6, "Pianli" (LI 6), and "Heyang" (BL 55) groups, with 6 cases in each. AMI model was established by intraperitoneal injection of Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg). EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to PC 6, ST 36, LI 6 and BL 55 for 20 min separately. C-fos expression in the NTS was detected by immunohistochemistry and ECG-ST_Ⅱ was recorded before and after AMI and EA. Results ① Compared to control group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ of model group elevated significantly, while in comparison with model group, ECG-ST_Ⅱ values of ST 36 and PC 6 groups decreased significantly

  16. 胃牵涉皮区不同频率电刺激对大鼠胃痛及相关神经元c-fos表达的影响%EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY DEPENDENT ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON STOMACHACHE AND C-FOS EXPRESSION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 张超; 汪鑫; 费燕; 周强强; 陈松松; 张励才

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide the experimental basis for the simple and noninvasive electric stimulation to relieve stomachache and the mechanism of stomachache referred pain.Methods: (1) In this experiment, the SD rats were given intragastric administration with 10% formalin, to establish the stomachache model. Evans blue was injected into SD rats' tails vein, the "leakage spots" in the body surface area was regarded as the stomachache referred area;(2) Applying electrical stimulation in the stomachache referred area with different frequencies such as 2 Hz、100 Hz and 2/100 Hz using HANS, afterwards, we observed SD rats' changes of pain-related behavior at some specific points in time, the expression of c-fos of referred areas were detected further by immunohistochemical and western blot, at last, we analyzed the correlation of various factors.Results: The leakage spots of Evans blue were not detected at normal rats. However, obvious spots were seen at shoulder blades of rats suffered from stomachache. After electrical stimulation at referred area, the pain scores and c-fos expression were the lowest in 2/100 Hz group, compared with other groups (P< 0.001).Conclusion: The rat's skin referred area of stomachache was located in shoulder blades. The 2/100 Hz electric stimulation at the referred area can relieve rats' stomachache. There are positive correlation between its effect and the expression of signaling molecules such as c-fos related to particular gastric motor and sensory neurons. This experiment provides the experimental basis for the simple and noninvasive electric stimulation to relieve stomachache and the mechanism of stomachache referred pain.%目的:为临床经牵涉区实施简便易行无创的电刺激缓解胃痛及阐释牵涉痛机制的提供实验依据。方法:(1)实验用SD大鼠,以定量10% Formalin灌胃法建立胃痛模型,经尾静脉注射伊文思蓝,以胃痛大鼠体表“渗漏斑”所在局部作为胃痛牵涉区;(2

  17. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FI Isla

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamiento artificial resulta el único método factible de recuperar las playas desde los sectores sumergidos o desde médanos vecinos. Utilizando un sonar de barrido lateral y muestreos de arena se analizó la distribución y calidad de las arenas sumergidas como eventual fuente de alimentación de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal. Se estimaron factores de relleno y recurrencia en relación a la granulometría actual de estas playas. La playa sumergida está compuesta principalmente de arena muy fina y se extiende hasta una profundidad de 10-15 m, más allá de la cual se descubren afloramientos de limos entoscados hasta la profundidad de aproximadamente 20 metros. Otro sector arenoso se extiende a profundidades mayores y está dominado por fajas de arena orientadas hacia el NE. Lamentablemente, estas arenas son demasiado finas y por lo tanto no resultarían económicamente aptas para repoblar las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal.

  18. Ice Hockey Arena-A, for Nagano Winter Olympic Games, Nagano all purpose sports arena, Wakasato `Big Hat`; Nagano Olympic toki kyogi taikai ice hockey A kaijo Naganoshi Wakasato tamokuteki arena BIG HAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, M.; Ando, T.

    1998-01-05

    The Nagano all purpose sports arena aimed at a unique design suitable for the international city, Nagano in harmony with fortunate natural landscape and plentiful natural features. The aspect of this arena is composed of a rectangular lower part and a smoothly curved upper part. Thus, huge and coercive sense of the large-scale building can be suppressed. In response to various events, a heavily equipped arena roof was adopted, which has a functional structure without ceiling for imaging a huge studio space. Nagano City is located in the inland basin. It is hot in the daytime in summer, but is comfortable in the morning and evening. Although it is cold at temperatures around -10degC in winter, they do not have heavy snow and have fine days. They have a delightful climate in the intermediate seasons. Under such circumstances, high heat insulation, natural illumination and natural ventilation were considered as an energy saving architectural technique. In response to external cooling and difference of audience numbers, the whole air conditioning method was adopted. It was expected that the Olympic Games were completed under the most excellent condition. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Composición modal de las arenas de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir: evaluación de su procedencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomares, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentation of the Guadalquivir neogene basin between Córdoba and Sevilla towns gave place to a thick marly succession which included several sandstone units: Arenas Basales, Arenas de Ubeda, Arenas del Guadalquivir, Arenas de Ecija, Arenas de Cuesta el Espino (all of them of upper Tortonian age, Arenas de Guadarcázar, Calcarenitas de Carmona (both of Messinian age and pliocene sands. Arenas Basales have a lithic composition, showing high percentages of metamorphic rock fragments, and derived from metamorphic complexes of the paleozoic Macizo Hespérico located in the N of the basin. Arenas del Guadalquivir and Arenas de Ecija are litharenites and sublitharenites; their rock fragments are mainly carbonatic and derived from neogene sandy formations that cropped out in the N because of the progressive reduction of the basin. Arenas de Ecija derived from the betic mantles that were emplaced in the S of the basin at that time. Arenas Basales and Arenas del Guadalquivir are plataform deposits and Arenas de Ecija are sediments in subsea fans. Finally, Arenas de Guadarcázar and the pliocene sands are quartzarenites and sublitharenites and derived from the underlying sandy formations. The high compositional and textural maturity of Arenas de Guadarcázar was due to the reworking of these sands in a beach environment. The succession reflects an initial stage with first cycle contributions of metamorphic rocks from a stable craton and a later stage in which the source area is formed of sedimentary rocks related to a recycled orogen. In the eastern part of the basin Arenas del Guadalquivir and Arenas de Ecija are litharenites whilst the Arenas de Cuesta el Espino are sublitharenites; the former derived from a recycled orogen, and the latter from a continental block or a stable craton. The compositional evolution of the sands in this side of the basin could indicate a basin edge zone.La sedimentación de la cuenca neógena del Guadalquivir entre

  20. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  1. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  2. Nutritional status and obesity in children and young adults with disabilities in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Barbosa, Clara I; Díaz, Mauricio; Urzua, Miyochi; Andrade, Asterio H

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world; however, little is known on the nutritional status of children with disabilities. To address this issue, medical records of 748 children aged 18 years or younger receiving physical therapy during 2004-2005 at a privately sponsored free rehabilitation clinic in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile were abstracted. Data included demographic, clinical, and anthropometric information recorded at the first visit. As a comparison, height and weight were also collected in 215 children attending local schools. Nutritional status was calculated as body mass index (above 6 years of age) or evaluated by growth curves (6 years of age or below) as undernourished, normal, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for obesity in these children. Overall, a significant difference in nutritional status between disabled and non-disabled children was found (Pcerebral palsy were less than half as likely to be obese than non-disabled children (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.20-1.03). We conclude that overnutrition continues to be a problem for both disabled and non-disabled children in Patagonia. Programs to increase physical activity and improve nutrition are needed in this isolated part of the world.

  3. An Algorithm for Sensory Area Coverage by Mobile Robots Operating in Complex Arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahde, Mattias; Sandberg, David

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for sensory area coverage by mobile robots is proposed, with applications in, for example, mapping and exploration. The algorithm generates a sequence of nodes for the robot to visit, such that it covers as much as possible of the arena using a laser range finder. A crucial part of the exploration behavior implementing this algorithm is a deadlock avoidance procedure, which allows the robot to handle the inevitable problems (such as coping with narrow passages and obstacles of different size and height) that occur when navigating in complex arenas. Despite the simplicity of the algorithm, the robot is generally able to cover (with its laser range finder) 98% or more of an initially unexplored arena.

  4. HUMEDAL URBANO EN PUNTA ARENAS: SUSTENTABILIDAD DEL PROYECTO PARQUE ECOLÓGICO HUMEDAL TRES PUENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2009-01-01

    El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo ...

  5. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    FI Isla

    2003-01-01

    Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamient...

  6. INFLAMMATORY SOUP INDUCES RECURRENT HEADACHE IN AWAKE BEHAVING RATS AND CONTRIBUTES TO THE EXPRESSION OF C-FOS IN PAG AREA%致炎剂诱发清醒大鼠反复发作头痛及对PAG区c-Fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛刘军; 周志奎; 叶青; 武文卉; 刘欣; 刘沙; 万琪

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To establish a recurrent headache model in awake behaving rats using inflammatory soup to activate dural nociceptors regularly. Methods: Dural inflammation by infusing inflammatory soup (IS) or saline through PE-10 tubing on the dura in male rats were indused. Infusion was repeated once a day for six days. Periorbital von Frey thresholds were tested to monitor the change of trigeminal sensitivity. We observed the ratio of dural mast cells degranulation from SSS stained with toluidine blue were ob-serued. C-Fos immunoreactive positive neurons of once IS infusion group, six times IS and NS infusions group were observed and counted in periagueductal grey matter (PAG) area in coronal brain sections by using standard avidinbiotin immunohistochemistry. Results: Six infusions of IS induced a decrease in periorbital pressure thresholds.The ratio of dural mast cells degranulation from SSS has great difference between IS6 and NS6 infusions group (P 0.05). Conclusions: Using inflammatory soup, recurrent headache in rats were indused successfully and provide a better experimental model to elucidate the mechanisms for the transition of episodic to chronic headache.%目的:采用复方致炎剂(IS)定期刺激大鼠硬脑膜,建立一种清醒状态下大鼠反复发作性头痛模型.方法:在雄性SD大鼠硬脑膜上埋置PE-10管,连续6天给予IS或等量生理盐水.采用VonFrey毛测试大鼠眶周的压力疼痛阈值,将左侧硬脑膜行甲苯胺蓝染色观察肥大细胞脱颗粒比率,通过免疫组化染色技术对六次NS及IS和一次IS给药组大鼠的中脑导水管灰质(PAG)区域c-Fos阳性细胞进行计数观察.结果:随着IS刺激次数的增多大鼠的眶周压力疼痛阈值下降;肥大细胞脱颗粒比率较NS组明显增加(P0.05).结论:反复给予复方致炎剂可以成功诱导大鼠反复发作性头痛,为慢性头痛转变机制研究提供了一种较好的实验模型.

  7. Think Tanks and the Media: How the Conservative Movement Gained Entry into the Education Policy Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how the conservative movement has used both conservative think tanks and the media to gain entry into the field of education policy. The study examines how the conservative movement has attempted to use think tanks as legitimating organizations to enter the education policy arena by (a) measuring the historical growth in the…

  8. Cross-Cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An Arena for Facilitating Reflection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormnaes, Siri

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored how cross-cultural collaboration involving university lecturers from Norway (the North) and Egypt (the South), and student-teachers from Egypt, can be an arena for facilitating student-teachers' reflection and for challenging student-teachers' preconceived beliefs and perspectives about disability and education. The…

  9. Marine microbiology: A glimpse of the strides in the Indian and the global arena

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The chapter reviews the development in marine microbiology in the national and international arena. It traces salient features from the pre-Zobell era to the mid 1990s. The studies in India have just made a beginning into the molecular approaches...

  10. Arenas normalizadas españolas. Su preparación. 1ª parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1919, the Ministry of Public Works made the Central Laboratory responsable for all referring to sands with respect to the evaluation of tensile and compressive strengths of cement mortar. After 1956, the then Technical Institute of Construction and Cement took over the preparation and supply of this type of Spanish sand. Presently, these sands are still being prepared in a modern complex consisting of an installation in Segovia and the sand plant located at the lETcc.

    El Ministro de Fomento, en el año 1919, nominó al Laboratorio Central como Centro responsable en todo lo referente a arenas para la evaluación de las resistencias a tracción y compresión de los morteros de cemento. A partir de 1956, el entonces Instituto Técnico de la Construcción y del Cemento, pasó a preparar y suministrar este tipo de arena española. En la actualidad, estas arenas se continúan preparando mediante un moderno complejo compuesto por una instalación en Segovia y la planta de arenas situada en el lETcc.

  11. "An arena for sharing": Exploring the joint involvement of patients and their relatives in a cancer rehabilitation intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing focus on cancer rehabilitation programs, there is limited knowledge about the experiences of residential rehabilitation focusing on both the patients and their relatives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the experienced benefits of the joint...... involvement of patients and their relatives in a 5-day residential cancer rehabilitation course, provided as part of a larger intervention study in Denmark. Methods: Ethnographic fieldwork, consisting of participant observations and informal conversations, was conducted with 20 individuals (10 patients and 10...... relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  12. UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and interleukin-1αindirectly increase MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yong; BI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by activating cellular signalling transduction pathways. MMPs are responsible for the degradation and/or inhibition of synthesis of collagenous extracellular matrix in connective tissues. We mimicked the action of environmental ultraviolet on skin and investigated the effects of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes HaCaT and IL-1α on mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, c-Jun and c-Fos (AP-1 is composed of Jun and Fos proteins)mRNA expression and MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated dermal fibroblasts.Methods Following UVA irradiation, the culture medium of fibroblasts was replaced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated HaCaT, or replaced by the complete culture medium with interleukin (IL)-1α. MAP kinase activity expression in fibroblasts was detected by Western blot. c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expressions were determined by reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); MMP-1 production in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. IL-1α increased MAP kinase activity and c-Jun mRNA expression,IL-1 α also increased c-Fos mRNA expression. Both culture media from UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and externally applied IL-1 α increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts.Conclusions UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and IL-1α indirectly promote MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts by increasing MAP kinase/AP-1 activity. IL-1 may play an important role in the paracrine activation and dermal collagen excessive degradation leading to skin photoaging.

  13. Current trends in the cardiovascular clinical trial arena (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Cornel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of effective therapies for most cardiovascular disease states, coupled with increased requirements that potential benefits of new drugs be evaluated on clinical rather than surrogate endpoints, makes it increasingly difficult to substantiate any incremental improvements in efficacy that these new drugs might offer. Compounding the problem is the highly controversial issue of comparing new agents with placebos rather than active pharmaceuticals in drug efficacy trials. Despite the recent consensus that placebos may be used ethically in well-defined, justifiable circumstances, the problem persists, in part because of increased scrutiny by ethics committees but also because of considerable lingering disagreement regarding the propriety and scientific value of placebo-controlled trials (and trials of antihypertensive drugs in particular. The disagreement also substantially affects the most viable alternative to placebo-controlled trials: actively controlled equivalence/noninferiority trials. To a great extent, this situation was prompted by numerous previous trials of this type that were marked by fundamental methodological flaws and consequent false claims, inconsistencies, and potential harm to patients. As the development and use of generic drugs continue to escalate, along with concurrent pressure to control medical costs by substituting less-expensive therapies for established ones, any claim that a new drug, intervention, or therapy is "equivalent" to another should not be accepted without close scrutiny. Adherence to proper methods in conducting studies of equivalence will help investigators to avoid false claims and inconsistencies. These matters will be addressed in the third article of this three-part series.

  14. How do the BRIC countries play their roles in the global innovation arena? A study based on USPTO patents during 1990–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new taxonomy for the internationalization patterns of innovation of the BRIC countries within the global innovation landscape during the period 1990–2009. Based on the BRICs’ patents granted by the USPTO, we find (1) the BRICs gradually increased their roles in the global...... innovation arena with various degrees of internationalization; (2) the domestic-dominant pattern has widely countered the foreign dominance of innovation, while the collaborative multi-dominant pattern has increased; (3) a divergence of the BRICs’ global innovation output growth emerged, while...

  15. Evaluación de filtros de arena y de malla para riego por goteo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Mendoza Roncancio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del mecanismo de filtración y de los filtros empleados en la limpieza del agua para riego, es de gran importancia porque de su conocimiento y funcionamiento depende en gran medida la vida útil de un sistema de riego por goteo. Actualmente existen en Colombia empresas que fabrican filtros de arena y malla para sistemas de riego por goteo, carentes de información respecto al mecanismo de filtración y a la forma como funcionan realmente los filtros que producen. Con este trabajo se quiere llenar ese vacío y proponer, además, una metodología para las evaluaciones del filtro de arena, con una rata de filtrado de 100 galones por minuto (gpm y del filtro de malla de 100 mesh, para la misma rata de filtrado, por ser más utilizados en las instalaciones de este tipo de sistema de riego.

  16. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo de la ciudad que incrementa los valores del suelo con su proximidad. Este trabajo, muestra parte del proyecto de conservación "Parque Ecológico y Humedal Tres Puentes", cuyo objetivo principal es el de salvaguardar esta importante área ecológica.

  17. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Nuyens, F; Deleuze, J; Maurage, P; Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; Billieux, J

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the p...

  18. Structural health monitoring system of soccer arena based on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Victor V.; Churin, Alexey E.; Kharenko, Denis S.; Zheleznova, Maria A.; Shelemba, Ivan S.

    2014-05-01

    A structural health monitoring system based on optical sensors has been developed and installed on the indoor soccer arena "Zarya" in Novosibirsk. The system integrates 119 fiber optic sensors: 85 strain, 32 temperature and 2 displacement sensors. In addition, total station is used for measuring displacement in 45 control points. All of the constituents of the supporting structure are subjects for monitoring: long-span frames with under floor ties, connections, purlins and foundation.

  19. Becoming people : early iron age courtyard sites in Norway as arenas for rites de passage

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Niall John Oma

    2010-01-01

    This paper suggests that the courtyard sites of western Scandinavia were primarily arenas for transformation rituals from childhood to manhood. These were central, defining practices for both individuals and society as a whole. Due to their liminality, these processes can be difficult to engage with archaeologically. Also our cultural situatedness often leaves marginality out of interpretations. This paper wishes to show how youths and age-set institutions could be the producers of m...

  20. El control de la limpieza de las arenas por medio del ensayo del azul de metileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Ortiz, J. L.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, the main lines of the investigation work developed at LABEIN on the «Influence of the limy and clayey slimes from calcareous crushed sands on concrete properties» are presented. As a consequence of it, new limits are proposed to consideration regarding the admissible content of slime in crushed sands, reaching a limit higher than 15%, controling the slime nature by means of an equivalent of normal sand and specially by Methylene Blue. The second part of the work is devoted to the development of the methodology for the obtention of Methylene Blue, in sands used in the elaboration of concrete which have a little amount of clay, taking as a base the method applied by French normative, duly adapted and with different expression of the results.Se muestran, en la primera parte del artículo, las líneas fundamentales del trabajo de investigación desarrollado en LABEIN, sobre la «Influencia de los finos calizos y arcillosos de arenas calizas de machaqueo, en las propiedades del hormigón». Como consecuencia del mismo, se proponen nuevos límites a considerar respecto al contenido admisible de finos en las arenas calizas de machaqueo, llegando a un límite superior del 15%, controlando la naturaleza de los finos por medio del equivalente de arena a vista, y, sobre todo, por el Azul de Metileno. En la segunda parte del artículo, se desarrolla la metodología utilizada para obtener el Azul de Metileno, en arenas utilizadas en la confección de hormigón, que poseen poca arcilla, basándose en el método aplicado por la normativa francesa, adaptado convenientemente y con diferente expresión de resultados.

  1. Crisis Communication and the Rhetorical Arena - A Multi-Vocal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni; Frandsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of a new model of crisis communication called the rhetorical arena. This new model is compared to W. Benoit's theory of image restoration strategies and T. Coomb's theory of crisis communication as relationship management. The new model is based on a multi-vocal approach taking...... into account the many corporate and non corporate 'voices' which meet, compete, collaborate or negotiate during a crisis situation. The model conceives crisis communication as mediated through four parameters: context, media, genre, and text....

  2. Anisotropía de esfuerzos y resistencia al corte de arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernando Camacho Tauta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de esfuerzos tiene influencia sobre el comportamiento y la resistencia de los suelos. De particular interés es la condición anisotrópica de esfuerzos en que se presentan la mayoría de los suelos en condiciones naturales. Esta condición produce una disposición de las partículas que hace que las propiedades mecánicas tales como la rigidez inical o la resistencia al corte se vean afectadas. Se desarrollaron ensayos de laboratorio para estudiar de qué forma se pueden relacionar las condiciones de anisotropía inducida por esfuerzos, sobre los parámetros de resistencia en arenas. Se utilizó arena limpia y se controló cuidadosamente la ditribución granulométrica y la densidad relativa de cada espécimen, el cual se sometió a una combinación preestablecida de esfuerzos bajo condiciones drenadas. Finalmente cada probeta fue llevada a la falla para obtener los parámetros de resistencia al corte. Los resultados obtenidos muestran variaciones hasta del 10% en el ángulo de fricción interna, dependiendo de la densidad relativa del material y se observaron efectos negativos, especialmente en arenas mal gradadas de densidad relativa media.

  3. Keeping gay and bisexual men safe: The arena of HIV prevention science and praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam Isaiah

    2016-04-01

    Abstract In this article, I draw from an ongoing ethnographic study of HIV prevention for gay, bisexual, and 'men who have sex with men' to develop an institutional analysis of HIV behavioral intervention science and praxis. I approach this analysis through the lens of the social worlds framework, focusing on the institutional arena in which HIV behavioral interventions are devised and executed. Toward this end, I focus on two fundamental points of contention that lie at the heart of the prevention enterprise and put its social organization in high relief: (1) conceptions of health and lifestyle practices and (2) attributions of expertise. These core contentions reveal less the steady advance of normal science than an arena of actors ensconced in boundary work and jurisdictional struggles over how to engineer behavior change and reduce the scale of the HIV epidemic. Their resolution, I argue, has occurred in a historically contingent process determined by the political economy of the US HIV prevention arena and the differential structural location of its social worlds.

  4. Confianza, influencia política e intercambio de recursos en arenas decisorias regionales Trust, Political Influence, and Exchange of Resources in Regional Decision-Making Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMIRO BERARDO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura politológica destaca la importancia de la confianza en la emergencia de procesos sociopolíticos cooperativos, pero en la politología latinoamericana no existen aún exploraciones empíricas de la relación entre confianza y otras variables que también afectan la cooperación en arenas decisorias regionales. Este artículo contribuye a solucionar esta limitación examinando la relación entre confianza, intercambio de recursos y reconocimiento de influencia política, entre actores de tres regiones subnacionales de la Argentina. Los resultados sugieren que tanto el reconocimiento de influencia como el intercambio de recursos se correlacionan de manera muy significativa con las relaciones de confianza que existe entre los actores. Esta relación tiene implicancias sobre procesos de gobernanza a nivel regional, que discutimos en detalle.Research in political science has identified trust as an important variable for the emergence of cooperative social-political processes, but there are no empirical explorations in Latin American political science yet of the relationship between trust and other variables that are thought to affect cooperation in regional decision-making arenas. This article contributes to addressing this limitation by examining the relationship between trust, exchange of resources, and perception of political influence among actors in 3 sub-national regions in Argentina. Results suggest that these variables are significantly related to each other, which has implications for our understanding of how regional governance processes work. We discuss these implications in detail.

  5. Resistencia a licuación de la arena terrígena de Aguablanca en Santiago de Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimar Sandoval-Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona nororiental de Santiago de Cali/Colombia contiene abundantes depósitos de arenas terrígenas. Estas arenas se encuentran con bajo contenido de finos, muy baja compacidad, y con niveles freáticos altos debido a su cercanía a las riveras del río Cauca. Estas características, junto con la alta sismicidad de la ciudad, hacen que el fenómeno de licuación sea un riesgo inminente en la zona. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental llevado a cabo para evaluar la resistencia a licuación de la arena terrígena de Aguablanca en Santiago de Cali. El programa experimental involucró caracterización mineralógica, propiedades índice y ensayos triaxiales cíclicos no drenados sobre muestras reconstruidas consolidadas isótropamente. Se realiza una comparación con investigaciones realizadas sobre otras arenas de sílice, y sobre una arena calcárea. Los resultados mostraron una muy baja resistencia a licuación de las arenas del sector de Aguablanca con respecto a las demás, cuando fueron probadas bajo condiciones similares.

  6. Sharing Only Parts of Me: Selective Categorical Self-Disclosure Across Internet Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Attrill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research that has considered how individuals share their personal information in online compared to offline disclosures has often demonstrated heightened and accelerated disclosures in online interactions. Recent work has shown that this acceleration may be more likely to occur for the sharing of superficial self-information in initial general online interactions. This work was extended to explore the reported content of online disclosures in four different Internet arenas, social networking, instant messaging, general communication and online shopping. Using a self-disclosure scale amongst a sample of students to measure the revelation of information pertaining to individuals’ beliefs, relationships, personal matters, interests and intimate feelings, the current findings showed that self-disclosure could be more categorical and goal-directed than can be accounted for by existing cue-impoverished and text-based explanations of online self-disclosure. Participants reported self-disclosing significantly less on online shopping sites than in the three communications type arenas. A consistent pattern of significant differences in the sharing of superficial (interests, relationships & personal matters and more personal or intimate (intimate feelings & beliefs information in instant messaging, social networking and general communication, along with an absence of significant intra-categorical disclosures is in line with hyperpersonal computer-mediated communication theory in that people selectively choose which information to self-disclose online, a proposal further supported by a significant decrease from relationship to personal matters information in instant messaging. These findings imply that categorical disclosures could be mapped onto the social cognitive self-memory-system model of autobiographical memory in line with the social penetration theory of self-disclosure. The findings along with non-significant differences in reported levels of

  7. Historia social de la música en Punta Arenas, Chile, desde 1894 hasta 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Almonte, Nelia

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objeto conocer fragmentos de la historia social de la música en la ciudad de Punta Arenas, Chile, desde el año 1894 hasta 1945. El propósito del trabajo es rescatar la memoria de un pueblo y aportar a rasgos de identidad en las generaciones venideras. La investigación se ha guiado desde la perspectiva cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico donde se ha utilizado la técnica de entrevista semiestructurada con respuesta abierta a personas de más de 70 ...

  8. Evaluación de filtros de arena y de malla para riego por goteo

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El estudio del mecanismo de filtración y de los filtros empleados en la limpieza del agua para riego, es de gran importancia porque de su conocimiento y funcionamiento depende en gran medida la vida útil de un sistema de riego por goteo. Actualmente existen en Colombia empresas que fabrican filtros de arena y malla para sistemas de riego por goteo, carentes de información respecto al mecanismo de filtración y a la forma como funcionan realmente los filtros que producen. Con este trabajo se qu...

  9. Consideration of three arenas of social control for the treatment and management of sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, S D

    1998-12-01

    This paper sets out to explore the influences of social control upon the discourse relating to treatment and management of sexual offenders. This discussion takes as its foci three environmental arenas (social, penal/judicial and health care), and examines their influences and culpability within this context. It is not the intention of this article to present, nor does it arrive at, any answers to the perpetual concerns of treatment and management of this offender group, preferring to leave it to the individual reader to draw their own conclusions. It is accepted that there is no gender demarcation amongst sexual offenders, though in this paper, the masculine tense is used.

  10. Palmeiras lucra com arena mais do que 3 rivais juntos, mostra estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Itri, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    No primeiro ano em que começou o Brasileiro com sua nova arena, o Palmeiras lucrou com bilheteria mais do que o Corinthians, São Paulo e Santos juntos, aponta levantamento da Diretoria de Análise de Políticas Públicas da FGV. O estudo diz que o clube alviverde faturou R$ 8,4 milhões nas dez primeiras rodadas do torneio nacional, e os três rivais do Estado, R$ 5,4 milhões.

  11. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  12. Water Rights Arenas in the Andes: Upscaling Networks to Strengthen Local Water Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutgerd Boelens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The threats that Andean water user collectives face are ever-growing in a globalising society. Water is power and engenders social struggle. In the Andean region, water rights struggles involve not only disputes over the access to water, infrastructure and related resources, but also over the contents of water rules and rights, the recognition of legitimate authority, and the discourses that are mobilised to sustain water governance structures and rights orders. While open and large-scale water battles such as Bolivia’s 'Water Wars' or nationwide mobilisations in Ecuador get the most public attention, low-profile and more localised water rights encounters, ingrained in local territories, are far more widespread and have an enormous impact on the Andean waterscapes. This paper highlights both water arenas and the ways they operate between the legal and the extralegal. It shows how local collectives build on their own water rights foundations to manage internal water affairs but which simultaneously offer an important home-base for strategising wider water defence manoeuvres. Hand-in-hand with inwardly reinforcing their rights bases, water user groups aim for horizontal and vertical linkages thereby creating strategic alliances. Sheltering an internal school for rights and identity development, reflection and organisation, these local community foundations, through open and subsurface linkages and fluxes, provide the groundwork for upscaling their water rights defence networks to national and transnational arenas.

  13. Religando as arenas institucionais: uma proposta de abordagens multidimensionais nos estudos legislativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Peres

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A área de estudos legislativos foi uma das linhas de pesquisa que mais se desenvolveram no Brasil nos últimos anos. Ela formou-se em torno da oposição entre as explicações "distributivistas" e as explicações "partidárias" do processo legislativo. Seus achados empíricos e seu debate teórico certamente trouxeram grandes contribuições à Ciência Política do país e, até mesmo, ao debate de política comparada. Não obstante, essa linha de investigação incorreu no problema de adotar abordagens monodimensionais do fenômeno. A explicação partidária promoveu certo "insulamento" do poder Legislativo em relação às outras arenas institucionais, analisando-o em função de sua autodeterminação. A abordagem distributivista investiu quase exclusivamente no sistema eleitoral como variável explicativa, deixando em segundo plano outras arenas institucionais. Diante disso, nossa proposta é analisar os limites dessas abordagens presentes nos estudos legislativos, de forma a destacar algumas lacunas explicativas que poderiam ser preenchidas por meio de uma agenda de pesquisas multidimensionais, que considerem, por exemplo, as organizações partidárias e o poder Judiciário.

  14. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  15. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  16. New learning arenas for shop stewards - a new political agenda for unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

      Danish trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with many different competencies. The impact of these courses have been analysed in various projects focusing on how the shop stewards can use elements from the courses in their daily practice. However......, little attention has been paid to the learning processes shop stewards develop when they are engaged in their daily practice in their workplaces, and not least how development of new learning environments or arenas can bridge learning issues in daily workplace practices and on educational courses...... in collaboration with researchers developed ideas for new learning environments and new political agendas for the shop steward. Besides presenting these results and relating them to overall political and societal challenges I will in the paper shortly outline preliminary ideas on how shop stewards learning...

  17. Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena; 1, Kinematical structure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R; Pullin, J; Bartolo, Cayetano Di; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Pullin, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    We generalize the idea of Vassiliev invariants to the spin network context, with the aim of using these invariants as a kinematical arena for a canonical quantization of gravity. This paper presents a detailed construction of these invariants (both ambient and regular isotopic) requiring a significant elaboration based on the use of Chern-Simons perturbation theory which extends the work of Kauffman, Martin and Witten to four-valent networks. We show that this space of knot invariants has the crucial property -from the point of view of the quantization of gravity- of being loop differentiable in the sense of distributions. This allows the definition of diffeomorphism and Hamiltonian constraints. We show that the invariants are annihilated by the diffeomorphism constraint. In a companion paper we elaborate on the definition of a Hamiltonian constraint, discuss the constraint algebra, and show that the construction leads to a consistent theory of canonical quantum gravity.

  18. Use of land facets to plan for climate change: conserving the arenas, not the actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Paul; Brost, Brian

    2010-06-01

    Even under the most optimistic scenarios, during the next century human-caused climate change will threaten many wild populations and species. The most useful conservation response is to enlarge and link protected areas to support range shifts by plants and animals. To prioritize land for reserves and linkages, some scientists attempt to chain together four highly uncertain models (emission scenarios, global air-ocean circulation, regional circulation, and biotic response). This approach has high risk of error propagation and compounding and produces outputs at a coarser scale than conservation decisions. Instead, we advocate identifying land facets-recurring landscape units with uniform topographic and soil attributes-and designing reserves and linkages for diversity and interspersion of these units. This coarse-filter approach would conserve the arenas of biological activity, rather than the temporary occupants of those arenas. Integrative, context-sensitive variables, such as insolation and topographic wetness, are useful for defining land facets. Classification procedures such as k-means or fuzzy clustering are a good way to define land facets because they can analyze millions of pixels and are insensitive to case order. In regions lacking useful soil maps, river systems or riparian plants can indicate important facets. Conservation planners should set higher representation targets for rare and distinctive facets. High interspersion of land facets can promote ecological processes, evolutionary interaction, and range shift. Relevant studies suggest land-facet diversity is a good surrogate for today's biodiversity, but fails to conserve some species. To minimize such failures, a reserve design based on land facets should complement, rather than replace, other approaches. Designs based on land facets are not biased toward data-rich areas and can be applied where no maps of land cover exist.

  19. Characteristics That Differentiate Telecommuting from Non-Telecommuting Professionals in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in working from home in contrast to going to an office continues to be a growing phenomenon. This research examined personal characteristics of telecommuters and non-telecommuters including age, gender, years of working for the organization, and job satisfaction in the quality control and quality assurance arena. This study aimed to…

  20. 75 FR 49926 - Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Arena Energy, L.P. v. Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint.... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent) alleging that...

  1. The Causes Of Arena Audience Misconduct And The Way To Remodel Sport Ethical Behavior%赛场观众行为失范的成因与道德行为重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳芳

    2011-01-01

    Arena audience misconduct is currently a popular international sports social problem,in recent years the phenomenon of arena audience misconduct is also gradually increasing.Through looking up literatures and materials,this article interpretes the meaning of audience misconduct and analyzes the causes of audience misconduct by inducing,mainly from the internal factors and external factors,on this basis,advancing the way to remodel ethical behavior of the audience,in order to provide references for optimizing the cultural environment of sports arena.%赛场观众行为失范是当前一个比较普遍的国际性体育社会问题,近年来中国赛场观众行为失范现象在逐渐增多。通过文献资料法对赛场观众行为失范的涵义进行阐释,并采用归纳法从内在因素和外在因素出发,分析造成赛场观众行为失范的成因,在此基础上,提出对观众进行道德行为重塑的途径,以期为优化中国体育赛场文化环境提供参考依据。

  2. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus: what’s new in the management arena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ajoy Kumar1, Vibhuti Singh21Bayfront Family Medicine Residency, St Petersburg FL, USA; 2University of South Florida College of Medicine and Suncoast Cardiovascular Center, St Petersburg, FL, USAAbstract: When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%. For this reason diabetes is considered a “coronary disease equivalent” condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocar­dial infarction have a poorer prognosis than non­diabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycer­ides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.Keywords: atherogenic dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus

  3. Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Weikang

    2016-01-01

    The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a trend of loss of correlation for the UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of -0.688 which drops to -0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will de...

  4. Ultra faint dwarf galaxies: an arena for testing dark matter versus modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha

    2016-10-01

    The scenario consistent with a wealth of observations for the missing mass problem is that of weakly interacting dark matter particles. However, arguments or proposals for a Newtonian or relativistic modified gravity scenario continue to be made. A distinguishing characteristic between the two scenarios is that dark matter particles can produce a gravitational effect, in principle, without the need of baryons while this is not the case for the modified gravity scenario where such an effect must be correlated with the amount of baryonic matter. We consider here ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies as a promising arena to test the two scenarios based on the above assertion. We compare the correlation of the luminosity with the velocity dispersion between samples of UFD and non-UFD galaxies, finding a significant loss of correlation for UFD galaxies. For example, we find for 28 non-UFD galaxies a strong correlation coefficient of -0.688 which drops to -0.077 for the 23 UFD galaxies. Incoming and future data will determine whether the observed stochasticity for UFD galaxies is physical or due to systematics in the data. Such a loss of correlation (if it is to persist) is possible and consistent with the dark matter scenario for UFD galaxies but would constitute a new challenge for the modified gravity scenario.

  5. Construction of a policy arena: the case of public health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Henri; Nathanson, Constance A

    2012-02-01

    In this article we examine the transformation over the past two decades of public health as a policy arena in France from a backwater of little interest to politicians, bureaucrats, the media, and the public into a central preoccupation of the state. Recent dramatic health crises (the scandal over HIV-contaminated blood, mad cow disease, etc.) have substantially raised the political profile of (and corresponding state investment in) public health in France, offering opportunities and incentives for political actors not traditionally associated with public health to enter the field and challenging more traditional actors to galvanize themselves and compete for this newly attractive policy terrain. We use the occasion of the passage of a public health law in 2004, labeled by its proponents as the "first" public health law in one hundred years, to show how, in a context of national struggle to contain both risks and costs, "public health" -- chameleonlike -- has taken on various meanings and forms to serve highly conflicting political interests.

  6. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  7. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus: what's new in the management arena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajoy; Singh, Vibhuti

    2010-09-07

    When compared with the general population, the diabetic population is at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as predicted by the Framingham Risk Score calculations (10-year risk 20%). For this reason diabetes is considered a "coronary disease equivalent" condition, as classified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III. Furthermore, patients with diabetes who experience a myocardial infarction have a poorer prognosis than nondiabetic patients, which contributes to their overall higher mortality. Dyslipidemia is a major underlying risk factor contributing to the excess CVD risk, and is usually more atherogenic in the presence of diabetes. It is uniquely manifested by raised levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smaller, denser, and more atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles. Recent trials have suggested the need for more aggressive treatment of dyslipidemia in this subpopulation than the current recommendations by the NCEP-ATP III. This review addresses the newer developments in the diabetes arena in terms of our current understanding of atherogenic dyslipidemia in diabetes and data from the latest randomized trials addressing its management.

  8. Climate Scientists In The Public Arena: Who's Got Our Backs? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Climate scientists have an important role to play in informing the public discourse on human-caused climate change. Our scientific expertise provides us a unique, informed perspective, and despite recent high profile attacks against climate science, the public still affords climate scientists the greatest trust to deliver an honest, unbiased assessment of the potential threats posed by climate changes. Yet, as with all areas of science where powerful special interests perceive themselves as threatened by the findings of science, scientists enter the public fray at our peril. Our efforts to communicate the science are opposed by a well-funded, highly organized disinformation effort that aims to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding. In recent years, the disinformation campaign has demonstrated a willingness to attack individual, climate scientists as a means of achieving a broader end: discrediting climate science itself. These attacks are rarely fought in legitimate scientific circles such as the peer-reviewed scientific literature or other scholarly venues, but rather through rhetorical efforts delivered by nonscientists, using ideologically aligned media outlets, special interest groups, and politicians. Scientists are massively out-funded and outmanned in this battle, and will lose if leading scientific institutions and organizations remain on the sidelines. I will discuss this dilemma, drawing upon my own experiences in the public arena of climate change.

  9. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Bahník

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject’s avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark.

  10. VARIACIÓN DE LA CONDUCTIVIDAD HIDRÁULICA SATURADA DE ARENAS CON EL CONTENIDO DE FINOS LIMOSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Espinoza Meléndez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la variación de la conductividad hidráulica saturada de arenas finas con el contenido de finos y con el grado de acomodo, en muestras remoldeadas. Las muestras de suelo se formaron con la humedad óptima y peso volumétrico seco correspondiente a la relación de vacíos del grado de acomodo de la arena fina. La conductividad hidráulica saturada se determinó con el método del permeámetro de carga constante y con el de carga variable. No hubo diferencias significativas entre ambos métodos de prueba..

  11. A Qualitative Exploration of Factors Affecting Group Cohesion and Team Play in Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    Previous research examining the social psychology of video-gaming has tended to focus on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) environments, such as World of Warcraft. Although many online group processes have been examined using this game, this genre does not enforce cooperative play and studies tend to be based on very large groups. Newer genres are being developed and played which have so far not been studied. The genre known as Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBAs) ar...

  12. Modelación de yacimientos de arena y grava en la llanura sur de Pinar del Río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmidio Estévez-Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación está dirigida a la tipificación de los yacimientos de arena y grava de la llanura sur y la identificación, a escala regional, de los principales factores controladores. La construcción de los modelos se basa en: 1 estudio de los datos aportados por investigaciones previas, 2 procesamiento de datos granulométricos, y 3 estudio del patrón de distribución espacial de los yacimientos empleando métodos de análisis espacial (análisis fractal y de Fry. El análisis de agrupamiento (cluster analysis, empleando los parámetros granulométricos, individualizó 5 grupos diferentes de yacimientos. El gráfico de Fry, para los yacimientos de la parte central de la llanura, reveló que los cuerpos se localizan dentro de una banda estrecha de dirección NE y en ella los depósitos constituyen grupos de lentes de arena. Atendiendo a los resultados del análisis fractal, el patrón de distribución de los lentes es bifractal, lo que implica que los controles de la deposición y localización operan en dos escalas espaciales diferentes. Sobre la base del procesamiento se identifican tres tipos principales de yacimientos: depósitos de arena cuarzosa bien clasificada de origen aluvial-deltaico, depósitos de arena cuarzosa con alto contenido de arcilla, de origen aluvial-marino, que incluye los subtipos central y occidental y los depósitos de origen aluvial asociados a los ríos actuales.

  13. Truelo de tipologias estratégicas na arena das franquias de fast food no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Almiro Brandt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo testar as tipologias de estratégias de Porter, Miles & Snow e Mintzberg nas franquias de fast food que operam no Brasil, destacando o impacto da resolução do trade-off clássico poder explanatório versus parcimônia na capacidade descritiva das alternativas. Com base em extensa revisão bibliográfica, compreendendo estratégias, ambiente e desempenho, foram selecionados dez métodos competitivos e três variáveis de desempenho para análise da base de dados produzida a partir da pesquisa de campo realizada por Cohen (1998. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente empregando-se análise multivariável (cluster e manova e estatística não-paramétrica, de forma a permitir a identificação de grupos estratégicos de acordo com as tipologias em estudo. Por fim, o desempenho médio dos grupos estratégicos formados foi comparado com os resultados preconizados pelos respectivos modelos teóricos. Constatou-se que as três tipologias testadas exibem capacidades descritivas distintas, sendo que a de Porter demonstrou maior aderência às franquias de fast food que operavam no Brasil na época. A parcimônia acabou sendo mais crítica em uma arena turbulenta e recessiva.

  14. Skolan är en lättköpt arena - livskunskap i kritisk belysning

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    Kerstin von Brömssen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade a school subject with the designation of Life Competence Education ("Livskunskap" in Swedish has emerged in many Swedish schools. The aim of this article is to describe and analyse the subject Life Competence Education, its historical and ideological roots and current place in the curricula of some selected schools. The article is based on analyses of policy documents, interviews and participant observations from fieldwork in two upper secondary schools and in one course for further training of teachers arranged by a municipality. Work by Foucault, especially on governmentality, is used as an analytic tool, as well as work developed from Foucault by Nicolas Rose and Stephen J. Ball. The analyses show that the subject Life Competence Education is constructed in many varied ways in Swedish schools due to different influences, both from the state, but also from private policy entrepreneurs (Ball, 2006. It is also shown that the SET-programme, which is only one example of programmes used for this type of education, is quite widely used in Life Competence Education in Swedish schools. In light of analyses from Foucault and Rose, I suggest that these programmes can be seen as the “psy”, i.e. the “psychological domains” (Rose, 1999, entering into the educational arena and with the help of behaviouristic theories constructing "governable subjects" (Foucault, 1988, 1991. This raises questions regarding what kind of subjects are constructed in Life Competence Education, with what kind of methods, as well as how these methods are construed in the light of the Swedish National Curriculum

  15. ACCOUNTING STANDARD SETTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA: UPDATE ON THE CONVERGENCE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper contributes to the literature on international accounting by focusing on the standard setting process. As documented by research literature, accounting regulation can enhance corporate governance (Melis and Carta, 2010, corporate reporting being expected to reduce information asymmetry. Based on accounting research and trade literature we first synthesize recent evolutions in the international accounting arena. We therefore position our study within current realities significantly marked by uncertainty in relation to the world wide globalization process. The objective of our paper is to perform an analysis that would help assess further developments of the convergence project. This is done by looking at the current status of the projects being developed under the IASB –FASB collaboration, as well as by developing a comparison between IFRS and US GAAP. The employed research methodology relies on analyzing data provided through the IASB and the FASB’s websites, as well as other official documents being issued by the two Boards. The assessment of the projects was done by reviewing exposure documents and monitoring the Boards’ deliberations, while the developed comparison requires accounting regulations content analysis. Concluding upon the Boards’ ongoing projects, we might identify areas in which convergence seems to be quite close (such as revenue recognition and leasing, but also areas in which convergence becomes even more challenging (such as financial instruments or the particular case of offsetting. Similar to other studies being developed within accounting research and trade literature (SEC 2011: 8 we may conclude that, generally, US GAAP present more detailed, specific requirements than IFRS.

  16. Increased activator protein 1 activity as well as resistance to heat-induced radiosensitization, hydrogen peroxide, and cisplatin are inhibited by indomethacin in oxidative stress-resistant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, C M; Locke, J E; Wei, S J; Rene, L M; Karimpour, S; Hunt, C; Spitz, D R; Gius, D

    2001-04-15

    It has been established that tumor cells develop resistance to a variety of therapeutic agents after multiple exposures to these agents/drugs. Many of these therapeutic agents also appear to increase the activity of transcription factors, such as activator protein 1 (AP-1), believed to be involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that cellular resistance to cancer therapeutic agents may involve the increased activity of transcription factors that govern resistance to oxidative stress, such as AP-1. To investigate this hypothesis, a previously characterized cisplatin, hyperthermia, and oxidative stress-resistant Chinese hamster fibroblast cell line, OC-14, was compared to the parental HA-1 cell line. Electrophoretic mobility shift and Western blot assays performed on extracts isolated from OC-14 cells demonstrated a 10-fold increase in constitutive AP-1 DNA-binding activity as well as increased constitutive c-Fos and c-Jun immunoreactive protein relative to HA-1 cells. Treatment of OC-14 cells with indomethacin inhibited constitutive increases in AP-1 DNA-binding activity and c-Fos/c-Jun-immunoreactive protein levels. Clonogenic survival assays demonstrated that pretreatment with indomethacin, at concentrations that inhibited AP-1 activity, significantly reduced the resistance of OC-14 cells to heat-induced radiosensitization, hydrogen peroxide, and cisplatin. These results demonstrate a relationship between increases in AP-1 DNA-binding activity and increased cellular resistance to cancer therapeutic agents and oxidative stress that is inhibited by indomethacin. These results support the hypothesis that inhibition of AP-1 activity with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as indomethacin, may represent a useful adjuvant to cancer therapy.

  17. El comportamiento del viento en la morfología urbana y su incidencia en el uso estancial del espacio público, Punta Arenas, Chile = The behavior of wind in urban morphology and its incidence in the resting use of public space, Punta Arenas, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther; Bustamante, Carlos; Jans, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    El comportamiento del viento en la morfología urbana y su incidencia en el uso estancial del espacio público, Punta Arenas, Chile = The behavior of wind in urban morphology and its incidence in the resting use of public space, Punta Arenas, Chile

  18. Consensus document regarding cardiovascular safety at sports arenas: position stand from the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR), section of Sports Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borjesson, M.; Serratosa, L.; Carre, F.; Corrado, D.; Drezner, J.; Dugmore, D.L.; Heidbuchel, H.H.; Mellwig, K.P.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Papadakis, M.; Rasmusen, H.; Sharma, S.; Solberg, E.E.; Buuren, F. van; Pelliccia, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass gathering events in sports arenas create challenges regarding the cardiovascular safety of both athletes and spectators. A comprehensive medical action plan, to ensure properly applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and wide availability and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), is e

  19. Male mice emit distinct ultrasonic vocalizations when the female leaves the social interaction arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu eYang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice emit large number of complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs when interacting with adult females. Call numbers and call categories differ greatly among inbred mouse strains. Little is known about USV emissions when the social partner departs. To investigate whether call repertoires and call rates are different when the male is interacting with a female and after the removal of the female, we designed a novel male-female social interaction test in which vocalizations were recorded across three phases. During phase 1, the male subject freely interacts with an unfamiliar estrus female mouse in a clean cage for 5 minutes. During phase 2, the female is removed while the male remains in the cage for 3 minutes. During phase 3, the same female is returned to the cage to rejoin the male subject mouse for 3 minutes. C57BL/6J (B6, FVB.129P2-Pde6b(+ Tyr(c-ch/Ant (FVB, and BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR male subject mice were tested in this paradigm. All three strains emitted USVs during the absence of the estrous female, although at lower rates. When the female was reintroduced in phase 3, numbers of USVs were similar to the initial introductory phase 1. Strain comparisons indicated fewer calls in pairs of BTBR males and stimulus females than in pairs of B6 males and stimulus females and pairs of FVB males and stimulus females. In the absence of the female, all FVB males vocalized, while only one third of B6 males and one third of BTBR males vocalized. In all three strains, changes in call repertoires were detected after the female was removed. Call categories reverted to the phase 1 pattern when the female was returned in phase 3. Present findings indicate that males of commonly used inbred strains emit USVs when a partner female leaves the testing arena, suggesting that removing a salient social stimulus may be a unique approach to elicit USVs from mice. Our three-phase paradigm may also be useful for studying attention to social cues, and qualitative

  20. Cultivo de la ostra Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1795 en un vivero artesanal, La arena, Casma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltazar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la metodología empleada para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico Crassostrea gigas en un vivero artesanal, en el Centro Acuícola La Arena, Casma. Se utilizó reproductores en fase intermedia de madurez gonádica procedentes de líneas de cultivo del Centro Acuícola. El acondicionamiento se realizó en tanques de fibra de vidrio de 1000 L, con agua de mar sin filtrar a una temperatura de 27 ± 0,9 oC; adicionalmente se les alimentó con fécula de maíz y microalgas obtenidas en el lugar y cultivadas al aire libre. El desove se indujo para un grupo sólo por estimulación térmica (30 a 31 oC y para el otro se añadió además peróxido de hidrógeno, a lo cual se presentaron respuestas diferentes. A los 20 minutos después de la fertilización se observó, en el 100% de huevos fecundados, el cuerpo polar definido y a las 24 horas las larvas veliger. Las larvas alcanzaron el estado de pediveliger luego de 20 días de cultivo, con tallas promedios de 237 ± 10 µm. Para la fijación de las larvas se utilizó conchuela molida (300 µm, plástico negro lijado y valvas de ostras. A los 33 días se obtuvieron semillas con tallas medias de 1262 ± 204 µm las que fueron colocadas en pearl net para su desarrollo en el mar. A los 30 días de la siembra en el mar, la talla promedio de las postlarvas alcanzó los 13,4 ± 3,4 mm. El trabajo muestra las ventajas de la metodología descrita en la producción masiva de semillas en un vivero artesanal.

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on continental margins: New frontiers and engagement arena for global sustainability research and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. K.; Glavovic, B.; Limburg, K.; Emeis, K. C.; Thomas, H.; Kremer, H.; Avril, B.; Zhang, J.; Mulholland, M. R.; Glaser, M.; Swaney, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need to design and implement transformative governance strategies that safeguard Earth's life-support systems essential for long-term human well-being. From a series of meetings of the Continental Margins Working Group co-sponsored by IMBER and LOICZ of IGBP, we conclude that the greatest urgency exists at the ocean-land interface - the continental margins or the Margin - which extends from coastlands over continental shelves and slopes bordering the deep ocean. The Margin is enduring quadruple squeeze from (i) Population growth and rising demands for resources; (ii) Ecosystem degradation and loss; (iii) Rising CO2, climate change and alteration of marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems; and (iv) Rapid and irreversible changes in social-ecological systems. Some areas of the Margin that are subject to the greatest pressures (e.g. the Arctic) are also those for which knowledge of fundamental processes remains most limited. Aside from improving our basic understanding of the nature and variability of the Margin, priority issues include: (i) investment reform to prevent lethal but profitable activities; (ii) risk reduction; and (iii) jurisdiction, equity and fiscal responsibility. However, governance deficits or mismatches are particularly pronounced at the ocean-edge of the Margin and the prevailing Law of the Sea is incapable of resolving these challenges. The "gold rush" of accelerating demands for space and resources, and variability in how this domain is regulated, move the Margin to the forefront of global sustainability research and action. We outline a research strategy in 3 engagement arenas: (a) knowledge and understanding of dynamic Margin processes; (b) development, innovation and risk at the Margin; and (c) governance for sustainability on the Margin. The goals are (1) to better understand Margin social-ecological systems, including their physical and biogeochemical components; (2) to develop practical guidance for sustainable development

  2. Serotonin receptors are involved in the spinal mediation of descending facilitation of surgical incision-induced increase of Fos-like immunoreactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Wiliam A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending pronociceptive pathways may be implicated in states of persistent pain. Paw skin incision is a well-established postoperative pain model that causes behavioral nociceptive responses and enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The number of spinal c-Fos positive neurons of rats treated intrathecally with serotonin, noradrenaline or acetylcholine antagonists where evaluated to study the descending pathways activated by a surgical paw incision. Results The number of c-Fos positive neurons in laminae I/II ipsilateral, lamina V bilateral to the incised paw, and in lamina X significantly increased after the incision. These changes: remained unchanged in phenoxybenzamine-treated rats; were increased in the contralateral lamina V of atropine-treated rats; were inhibited in the ipsilateral lamina I/II by 5-HT1/2B/2C (methysergide, 5-HT2A (ketanserin or 5-HT1/2A/2C/5/6/7 (methiothepin receptors antagonists, in the ipsilateral lamina V by methysergide or methiothepin, in the contralateral lamina V by all the serotonergic antagonists and in the lamina X by LY 278,584, ketanserin or methiothepin. Conclusions We conclude: (1 muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms reduce incision-induced response of spinal neurons inputs from the contralateral paw; (2 5-HT1/2A/2C/3 receptors-mediate mechanisms increase the activity of descending pathways that facilitates the response of spinal neurons to noxious inputs from the contralateral paw; (3 5-HT1/2A/2C and 5-HT1/2C receptors increases the descending facilitation mechanisms induced by incision in the ipsilateral paw; (4 5-HT2A/3 receptors contribute to descending pronociceptive pathways conveyed by lamina X spinal neurons; (5 α-adrenergic receptors are unlikely to participate in the incision-induced facilitation of the spinal neurons.

  3. Development of a new method to track multiple honey bees with complex behaviors on a flat laboratory arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Kimura

    Full Text Available A computer program that tracks animal behavior, thereby revealing various features and mechanisms of social animals, is a powerful tool in ethological research. Because honeybee colonies are populated by thousands of bees, individuals co-exist in high physical densities and are difficult to track unless specifically tagged, which can affect behavior. In addition, honeybees react to light and recordings must be made under special red-light conditions, which the eyes of bees perceive as darkness. The resulting video images are scarcely distinguishable. We have developed a new algorithm, K-Track, for tracking numerous bees in a flat laboratory arena. Our program implements three main processes: (A The object (bee's region is detected by simple threshold processing on gray scale images, (B Individuals are identified by size, shape and spatiotemporal positional changes, and (C Centers of mass of identified individuals are connected through all movie frames to yield individual behavioral trajectories. The tracking performance of our software was evaluated on movies of mobile multi-artificial agents and of 16 bees walking around a circular arena. K-Track accurately traced the trajectories of both artificial agents and bees. In the latter case, K-track outperformed Ctrax, well-known software for tracking multiple animals. To investigate interaction events in detail, we manually identified five interaction categories; 'crossing', 'touching', 'passing', 'overlapping' and 'waiting', and examined the extent to which the models accurately identified these categories from bee's interactions. All 7 identified failures occurred near a wall at the outer edge of the arena. Finally, K-Track and Ctrax successfully tracked 77 and 60 of 84 recorded interactive events, respectively. K-Track identified multiple bees on a flat surface and tracked their speed changes and encounters with other bees, with good performance.

  4. Sand as thermoluminescent dosimeter to therapeutic doses Arena como dosímetro termoluminiscente para dosis terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Salcedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the characteristic thermoluminiscent of sand coming from Coveñas beaches, for its use as therapeutic dose dosimeter. The selected samples, annealed at 400oC during 1 hour, were irradiated to different doses using an unit of 60Co Theratron 780C in air to ambient temperature. The reading was carried out in a Harshaw TLD 4500. The main dosimetric properties of the material (glow curve, response reproducibility, reutilization, linearity and thermal decay have been studied in detail. The glow curve of the sand samples presents a peaks TL at about 145◦C. The results show that the material has a linear response to the dose from 50 cGy until 1000 cGy. The studied sand samples can be used as thermoluminescent dosimeters for applications in different areas. The importance of this work is that the sand is a natural substance available in large quantities, low cost and can be used in clinical physics to evaluate the dose received by the patient during medical treatment.Este trabajo describe las características termoluminiscentes de arena proveniente de las playas de Coveñas para su uso como dosímetro en dosis terapéuticas. Las muestras seleccionadas, tratadas térmicamente a 400◦C por una hora, fueron irradiadas a diferentes dosis usando una unidad de 60Co Theratron 780C en aire a temperatura ambiente. La lectura se realizó en un Harshaw TLD 4500. Las principales propiedades dosimétricas del material (curva de brillo, reproducibilidad de la respuesta, reutilización, linealidad y decaimiento térmico han sido estudiadas en detalle. La curva de brillo de las muestras de arena presenta un pico TL alrededor de los 145◦C. Los resultados muestran que el material tiene una respuesta lineal con la dosis desde 50 cGy hasta 1000 cGy. Las muestras de arena estudiadas se pueden utilizar como dos´ımetros termoluminiscentes para aplicaciones en diferentes áreas. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que la arena es una sustancia

  5. Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena; 2, Constraints, habitats and consistency of the constraint algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R; Pullin, J; Bartolo, Cayetano Di; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Pullin, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper we introduced a kinematical arena for the discussion of the constraints of canonical quantum gravity in the spin network representation based on Vassiliev invariants. In this paper we introduce the Hamiltonian constraint, extend the space of states to non-diffeomorphism invariant ``habitats'' and check that the off-shell quantum constraint commutator algebra reproduces the classical Poisson algebra of constraints of general relativity without anomalies. One can therefore consider the resulting set of constraints and space of states as a consistent theory of canonical quantum gravity.

  6. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  7. Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions.

  8. Incidencia ambiental de la extracción de arena del Río Nibujón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Guilarte-Alpajón

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La explotación de depósitos de arena y grava plantea una problemática especial, por las características del entorno natural donde se lleva a cabo. La preocupación por la protección del medio ambiente, unido a la legislación vigente, hace que la actividad minera se deba realizar con un proyecto racional que contemple previamente la recuperación de los terrenos afectados, acorde con las condiciones derivadas de los ecosistemas existentes. En este trabajo se presenta una evaluación de impacto ambiental que ocasiona la explotación de un depósito fluvial de arena y grava, localizado dentro de los límites del parque Alejandro de Humboldt, así como las medidas preventivas y correctoras que habrán de adoptarse para la minimización del impacto sobre el entorno, a fin de compatibilizar la explotación y la preservación del medio natural.

  9. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-07

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  10. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino@DFCI.HARVARD.EDU [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Tirumani, Sree H.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hodi, F. Stephen [Department of Medical Oncology and Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The successful clinical application of cancer immunotherapy has opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. • Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events. • The state-of-the art knowledge of immunotherapy and the related radiologic manifestations are essential for radiologists. - Abstract: The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists’ awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

  11. Acute phencyclidine administration induces c-Fos-immunoreactivity in interneurons in cortical and subcortical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona E.; Thomsen, Morten S; Kalló, Imre;

    2016-01-01

    ) field of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MD); (2) PV-IR cells in the ventrolateral orbitofrontal and retrosplenial cortices and CA1 field of hippocampus; and (3) CB-IR cells in the motor cortex. Overall, our data indicate that PCP activates a wide range of cortical and subcortical brain regions...

  12. Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Ahmed

    Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures

  13. Lesser mealworms on poultry farms: A potential arena for the dissemination of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in poultry production due to market demand stimulates an increase in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and thus confined raising resulting in an increased density of birds in poultry houses. The close quarters and high bird numbers generally favor the survival of insect pes...

  14. Assessment of mouse anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box and open-field arena: role of equipment and procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele

    2014-06-22

    Light-dark box and open field are conventional tests for assessment of anxiety-like behavior in the laboratory mice, based on approach-avoidance conflict. However, except the basic principles, variations in the equipment and procedures are very common. Therefore, contribution of certain methodological issues in different settings was investigated. Three inbred strains (C57BL/6, 129/Sv, DBA/2) and one outbred stock (ICR) of mice were used in the experiments. An effect of initial placement of mice either in the light or dark compartment was studied in the light-dark test. Moreover, two tracking systems were applied - position of the animals was detected either by infrared sensors in square box (1/2 dark) or by videotracking in rectangular box (1/3 dark). Both approaches revealed robust and consistent strain differences in the exploratory behavior. In general, C57BL/6 and ICR mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior as compared to 129/Sv and DBA/2 strains. However, the latter two strains differed markedly in their behavior. DBA/2 mice displayed high avoidance of the light compartment accompanied by thigmotaxis, whereas the hypoactive 129 mice spent a significant proportion of time in risk-assessment behavior at the opening between two compartments. Starting from the light side increased the time spent in the light compartment and reduced the latency to the first transition. In the open field arena, black floor promoted exploratory behavior - increased time and distance in the center and increased rearing compared to white floor. In conclusion, modifications of the apparatus and procedure had significant effects on approach-avoidance behavior in general whereas the strain rankings remained unaffected.

  15. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina Sand availability for nourishment of the Miramar and Chapadmalal beaches, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    FI Isla

    2003-01-01

    Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamient...

  16. Pre-Eminance of Open Source Eda Tools and Its Types in The Arena of Commercial Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital synthesis with a goal of chip designing in the commercial electronics arena is packed into large EDA Software providers like, Synopsys, Cadence, or MentorGraphics. These commercial tools being expensive and having closed file structures. It is also a financial constraint for the startup companies sometimes who have their budget limitations. Any bug-fixes or add features cannot be made with ease; in such scenario the company is forced to opt for an alternative cost effective EDA software. This paper deals with the advantages of using open source EDA tools like Icarus Verilog, Verilator, GTKwave viewer, GHDL VHDL simulator, gEDA, etc. that are available as a free source and focuses on the Icarus Verilog simulator tool. It can be seen as a big encouragement for startups in Semiconductor domain. Thereby, these open source EDA tools make the design process more cost-effective, less time consuming and affordable as well.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy and immune-related response assessment: The role of radiologists in the new arena of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Tirumani, Sree H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Hodi, F Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The recent advances in the clinical application of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents have opened a new arena for the treatment of advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapy is associated with a variety of important radiographic features in the assessments of tumor response and immune-related adverse events, which calls for radiologists' awareness and in-depth knowledge on the topic. This article will provide the state-of-the art review and perspectives of cancer immunotherapy, including its molecular mechanisms, the strategies for immune-related response assessment on imaging and their pitfalls, and the emerging knowledge of radiologic manifestations of immune-related adverse events. The cutting edge clinical and radiologic investigations are presented to provide future directions.

  18. Las fronteras del racismo en el teatro crítico de José Moreno Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Leticia Báez Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La dramaturgia española de José Moreno Arenas, maestro del teatro mínimo e hiper - textual, incorpora uno de los temas señeros en la complejidad de los albores del siglo XXI: el racismo; sus obras: El cuchitril, El deseo, Las olas, El safari y La playa discuten el choque de mentalidades entre las poblaciones migrantes y las receptoras en la Euro - pa actual; destaca el doble papel que los españoles han vivido en el siglo XX, desde una mirada crítica, se cuestiona la falta de memoria del pueblo peninsular en relación con los procesos migratorios que vivieron a lo largo del siglo XX hacia América y el norte de Europa. Los aportes de Michel Foucault así como los de Iuri Lotman permiten analizar las relaciones de poder que establecen los Estados mediante la xenofobia.

  19. Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Oat (Arena nuda L.) as Affected by Mineral Nitrogen Forms Supplied in Hydroponics and Soil Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ming-Shou; LI Zhen; WANG Feng-Mei; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Plants show different growth responses to N sources supplied with either NH4+ or NO3-.The uptake of different N sources also affects the rhizosphere pH and therefore the bioavailability of soil phosphorus,particularly in alkaline soils.The plant growth,P uptake,and P availability in the rhizosphere of oat (Arena nuda L.) grown in hydroponics and in soil culture were investigated under supply with sole NH4+-N,sole NO3--N,or a combination.Sole NO3-fed oat plants accumulated more biomass than sole NH4+-fed ones.The highest biomass accumulation was observed when N was supplied with both NH4+-N and NO3--N.Growth of the plant root increased with the proportion of NO3-in the cultural medium.Better root growth and higher root/shoot ratio were consistently observed in NO3--fed plants.However,root vigor was the highest when N was supplied with NO3-+NH4+.NH4+ supply reduced the rhizosphere pH but did not affect P uptake by plants grown in soils with CaHPO4 added as P source.No P deficiency was observed,and plant P concentrations were generally above 2 g kg-1.P uptake was increased when N was supplied partly or solely as NO3--N,similarly as biomass accumulation.The results suggested that oat was an NO3-prcferring plant,and NO3--N was essential for plant growth and the maintenance of root absorption capacity.N supply with NH4+-N did not improve P nutrition,which was most likely due to the absence of P deficiency.

  20. 4-Methylthioamphetamine increases dopamine in the rat striatum and has rewarding effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Quiroz, Gabriel; Araya, Katherine A; Abarca, Jorge; Ibáñez, María R; Montecinos, Alejandro; Guajardo, Carlos; Núñez, Gabriel; Fierro, Angélica; Moya, Pablo R; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Gómez-Molina, Cristóbal; Gysling, Katia; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    4-Methylthioamphetamine (MTA) is a phenylisopropylamine derivative whose use has been associated with severe intoxications. MTA is usually regarded as a selective serotonin-releasing agent. Nevertheless, previous data have suggested that its mechanism of action probably involves a catecholaminergic component. As little is known about dopaminergic effects of this drug, in this work the actions of MTA upon the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) were studied in vitro, in vivo and in silico. Also, the possible abuse liability of MTA was behaviourally assessed. MTA exhibited an in vitro affinity for the rat DAT in the low micromolar range (6.01 μM) and induced a significant, dose-dependent increase in striatal DA. MTA significantly increased c-Fos-positive cells in striatum and nucleus accumbens, induced conditioned place preference and increased locomotor activity. Docking experiments were performed in a homology model of the DAT. In conclusion, our results show that MTA is able to increase extracellular striatal DA levels and that its administration has rewarding properties. These effects were observed at concentrations or doses that can be relevant to its use in human beings.

  1. Effects of aripiprazole on caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and neural activation in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luara A; Viana, Thércia G; Silveira, Vívian T; Aguiar, Daniele C; Moreira, Fabrício A

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 receptors. In addition to its antipsychotic activity, this compound blocks the effects of some psychostimulant drugs. It has not been verified, however, if aripiprazole interferes with the effects of caffeine. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and investigated the effects of these drugs on neural activity in the striatum. Male Swiss mice received injections of vehicle or antipsychotic drugs followed by vehicle or caffeine. Locomotion was analyzed in a circular arena and c-Fos protein expression was quantified in the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral striatum, and in the core and shell regions of nucleus accumbens. Aripiprazole (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg) prevented caffeine (10 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion at doses that do not change basal locomotion. Haloperidol (0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mg/kg) also decreased caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion at all doses, although at the two higher doses, this compound reduced basal locomotion. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that aripiprazole increases c-Fos protein expression in all regions studied, whereas caffeine did not alter c-Fos protein expression. Combined treatment of aripiprazole and caffeine resulted in a decrease in the number of c-Fos positive cells as compared to the group receiving aripiprazole alone. In conclusion, aripiprazole prevents caffeine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases neural activation in the striatum. This latter effect is reduced by subsequent administration of caffeine. These results advance our understanding on the pharmacological profile of aripiprazole.

  2. Spatial reorientation in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Use of geometric and featural information as a function of arena size and feature location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Fontanari, L.; Regolin, L.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were used in a spatial reorientation task to assess their ability to use geometric and non-geometric, featural, information. Experimental conditions differed in the size of the arena (small, medium, or large) and whether the food-baited corner was near or far from a visual feature. The main mea

  3. Car2x with software defined networks, network functions virtualization and supercomputers technical and scientific preparations for the Amsterdam Arena telecoms fieldlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer R.J.; Cushing R.; De Laat C.; Jackson P.; Klous S.; Koning R.; Makkes M.X.; Meerwijk A.

    2015-01-01

    In the invited talk 'Car2x with SDN, NFV and supercomputers' we report about how our past work with SDN [1, 2] allows the design of a smart mobility fieldlab in the huge parking lot the Amsterdam Arena. We explain how we can engineer and test software that handle the complex conditions of the Car2X

  4. The functional organisation of the mesopedobionts community of sod pinewood soils on arena of the river Dnepr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We revealed the functional groups of the animals of sod pinewood soils (arena of the river Dnepr in the "Dneprovsko-Orelsky" Nature Reserve on the basis of cluster analysis of the RLQ-axes received as result of interaction of matrix of community, matrix of edaphic parameters and matrix of ecomorphs of soil animals. The quantitative account of soil mesofauna has allowed us to establish that the community of animals inhabiting sod pinewood soils is represented by 20 species at a density of 68.9 ± 14.6 ind./m2, 8 forms were identified at the level of genus, family or order. Two species were represented by their larval and imago phases (Anatolica eremita (Steven, 1829 and Calathus ambiguus (Paykull, 1790. A count of animals conducted in an alternative way has allowed us to expand the list to 38 species or forms at species level. The level of abundance and diversity for sod pinewood soils on the arena is not high compared with other types of soils of the arena of the river Dnepr. This result shows that the community has a simplified ecological structure. The prevailing ecological structure of the community can be characterised as steppe, xerophilous, oligotrophocoenomorphic. Anecic animals are absent from the topomorphic structure and saprophagous animals absent from the trophic structure. Only additional collection by alternative methods has allowed us to establish the presence in the community of saprophagous and anecic animals. The latter ecological group is represented by the extremely mobile vertebrate species Pelobates fuscus. The foromorphic structure of the community differs by its great variety. In this structure various strategies of animals’ movement through the soil are proportionately represented. On the one hand, we see various ways of movement of herpetobiont animals, mainly insect imagoes, which as a whole differ in their considerable migratory potential. This circumstance staticizes the historical reasons for the formation of the

  5. Intervention studies for improving global health and health care: An important arena for epidemiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kvåle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marginalised populations in many low- and middle-income countries experience an increasing burden of disease, in sub-Saharan Africa to a large extent due to faltering health systems and serious HIV epidemics. Also other poverty related diseases (PRDs are prevalent, especially respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases in children, malnutrition, maternal and perinatal health problems, tuberculosis and malaria. Daily, nearly 30,000 children under the age of 5 die, most from preventable causes, and 8,000 people die from HIV infections. In spite of the availability of powerful preventive and therapeutic tools for combating these PRDs, their implementation, especially in terms of equitable delivery, leaves much to be desired. The research community must address this tragic gap between knowledge and implementation. Epidemiologists have a very important role to play in conducting studies on diseases that account for the largest share of the global disease burden. A shift of focus of epidemiologic research towards intervention studies addressing health problems of major public health importance for disadvantaged population groups is needed. There is a need to generate an evidence-base for interventions that can be implemented on a large scale; this can result in increased funding of health promotion programs as well as enable rational prioritization and integration between different health interventions. This will require close and synergetic teamwork between epidemiologists and other professions across disciplines and sectors. In this way epidemiologists can contribute significantly to improve health and optimise health care delivery for marginalized populations.

  6. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  7. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  8. Increased Serotonin Transporter Expression Reduces Fear and Recruitment of Parvalbumin Interneurons of the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, Marco; Fucsina, Giulia; Oikonomidis, Lydia; McHugh, Stephen B; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Genetic association studies suggest that variations in the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) gene are associated with susceptibility to psychiatric disorders such as anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorder. Individuals carrying high 5-HTT-expressing gene variants display low amygdala reactivity to fearful stimuli. Mice overexpressing the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE), an animal model of this human variation, show impaired fear, together with reduced fear-evoked theta oscillations in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). However, it is unclear how variation in 5-HTT gene expression impacts on the microcircuitry of the BLA to change behavior. We addressed this issue by investigating the activity of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs), the biggest IN population in the basal amygdala (BA). We found that increased 5-HTT expression impairs the recruitment of PVINs (measured by their c-Fos immunoreactivity) during fear. Ex vivo patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that the depolarizing effect of 5-HT on PVINs was mediated by 5-HT2A receptor. In 5-HTTOE mice, 5-HT-evoked depolarization of PVINs and synaptic inhibition of principal cells, which provide the major output of the BA, were impaired. This deficit was because of reduced 5-HT2A function and not because of increased 5-HT uptake. Collectively, these findings provide novel cellular mechanisms that are likely to contribute to differences in emotional behaviors linked with genetic variations of the 5-HTT.

  9. RECENT POTENTIAL USAGE OF SURFACTANT FROM MICROBIAL ORIGIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ARENA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Kalyani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and potential commercial application of biosurfactant has increased during the past decade which can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities make them relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases and as therapeutic agents. In addition to this their role as antiadhesive agents against several disease causing pathogens makes their utility as suitable antiadhesive coating agents for medical insertional materials which helps in the reduction in a large number of hospital infections without the use of synthetic drugs and chemicals. This review looks at the various pharmaceutical, biomedical and therapeutic perspectives on biosurfactant applications.

  10. It Takes More Than Two To TANGO: Co-Constructing Situated Accountability Through a Local E-Government Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Ekelin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of shaping local egovernment policies and practices, by including several actors, such as researchers, official authorities, politicians and software companies as well as ordinary citizens in a joint, sustainable development of a region. One way to provide space and place for this ongoing coconstruction and negotiation work of situated egovernment is the establishment of a regional center of competence on e-government, within a program, partly funded by the European Commission, called Innovative Actions. TANGO (Thematic Arenas Nourish Growth Opportunities is a way to build thematic competence centres and stimulate local research- and development projects (R&D, carried out in co-operation with partners from local business life. The Come on in- project, described in this paper, is an example of such an R&D project. The practices reveal several critical and crucial negotiation situations that are of importance to be put forward and be discussed in relation to what situated accountability could mean for the development of what could be called a new politics production. Situated accountability is therefore of great significance for this discussion.

  11. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred.

  12. Modelo y simulación de una intersección vial usando el software Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Puerto Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el modelo y la simulación de una intersección vial. Para modelar las dinámicas fue seleccionado el software Arena®, por su gran versatilidad y amplitud en herramientas a la hora de diseñar y modelar sistemas estocásticos. Las simulaciones en eventos discretos de la intersección validarán el modelo. Con el modelo obtenido se podrá realizar el cambio en la programación de los semáforos, la inclusión de paraderos en sitios específicos de las vías, y además la demostración de la relación entre la forma de conducción y estos problemas de movilidad. Se busca disminuir el tamaño de las colas que se generan, además de una reducción en los tiempos de recorridos de los usuarios en estos tramos y un mejoramiento notable en el funcionamiento vial en general de la ciudad.

  13. The Arena System: a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for the study of chimpanzee social interaction and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Biro, Dora; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a novel shared touch-panel apparatus for examining a diverse range of topics in great ape social cognition and interaction. Our apparatus-named the Arena System-is composed of a single multitouch monitor that spans across two separate testing booths, so that individuals situated in each booth have tactile access to half of the monitor and visual access to the whole monitor. Additional components of the system include a smart-film barrier able to restrict visual access between the booths, as well as two automated feeding devices that dispense food rewards to the subjects. The touch-panel, smart-film, and feeders are controlled by a PC that is also responsible for running the experimental tasks. We present data from a pilot behavioral game theory study with two chimpanzees in order to illustrate the efficacy of our method, and we suggest applications for a range of topics including animal social learning, coordination, and behavioral economics. The system enables fully automated experimental procedures, which means that no human participation is needed to run the tasks. The novel use of a touch-panel in a social setting allows for a finer degree of data resolution than do the traditional experimental apparatuses used in prior studies on great ape social interaction.

  14. A corte, o chá e o voto: o consumo como arena política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar algumas das formas pelas quais as representações e práticas do consumo se configuraram como arenas de expressão política no mundo moderno. Vamos investigar os mecanismos que articulam consumo, busca pelo poder e atividade política em questões como o caráter simbólico dos bens, certas formas de comércio e novas sociabilidades propiciadas por espaços de compra. Para tanto, serão analisadas três experiências históricas que representam, de modo emblemático, as relações entre consumo e política. A primeira trata das sociedades de corte dos reinados de Elizabeth I, na Inglaterra, e Luís XIV, na França; a segunda do boicote conhecido como Boston Tea Party no processo da Revolução Americana; a terceira analisa a parceria entre grandes magazines e sufragistas na luta por direitos femininos no início do século XX.

  15. Multiple Arenas and Diverse Techniques of Securitisation: The Case of the EU’s Visa Regime towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Baysan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 2009 and 2010, five Western Balkan countries were granted Schengen visa exemptions by the EU for the short travel of their citizens to the Schengen area in return for signing readmission agreements. Turkey, in contrast, was only offered a vague promise for the initiation of a visa liberalisation “dialogue” in return for initialling the readmission agreement. Taking this development as a genuine research puzzle the present article asks: What are the domestic dynamics that have driven this differential outcome? This article argues that the EU’s ongoing restrictive visa regime towards Turkey stems from the issue’s securitisation in certain member states (Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. Security-framing practices thereby occurred in both the political (elite-level discourse and bureaucratic arena (visa-issuing process as part of the same security dispositif. Two crucial implications follow from the findings: on the one hand, European visa authorities seem to follow their own visa-issuing policies despite regulations put in force at the EU level (Visa Codex. On the other hand, the purported theoretical divide between the Copenhagen and Paris School’s approaches to securitisation seems empirically rather disadvantageous. Treating these theoretical lenses as distinct may lead researchers to miss out on interrelated securitisation practices.

  16. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  17. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  18. Mobile Technology in the Perioperative Arena: Rapid Evolution and Future Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Brian S; Gupta, Rajnish K; McEvoy, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have relied upon disruptive innovations and technologies to improve the quality of care delivered, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. The implementation of mobile technology in health care is quickly becoming the next disruptive technology. We first review the history of mobile technology over the past 3 decades, discuss the impact of hardware and software, explore the rapid expansion of applications (apps), and evaluate the adoption of mobile technology in health care. Next, we discuss how technology serves as the vehicle that can transform traditional didactic learning into one that adapts to the learning behavior of the student by using concepts such as the flipped classroom, just-in-time learning, social media, and Web 2.0/3.0. The focus in this modern education paradigm is shifting from teacher-centric to learner-centric, including providers and patients, and is being delivered as context-sensitive, or semantic, learning. Finally, we present the methods by which connected health systems via mobile devices increase information collection and analysis from patients in both clinical care and research environments. This enhanced patient and provider connection has demonstrated benefits including reducing unnecessary hospital readmissions, improved perioperative health maintenance coordination, and improved care in remote and underserved areas. A significant portion of the future of health care, and specifically perioperative medicine, revolves around mobile technology, nimble learners, patient-specific information and decision-making, and continuous connectivity between patients and health care systems. As such, an understanding of developing or evaluating mobile technology likely will be important for anesthesiologists, particularly with an ever-expanding scope of practice in perioperative medicine.

  19. Locus coeruleus stimulation recruits a broad cortical neuronal network and increases cortical perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussay, Xavier; Basu, Kaustuv; Lacoste, Baptiste; Hamel, Edith

    2013-02-20

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of brain noradrenalin (NA), modulates cortical activity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), glucose metabolism, and blood-brain barrier permeability. However, the role of the LC-NA system in the regulation of cortical CBF has remained elusive. This rat study shows that similar proportions (∼20%) of cortical pyramidal cells and GABA interneurons are contacted by LC-NA afferents on their cell soma or proximal dendrites. LC stimulation induced ipsilateral activation (c-Fos upregulation) of pyramidal cells and of a larger proportion (>36%) of interneurons that colocalize parvalbumin, somatostatin, or nitric oxide synthase compared with pyramidal cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 (22%, p interneurons (16%, p BK, -52%, p < 0.05), and inward-rectifier (Kir, -40%, p < 0.05) K+ channels primarily impaired the hyperemic response. The data demonstrate that LC stimulation recruits a broad network of cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons resulting in increased cortical activity and that K+ fluxes and EET signaling mediate a large part of the hemodynamic response.

  20. Reinaldo Arenas e Heberto Padilha: memórias dissidentes à Revolução Cubana no ocaso do Socialismo Soviético

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Cuban intellectuals Reinaldo Arenas and Hebert Padilla engaged in the Cuban Revolution defense in 1959, however, disillusioned with the authoritarianism of the revolutionary government established by Fidel Castro, both of them gradually abandoned the support to the regime, becoming dissidents. Exiled in 1980, they wrote their autobiographical narratives as a way to denounce the violence used by the revolucionaries and as a manifesto for the redemocratization of Cuba. In this sense, the wo...

  1. Portafolio “Áreas de arrecifes de coral, pastos marinos, playas de arena y manglares con potencial de restauración en Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Cubillos, Catalina; Licero, Lucia; Perdomo, Laura; Rodríguez, Angélica María; Romero D'Achardi, Diana Carolina; Ballesteros Contreras, Diana Carolina; Gómez López, Diana Isabel; Melo Valencia, Andrés Felipe; Chasqui, Luis; Ocampo Rojas, María Alejandra; Alonso, David; García Murcia, Julián Andrés; Peña Mejía, Carlos Eduardoi; Bastidas Salamanca, Martha Lucero; Ricaurte Villota, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Producto final de la implementación de una metodología diseñada por el grupo de investigadores de INVEMAR, con la que se evaluó el estado, las causas de deterioro y la demanda de servicios de los ecosistemas, con el propósito de priorizar las áreas de arrecifes de coral, praderas de pastos marinos, playas de arena y sectores de manglar con potencial de restauración en Colombia.

  2. The Arena of Thanatos: Psuché, Soma, and Sigalit Landau's body representation—a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Sevilla Sadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sigalit Landau is an international sculpture, video, installation, and performance artist, born in Jerusalem, and raised also in the USA and the UK. This study seeks to analyse Landau's unique body representation of figures made of papier-mâché, focussing on the installation “The Country.” The point of departure of this study is a passage from the Platonic dialogue Timaeus, whose text strongly resembles Landau's succulent human images composed of soft bones, moist flesh, and sinews. This analogy then leads to a wider comparative discussion on the meanings of the body in Archaic and Classical aesthetic concepts in comparison with its postmodern meanings. In addition to the strong interest in the structure of the human body, another common concern of both the ancient body images and those of Landau is that both engage with death (thanatos. The premise underlying this study is that both the body and its implication of death in Ancient Greece, and Landau's body images, reflect metaphorically a political arena. However, while the political meanings of the ancient body images were constituted in manifestations of religion by means of purification, and were aimed at praising the homeland (polis, Landau's bodies manifest meanings of abjection, express political criticism, and are thus profane, reflecting loss of faith. Landau's loss of faith and sceptical spirit are inspired by two sources: the collective trauma of the Holocaust and the criticism of the occupation policy in her country. These two sources are main issues in many other works by Landau and are united in “The Country” installation, and particularly in the body images.

  3. OMR-arena: automated measurement and stimulation system to determine mouse visual thresholds based on optomotor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Friedrich; Kretschmer, Viola; Kunze, Vincent P; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the optomotor response is a common way to determine thresholds of the visual system in animals. Particularly in mice, it is frequently used to characterize the visual performance of different genetically modified strains or to test the effect of various drugs on visual performance. Several methods have been developed to facilitate the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors. Common methods are either based on the measurement of eye movement during optokinetic reflex behavior or rely on the measurement of head and/or body-movements during optomotor responses. Eye-movements can easily and objectively be quantified, but their measurement requires invasive fixation of the animals. Head movements can be observed in freely moving animals, but until now depended on the judgment of a human observer who reported the counted tracking movements of the animal during an experiment. In this study we present a novel measurement and stimulation system based on open source building plans and software. This system presents appropriate 360° stimuli while simultaneously video-tracking the animal's head-movements without fixation. The on-line determined head gaze is used to adjust the stimulus to the head position, as well as to automatically calculate visual acuity. Exemplary, we show that automatically measured visual response curves of mice match the results obtained by a human observer very well. The spatial acuity thresholds yielded by the automatic analysis are also consistent with the human observer approach and with published results. Hence, OMR-arena provides an affordable, convenient and objective way to measure mouse visual performance.

  4. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  5. Thermovision registration of defecation and urination in the evaluation of emotional state of experimental biological objects in the open arenas of behavioral tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to provide a method for detection of boluses defecation and urination spots in the study of the behavior of experimental biological objects in open arenas ethological tests with thermal registration. Material and methods. For identifying and quantifying defecation and urination biological objects using the compact thermal imaging camera FLIR SC 660 (FLIR Systems with a wide-angle lens. Object of study is the laboratory rat. Morphometric parameters determined using image analysis software. Results. When used as a video recording device thermal imaging camera to get an objective, quantitative data on the level of defecation and urination in the study of behavior and emotional state of the experimental evaluation of warm-blooded biological objects in open arenas ethological tests. Recorded boluses defecation and urination spots in the study of the emotional component of the behavior of laboratory rats in the test apparatus «Open field», «Elevated plus maze», «Radial 8-Arm Maze» and «T-maze». Conclusion. Thermal video registration allows visualizing products vegetative urinary and fecal excretion in the dynamics of experimental studies in the evaluation of the psycho-emotional state of biological objects in various open arenas behavioral tests, carried out their detailed morphometric analysis and identify indicators of spatial distribution.

  6. MÉTODO SIMPLIFICADO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CARGA ÚLTIMA DE PILOTES SOMETIDOS A CARGA VERTICAL AXIAL EN ARENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Giovanny Dias Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta de diferentes pilotes sometidos a carga vertical axial fue estudiada empleando una serie de análisis mediante elementos finitos, considerando como suelo de fundación diez tipos de arenas en condición seca y saturada. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se propone un método simplificado para estimar la carga última en pilotes preexcavados sobre arenas, en términos del diámetro y enterramiento del pilote, peso unitario del suelo, condiciones de saturación, y mediciones indirectas de la resistencia al corte del suelo, obtenidas a partir de la densidad relativa y el índice de penetración SPT. El método propuesto, basado en 180 casos analizados, ofrece una precisión de 92%, y constituye una herramienta complementaría de diseño para estimar la carga última de pilotes preexcavados en arenas.

  7. Arena在制造业企业组织结构中应用研究%Practical study of the enterprise organization structure of Arena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭珊; 周勇; 张军月

    2001-01-01

    Arena has been introduced into the analysis of study of the enterprise organization structure on the basis of the introduction of Arena. Arena will be a very reliable tool for the research of the flexibility of the organization. This paper applies a quantitative discussion of two kinds of enterprise organization structures-multidivisional structure and unitary structure and compares the operation efficiency between the two on the basis of the operating period of the two kinds of organization structures as the indices.%在介绍Arena基础上,将Arena引入企业组织结构分析和研究。对于组织柔性研究,Arena将是非常可靠的工具。运用Arena对直线职能制和事业部制这两种企业组织结构进行定量讨论。并以两种企业组织结构的运行时间为指标,对两者的运行效率进行了仿真对比。

  8. arena_cove.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. Hospitals as food arenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    also identified. Research limitations: The assessment of the dietary changes based on the canteen take-away food was only based on indirect assessments based on interviews with users and non-users and furthermore based on a questionnaire at one of the hospitals. Value/originality: Canteen take...

  10. Disponibilidad de arena para el refulado de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal, Argentina Sand availability for nourishment of the Miramar and Chapadmalal beaches, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FI Isla

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Las playas de Miramar se originaron por los aportes naturales transportados directamente como médanos transversales desde el oeste, aunque estas arenas son de origen marino que llegaron a la costa por la acción de olas. Cuando ese aporte de arena mermó debido a la forestación de los médanos del Vivero Ameghino, se debió recurrir a espigones rígidos, que luego debieron ser prolongados para mantener una anchura suficiente de las playas para los requerimientos balnearios. Hoy día el repoblamiento artificial resulta el único método factible de recuperar las playas desde los sectores sumergidos o desde médanos vecinos. Utilizando un sonar de barrido lateral y muestreos de arena se analizó la distribución y calidad de las arenas sumergidas como eventual fuente de alimentación de las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal. Se estimaron factores de relleno y recurrencia en relación a la granulometría actual de estas playas. La playa sumergida está compuesta principalmente de arena muy fina y se extiende hasta una profundidad de 10-15 m, más allá de la cual se descubren afloramientos de limos entoscados hasta la profundidad de aproximadamente 20 metros. Otro sector arenoso se extiende a profundidades mayores y está dominado por fajas de arena orientadas hacia el NE. Lamentablemente, estas arenas son demasiado finas y por lo tanto no resultarían económicamente aptas para repoblar las playas de Miramar y Chapadmalal.The beaches of Miramar were originated by the migration of transverse dunes from the west of the city, although the provenance of the sand is of marine origin and deposited by wave action. When this input of sand diminished significantly due to the dune fixation at the Ameghino Nature Reserve, a groyne field was emplaced and, after several years, extended to provide a minimum beach width for tourist requirements. Today, artificial beach nourishment is the only method to guarantee enough sand from the near-shore. The distribution

  11. CONCENTRACIÓN DE MINERALES DE TITANIO CONTENIDOS EN LAS ARENAS DE PLAYAS DE LA REGIÓN DE ATACAMA - CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valderrama Campusano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como fin caracterizar y concentrar minerales de titanio contenidos en las arenas de playas de la Región de Atacama. El análisis mineralógico indicó que los principales constituyentes son cuarzo, feldespato, ilmenita, titanita, rutilo y trazas de circonita, monacita y wolframita. Los análisis químicos indican que la ley de TiO2 es de 2,3% y 3,15% para las arenas de Huasco y Caldera, respectivamente. Al retirar el material sobre 0,300 mm, se produce una preconcentración, aumentando las leyes de TiO2 a 5,33% para Huasco y 6,48% para Caldera. Las pruebas de concentración gravitacional fueron realizadas en una mesa Wilfley, y fueron estudiados diferentes ángulos de inclinación de la mesa, para la concentración primaria (2,5°; 3,0°; 3,5º y 4,0° y la limpieza (5,0°; 5,5; 6,0° y 6,5° respectivamente. Los mejores resultados fueron obtenidos usando un ángulo de inclinación de 3,0° para la concentración primaria y 6,0° para limpiar el concentrado. Con estos resultados se diseñó un circuito para las arenas de Huasco, lográndose un concentrado final con una ley de 46,0% de TiO2 y una recuperación de 21,2%, y para Caldera, se obtuvo un concentrado final de 51,3% TiO2 con una recuperación de 17,4%.

  12. 2014 World Cup - guidelines for the sustainable project design of the new "verdão" (big green), the Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba-Mt

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Tóffano; José Manoel Henriques de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    O presente artigo trata das medidas de sustentabilidade adotadas na concepção do projeto da Arena Pantanal, o novo estádio da capital de Mato Grosso, uma das subsedes brasileiras, para a Copa do Mundo FIFA 2014TM . Para sediar este megaevento esportivo, a cidade em questão, se propôs a realizar uma série de obras e exigências impostas pela FIFATM; que promoverão mudanças no espaço urbano, mas que, principalmente, atendem aos seus interesses específicos. Dentre estes, no campo da preservação d...

  13. Arenas de Ação e Debate Públicos: Conflitos Ambientais e a Emergência do Meio Ambiente enquanto Problema Social no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuks Mario

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of legal disputes and of disagreements surrounding the definition of public matters and social issues, the article investigates how the question of the environment is being framed as a social issue in Rio de Janeiro. After tracing the profile of legal cases, the text examines the environmental arguments developed within the context of these conflicts. A description of "interpretive packages" put forward by the actors involved in the disputes serves as basis for an inventory of competing views of the environment expressed in the arenas of public action and debate in Rio.

  14. Biological characterization of ingredients in OPLC-BioArena-greenhouse-system. Unique reactions of endogenous HCHO and O{sub 3} in in vitro and in vivo conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyihak, Ernoe; Moricz, Agnes M.; Ott, Peter G.; Katay, Gyoergy [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Centre for Agricultural Research; Mincsovics, Emil [OPLC-NIT Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Corvinus Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    2012-09-15

    In the case of two ''old medicines'', the extension of the results from the in vitro BioArena studies was successfully solved for in vivo (greenhouse) conditions. These preliminary results of in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed the unique role and function of HCHO and O{sub 3} in the antibiotic effect of these two chemical substances, and in the basal and induced resistance. In the future, for the characterization of known and new active substances, in vitro and in vivo biological studies will be recommended in addition to chemical and physical characterization. (orig.)

  15. Efecto de un aditivo impermeabilizante en la capilaridad de un mortero de cemento/arena en el norte del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Escate Vásquez, Diego; Díaz Rodríguez, Breitner; Rodríguez Cépeda, Sandra; Peralta Ferrer, Sandra; Tantaquilla Cueva, Cleiser

    2014-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar el efecto de un aditivo impermeabilizante, en la capilaridad de un mortero de cemento Portland MS /arena en la ciudad de Trujillo (Perú), basándose en pruebas en el laboratorio de materiales y concreto de la Universidad Privada del Norte. Para tal efecto se elaboraron doce especímenes de mortero de forma cúbica, con cinco centímetros de lado, de los cuales, seis fueron utilizados como patrón y los seis restantes se elaboraron con un aditivo im...

  16. La Modernidad más austral de Chile: el edificio de la U.T.E. en Punta Arenas (1964-1968, un ilustre desconocido./Modernity of southernmost Chile: the building of the UTE Punta Arenas (1964-1968, an illustrious unknown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Max

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El edificio de la Universidad Técnica del Estado (1964-1968 en Punta Arenas (latitud 53°8´53,3” sur, longitud 70°55´41,72” oeste jalona una etapa de la modernidad local y pone en evidencia la ambigüedad del término moderno, que obliga a la precisión de la categoría cada vez que circunscribimos el estudio a un caso específico como éste. /The building of the State Technical University (1964-1968 in Punta Arenas (latitude 53 ° 8'53, 3 "south, longitude 70 ° 55'41, 72" W marks out a stage in the local currency and highlights the ambiguity of the modern term, which requires the precision of each time category limits the study to a specific case like this.

  17. ESTUDIO DE UN MINERAL DE COLUMBO-TANTALITA CON ENFOQUE METALÚRGICO PARA DEFINIR EL APROVECHAMIENTO DE DEPÓSITOS DE ARENA CON MINERALES PESADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela A. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar una muestra de arena de un yacimiento de Bolivia , con el fin de obtener un pre - c oncentrado de alta ley de Nb - Ta . Se realizó un análisis granulométrico de una muestra representativa de arena, y se determinó, en cada clase, el contenido de Nb y Ta. Además la muestra fue analizada mineralógicamente. De acuerdo a las propiedades físicas del mineral: paramagnetismo y alto peso específico, se plantearon dos metodologías de concentración. La primera consistió en realizar una separación magnética sobre un a muestra clasificada. En la segunda metodología se utilizó la concentración en Golg Pannig y posterior separación magnética de alta intensidad. Finalmente se evaluaron las leyes y recuperaciones de Nb y Ta de las dos metodologías planteadas. Se concluye que la concentración gravitacional seguida de separación magnética es el proceso indicado para pre - concentrar Nb - Ta.

  18. “¿Pero cuál es tu lugar?” Dislocaciones de la subjetividad revolucionaria en Reinaldo Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maccioni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar las formas de la subjetividad que quedan configuradas en un corpus constituido por los cuentos reunidos en Con los ojos cerrados (1972 y la novela El palacio de las blanquísimas mofetas (1975, escritos durante los años inmediatamente posteriores al triunfo de la revolución por el cubano Reinaldo Arenas (1943-1990. Se propone que en estos textos tiene lugar una dis-locación o socavamiento de los lugares comunes del discurso oficial, en particular la idea de que el locus comunitario que ha quedado inaugurado en 1959 es el territorio liberado que albergará a un hombre nuevo moralmente superior. La escritura de Arenas, por el contrario, escapa de estos supuestos al asumir el borramiento de los límites identitarios, la traición a las reglas de todos los sistemas semióticos y la errancia como condiciones para la emergencia de una subjetividad revolucionaria.

  19. Cyclic estradiol replacement attenuates stress-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN of ovariectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M; Grootkarijn, A; Bekkering, BF; Bruinsma, M; Den Boer, JA; Ter Horst, GJ

    2005-01-01

    Estradiol modulates stress reactions in female rats. Several studies showed anxiolytic effects of estradiol in behavioral tests, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore how estradiol-treated rats respond to acute and chronic stress compared to ova

  20. Epigenetic regulation of Arc and c-Fos in the hippocampus after acute electroconvulsive stimulation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Mads; Hansen, Henrik H; Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira;

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) remains one of the most effective treatments of major depression. However, the underlying molecular changes still remain to be elucidated. Since ECS causes rapid and significant changes in gene expression we have looked at epigenetic regulation of two important...

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases in the adult brain physiology: a link between c-Fos, AP-1 and remodeling of neuronal connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leszek; Lapinska-Dzwonek, Joanna; Szymczak, Sylwia

    2002-12-16

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) form an enzymatic system that plays an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. These proteins are also expressed in the brain, especially under pathological conditions, in which glia as well as invading inflammatory cells provide the major source of the MMP activity. Surprisingly little is known about the MMP function(s) in adult neuronal physiology. This review describes available data on this topic, which is presented in a context of knowledge about the MMP/TIMP system in other organs as well as in brain disorders. An analysis of the MMP and TIMP expression patterns in the brain, along with a consideration of their regulatory mechanisms and substrates, leads to the proposal of possible roles of the MMP system in the brain. This analysis suggests that MMPs may play an important role in the neuronal physiology, especially in neuronal plasticity, including their direct participation in the remodeling of synaptic connections-a mechanism pivotal for learning and memory.

  2. Fisetin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation via Downregulation of p38 and c-Fos-NFATc1 Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Sik-Won Choi; Young-Jin Son; Jung-Mi Yun; Seong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    The prevention or therapeutic treatment of loss of bone mass is an important means of improving the quality of life for patients with disorders related to osteoclast-mediated bone loss. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Continus coggygria), exhibits various biological activities, but its effect on osteoclast differentiation is unknown. In this study, fisetin dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of the activi...

  3. Basolateral amygdala lesions attenuate safe taste memory-related c-fos expression in the rat perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Beatriz; Gámiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-05-01

    Previous results indicated that damage and pharmacological inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interfere with the attenuation of taste neophobia. A similar disruption of safe taste memories formation induced by the inhibition of protein synthesis in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) has been reported. Thus, we have assessed the effect of bilateral BLA neurotoxic lesions on PRh activity after novel and familiar taste exposure. Wistar male rats with NMDA lesions of the BLA and SHAM-operated received two consecutive exposures to a 3% cider vinegar solution. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was examined as a marker of neuronal activity in PRh. As expected the BLA lesioned group showed no evidence of neophobia attenuation. A similar number of PRh Fos-positive cells were found in SHAM and BLA groups exposed to the novel taste solution. However, the BLA-lesioned group exhibited a lower number of Fos stained cells than the SHAM-lesioned group after being exposed to the familiar taste solution. This supports the notion of BLA and PRh as components of a neural circuit involved in safe taste recognition memory and suggests a role of PRh in various forms of recognition memory.

  4. Bcl-2, Bax, and c-Fos expression correlates to RPE cell apoptosis induced by UV-light and daunorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Y G; Jorgensen, A G; Kaestel, C G;

    2000-01-01

    . METHODS. Apoptosis in confluent RPE cells cultured on ECM-coated or uncoated dishes was induced by UV-A or DNR. Apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D labeling followed by flow cytometry and by terminal deoxy-transferase mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Cellular expression of Bcl-2, Bcl...

  5. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Külshammer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12 and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1. We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8. While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes.

  6. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes.

  7. 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. A multifunctional arena of the fifth generation. Air conditioning for all types of events; 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. Eine Multifunktionsarena der 5. Generation. Die Klimaanlage wird zum Stimmungsmacher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krischausky, Lutz [Wolf GmbH, Mainburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The Anschutz Entertainment Group invested about 165 million Euros in their new multifunctional arena 'O{sub 2} World' in Berlin. The arena has 17,000 seats and is Germany's most state-of-the-art arena building. It can be converted over night into an ice arena, a basketball stadium, a concert hall, or an opera house as desired. The technical facilities are equipped with so-called set-ups that ensure that air conditioning systems follow a specific scenario for each type of event. (orig.)

  8. Influencia de la formulación de la arena en verde en su difusividad térmica y su efecto en una pieza colada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguez, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Data evidencing a relation among green sand formulations (% water/% bentonite, w/b, in the ranks 0.2-0.55 for 6, 7, 8 and 9 % bentonite, their heat transfer behaviour, specifically their thermal diffusivity, the casting solidification rate and the resulting macrostructures in aluminium castings are presented.

    Se presentan evidencias de que la formulación de una arena en verde (relación entre los porcentajes de agua y de bentonita, a/b, en el rango 0,2-0,55 para 6, 7, 8 y 9 % de bentonita parece determinar su transferencia de calor y, por tanto, su coeficiente de difusividad térmica, lo que influye en la rapidez de solidificación y en las macroestructuras de piezas coladas en aluminio.

  9. Proposed strategy for improving capulín cultivation in the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, Calpan and San Nicolas de los Ranchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Páez Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, Calpan and San Nicolás de los Ranchos Puebla State, conditions and have a favorable climate for growing capulín, however, not being given adequate management value the crop, This causes the yields are low and its economic importance is unnoticed. The aim of the investigation was "explore how to improve the economic and productive use capulín through the revaluation of the same by the producers, because of the advantages offered by the cultivation in its management and low investment”. For data collection a semistructured interview wasapplied to 15 key informants five municipality respectively. For data analysis tool was used the problem tree and a SWOT. Among the outstanding results we found that capulín has opportunities that can be exploited as an economic alternative for low-income producers or for the unemployed, because their characteristics and management can be easily cultivated.

  10. Metodología para el diseño por confiabilidad de presas de relaves construidas en arena por el método aguas abajo

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero Galvis, Naty Vanesa; Mayorga Morales, Andrea Paola

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto presenta una metodología de diseño por confiabilidad de presas de relaves construidas en arenas por el método aguas abajo. El objetivo principal de este documento es la generación de una guía de diseño para este tipo de presas de retención de residuos mineros. Se identificaron los cuatro modos de falla más comunes, los cuales son: tubificación, estabilidad (estática y pseudo-estática), licuación y erosión por desborde. Para cada modo de falla se calculó la probabilidad de...

  11. The Role of the Management Fashion Arena in the Cross-National Diffusion of Management Concepts: The Case of the Balanced Scorecard in the Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre Slåtten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of fashionable management concepts is an important research topic in management and organization studies. Researchers have pointed out that various actors such as consultants, conference organizers and the business media comprise the so-called “management fashion arena” around a management concept. However, a weakness of extant conceptualizations of management fashion arenas is in the lack of an explicit consideration of the dynamics between local and international actors. Drawing on the notion of “institutional duality”, we argue that the concept’s trajectory at the national level is shaped by both country-specific actors and international actors. Furthermore, we recognize that the presence and involvement of different types of actors may vary across different countries. Empirically, we analyze the level of involvement of actors such as consultants, professional groups, software firms, and conference organizers in the cross-national diffusion of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in the three Scandinavian countries. The comparative analysis of the data shows both similarities and differences between the three countries in terms of which actors have been the most influential players. Despite certain similarities and overlaps, the three markets can be considered largely national with key local players. Furthermore, country-specific actors appear to have played a particularly important role in the early phase in terms of establishing the concept in the local markets. These findings are used to elaborate on present conceptualizations of the management fashion arena, and to discuss the role of local and international actors in the cross-national diffusion of management concepts.

  12. The Media Got It Wrong! A Critical Discourse Analysis of Changes to the Educational Policy Making Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The context for education policy making has changed dramatically in recent years. Policymaking at the state-level has become characterized by near-unprecedented enactment of neo-liberal education policies, increased influence of so-called Education Reform Advocacy Organizations (ERAOs) and increased challenges to unions' political influence. In…

  13. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  14. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  15. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks.

  16. Geomorfologia Costera y Explotación de Arena de Playa en la Provincia de Buenos Aires y sus Consecuencias Ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Marcomini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El present trabajo tiene como objetivo principal caracterizar el medio físico de las áreas costeras, con el fin determinar los impactos en la hidrodinámica litoral, a mediano y corto plazo, generado por la explotación de arena de playa en las principales localidades costeras de la provincia de Buenos Aires, entre cabo San Antonio y Necochea. Para tal fin se describen las explotaciones mineras de mayor magnitud llevadas a cabo a lo largo de la costa de la provincia de Buenos Aires y se analiza su efecto para cada morfología costera. En todos los casos las explotaciones han ocasionado un deficit de arena en la corriente de deriva litoral, lo que hace que la erosión se traslade como una onda en el sentido de la deriva litoral, es decir hacia el norte para estas costas. El tipo de costa que recibe el impacto de esta onda condiciona el grado de erosión a la que este sujeta. En costas acantiladas cohesivas las explotaciones han producido un importante incremento en las tasas de retroceso de los acantilados y pérdida de playa. En costas definidas como de tipo B (con desarrollo de bermas los efectos erosivos de la explotacíon, sumados a otros factores antrópicos, han afectado fundamentalmente las morfologías de playa, mientras que en las de tipo A (sin desarrollo de bermas, el efecto no solo ha alcanzado la playa sino que también ha provocado retoceso de la línea de costa. Asimismo de determinó que las tasas de retroceso de la costa se aceleran o retardan en igual medida durante la explotación y recuperación respectivamente; es decir que la recuperación por interrupción de las actividades mineras es semejante en magnitud a la erosión inducida durante la explotación.

  17. El beneficio de arenas feldespáticas: una solución para la industria cerámica colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Laverde

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, la industria cerámica y del vidrio requiere materias primas feldespáticas de alta calidad. Sólo en algunas aplicaciones, los feldespatos pueden ser utilizados tal como se extraen de la mina, sin ninguna clase de beneficio. Sin embargo, en la producción de los esmaltes y pastas de alta calidad se hace necesario un feldespato con un alto grado de pureza. En este trabajo, se presenta el estudio realizado a una arena feldespática del municipio de Sardinata (Norte de Santander, que es empleada por la empresa CERÁMICA ITALIA S.A., de la ciudad de Cúcuta, para la fabricación de esmaltes y pastas utilizados en la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas. En la actualidad, estas arenas se utilizan tal como son extraídas de la mina, sin embargo, debido al alto número de rechazos en los productos actuales y a la implementación de nuevas líneas de productos de mayor calidad, se hace necesario su beneficio. En una primera etapa, se realizó el cálculo de reserva, y se identificaron y cuantificaron los principales contaminantes como hierro, cuarzo y micas, mediante análisis mineralógico y geoquímico. En la segunda etapa, se aplicaron procesos de beneficio de separación magnética para eliminar los óxidos de hierro, y de flotación para separar el cuarzo. Se estudió el efecto de variables como la granulometría, el pH y la concentración de los diferentes reactivos de flotación. En una tercera etapa, y con ayuda de la determinación de las características fisicoquímicas, mineralógicas y metalúrgicas se elaboró el diagrama de flujo apropiado y se seleccionaron y dimensionaron los equipos para el montaje de una planta piloto para el beneficio del mineral.

  18. 2014 World Cup - guidelines for the sustainable project design of the new "verdão" (big green, the Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba-Mt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tóffano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das medidas de sustentabilidade adotadas na concepção do projeto da Arena Pantanal, o novo estádio da capital de Mato Grosso, uma das subsedes brasileiras, para a Copa do Mundo FIFA 2014TM . Para sediar este megaevento esportivo, a cidade em questão, se propôs a realizar uma série de obras e exigências impostas pela FIFATM; que promoverão mudanças no espaço urbano, mas que, principalmente, atendem aos seus interesses específicos. Dentre estes, no campo da preservação do planeta, destaca-se uma preocupação com o meio ambiente, através de medidas de redução do consumo energético, de água, de insumos, etc. Medidas estas adotadas, em Cuiabá, de forma pioneira no Estado, em prol da divulgação dos benefícios da construção civil “verde” e da obtenção da primeira certificação de sustentabilidade ambiental para um edifício público local, o selo norte-americano LEEDTM . O que se observa é que, uma construção civil deste porte não pode ser 100% sustentável, entretanto, seus impactos ambientais podem ser minimizados.

  19. Estudio mineralóglco de la fracción arena de algunos materiales arcillosos de la sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rubio de Cubides

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio mineralógico de la fracción arena de tres muestras de materiales arcillosos situados en la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta fracción se caracterizó porque los minerales reslstentes-turmallna, circón y rutilo constituyeron más de la