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  1. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Gaslightwala, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.

  2. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  3. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1996-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  4. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Thomas Washington TUNES-1 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Key, R.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sullivan, K.F. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences; Tsuchiya, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain measurements of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon ({Delta} {sup 14}C), as well as hydrographic and chemical data, during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and ended in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P17C, along 135{degree}W and between {approximately}5{degree}S and 36{degree}N, was completed during the 42-day expedition. All 123 hydrographic stations (including 9 large-volume stations) were completed to the full water-column depth. Spacing between stations was 30 nautical miles, except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S, where it was 10 nautical miles. At 30 stations, CO{sub 2} measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P17C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen (measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor), as well as bottle measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, {Delta} {sup 14}C, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  5. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  6. Low-frequency variability of meridional transport in the divergence zone of the North Atlantic subtropical and subpolar gyres. The WOCE section A2; Niederfrequente Variabilitaet meridionaler Transporte in der Divergenzzone des nordatlantischen Subtropen- und Subpolarwirbels. Der WOCE-Schnitt A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbacher, K.

    2000-07-01

    The subinertial, climate relevant variability of the large-scale ocean circulation in the northern North Atlantic and its integral key parameters such as the advective transports of mass (volume), heat and freshwater are determined from observations alone using the hydrographic data from seven realisations of the so-called '48 N'-section between the English Channel and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The data consist of five available sets of the WOCE/A2-section during the Nineties for the years 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 and of two previous transatlantic cruises in April of 1957 and 1982. The realisations of the WOCE/A2-section were carried out in the same season (May to July), except for the cruise in October 1994. The '48 N'-section follows the divergence zone of the mainly wind-driven subtropical gyre and the more complex, with respect to the forcing, subpolar gyre. In the central Westeuropean and Newfoundland Basins the section runs a few degrees south of the line of zero wind stress curl (curl{sub z}{tau}). In the West, the WOCE/A2-section turns northwest to cross the boundary current regime perpendicularly. Therefore, this quasi-zonal hydrographic section covers all large-scale circulation elements on the regional scale that contribute essentially to the ocean circulation on the global scale - the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The transport estimates are given as the sum of the three transport components of a quasi-steady, large-scale ocean circulation: The ageostrophic Ekman-, and the two geostrophic components, the depth-independent, barotropic or Sverdrup- and the baroclinic component. To maintain the mass balance over the plane of the section the compensation of each component is assumed. In the case of the baroclinic component the balance is achieved through a suitable choice for a surface of 'no-motion'. The absolute meridional velocity as a function of the zonal distance along the section and depth is

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Akademik Ioffe cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, February--April 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Rubin, S.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Koshlyakov, M.H. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanography; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1997-07-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples during the Research Vessel (R/V) Akademik Ioffe Expedition in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on February 14, 1992, and ended in Wellington, New Zealand, on April 6, 1992. WOCE Section S4P, located along {approximately}67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E, was completed during the 51-day expedition. One hundred and thirteen hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section S4P included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; bottle salinity; bottle oxygen, phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate, TCO{sub 2}; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 C.

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  9. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  10. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  11. IOC-WMO Intergovernmental WOCE panel. First session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocean currents are an important mechanism by which the present-day climate system moves heat and salt from one latitude band to another. Meteorologists have long been able to quantify the large scale atmospheric circulation by mapping surface pressure. It is only in the coming decade that advances in satellite altimetry, deep floats and surface drifters will permit the design of programmes to determine the ocean circulation in a global and a quantitative sense. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is such a programme. The WOCE Implementation Plan, also published in 1986, established the elements of the WOCE Field Programme that are necessary to achieve those scientific goals. Core project working groups and scientific panels ensure that the most effective balance of tools such as hydrography, subsurface floats, satellites and moorings are deployed to meet the scientific objective. WOCE is closely related to the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Various aspects of global climate change science are encompassed by WOCE. The heat balance of the earth involves incoming energy, mainly radiation received through the tropics, and outgoing energy, radiated fairly uniformly around the globe. A large amount (more than half) of the total heat flux is moved laterally across the globe by the oceans. Sea surface temperature is now determined globally by satellite. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study is addressing the global carbon cycle. Tracers such as tritium, freon, have helped to qualitatively describe ocean sections. Drifting buoys have helped to describe surface ocean circulation and ALACE floats (pop-up) are describing intermediate layer circulation. Precision satellite radar altimetry has helped demonstrate the variability of ocean currents on a global scale

  12. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrograohic, and Chemical Parameters During the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 3 May - 4 July, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-03-31

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at hydrographic stations during the cruise of research vessel (R/V) Nathaniel B. Palmer in the Southern Indian Ocean on the S04I Section as a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)/World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The carbon-related measurements were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The expedition started in Cape Town, South Africa, on May 3, 1996, and ended in Hobart, Australia, on July 4, 1996. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. The TCO2 was measured in discrete water samples using the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) coulomteric system with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. TALK was determined by potentiometric titration with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. During the S04I cruise pCO2 was also measured using the LDEO equilibrator-gas chromatograph system with a precision of 0.5% (including the station-to-station reproducibility) at a constant temperature of 4.0ºC. The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer S04I data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  13. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    2002-05-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Meteor oceanographic cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A8). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Recife, Brazil, on March 29, 1994, and ended after 35 days at sea in Walvis Bay, Namibia, on May 12, 1994. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMA) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}1.17 {micro}mol/kg. For the second carbonate system parameter, the fCO{sub 2} was measured in discrete samples by equilibrating a known volume of liquid phase (seawater) with a known volume of a gas phase containing a known mixture of CO{sub 2} in gaseous nitrogen (N{sub 2}). After equilibration, the gas phase CO{sub 2} concentration was determined by flame ionization detection following the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methane (CH{sub 4}). The precision of these measurements was less than or equal to 1.0%. The R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation that describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  14. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean. WOCE Section A9, February--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations (as well as in other radiatively active trace gases) because of human activity has produced serious concern regarding the heat balance of the global atmosphere (Moore and Braswell 1994). The increasing concentrations of these gases may intensify the earth`s natural greenhouse effect, and force the global climate system in ways that are not well understood. The oceans play a major role in global carbon cycle processes. Carbon in the oceans is unevenly distributed because of complex circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles, neither of which are completely understood. To better understand the ocean`s role in climate and climatic changes, several large experiments have been conducted in the past, and others are currently under way. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is a major component of the World Climate Research Program. Although total carbon dioxide (TC0{sub 2}) is not an official WOCE measurement, a coordinated effort, supported in the United States by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is being made on WOCE cruises (through 1998) to measure the global, spatial, and temporal distributions of TC0{sub 2} and other carbon-related parameters. The CO{sub 2} survey goals include estimation of the meridional transport of inorganic carbon in a manner analogous to the oceanic heat transport (Bryden and Hall 1980; Brewer et al. 1989; Roemmich and Wunsch 1985), evaluation of the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and the ocean, and preparation of a database suitable for carbon-cycle modeling and the subsequent assessment of the anthropogenic C0{sub 2} increase in the oceans. The C0{sub 2} survey is taking advantage of the sampling opportunities provided by the WOCE cruises during this period. The final data set is expected to cover {approx_gt}23,000 stations.

  15. RRS James Clark Ross Cruise 139, 05 Dec-12 Dec 2005. Drake Passage Repeat Hydrography: WOCE Southern Repeat Section 1b – Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfield, K.; Meredith, M

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the eleventh occupation of the Drake Passage section, established during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment as repeat section SR1b. It was first occupied by Southampton Oceanography Centre in collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey in 1993, and has been re-occupied most years. Thirty full depth stations were completed. The CTD was a Sea-Bird 911plus with dual temperature and conductivity sensors, an altimeter, an oxygen sensor, a transmissomete...

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Korr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; December 1, 1994-January 19, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.V.

    2003-09-15

    This document describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations taken during the R/V Knorr Indian Ocean cruises (Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2) in 1994-1996. The measurements were conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The expedition began in Fremantle, Australia, on December 1, 1994, and ended in Mombasa, Kenya, on January 22, 1996. During the nine cruises, 12 WOCE sections were occupied. Total carbon dioxide was extracted from water samples and measured using single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to coulometers. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.20 {micro}mol/kg. The second carbonate system parameter, TALK, was determined by potentiometric titration. The precision of the measurements determined from 962 analyses of certified reference material was {+-} 4.2 {micro}mol/kg (REFERENCE). This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Department of Energy, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The R/V Knorr Indian Ocean data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of 18 oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  17. Northern and southern water masses in the equatorial Atlantic: Distribution of nutrients on the WOCE A6 and A7 lines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Oudot, C.; Morin, P.; Baurand, F.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Le Corre, P.

    In the framework of the WOCE Hydrographic Program, two trans-Atlantic CTDO/tracer sections with closely-spaced stations, along 7 degrees 30'N and 4 degrees 30'S (WHP Lines A6 and A7), and two meridional sections, along 3 degrees 50'W and 35 degrees...

  18. H. W. Laboratory manual: 100 Area section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-07-01

    The purpose of this manual is to present a Hazard Breakdown of all jobs normally encountered in the laboratory work of the three sections comprising the Analytic Section, Metallurgy and Control Division of the Technical Department. A Hazard Breakdown is a careful analysis of any job in which the source of possible dangers is clearly indicated for each particular step. The analysis is prepared by individuals who are thoroughly familiar with the specific job or procedure. It is felt that if the hazards herein outlined are recognized by the Laboratory personnel and the suggested safety cautions followed, the chance for injury will be minimized and the worker will become generally more safety conscious. The manual, which is prefaced by the general safety rules applying to all the laboratories, is divided into three main sections, one for each of the three sections into which the Laboratories Division is divided. These sections are as follows: Section 1 -- 200 Area Control; Section 2 -- 100 Area Control; Section 3 -- 300 Area Control, Essential Materials, and Methods Improvement.

  19. THE VERTICAL THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN OCEAN DIPOLE MODE FROM WOCE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Dipole Mode in tropical Indian Ocean (DMI) is a newly verified independent internal mode of atmosphere-ocean system in Indian Ocean. Its surface manifestation is illustrated in detail with the aid of the historical data sets. But relatively few is known about its vertical characteristics. Here the vertical thermal structure of DMI is analyzed using the newly released WOCE GLOBAL DATA (V2.0). Attention is focused on the comparison of the abnormal upper ocean thermal structure along one section with the normal state in year 1990 respectively in two cases: in year 1994 when there was IDM but no E1 Nino and in year 1997 when there were DMI and also E1 Nino. This may shed light on the further theoretical and numerical study of IDM.

  20. Ocean circulation and other data from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 17 May 1991 to 09 June 1993 (NODC Accession 9600064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean circulation and other data were collected from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic. Data were collected by Woods Hole...

  1. Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R.F.

    1998-10-15

    All of the technical goals of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) field program which were supported under the Department of Energy research grant ''Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' (DE-FG03-90ER60981) have been met. This has included the measurement of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide (C0{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in both the surface ocean and the atmosphere on 24 separate shipboard expedition legs of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme. These measurements were made in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans over a six-and-a-half year period, and over a distance of nearly 200,000 kilometers of ship track. The total number of measurements, including ocean measurements, air measurements and standard gas measurements, is about 136,000 for each gas, or about 34,000 measurements of each gas in the ocean and in the air. This global survey effort is directed at obtaining a better understanding of the role of the oceans in the global atmospheric budgets of two important natural and anthropogenic modulators of climate through the ''greenhouse effect'', CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O, and an important natural and anthropogenic modulator of the Earth's protective ozone layer through catalytic processes in the stratosphere, N{sub 2}O. For both of these compounds, the oceans play a major role in their global budgets. In the case of CO{sub 2}, roughly half of the anthropogenic production through the combustion of fossil fuels has been absorbed by the world's oceans. In the case of N{sub 2}O, roughly a third of the natural flux to the atmosphere originates in the oceans. As the interpretation of the variability in the oceanic distributions of these compounds improves, measurements such as those supported by this research project are playing an increasingly important role in improving our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate and ozone. (B204)

  2. Data recovery of A06 and A07 WOCE cruises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fajar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The WOCE cruises were carried out during the 1990s and were included in GLODAP, which is an easily usable, available and fully calibrated global database. AT and CT data, together with the rest of carbon variables, were subjected to rigorous quality control and some adjustments were done assuming biases, in case of AT and CT, not greater than ±6 μmol kg−1 and ±4 μmol kg−1, respectively. The A06 and A07 cruises were deleted from GLODAP database owing to AT and CT data were not suitable for analysis. However, these data are still available in CLIVAR and Carbon Hydrographic Data Office web site, demonstrated the unreliable quality of AT and CT, but contrarily, the more realistic profiles of pH data. The main goal of the present work is to recover AT and CT data of A06 and A07 using GLODAP database combining with CARINA database and the most contemporary cruise MOC2Equatorial 2010. Thus, AT data of A06 and A07 will be renewed using directly these data in a particular application of Multiple Linear Regression: the 3-D moving window MLR estimation method. Moreover, CT data will be recalculated using the CTAT ratio together with the obtained results from the crossovers analysis method. In order to demonstrate the quality of the recovered AT and CT, the new pH has been calculated, showing the good agreement in terms of pH obtained between A06 and A07 related to MOC2. To sum up, the entire carbon databases of A06 and A07 were checked and recovered.

  3. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  4. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE Sections A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 11/5, January--March 1990. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigation the oceanographic expedition aboard the F/S METEOR in South Atlantic Ocean including the Drake Passage, the northern Weddell Sea and the eastern South Atlantic during the austral summer of January through March 1990. The total CO{sub 2} concentration in about 1300 seawater samples and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) in about 870 seawater samples collected at 77 stations were determined aboard the ship using a coulometer and equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient salt data presented in this report were determined by other participants of the expedition including the members of the Oceanographic Data Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Argentine Hydrographic Office and German institutions.

  5. The NOSAMS sample preparation laboratory in the next millenium: Progress after the WOCE program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1991, the primary charge of the National Ocean Sciences AMS (NOSAMS) facility at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has been to supply high throughput, high precision AMS 14C analyses for seawater samples collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Approximately 13,000 samples taken as part of WOCE should be fully analyzed by the end of Y2K. Additional sample sources and techniques must be identified and incorporated if NOSAMS is to continue in its present operation mode. A trend in AMS today is the ability to routinely process and analyze radiocarbon samples that contain tiny amounts (14C analysis has been recognized as a major facility goal. The installation of a new 134-position MC-SNICS ion source, which utilizes a smaller graphite target cartridge than presently used, is one step towards realizing this goal. New preparation systems constructed in the sample preparation laboratory (SPL) include an automated bank of 10 small-volume graphite reactors, an automated system to process organic carbon samples, and a multi-dimensional preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC)

  6. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) global data, version 3.0, 2002 (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0000841)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) which used resources from nearly 30 countries to make...

  7. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  8. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  9. Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: Relation to cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente R; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2009-01-01

    If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability of...... measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness using the cross-sectional area of the muscle group as the criterion-related muscle-size variable. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound, and cross-sectional area using MRI in nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (eight with hemiplegia). Test......-retest reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was assessed in six healthy subjects. All measurements were made on both legs at 35% lower leg length. In the children with cerebral palsy, dorsiflexor muscle-thickness and cross-sectional area were well correlated (r;{2} = 0.778, P < 0.001), and the...

  10. Average Cross-Sectional Area of DebriSat Fragments Using Volumetrically Constructed 3D Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, T.; Moraguez, M.; Patankar, K.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.

    2016-01-01

    Debris fragments from the hypervelocity impact testing of DebriSat are being collected and characterized for use in updating existing satellite breakup models. One of the key parameters utilized in these models is the ballistic coefficient of the fragment which is directly related to its area-to-mass ratio. However, since the attitude of fragments varies during their orbital lifetime, it is customary to use the average cross-sectional area in the calculation of the area-to-mass ratio. The average cross-sectional area is defined as the average of the projected surface areas perpendicular to the direction of motion and has been shown to be equal to one-fourth of the total surface area of a convex object. Unfortunately, numerous fragments obtained from the DebriSat experiment show significant concavity (i.e., shadowing) and thus we have explored alternate methods for computing the average cross-sectional area of the fragments. An imaging system based on the volumetric reconstruction of a 3D object from multiple 2D photographs of the object was developed for use in determining the size characteristic (i.e., characteristics length) of the DebriSat fragments. For each fragment, the imaging system generates N number of images from varied azimuth and elevation angles and processes them using a space-carving algorithm to construct a 3D point cloud of the fragment. This paper describes two approaches for calculating the average cross-sectional area of debris fragments based on the 3D imager. Approach A utilizes the constructed 3D object to generate equally distributed cross-sectional area projections and then averages them to determine the average cross-sectional area. Approach B utilizes a weighted average of the area of the 2D photographs to directly compute the average cross-sectional area. A comparison of the accuracy and computational needs of each approach is described as well as preliminary results of an analysis to determine the "optimal" number of images needed for

  11. Estimating the surface area of non-convex particles from central planar sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; H.Rafati, Ali; Kiderlen, Markus

    this section plane a modification of the area tangent count method is used. The Morse type estimator generalizes Cruz-Orive's pivotal estimator for convex objects to non-convex objects. The advantages of the Morse type estimator over existing local surface area estimators are illustrated in a......In this paper, we present a new surface area estimator in local stereology. This new estimator is called the 'Morse type surface area estimator' and is obtained using a two-stage sampling procedure. First a plane section through a fixed reference point of a three-dimensional structure is taken. In...... simulation study. The Morse type estimator is well suited for computer assisted confocal microscopy and we demonstrate its practicability in a biological application: the surface area estimation of the nuclei of giant-cell glioblastoma from microscopy images. We also present an interactive software that...

  12. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 ± 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 ± 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 ± 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 ± 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  13. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Soo; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup [ChungAng University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung Min [Bundang Cha Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 {+-} 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 {+-} 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 {+-} 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 {+-} 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  14. Signal intensity, clinical activity and cross-sectional areas on MRI scans in thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signal intensity from inflamed extra-ocular muscles on short tau inversion recovery (STIR)-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is known to correlate with clinical scores of thyroid eye disease (TED) severity. Twenty-one patients who had undergone repeated MRI scanning for TED were studied retrospectively. Signal intensity of extra-ocular muscles (from STIR-sequence MRI) and cross-sectional area (from STIR and T1 MRI) were correlated with Mourits' clinical activity score (CAS). The area of highest signal intensity within the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle, and the average cross-sectional signal intensity of the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle reliably correlated with CAS, and this was maintained as disease activity changed over time. In contrast, isolated measures of muscle cross-sectional area did not correlate with CAS. The extra-ocular muscle cross-sectional area calculated from STIR-sequence MR images was greater than that measured on T1 images. This suggests that muscle area from STIR-sequence MRI may also detect peri-muscular inflammation. We conclude that the peak signal intensity from the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle remains the most reliable correlate of clinical disease activity obtained from these images. STIR-sequence MRI scans provide a number of useful measures of disease activity in TED

  15. Sandblasting Effect on Flexural Strength and Fracture Resistance of Two Zirconia with Two Cross Sectional Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Norberto Calvo Ramírez; Janeth Díaz Hurtado; Nataly Alexandra Oviedo Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Background: Yttrium stabilized zirconia a ceramic material currently considered as an “aesthetic” alternative in fixed partial denture. Clinical studies they have shown micro fractures in the area of the connectors, detachment or “chipping” ceramic coating and also the difficulties in fitting for her cementing. Objective: To establish the influence of sandblasting on flexural strength and fracture toughness of two Yttrium stabilized zirconia with two cross- sectional areas. Material and metho...

  16. Pressure/cross-sectional area probe in the assessment of urethral closure function. Reproducibility of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    -pressure zone and distally in the urethra. The in vitro study showed that cross sectional areas of 13-79 mm2 were determined with a SD of 1.4 mm2. In vivo measurements revealed that the urethral parameters: elastance, hysteresis, pressure and power of contraction during coughing and squeezing were fairly...

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Phalke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  18. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1993 (NODC Accession 9700293)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1993....

  19. Avifauna in a section of the urban area of Uberlândia, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Marçal Júnior; Alexandre Gabriel Franchin; Khelma Torga

    2007-01-01

    Birds are intensely researched in urban areas. In this study, richness, composition and frequency of contact of bird species were registered in a section of the urban area of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais. The avifauna was sampled between October 2003 and August 2004. Observation points were disposed in three avenues of the city and the observations were made in the morning in sessions of eight minutes each. The species were registered by visual and/or acoustic contacts. We sampled 1,080 ...

  20. Isthmus Dependent Atrial Flutter Cycle Length Correlates with Right Atrial Cross-Sectional Area

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Right atrial flutter cycle length can prolong in the presence of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. We hypothesized that the cycle length of right atrial isthmus dependent flutter would correlate with right atrial cross-sectional area measurements. Methods 60 patients who underwent ablation for electrophysiologically proven isthmus dependent right atrial flutter, who were not on Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs and had recent 2-dimensional echocardiographic data comprised the st...

  1. Analysis of joints characteristics of Xinchang section in Beishan preselected area, Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinchang section is one of the candidates in Beishan area, Gansu province-the preselected area for Chinese high-level radioactive waste repository. Around the BS17 drilling, BS18 drilling and BS19 drilling are mapped by comprehensive joint survey method in Xinchang. Using Joints rose diagram and Equal-area stereographic method, analyzing and processing the date of the joints to obtain the advantage groups of each hole, the statistics of the occurrence frequency distribution and the joint spacing of the dominant group, and drawing the corresponding histogram and fitting probability density function. The results show that the rock joints of Xinchang mainly are the steep dip of the Shera joints. Orientation and inclination of the joints are in line with Normal distribution; joint spacing complies with Negative exponential distribution, and basically between 60-200 cm. Analyzing mean trace length and the of trace midpoint density of' each hole by Round window method Measurement, statistical analysis of these joints characteristic of quantitative parameters, getting the various indicators compare with corresponding standard. Finding Xinchang sections' rock integrity is better. Obtaining the quantitative parameters of the joints characterized, providing the basis for analysis of rock mechanics and seepage characteristics of Xinchang section. (authors)

  2. SANITATION PREVAILING IN WEAKER SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY LIVING IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hither i t o , majority of health problems are related to the poor sanitary conditions prevailing in the premises of households major parts of which are in the rural areas in India. RESEARCH QUESTION : what is the sanitary condition and its impact on the health of weaker sections of the society living in rural area of the Krishna District? OBJECTIVES: 1. To know the sanitary condition prevailing in weaker sections of the society in rural area of Krishna Distrct. 2. To identify the impact of poor sanitation on the health of the study group . STUDY DESIGN: C ross sectional study. SETTING: Rural area of Krishna District , Andhara Pradesh. PARTICIPANTS : People belong to BPL (Below Poverty Line residing in rural area of Krishna district. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P roportions , percentages and chi - square test. RESULTS: In this study group access to safe water source was observed to be 86.18% and access to improved sanitation is 27.21%. About 50% of the study people are practicing open field defection; about 37% of households treat the water at domestic level. Our study findings related to hand washing practices with reference to after defection , before eating and before preparing food are 43% , 41% and 28% respectively. The current study has relived overcrowding (69% , lack of adequacy of ventilation(73% , lake of adequacy of lightening (75.45% lack of adequacy of water supply(57.58% , absence of separate kitchen(86% , no sewage drains (47%. In this study about 54% adults and 57% of children are found to be suffering from malnutrition , 25% have history of diarrhoea , 46.21% fever and 31.82% passing worms in stools. And significantly 46.97% of study subjects suffering from Anaemia.

  3. Sandblasting Effect on Flexural Strength and Fracture Resistance of Two Zirconia with Two Cross Sectional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Norberto Calvo Ramírez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yttrium stabilized zirconia a ceramic material currently considered as an “aesthetic” alternative in fixed partial denture. Clinical studies they have shown micro fractures in the area of the connectors, detachment or “chipping” ceramic coating and also the difficulties in fitting for her cementing. Objective: To establish the influence of sandblasting on flexural strength and fracture toughness of two Yttrium stabilized zirconia with two cross- sectional areas. Material and methods: Two materials were tested VITA Inceram YZ and IPS e.max ZirCAD, for each material was obtained 20 bars of 25mm in length, 2x2mm±0.02 width and height and 20 bars of 3x3mm±0.03 width and height. The samples were sintered; ten samples of each group were subjected to surface treatment with sandblasting. Each specimen was loaded to fracture in a Universal Testing Machine with a transverse head speed of 1±0.5mm/min. The data were analysed with the t student test. Results: The zirconia e.max ZirCAD has the highest flexural strength (1232.78 MPa and the load-bearing fracture (802.74N. Surface treatment VITA Inceram YZ had a higher flexural strength (906.85 MPa and supported a major load 565,55N. The test t student indicated statistically significant differences in the group IPS e.max ZirCAD when it is sandblasting, so much in the resistance to the flexion, since in the maximum load up to the fracture in both areas. There were no statistically significant differences between two ceramics, it having considered both cross-section areas and surface treatment (with and without sandblasting. Conclusions: Sandblasting, the values flexural strength and fracture toughness of the two ceramics in the two areas of cross section significantly decreasing.  

  4. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW, south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.

  5. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  6. Automated Quantitative Spectral Classification of Stars in Areas of the main Meridional Section of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvelidze, Teimuraz; Malyuto, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative spectral classification of F, G and K stars with the 70-cm telescope of the Ambastumani Astrophysical Observatory in areas of the main meridional section of the Galaxy, and for which proper motion data are available, has been performed. Fundamental parameters have been obtained for several hundred stars. Space densities of stars of different spectral types, the stellar luminosity function and the relationships between the kinematics and metallicity of stars have been studied. The results have confirmed and completed the conclusions made on the basis of some previous spectroscopic and photometric surveys. Many plates have been obtained for other important directions in the sky: the Kapteyn areas, the Galactic anticentre, the main meridional section of the Galaxy and etc. Very rich collection of photographic objective spectral plates (30,000 were accumulated during last 60 years) is available at Abastumani Observatory-wavelength range 3900-4900 A, about 2A resolution. Availability of new devices for automatic registration of spectra from photographic plates as well as some recently developed classification techniques may allow now to create a modern system of automatic spectral classification and with expension of classification techniques to additional types (B-A, M spectral classes). The data can be treated with the same quantitative method applied here. This method may also be applied to other available and future spectroscopic data of similar resolution, notably that obtained with large format CCD detectors on Schmidt-type telescopes.

  7. Stroke Volume estimation using aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, S; Pretty, C G; Chiew, Y S; Pironet, A; Davidson, S; Desaive, T; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2015-08-01

    Accurate Stroke Volume (SV) monitoring is essential for patient with cardiovascular dysfunction patients. However, direct SV measurements are not clinically feasible due to the highly invasive nature of measurement devices. Current devices for indirect monitoring of SV are shown to be inaccurate during sudden hemodynamic changes. This paper presents a novel SV estimation using readily available aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area, using data from a porcine experiment where medical interventions such as fluid replacement, dobutamine infusions, and recruitment maneuvers induced SV changes in a pig with circulatory shock. Measurement of left ventricular volume, proximal aortic pressure, and descending aortic pressure waveforms were made simultaneously during the experiment. From measured data, proximal aortic pressure was separated into reservoir and excess pressures. Beat-to-beat aortic characteristic impedance values were calculated using both aortic pressure measurements and an estimate of the aortic cross sectional area. SV was estimated using the calculated aortic characteristic impedance and excess component of the proximal aorta. The median difference between directly measured SV and estimated SV was -1.4ml with 95% limit of agreement +/- 6.6ml. This method demonstrates that SV can be accurately captured beat-to-beat during sudden changes in hemodynamic state. This novel SV estimation could enable improved cardiac and circulatory treatment in the critical care environment by titrating treatment to the effect on SV. PMID:26736434

  8. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Bo

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.  ……

  9. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. H., E-mail: zhaohui@physics.umanitoba.ca; Bai, Lihui; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 Canada (Canada); Hemour, S.; Wu, K. [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada); Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S. [The Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Houssameddine, D. [Everspin Technologies, 1347 N. Alma School Road, Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  10. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette; Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Vissing, K; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H; Langberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  11. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Government is trying to deliver health services to as many numbers of people as possible. The extent to which these health services are utilized by the public is to be estimated. OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the extent of utilization of health services in rural areas of Krishna district. 2. To study the factors influencing the utilization of health services in Krishna district. SAMPLE SIZE: 600, calculated by the formula, 4pq/ L.2 STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional, descriptive. METHODOLOGY: thirty rural clusters are randomly selected and 20 adults from each cluster are interviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: percentages. RESULTS: 1. Utilization of services from private health care facility is more. 2. People are utilizing services from private health care facility due to belief in doctor.

  12. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.

  13. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  14. Reliability of computed tomography measurements in assessment of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advancement in technology of computer tomography (CT) and introduction of new medical imaging softwares enables easy and rapid assessment of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation. Before using these techniques in clinical studies there is a need for evaluation of the reliability of the measurements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of ImageJ in measuring thigh muscles CSA and attenuation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by computer tomography. 31 patients from an ongoing study of rehabilitation and muscle atrophy after ACL reconstruction were included in the study. Axial CT images with slice thickness of 10 mm at the level of 150 mm above the knee joint were analyzed by two investigators independently at two times with a minimum of 3 weeks between the two readings using NIH ImageJ. CSA and the mean attenuation of individual thigh muscles were analyzed for both legs. Mean CSA and mean attenuation values were in good agreement both when comparing the two observers and the two replicates. The inter- and intraclass correlation (ICC) was generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus. All the ICC values were significant (p < 0,001). Pearson correlation coefficients were also generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus (0.95 for intraobserver and 0.92 for interobserver). This study has presented ImageJ as a method to monitor and evaluate CSA and attenuation of different muscles in the thigh using CT-imaging. The method shows an overall excellent reliability with respect to both observer and replicate

  15. An evaluation of the reliability of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber number measurements in rat skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglia, Lisa; Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Price, Lori L; Harris, Susan S.; FIELDING, ROGER A.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2013-01-01

    Background The reliability of estimating muscle fiber cross-sectional area (measure of muscle fiber size) and fiber number from only a subset of fibers in rat hindlimb muscle cross-sections has not been systematically evaluated. This study examined the variability in mean estimates of fiber cross-sectional area as a function of the number of fibers measured, and tested whether counting a subset of fibers in a cross-section could predict total fiber number in middle-aged rats. Results Soleus a...

  16. Mixed Layer Mesoscales for OGCMs: Model development and assessment with T/P, WOCE and Drifter data

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V M; Leboissetier, A

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for mixed layer (ML) mesoscale (M) fluxes of an arbitrary tracer in terms of the resolved fields (mean tracer and mean velocity). The treatment of an arbitrary tracer, rather than only buoyancy, is necessary since OGCMs time step T, S, CO2, etc and not buoyancy. The particular case of buoyancy is used to assess the model results. The paper contains three parts: derivation of the results, discussion of the results and assessment of the latter using, among others, WOCE, T/P and Drifter data. Derivation. To construct the M fluxes, we first solve the ML M dynamic equations for the velocity and tracer M fields. The goal of the derivation is to emphasize the different treatments of the non-linear terms in the adiabatic vs. diabatic ocean (deep ocean vs. mixed layer). Results. We derive analytic expressions for the following variables: a) vertical and horizontal M fluxes of an arbitrary tracer, b) M diffusivity in terms of the EKE, c) surface value of the EKE in terms of the vertical M buoyancy fl...

  17. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarithareddy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Results: The prevalence of wasting and stunting was 54.79% and 32.17% respectively as per water lows classification and the trend of wasting and stunting declines with the age. The prevalence of thinness was found to be 73.5% as per Indian standards. Prevalence of Anemia was 34.8% percent and it was more among menstruating girls than compared to non-menstruating girls. Anemia prevalence was less among adolescent girls using footwear during defecation than girls not using foot wear. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of under nutrition among adolescent girls in the rural area of the selected villages. Health education and nutrition interventions are needed on priority basis.

  18. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass. PMID:27090872

  19. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  20. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p muscles. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that utilizing a customized US template provides reliable measures of leg muscle CSA, and thus could be used to characterize changes in muscle CSA both in flight and on the ground.

  1. Variations in duodenal cross-sectional area during the interdigestive migrating motility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, H; Kraglund, K; Djurhuus, J C

    1990-07-01

    A probe for measurement of intestinal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to elucidate variations of human gut CA during the interdigestive migrating motility complex (MMC). A balloon was inflated by saline at a pressure of 1 kPa, and variations of balloon CA (BCSA) were measured by means of the field-gradient principle. Duodenal phasic activity was measured by perfused side holes proximal to, distal to, and inside the balloon. In vitro characterization of probe performance showed that static measurement of BCSA was very accurate regardless of the configuration of the balloon. However, during dynamic measurements, BCSA was valid only for slow variations in BCSA due to resistance in the evacuation and inflation system. Eight duodenal MMCs were recorded. BCSA increased consistently from the start of phase I to the end of phase II from 72 (45-100) to 136 (87-154) mm2. During late phase II, a large BCSA increase was recorded. A positive correlation between the phasic activity level in phases I and II of MMC and maximal BCSA in duodenum was demonstrated (proximal P less than 0.01; distal P less than 0.05). BCSA during phase III was small but could not be estimated accurately because steady-state conditions were not obtained. The large BCSA in late phase II suggests a relaxation of the duodenal wall secondary to a decrease in smooth muscle tone. The results add evidence to previous findings of a low-resistance or large-capacitance situation in late phase II, observed as a large pancreaticobiliary excretion into the duodenum and an increased flow of duodenal contents. PMID:2372063

  2. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville [Clinical Center, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm{sup 2}/s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm{sup 2}. The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm{sup 2} at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  3. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm2/s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm2. The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm2 at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  4. Geology of Jiujing section, Beishan area, Gansu province-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository (on the scale of 1/50,000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiujing section is one of the candidates in Beishan area, Gansu province-the preselected area for China's high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. According to the standard of 1:50000 regional geological mapping, both surveying and studying are conducted in this section of 462km2. The granitoid in this section in divided into 4 units, including Jiujing, Bantan, Jiazijing and Shimenkan unit. Then the characteristics of geology, petrology and petrochemistry, the time and depth of forming, the erosive gradation, and the characteristics of their dikes and enclaves, are studied in more detail for unit. Meanwhile 3 ductile shear structures are recognized in this section. Those 3 ductile shear structures not only controlled the outside shape and inside structure frame, which consist mainly of east-west faults and secondly of north-east faults. The results of surveying and studying showed that the Bantan unit is preliminarily considered as one of the best candidates of repository site in Jiujing section because of its relative integrity and other factors. the result also provided the basic data for the locating and designing of Borehole 1 and 2 in Beishan area, and for further selection of the site and its characteristic evaluation in the future. (author)

  5. Transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during furnace sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink was monitored as a function of temperature. The ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average grain size of 50 nm. In order to determine the relationship between shrinkage and electrical properties, the cross-sectional area and specific resistance change were measured with various sintering temperatures and times. The samples were sintered at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 60, 120, 300, 600, 1200, and 3000 s. The cross-sectional profile was investigated in order to calculate the cross-sectional area of the ink using a surface profiler. To examine the mass transfer in a conductive line with various sintering temperatures and times, the surface morphology was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. As the temperature increased, the shrinkage ratio of the ink's cross-sectional area increased. By investigating the relationship between specific resistance and shrinkage, the sintering mechanisms can be determined.

  6. Transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during furnace sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkeun; Lee, Iksang; Yoo, Youngbum; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink was monitored as a function of temperature. The ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average grain size of 50 nm. In order to determine the relationship between shrinkage and electrical properties, the cross-sectional area and specific resistance change were measured with various sintering temperatures and times. The samples were sintered at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 60, 120, 300, 600, 1200, and 3000 s. The cross-sectional profile was investigated in order to calculate the cross-sectional area of the ink using a surface profiler. To examine the mass transfer in a conductive line with various sintering temperatures and times, the surface morphology was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. As the temperature increased, the shrinkage ratio of the ink's cross-sectional area increased. By investigating the relationship between specific resistance and shrinkage, the sintering mechanisms can be determined.

  7. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota) and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM) and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and u...

  8. Frontal Cryosectioning: An Improved Protocol for Sectioning Large Areas of Fibrous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey P. Grey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds, such as those produced by electrospinning, cannot achieve their clinical potential until deep cell-scaffold interactions are understood. Even the most advanced imaging techniques are limited to capturing data at depths of 100 µm due to light scatter associated with the fibers that compose these scaffolds. Conventional cross-sectional analysis provides information on relatively small volumes of space and frontal sections are difficult to generate. Current understanding of cellular penetration into fibrous scaffolds is limited predominantly to the scaffold surface. Although some information is available from cross-sections, sections vary in quality, can distort spatial scaffold properties, and offer virtually no spatial cues as to what scaffold properties instigate specific cellular responses. Without the definitive ability to understand how cells interact with the architecture of an entire scaffold it is difficult to justify scaffold modifications or in-depth cell penetration analyses until appropriate techniques are developed. To address this limitation we have developed a cryosectioning protocol that makes it possible to obtain serial frontal sections from electrospun scaffolds. Microscopic images assembled into montage images from serial sections were then used to create three-dimensional (3D models of cellular infiltration throughout the entire scaffold.

  9. Accuracy and precision of MR velocity mapping in measurement of stenotic cross-sectional area, flow rate, and pressure gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, L; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C; Stensgaard, A; Lindvig, K; Henriksen, O

    1993-01-01

    Reliability of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping to assess severity of stenosis was assessed in vitro. Steady flow at different flow rates through five stenoses with a central orifice area ranging from 17 to 176 mm2 was measured with velocity mapping performed perpendicular to the stenotic...... jet. Besides determination of the stenotic cross-sectional area and flow rate, the pressure gradient was calculated with the modified Bernoulli equation and compared with manometer measurements. Cross-sectional areas were measured with an accuracy of > or = 76%, a precision of > or = 91%, and an error...... of < or = 19 mm2. Flow rates had an accuracy of > or = 72%, a precision of > or = 94%, and an error of < or = 1.4 L/min. The modification of the Bernoulli equation limited its reliability to stenoses with areas of 35-113 mm2. Pressure gradients were calculated with an accuracy of > or = 80%, a...

  10. Neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirdesh Kumar; Nalina Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Background: In India, the majority of individuals with neurological disorders are rural based and cannot even afford the cost of rehabilitation. At the same time, we do not have barrier free environment in India. Aim: This study attempts to find out the neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Setting: Rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Design: It is a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was done by means...

  11. Sectional area-dependent plasmonic shifting in the truncated process of silver nanoparticles: from cube to octahedron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silver nanocube with sub-40 nm edge length was truncated by {111} planes and transformed into octahedron gradually. The extinction cross-section spectra corresponding to this process were studied by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. Non-monotonous shifting (blue shifts first and then red shifts) of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands was observed. It was found that the sectional area of {111} facets could be a new and better factor to characterize the shape-dependent non-monotonous shifting of the SPR. The area of {111} facet increases while the SPR peak red shifts, whereas decreases while the SPR peak blue shifts. Similar results were also observed while an octahedron has been truncated into a smaller cube. The physical mechanism was illuminated by analyzing the local field distribution of the nanoparticles with different truncated ratios. The distance of the charge center was one of the most important reasons to affect the shift of SPR as the sectional area of {111} facet is changed. We believe the sectional area factor could be widely used to investigate the SPR shifting in other kinds of truncated process.

  12. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressur...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  14. Abundance of Rats and Mice in the selected areas of Dhaka city: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan Sarker; Md. Rokunuzzaman; Roisun Nessa

    2013-01-01

    The study on pattern of abundance and movement of rats and mice was done in two rice godowns; Azad vander and Raj Rice Agencies; of Badamtali, Dhaka. The study was carried out for 8 months, from April to November in the year 2010. The total study area of godown was 5000 sq ft. The area was divided into five blocks. Ten snap traps were placed randomly in the blocks. Traps were placed six times in a month. Total trap placement was 480 and the trapping success was 46.46%. Both the godown stored ...

  15. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarithareddy; A.V. Deepa; H.R. Shivaramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Resu...

  16. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it cou...

  17. Practice area and work demands in nurses' aides: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Willy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of how work demands vary between different practice areas could give us a better understanding of the factors that influence the working conditions in the health services, and could help identify specific work-related challenges and problems in the different practice areas. In turn, this may help politicians, and healthcare administrators and managers to develop healthy work units. The aim of this study was to find out how nurses' aides' perception of demands and control at work vary with the practice area in which the aides are working. Methods In 1999, 12 000 nurses' aides were drawn randomly from the member list of the Norwegian Union of Health – and Social Workers, and were mailed a questionnaire. 7478 (62.3 % filled in the questionnaire. The sample of the present study comprised the 6485 nurses' aides who were not on leave. Respondents working in one practice area were compared with respondents not working in this area (all together. Because of multiple comparisons, 0.01 was chosen as statistical significance level. Results Total quantitative work demands were highest in somatic hospital departments, nursing homes, and community nurse units. Physical demands were highest in somatic hospital departments and nursing homes. Level of positive challenges was highest in hospital departments and community nurses units, and lowest in nursing homes and homes or apartment units for the aged. Exposure to role conflicts was most frequent in nursing homes, homes or apartment units for the aged, and community nurse units. Exposure to threats and violence was most frequent in psychiatric departments, nursing homes, and institutions for mentally handicapped. Control of work pace was highest in psychiatric departments and institutions for mentally handicapped, and was lowest in somatic hospital departments and nursing homes. Participation in decisions at work was highest in psychiatric departments and community nurse units

  18. Diagnostic Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Analysis of Ulnar Nerve Cross-sectional Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of sonography for diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CUTS) confirmed by electrodiagnostic study. From February 2004 to March 2005, we prospectively analyzed 24 elbows in 19 patients (8 women, 11 men: mean age, 49.2 years: range 23-65 years) with cubital tunnel syndrome, including 5 bilateral cases. Diagnoses of CUTS were confirmed by both clinical symptom and electrodiagnostic study. Sonographic findings of 20 asymptomatic cases served as controls. In sonographic examination, the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve was measured at the inlet (at the level of medial epicondyle) and outlet (at the level of convergence of flexor carpi ulnaris tendons) of the cubital tunnel. The shape and echogenicity of the ulnar nerve were also evaluated, as were possible causes of entrapment. The accuracy of using ultrasonographic cross sectional area to diagnose CUTS was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet levels in CUTS patients was increased much more than in the asymptomatic cases. Decreased echogenicity and distortion of normal parallel echotexture of the ulnar nerve were observed in all CUTS patients. At the inlet level, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.816, and the ideal cut-off value for CUTS diagnosis was 0.08 cm2 with a sensitivity of 58.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 66.7%. At the distal outlet level, the AUC was 0.785, and the cut-off value was 0.06 cm2 with a sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 76%, and NPV of 73.7%. When the summation value of inlet and outlet cross sectional areas was used, the AUC was 0.853, and cut-off value was 0.14 cm2 with a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 85%, and NPV of 70.8%. Measurement of the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet of the cubital tunnel can aid in the

  19. Diagnostic Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Analysis of Ulnar Nerve Cross-sectional Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Yu Mee; Hong, Suk Joo; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea University Auam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of sonography for diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CUTS) confirmed by electrodiagnostic study. From February 2004 to March 2005, we prospectively analyzed 24 elbows in 19 patients (8 women, 11 men: mean age, 49.2 years: range 23-65 years) with cubital tunnel syndrome, including 5 bilateral cases. Diagnoses of CUTS were confirmed by both clinical symptom and electrodiagnostic study. Sonographic findings of 20 asymptomatic cases served as controls. In sonographic examination, the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve was measured at the inlet (at the level of medial epicondyle) and outlet (at the level of convergence of flexor carpi ulnaris tendons) of the cubital tunnel. The shape and echogenicity of the ulnar nerve were also evaluated, as were possible causes of entrapment. The accuracy of using ultrasonographic cross sectional area to diagnose CUTS was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet levels in CUTS patients was increased much more than in the asymptomatic cases. Decreased echogenicity and distortion of normal parallel echotexture of the ulnar nerve were observed in all CUTS patients. At the inlet level, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.816, and the ideal cut-off value for CUTS diagnosis was 0.08 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 58.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 66.7%. At the distal outlet level, the AUC was 0.785, and the cut-off value was 0.06 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 76%, and NPV of 73.7%. When the summation value of inlet and outlet cross sectional areas was used, the AUC was 0.853, and cut-off value was 0.14 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 85%, and NPV of 70.8%. Measurement of the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet of the cubital

  20. The subsurface cross section resistivity using magnetotelluric method in Pelabuhan Ratu area, West Java, implication for geological hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2016-02-01

    Pelabuhan Ratu area is located on the south coast of West Java. Pelabuhan Ratu area's rapid development and population growth were partly stimulated by the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 66 the year 1998 that made Pelabuhan Ratu the capital city of the district of Sukabumi. Because of this fact, it is very important to create a geological hazard mitigation plan for the area. Pelabuhan Ratu were passed by two major faults: Cimandiri fault in the western and Citarik fault in the eastern. Cimandiri fault starts from the upstream of Cimandiri River to the southern of Sukabumi and Cianjur city. While Citarik fault starts from the Citarik River until the Salak Mountain. These two faults needs to be observed closely as they are prone to cause earthquake in the area. To mitigate earthquake that is estimated will occur at Cimandiri fault or the Citarik fault, the Research Center for Geotechnology LIPI conducted research using Magnetotelluric (MT) method with artificial Phoenix MT tool to determine the cross-section resistivity of the Pelabuhan Ratu and the surrounding area. Measurements were taken at 40 points along the highway towards Jampang to Pelabuhan Ratu, and to Bandung towards Cibadak with a distance of less than 500 meters between the measuring points. Measurement results using this tool will generate AMT cross-section resistivity to a depth of 1500 meters below the surface. Cross-section resistivity measurement results showed that there was a layer of rock with about 10 Ohm-m to 1000 Ohm-m resistivity. Rocks with resistivity of 10 Ohm-m was interpreted as conductive rocks that were loose or sandstone containing water. If an earthquake to occur in this area, it will lead to a strong movement and liquefaction that will destroy buildings and potentially cause casualties in this area.

  1. Drinking water in drinkingan urban area in South India – A community based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Mithra P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation estimates that 94% of diarrhoeal cases are preventable through interventions to increase the availability of clean water, and to improve sanitation and hygiene. This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Mangalore in South India. Seventeen percent of those surveyed had a private water source The team found that 5% of the sample did not use any method to treat water in their households. All these belonged to lower socio economic groups and it could lead to higher chances of water borne diseases among them.

  2. Area deprivation and its association with health in a cross-sectional study: are the results biased by recent migration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Fredrik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area deprivation and health has mostly been examined in cross-sectional studies or prospective studies with short follow-up. These studies have rarely taken migration into account. This is a possible source of misclassification of exposure, i.e. an unknown number of study participants are attributed an exposure of area deprivation that they may have experienced too short for it to have any influence. The aim of this article was to examine to what extent associations between area deprivation and health outcomes were biased by recent migration. Methods Based on data from the Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 in Oslo, Norway, we used six health outcomes (self rated health, mental health, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and exercise and considered migration nine years prior to the study conduct. Migration into Oslo, between the areas of Oslo, and the changes in area deprivation during the period were taken into account. Associations were investigated by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results After adjustment for individual socio-demographic variables we found significant associations between area deprivation and all health outcomes. Accounting for migration into Oslo and between areas of Oslo did not change these associations much. However, the people who migrated into Oslo were younger and had lower prevalences of unfavourable health outcomes than those who were already living in Oslo. But since they were evenly distributed across the area deprivation quintiles, they had little influence on the associations between area deprivation and health. Evidence of selective migration within Oslo was weak, as both moving up and down in the deprivation hierarchy was associated with significantly worse health than not moving. Conclusion We have documented significant associations between area deprivation and health outcomes in Oslo after

  3. Abundance of Rats and Mice in the selected areas of Dhaka city: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Jahan Sarker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on pattern of abundance and movement of rats and mice was done in two rice godowns; Azad vander and Raj Rice Agencies; of Badamtali, Dhaka. The study was carried out for 8 months, from April to November in the year 2010. The total study area of godown was 5000 sq ft. The area was divided into five blocks. Ten snap traps were placed randomly in the blocks. Traps were placed six times in a month. Total trap placement was 480 and the trapping success was 46.46%. Both the godown stored about 12 kinds of rice and rice was available throughout the year. There were no special preferences observed for any especial kind of rice. Three species of rats and mice were trapped from the study area which were Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis, House Rat (Rattus rattus and House Mouse (Mus musculus. The total number of individual trapped were 223 of which Bandicota bengalensis was 79.82%, Mus musculus was 13.04% and Rattus rattus was 7.17%. Among 223 individuals male was 61.43% and the female was 38.57%. In case of Bandicota bengalensis male was 54.49% and female was 45.51%. In case of Mus musculus male was 65.52% and female was 34.48%. The sex ratio was 1.59:1. The average litter size in Bandicota bengalensis was 5.83, in Mus musculus was 5.20 and in Rattus rattus was 6.5.

  4. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  5. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  6. Cross-sectional study of risk factors for symptoms in the neck and shoulder area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, K; Karlsson, M; Axelson, O; Malm, P

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate how individual characteristics, as well as ergonomic, organizational and psychosocial factors in the work situation are associated with early symptoms in the neck and shoulder area. Nine hundred randomly drawn subjects of the working population in a semi-rural community in Sweden were mailed a questionnaire comprising the Nordic questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms, questions on ergonomic, organizational and psychosocial work conditions, life style factors, and background factors. The total response rate was 73% (n = 637). Questions on ergonomic work conditions and on organizational and psychosocial work conditions provided the measures of exposure. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for symptoms in the neck and shoulder area as reported by 303 subjects. Significant determinants for early symptoms were being a female and being an immigrant, as were repetitive movements demanding precision. High work pace, low work content and work role ambiguity were significant organizational risk factors while life style characteristics did not appear as risk factors. The results suggest that symptoms are signals not only of ergonomic deficiencies in the work situation, but in particular of work organizational conditions. Special attention should be given to the work conditions of women and immigrants in preventive interventions. PMID:7737106

  7. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  8. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, John J.; Matthew L. Sisk

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cros...

  9. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Method: Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated...

  10. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  11. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hâncu Anca; Radulian Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA), estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patient...

  12. Analysis and testing of two-dimensional vented Coanda ejectors with asymmetric variable area mixing sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroti, L. A.; Hill, P. G.; Armstrong, R. L.; Haines, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of asymmetric, curved (Coanda) ejector flow has been completed using a finite difference technique and a quasi-orthogonal streamline coordinate system. The boundary layer type jet mixing analysis accounts for the effect of streamline curvature in pressure gradients normal to the streamlines and on eddy viscosities. The analysis assured perfect gases, free of pressure discontinuities and flow separation and treated three compound flows of supersonic and subsonic streams. Flow parameters and ejector performance were measured in a vented Coanda flow geometry for the verification of the computer analysis. A primary converging nozzle with a discharge geometry of 0.003175 m x 0.2032 m was supplied with 0.283 cu m/sec of air at about 241.3 KPa absolute stagnation pressure and 82 C stagnation temperature. One mixing section geometry was used with a 0.127 m constant radius Coanda surface. Eight tests were run at spacing between the Coanda surface and primary nozzle 0.01915 m and 0.318 m and at three angles of Coanda turning: 22.5 deg, 45.0 deg, and 75.0 deg. The wall static pressures, the loci of maximum stagnation pressures, and the stagnation pressure profiles agree well between analytical and experimental results.

  13. Interpreted resistivity and IP section line W1: Wahmonie Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Geological Survey, working under a memorandum of understanding EW-78-A-08-1543, with the Department of Energy, is engaged in a broad program to assess and identify potential repositories for high level nuclear waste on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The USGS program consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies of regional to site specific nature. This report discusses work done at the proposed Wahmonie site at which active work has been suspended in part due to structural complexity, faulting and potential mineralization. This work provides the principal geophysical basis on which an assessment of potential mineralization was made. The Wahmonie site was originally selected for study as a potential nuclear waste repository because of an inferred intrusive body at shallow depth in the area. Studies were initiated to determine the nature and extent of the intrusive mass in order to assess its potential as a repository. This report covers the two dimensional modeling and interpretation of a dipole-dipole induced polarization (IP) line run across the center of the inferred mass. The modeling was done by the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) under purchase order 84868 of the US Geological Survey. A brief discussion of the geology is given in the introduction because the results show significant potential for mineralization in the intrusive

  14. Effects of filtering methods on muscle and fat cross-sectional area measurement by pQCT: a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is most commonly used for bone density and morphology assessment of the limbs, but it can also be used for soft tissue area quantification by segmenting regions representing different tissues. Scanning and analyzing cross-sectional areas of larger thighs present a special challenge due to increased statistical noise created from fewer detected x-ray photons. The purpose of this technical note is to compare total, muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the midthigh with Stratec 3000 pQCT scans using no filter, a weak smoothing filter and a strong smoothing filter to CSA measurements of midthigh MRI scans analyzed by Image J, a public domain image processing program. Nine healthy men and women participated in this study. CSAs did not differ significantly between MRI and strongly filtered pQCT images with per cent differences ranging from −3.1% for muscle to +6.5% for fat. The per cent difference in muscle CSA values between MRI and pQCT with the weak filter (−24.0 ± 38.0%) or no filter (−44.9 ± 22.7%) was strongly related to total thigh CSA (r = 0.78–0.92, p < 0.05). We propose that the midthigh can be assessed for soft tissue area measurements with pQCT, provided that strong smoothing filter is utilized. (note)

  15. Narrowing carpal arch width to increase cross-sectional area of carpal tunnel – a cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Ming; Gabra, Joseph N.; Marquardt, Tamara L.; Kim, Dong Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel morphology plays an essential role in the etiology and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological changes of the carpal tunnel as a result of carpal arch width narrowing. It was hypothesized carpal arch width narrowing would result in increased height and area of the carpal arch. Methods The carpal arch width of eight cadaveric hands was narrowed by a custom apparatus and cross-sectional ultrasound images were acquired. The carpal arch height and area were quantified as the carpal arch width was narrowed. Correlation and regression analyses were performed for the carpal arch height and area with respect to the carpal arch width. Findings The carpal tunnel became more convex as the carpal arch width was narrowed. The initial carpal arch width, height, and area were 25.7 (SD 1.9) mm, 4.1 (SD 0.6) mm, and 68.5 (SD 14.0) mm2, respectively. The carpal arch height and area negatively correlated with the carpal arch width, with correlation coefficients of −0.974 (SD 0.018) and −0.925 (SD 0.034), respectively. Linear regression analyses showed a 1 mm narrowing of the carpal arch width resulted in proportional increases of 0.40 (SD 0.14) mm in the carpal arch height and 4.0 (SD 2.2) mm2 in the carpal arch area. Interpretation This study demonstrates that carpal arch width narrowing leads to increased carpal arch height and area, a potential mechanism to reduce the mechanical insult to the median nerve and relieve symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:23583095

  16. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Sisk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  17. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  18. Morbidity Pattern Among the Elderly Population in a Rural Area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka - A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahul Hameed, Nanjesh Kumar, Prashanth M Naik, Sachidananda K., Prasanna K S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As the ageing population is increasing, the burden of their health problems is on a rise. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among elderly population aged 60 years and above residing in the rural field practice area of A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. Results: The mean age of the participants was 66.9±6.3years. Out of 375 elderly participants, females were 57.9%. In the st...

  19. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  20. The best cutoff point for median nerve cross sectional area at the level of carpal tunnel inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sarraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy. It accounts 90% of all entrapment neuropathies all over the world. Ultrasound is a non-invasive, cost effective and available para-clinical method which could be applied for CTS diagnosis. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the level of the inlet is considered as a diagnostic criterion in CTS cases. In this study, thirty-eight patients with electrophysiologically confirmed idiopathic CTS and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventy-one affected nerves and 42 unaffected nerves were evaluated within 14 days after electrophysiological examination. The largest cross-sectional area (CSA was measured at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet and the maximum nerve perimeter was also recorded by means of the software. Mean CSA and perimeter were 14.02 ± 4.5 mm2 and 1.7±0.28m in all patients and 8.2±2.1 mm2, 1.3±0.19 m in controls (P<0.001, P<0.001. Mean CSA and Perimeter were significantly different between patient's groups and control. The best cut off point for CSA of the tunnel inlet was 10.5 mm2 with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 76% (AUC (Area under the Curve = 0.9, P<0.001. The best cut off point for inlet perimeter was 1.44 m with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77 % (AUC=0.87, P<0.001. Our findings showed that median nerve CSA at carpal tunnel inlet could be used as the diagnostic criteria for CTS.

  1. Quantitative Image Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Area in Histological Sections of Colorectal Cancer: An Emerging Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rogojanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In colorectal cancer (CRC, an increase in the stromal (S area with the reduction of the epithelial (E parts has been suggested as an indication of tumor progression. Therefore, an automated image method capable of discriminating E and S areas would allow an improved diagnosis. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections from colorectal tumors (16 samples from patients with liver metastasis and 18 without. Noncancerous tumor adjacent mucosa (n=5 and normal mucosa (n=4 were taken as controls. Epithelial cells were identified by an anti-keratin 8 (K8 antibody. Large tissue areas (5–63 mm2/slide including tumor center, tumor front, and adjacent mucosa were scanned using an automated microscopy system (TissueFAXS. With our newly developed algorithms, we showed that there is more K8-immunoreactive E in the tumor center than in tumor adjacent and normal mucosa. Comparing patients with and without metastasis, the E/S ratio decreased by 20% in the tumor center and by 40% at tumor front in metastatic samples. The reduction of E might be due to a more aggressive phenotype in metastasis patients. The novel software allowed a detailed morphometric analysis of cancer tissue compartments as tools for objective quantitative measurements, reduced analysis time, and increased reproducibility of the data.

  2. Neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

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    Hirdesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the majority of individuals with neurological disorders are rural based and cannot even afford the cost of rehabilitation. At the same time, we do not have barrier free environment in India. Aim: This study attempts to find out the neurological disorders and barriers for neurological rehabilitation in rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Setting: Rural areas in Uttar Pradesh, India. Design: It is a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was done by means of an interview method using a questionnaire. The rural areas in Uttar Pradesh were visited personally and a data from 201 individuals was collected. Statistical Analysis Used : Data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 201 individuals, 76.6% (n=154 individuals were with polio, 12.9% (n=26 were with cerebral palsy, 7.9% (n=16 were with stroke and 2.4% (n=5 were with spinal cord injury. Reasons for not taking the treatment/discontinuation of treatment were financial problem (44%, lack of awareness (43%, family negligence (6%, transportation problem (3.5% and other environmental barriers (1%. Conclusion: In our study, we found polio to be the most prevalent disorder followed by Cerebral Palsy, Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury. Financial problem was the major barrier for neurological rehabilitation followed by lack of awareness, family negligence and transportation problem.

  3. EFFECTS OF STABILIZATION EXERCISE USING A BALL ON MUTIFIDUS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

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    SinHo Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using balls to the effects of general lumbar stabilization exercises with respect to changes in the cross section of the multifidus (MF, weight bearing, pain, and functional disorders in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Twelve patients participated in either a 8 week (3 days per week stabilization exercise program using balls and control group (n = 12. The computer tomography (CT was used to analyze MF cross-sectional areas (CSA and Tetrax balancing scale was used to analyze left and right weight bearing differences. Both groups had significant changes in the CSA of the MF by segment after training (p < 0.05 and the experimental group showed greater increases at the L4 (F = 9.854, p = 0.005 and L5 (F = 39. 266, p = 0.000. Both groups showed significant decreases in weight bearing, from 9.25% to 5.83% in the experimental group and from 9.33% to 4.25% in the control group (p < 0.05, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggests that stabilization exercises using ball can increases in the CSA of the MF segments, improvement in weight bearing, pain relief, and recovery from functional disorders, and the increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments for patients with low back pain

  4. A Section-based Method For Tree Species Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Discrete Points In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunjing, Y. C.; Hui, T.; Zhongjie, R.; Guikai, B.

    2015-12-01

    As a new approach to forest inventory utilizing, LiDAR remote sensing has become an important research issue in the past. Lidar researches initially concentrate on the investigation for mapping forests at the tree level and identifying important structural parameters, such as tree height, crown size, crown base height, individual tree species, and stem volume etc. But for the virtual city visualization and mapping, the traditional methods of tree classification can't satisfy the more complex conditions. Recently, the advanced LiDAR technology has generated new full waveform scanners that provide a higher point density and additional information about the reflecting characteristics of trees. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that it is feasible to detect individual overstorey trees in forests and classify species. But the important issues like the calibration and the decomposition of full waveform data with a series of Gaussian functions usually take a lot of works. What's more, the detection and classification of vegetation results relay much on the prior outcomes. From all above, the section-based method for tree species classification using small footprint and high sampling density lidar data is proposed in this paper, which can overcome the tree species classification issues in urban areas. More specific objectives are to: (1)use local maximum height decision and four direction sections certification methods to get the precise locations of the trees;(2) develop new lidar-derived features processing techniques for characterizing the section structure of individual tree crowns;(3) investigate several techniques for filtering and analyzing vertical profiles of individual trees to classify the trees, and using the expert decision skills based on percentile analysis;(4) assess the accuracy of estimating tree species for each tree, and (5) investigate which type of lidar data, point frequency or intensity, provides the most accurate estimate of tree species

  5. The in vivo relationship between cross-sectional area and CT dose index in abdominal multidetector CT with automatic exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S; Alvey, C M; Golding, S J, E-mail: stuart.meeson@nds.ox.ac.u [Radiology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The relationship between patient cross-sectional area and both volume CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product was explored for abdominal CT in vivo, using a 16 multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanner with automatic exposure control. During a year-long retrospective survey of patients with MDCT for symptoms of abdominal sepsis, cross-sectional areas were estimated using customised ellipses at the level of the middle of vertebra L3. The relationship between cross-sectional area and the exposure parameters was explored. Scans were performed using a LightSpeed 16 (GE Healthcare Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) operated with tube current modulation. From a survey of 94 patients it was found that the CTDI increased with the increase in patient cross-sectional area. The relationship was logarithmic rather than linear, with a least-squares fit to the data (R{sup 2} = 0.80). For abdominal CT the cross-sectional area gave a measure of patient size based on the region of the body to be exposed. Exposure parameters increased with increasing cross-sectional area and the greater radiation exposure of larger patients was partly a consequence of their size. Given increasing obesity levels we believe that cross-sectional area and scan length should be added to future dose surveys, allowing patient size to be considered as a factor of relevance when examining population doses.

  6. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  7. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  8. Prevalence of diabetes among Han, Manchu and Korean ethnicities in the Mudanjiang area of China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.

  9. SECTIONAL AREA CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BLANK WHILE FORMING SPACE BETWEEN TWO TEETH OF SATELLITE GEAR OF PLANETARY PIN TOOTH REDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  10. Ultrasonographic measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area reference values in a healthy Han population from Guiyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Shan Wu; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography was used to analyze the nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at 7 sites: the wrist crease, pisiform bone, hamate bone, 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm (where the nerve enters the pronator teres muscle), 4 cm proximal to the tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus (mid-point between elbow crease and axilla) in 200 healthy volunteers from Guiyang, China. Results showed similar CSA values between the left and right sides, but the CSA 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm, 4 cm proximal to tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus in males was greater than that of females. Moreover, CSA values at the wrist crease, pisiform bone, and hamate bone were greater in the middle-aged and old groups when compared to the young group, and correlated with body mass and height. Thus, reference values of median nerve CSA of the upper limbs can facilitate the analysis of abnormal nerve conditions.

  11. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  12. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  13. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm2 (range, 35.6-93.4 cm2), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm2 (range, 42.5-108.9 cm2) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm2 (range, 40.9-115.9 cm2) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm3 (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm3). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  14. Interplay among the changes of muscle strength, cross-sectional area and maximal explosive power: theory and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, P; Minetti, A E; di Prampero, P E

    2002-12-01

    A model has recently been proposed to predict the changes of mechanical power (W) during a maximal explosive effort (such as a standing high jump off both feet) following an adaptation (e.g. training/de-training). The model is based on the assumption that, all other things being equal (ceteris paribus), the predicted changes in W depend on the measured changes of muscle force (F) or cross-sectional area (CSA) only. It follows that, if the measured changes in W are not equal to those predicted by the model, factors other than a change in F (or CSA) must be responsible for this difference. The model does not allow the determination of factors specifically involved in the adaptation process but it helps in discriminating whether an adaptation has taken place at a local level (when the observed changes in F would be attributed to factors other than the observed changes in CSA, e.g. co-contractions, fibre type modifications...), or at a central level (when the observed changes in W would be attributed to other factors than the observed changes in F, e.g. co-ordination of multiple joints and muscle groups...), or in both regions. In this paper the model has been applied to data reported in the literature on disuse (BR, bed rest), de-conditioning (SF, space flight), strength training (ST) and de-training (DT). The results of these calculations have confirmed previous observations on the determinants of the adaptation process and further suggest: (1) that training for one specific motor task (e.g. ST) could affect the performance of a second task (e.g. a maximal explosive jump) but that, as soon as the trained motor task is terminated (DT), this ability is re-gained; and (2) that neuromuscular impairment in disuse (BR) is closer to de-training than to the de-conditioning brought about by weightlessness (SF). PMID:12458362

  15. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 27808) seeking public comment on a small area FMR demonstration project. Today's... response to a May 18, 2010, notice (75 FR 27808) announcing HUD's intent to operate a small area FMR... are available electronically at...

  16. Mesozoic Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Zhuanghai area, Bohai-Bay Basin, east China: the application of balanced cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiguo; Yu, Zhaohua; Zhang, Rongqiang; Han, Wengong; Zou, Dongbo

    2005-06-01

    The technique of balancing cross-sections, an important method for studying the tectonic history of sedimentary basins, has many applications. It enables one to compile charts for petroleum exploration and development, and growth sections of ancient structures can be restored so that the structural growth history can be studied. In order to study tectonic evolution in the Zhuanghai area of the Bohai-Bay basin, we selected two seismic profiles and compiled two structural growth sections. Based on the two balanced cross-sections, the evolution can be divided into four phases: the Triassic-Middle Jurassic phase, Late Jurassic-Cretaceous phase, Palaeogene extension phase, and Late Palaeogene-to-present phase. The whole area was uplifted during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic phase because of intense extrusion stress related to the Indo-China movement. During the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, intense extension occurred in east China, and the whole area rifted, leading to the deposition of a thick sedimentary sequence. In the Late Cretaceous, the area suffered uplift and compression associated with the sinistral strike slip of the Tanlu fault. In the Palaeogene, a rifting basin developed in the area. Finally, it became stable and was placed in its present position by dextral strike-slip motion. In addition, some problems associated with compiling balanced cross-sections are discussed.

  17. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  18. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  19. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  20. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  1. The value of MRI iniIdiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome by measuring the cross-sectional area of tarsal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Lee, Sheen Woo; Choi Seung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Hong Gi [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MRI as a diagnostic test in tarsal tunnel syndrome. There are no published reports with this aim and no diagnostic standard for idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) using imaging modalities. We retrospectively searched our Picture Archiving and Communication System data and medical records to identify patients who were clinically and electomyographically diagnosed with idiopathic TTS without space-occupying lesion on MRI. Twenty five patients were included in the patient group. Another twenty-five patients who underwent ankle MRI for Achilles tendon disease were selected and included in the control group. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tarsal tunnel were manually measured independently by two radiologists who were blinded to clinical and surgical results, using three-dimensional reconstruction software in our hospital. Measurements were done on axial images at three levels (level 1, tibiotalar joint level; level 2, medial malleolar tip level; level 3, sustentaculum tali level). Patient and control group data were statistically analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test. The mean values of CSA at levels 1, 2, and 3 of the tarsal tunnel were 87.8 mm2, 98.2 mm2, and 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 100.0 mm2, 113.8 mm2, and 127.9 mm2 in the control group, respectively, in reader 1; and 86.2 mm2, 97.6 mm2, 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 99.7 mm2, 112.3 mm2, 124.4 mm2, respectively, in the control group, in reader 2. The mean CSA in the patient group was significantly less than that of the control group at all three levels (p < 0.05). Intra-class correlation coefficient value between reader 1 and reader 2 were 0.98 in group 1, and 0.97 in group 2, respectively. MRI can be helpful in the assessment of idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome. CSA measurements of tarsal tunnel at each level may predict TTS even though there are no space occupying lesions in the tarsal tunnel on MRI.

  2. Feeding practices among children attending child welfare clinics in Ragama MOH area: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Priyantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. Currently, Sri Lanka has adopted the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by addition of complementary feeds thereafter, with continuation of breastfeeding up to or beyond two years. This study was conducted to evaluate the current feeding practices among Sri Lankan children during early childhood. Methods This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH area. It was conducted between 10 August 2010 and 30 October 2010. Children between the ages of 24 and 60 months, attending child welfare clinics, were included in the study on consecutive basis. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Results There were 208 boys and 202 girls in the study population. Of them, 255 (62.2% were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months. Younger children had a statistically significant, higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding compared to older children. Three hundred and fifty one (85.6% children had received infant formula, and it was started before the age of 6 months in 61 children, and in 212 before one year. Sugar was added to infant formula in 330 (80.4% children, and out of them 144 had sugar added within first year of life. Complementary foods were started before 4 months in 29 (7% children. Of the 410 children, 294 (71.7% were breastfed beyond 2 years and 41.6% of them were breastfed at regular intervals throughout the day. Three hundred and thirty eight (82.6% children were receiving overnight feeding of either breast milk or infant formula even after 2 years. Conclusions Though a high rate of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in this study population, there are many other issues related to feeding during the early years of life that need

  3. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senturk MB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Baki Senturk,1 Yusuf Cakmak,2 Halit Atac,2 Mehmet Sukru Budak3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Batman State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diyarbakir Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P<0.01, but these were minor. The rate of blood transfusion and prevalence of changes in hemoglobin level were similar in both groups (P>0.05. In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients’ requests influenced outcome. Trial of

  4. A cross-sectional study of antenatal care services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in urban slum area of India in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh K. Mangulikar; Howal, Prashant V.; Kailash P. Kagne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the important factors in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality has wide regional variation. The present study was carried out in an urban slum area to determine the pattern of utilization of ANC services, awareness regarding Janani suraksha yojana (JSY) national programme and MEMS (Maharashtra emergency medical services) toll free helpline number (108 and 102). Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in urban slum area ...

  5. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

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    Samy Bouaicha

    Full Text Available To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI.Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2 of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position". The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated.The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167 and 841 mm2 (±191 for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 984 mm2 (±241 and 1568 mm2 (±338 for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129 and 438 mm2 (±128 for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 1953 mm2 (±553 and 2343 mm2 (±587 for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839 for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836 for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937 for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (p<0.0001 and a strong correlation when the CSA of the teres minor was added to the infraspinatus CSA (r = 0.665, p = 0.0008 and a strong positive

  6. Missing Girls: Low Child Sex Ratio - Study from Urban Slum and Elite Area of Nagpur, India- A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dutt Bhardwaj, Babusaheb Nagargoje, Ashok Jadhao, Jyoti Khadse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To find the Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban slum and elite area of Nagpur and also to compare child sex ratio according to birth order and sex of previous born child. Methods: Study involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban slum and elite area of Nagpur. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order, sex and information regarding any abortions was noted. . Results: CSR was 934 females per 1000 males combined for both areas. CSR was significantly low (P<0.05 in elite area (904 females per 1000 males compared to slum area (964 females per 1000 males. In elite area, when first-born child was female, in second birth order number of males was significantly higher than females (P<0.05. There was significant difference between number of males and females of second birth order, when first-born child was male compared to when it was female (P<0.001. Conclusion: There is missing of girl child form the second and subsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female, which is more evident in elite area.

  7. Fusulinid fauna study of the Dalan Formation at Il-e Beyk section, Zard Kud area, Zagros

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    S., Arefifard,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permian deposits (Kubergandian-Lopingian at Il-e Beyk section located in Bakhtiyari Zard Kuh, High Zagros, was studied comprehensively in regard to its fusulinids faunas for the first time. In this study 30 species belong to 14 genera were recognized and in addition one species (Rugososchwagerina zagroensis was described systematically. Five Zones were distinguished in the studied section. The oldest one is Praeskinerella parviflucta-Chusenella? pseudocompacta is situated in the lower 120 m of the succession and is assignable to Kubergandian. The second zone is Eopolydiexodina persica occurs from 120 through 320 meters in the section and is referable to Early-Middle Murgabian. The Third zone is Chusenella schwagerinaeformis-Rugososchwagerina zagroensis that is found in a very narrow horizon within 320-350 m of the succession and yield late Murgabian-Early Midian age. The fourth zone is Parafusulina crassispira established from 360 to 435 m in the succession and is dated to Early Midian. The fifth zone is Afghanella schencki extended from 438 through 687 m and of latest Midian age. The strata rested in 920 m above the base of the section contain small foraminifers including Paraglobivalvulina sp. and Dagmarita sp. that can be considered Lopingian in age. The interval from 687 through 920 m yield no fossil and can be assigned to either Guadalupian or Lopingian age. Fusulinids studied in this paper demonstrate western Tethyan affinity.

  8. Missing Girls: Low Child Sex Ratio - Study from Urban Slum and Elite Area of Nagpur, India- A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Dutt Bhardwaj, Babusaheb Nagargoje, Ashok Jadhao, Jyoti Khadse

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To find the Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in the urban slum and elite area of Nagpur and also to compare child sex ratio according to birth order and sex of previous born child. Methods: Study involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban slum and elite area of Nagpur. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order, sex and information regarding any abortions was noted. . Results: CSR was 934 females per 1000 males ...

  9. Magneto-biostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic bedded chert succession from the Mino Belt, Inuyama area, central Japan: correlation to Tethyan sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, D.; Koji, U.; Onoue, T.

    2015-12-01

    Late Triassic magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy has recently been investigated in both continental and Tethyan marine sequences (Hounslow and Muttoni, 2010). However, there is no agreed on geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) for the Late Triassic, because of poor age control of many Late Triassic magnetostratigraphic sections, missing or duplicated intervals, and within- section changes in sedimentation rates (Lucas, 2013). Here we present lower Carnian to upper Norian magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (conodont and radiolaria) of the Upper Triassic bedded chert successions from the Mino belt, Inuyama area, central Japan. The bedded chert was deposited in a mid-oceanic basin of the Panthalassa Ocean. Chert samples were collected at two sections (Sakahogi and Momotaro sections) where Sugiyama (1997) investigated the radiolarian biostratigraphy. Based on detailed study of the conodont biostratigraphy from the study sections, five conodont zones are recognized in ascending order as follows: lower Carnian lower Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, upper Carnian upper Quadralella polygnathiformis zone, lower Norian Epigondolella quadrata zone, middle Norian Epigondolella postera zone, and late Norian Epigondolella bidentata zone. Thermal demagnetization showed four distinct remanent magnetization components from the cherts. The highest blocking temperature component shows positive reversal test and is regarded as the primary remanent magnetization, which produced a magnetostratigraphy of the lower Carnian to upper Norian. The magnetostratigraphy consists of 15 substantive normal- reverse polarity chrons, defined by sampling at 256 stratigraphic levels. Paleomagnetic polarity reversals observed at the vicinity of Carnian/Norian boundary and middle Norian/upper Norian boundary are correlated with those of Tethyan marine sections (Pizzo Mondello and Silickà Brezovà). Assuming that the rocks in the two Tethyan marine sections were deposited in the Northern

  10. Pre-hypertension and Hypertension and its Determinants among School Adolescents of Rural Area of Indore- A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayashri Bute, Aarti Sahsrabudhhe, Vinod Arora, Harilal Dabhi

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Though hypertension is a problem of adults, but its etiologic process starts in childhood. Very little is known about hypertension among adolescents. Objectives of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension (HBP) and pre-hypertension (PHT) among the apparently healthy school children and to estimate the association of different risk factors with the HBP. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted during the period from August-December 2014. Results...

  11. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child health

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvelli, Andrea; Iacoponi, Francesca; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7-7.5); 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8%) and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%), and were fed with commercial food (54.8%) and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%). The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle. PMID:27610373

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. The acoustic climate at the rest and service areas – parking lots by the Silesian section of A4 motorway

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    Robert WIESZAŁA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the state of the acoustic climate at the rest and service areas (MOPs situated by A4 motorway in Silesia The analysis includes the research results conducted at these parking lots from May till August 2010. The research was conducted with the digital noise meter, which was connected with the computer during measurement. The research results indicate the essential differences in the noise intensity between the particular rest and service area reaching up to 12 dB(A, in spite of the similar value of the traffic noise in all of the places where the research was conducted. It was assumed that the level of noise on each of the parking lots should be similar to standing norms for the recreation areas i.e. below 55 dB(A. The research conducted at 4 MOPs indicated that only at two of them, MOP Halemba and Wirek, these norms are fulfilled. The lack of the proper anti-noise protection in the form of the sound absorbing screens at the parking lots situated by the motorway causes the situation in which the level of noise at the places devoted to rest highly decreases the possibility to relax before the next stage of a journey.

  15. Method for the study of the inelastic cross section for high energy protons by means of shower arrays with the large calorimetric area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton initiated showers could be reliably separated from showers initiated by cosmic ray nuclei by means of arrays with large calorimetric area, using distributions of energy fractions for EAS electromagnetic muon and hadron components. Proton initiated showers penetrate deeper into the atmosphere and have relatively lower energy fraction in muons. Distribution of that energy fraction is sensitive to the value of the proton inelastic cross section. It is shown that the analysis of this distribution allows one distinguish between log sup 2 S -rise and log S -rise of the cross section at energies above 10 to the 15th power eV

  16. Upper Ordovician chitinozoan biostratigraphy from the type Ashgill area (Cautley district) and the Pus Gill section (Dufton district, Cross Fell Inlier), Cumbria, Northern England

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, T.R.A.; Rickards, B.; Verniers, J.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-five samples from the classic sections through the historical type area of the Ashgill Series in the Cautley district and along Pus Gill in the Cross Fell Inlier have been examined for chitinozoans. The results of this study allowed the recognition of five internationally recognized biozones and the definition of two new Avalonian chitinozoan zones. From bottom upwards, these are: the Fungochitina spinifera, the Tanuchitina bergstroemi?, the Conochitina rugata, the Spinachitina fossen...

  17. Effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area, performance determinants, and performance in well-trained cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Rønnestad, Bent R.; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heavy strength training on thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), determinants of cycling performance, and cycling performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E + S; n = 11 (♂ = 11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n = 9 (♂ = 7, ♀ = 2)]. The strength training performed by E + S consisted of four lower body exercises...

  18. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Srinivas; Ranjit Mankeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of...

  19. CT evaluation of lung parenchymal changes with respiration in normal volunteers. Relation between change of lung cross-sectional area and air trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate relation between change of lung cross-sectional area and physique and air trapping (AT) on high-resolution CT in the supine position. Twenty volunteers (10 men and 10 women) formed the study group. They ranged in age from 22 to 31 years. All were lifetime nonsmokers with no history of or current pulmonary disease. We performed inspiratory and expiratory CT scans at the level of aortic arch, carina, and inferior pulmonary vein. Eleven (5 men and 6 women) of 20 cases showed AT on expiratory scan. The ratio of lung cross-sectional area on expiratory scan to inspiratory scan was 0.52±0.14 on the group with AT, and 0.69±0.12 on the group without AT (p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was 22.1±3.0 on the group with AT, and 19.4±1.9 on the group without AT (p<0.05). The decrease of cross-sectional lung area was found to be significantly greater the group with AT than without AT. We consider that the motion of chest wall influenced appearance of AT in healthy subjects. (author)

  20. IMMUNE STATUS OF HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL FROM VARIOUS GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS IN INDIA AGAINST RUBELLA: A CROS S- SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Sangeetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rubella is a mild illness that presents with fever a nd rash with the infection occurring sub clinically. Its public health importanc e is due to its teratogenic effects on the growing foetus in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is insufficient data in India with regard to rubella virus immunity in the community. Occupat ional exposure of health care personnel to rubella infection disease requires special attentio n. Hence this study was taken up to analyse the rubella seroprevalence rate according to age, g eographical distribution, socio-economic class among health care personnel. Study design: Cro ss-sectional study. Methodology: 161 subjects aged between 15 to 30 years were given bac kground information about the study and those who provided voluntary and written consent wer e enrolled. Study was conducted in the month of August 2010. Analysis of rubella specific IgG and IgM antibodies was done by ELISA. Results: Among 161 subjects, 88 subjects were from South India, 42 from North India, 19 from Eastern region and 12 were from the western region of India. Serum IgG positivity was the highest 100% in subjects hailing from Western India , followed by 84.2% from Eastern India and 83.3% in subjects from north India. Subjects from S outh India showed the lowest seropositivity of 68.18%. Conclusion: Immunisation of health care personnel against rubella and whole population of India for rubella immunity is necessary

  1. TOBACCO SMOKING IN ADULTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF KASHMIR J&K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Tobacco is a major risk factor of numerous adult chronic non - communicable diseases. In India, the GATS Survey revealed that the prevalence of smoking is more than one - third in the adults (35%, the overall prevalence in males being 48% and among females it is 20%. AIM : The aim of our study was to determine the socio - demography of tobacco use in rural setting and to assess the knowledge, attitude & practices of tobacco use in the rural area. METHODS : All patients aged 18 years or above attending subcentre at village Panzinara of Block Sumbal. The data was collected on a semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS : 71 patients attending the sub center for various health states were taken up for the study. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 58 - 68 years (23.9%. Males comprised 56.3%. 63.4% gave positive response to ever any tobacco use & amongst the tobacco users 80% were daily users. Tob acco use was significantly associated with male sex. 51.1% of the patients had started tobacco use in adolescent age of 10 - 19 years. 62.2% were Hookah smokers, 24.4% cigarette smokers. Tobacco being injurious to health was known by 39.4% patients, 21.1% kn ew it lead to some cancers, 4.2% were aware that it can cause hypertension, diabetes & cancers. 35.3% were aware that it is to be avoided. CONCLUSION : In spite of awareness about hazards of tobacco use & knowledge of non - communicable diseases, this high pr evalence calls for more active psychological, social & medical interventions for tobacco users. Targeting the adolescent population for raising awareness would be additionally beneficial.

  2. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial

  3. Cross-sectional study of physical activity of adult population in South-Moravian area of the Czech republic

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    Jiří Nykodým

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA was defined in a worldwide scientific community as one of the most important factors in dealing with issues of prevention and public health. Regular PA has the undeniable positive effects on health, quality of life and renewal of an active old age. Improved conditions for active leisure time activities and active transport at the regional level can lead to the improvement of the regular participation in the PA AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze physical activity of adult population of the Southern Moravia area of the Czech Republic (Jihomoravský and Zlínský region and to observe differences in selected demographic aspects of active transport depending on environmental conditions. METHODS: To estimate the weekly level of PA we used randomized data in 1110 respondents in Southtern Moravia region (487 men and 623 women aged 41.67 ± 8.87 years. All respondents were asked face to face by trained distributors (university students to participate in a research study using the Czech administrative version of the ANEWS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out regularly in Spring (March-May and Fall (September-November from 2005 to 2009. Health enhancing PA is characterized in accordance with the general recommendations. Adults should do at least 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably it should be spread throughout the week (USDHHS, 2008. RESULTS: The total weekly PA did not affect either participation in organized PA or body mass index. Respondents who met the recommendations for PA reported significantly higher total PA and transport PA. People who have easy walking distances to many sites directly from home indicate higher transport PA. The most commonly performed

  4. Accuracy and reproducibility of simple cross-sectional linear and area measurements of brain structures and their comparison with volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumetric measurement of brain structure on brain images is regarded as a gold standard, yet is very time consuming. We wondered whether simple linear and area measurements might be as accurate and reproducible. Two observers independently measured the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, amygdalas, hippocampi, lateral and third ventricles, and the width of the sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and brain stem on brain MRI of 55 patients using a program written in-house; one observer also measured the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and ventricular system using Analyze, and performed qualitative assessment of four regions (lateral and third ventricles, cortex, and medial temporal lobe) using the Lieberman score. All measures were performed blinded to all other information. Test objects of known size were also imaged with MRI and measured by the two observers using the in-house program. The true sizes of the test objects were measured using engineering calipers by two observers blind to the MRI results. Differences between the two observers using the same measurement method, and one observer using different methods, were calculated. The simple linear and cross-sectional area measurements were rapid (20 min versus 5 h for volumetric); were highly accurate for test-object measurement versus true size; had excellent intraobserver reliability; and, for most brain structures, the simple measures correlated highly significantly with volumetric measures. The simple measures were in general highly reproducible, the difference (as a percentage of the area or width of a region) between the two raters being around 10 %, range 0.1 %- 14.1 %, (similar to inter-rater variability in previous studies of volume measurements). The simple linear and area measures are reproducible and correlate well with the measured volumes, and there is a considerable time saving with the former. In circumstances

  5. Comparison of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Nerve Conduction Study in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnostic Value of Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area

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    A. Mohammadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. This study was performed to evaluate whether high-resolution ultrasonography may be an alternative diagnostic method for nerve conduction study (NCS in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. "nPatients and Methods: 132 wrists of 82 patients and 152 wrists of controls were enrolled in the study. The cross sectional area of the median nerve was measured at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet in all patients and controls. All patients had a nerve conduction study. Then comparison between ultrasonography and NCS was performed. Combination of clinical diagnosis and NCS was used as the gold standard. "nResults: The mean cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet was 11.4±1.7 mm2 for the patient group and 5.78 ±0.9 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The mean cross-sectional area at the tunnel outlet was 9.9±1.2 mm2 for the patient group and 4.7±0.7 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The best cut-off value of CSA at the tunnel inlet and the outlet was 7.5 mm2. "nConclusion: In patients with clinical diagnosis of CTS we confirmed that the diagnostic value of ultrasonography is similar to NCS and sonography may be used in primary evaluation of CTS.

  6. Comparison of the main body of the external anal sphincter muscle cross-sectional area between women with and without prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Yvonne; HUEBNER, Markus; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E.; DeLANCEY, John O.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the main body of the external anal sphincter (EAS) cross-sectional area (CSA) of women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 40 women were selected for analysis. Of these women, 20 had pelvic organ prolapse and 20 had normal support. Of the women with normal support, 10 had known major levator ani (LA) muscle defects and 10 had normal LA muscles. The same was true for the women with pelvic prolapse: half ha...

  7. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pradeep Pandian; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world′s roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August...

  8. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-hwi; Weon, Jong-hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exerci...

  9. Upper Barremian-Lower Aptian Urgonian limestone's in the Rakova bara section (Carpatho-balkanides, NE Serbia: Analysis and comparison with adjacent areas

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    Carević Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Barremian-Lower Aptian succession is recorded from a limestone sequence that crops out in the surrounding of Rakova Bara in the Carpatho-Balkanides range in northeastern Serbia. The micropalaeontological and sedimentological studies lead to recognition of the two types of microfacies. The benthic foraminiferal association consists of Vercorsella laurentii, Rumanoloculina robusta, Praechrysalidina infracretaceae, Dictyoconus gr. arabicus, Debarina hahounerensis, Charentia cuvilieri and Pseudocyclammina lituus that confirm the stratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental connection of the microfossil assemblages with the classical Urgonian-type, shallow-water carbonate sedimentation. The association documented for the first time in the study area is considered typical of the Tethyan Realm. The stratigraphical position of the benthic foraminifera species within the Upper Barremian-Lower Aptian interval is discussed. The Urgonian Limestone's of the studied section are comparable with adjacent areas of eastern Serbia and Romanian South Carpathians. .

  10. Effects of Recruiting Midwives into a Family Physician Program on Women's Awareness and Preference for Mode of Delivery and Caesarean Section Rates in Rural Areas of Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Shayesteh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background The accepted rate rate of caesarean section is 15%. It is expected that an increase in the density of midwives in the family physician program lead to a decrease in this indicator. This study aimed to compare the rates of caesarean section and women's awareness and preference for mode of delivery before and after the implementation of the family physician program in health centres with and without an increase in midwives density. Methods In this cross-sectional study, using multistage cluster sampling method a total of 668 mothers with two-month-old children were selected from among all mothers with two-month-old children who were living in rural areas of Kurdistan province. Using the difference-in-differences model and Matchit statistical model, the factors associated with caesarean section rates and women's awareness and preference for mode of delivery were compared in centres with and without an increase in midwives density after the implementation of the family physician program. To compare the changes before and after the program, we used the data collected from the same number of women in 2005 as the baseline. Results After adjusting for baseline data collected in 2005, the resutls showed no significant change in caesarean section rates and women's awareness and preference for mode of delivery in the centres with and without an increase in midwives density after the implementation of the family physician program. The Matchit model showed a significant mean increase 14%(0.03–0.25) in women’s awareness of the benefits of natural childbirth between 2005 and 2013 in health centres where the density of midwives increased compared with health centres where it did not. The difference-in-differences model showed that the odds ratio of women’s preference for caesarean section decreased by 41% among participants who were aware of the benefits of natural childbirth, (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: (0.22–0.85); P>0.001). Conclusions The results of this study

  11. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

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    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  12. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Terefe Fuge; Leta, Taye Janfa

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Results One hundred six (25.8%) of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%), 27 (25.5%) and 3 (2.8%), respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38)], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37)], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74)], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50)] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76)] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study. Conclusion The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of

  13. The use of the lumbosacral enlargement as an intrinsic imaging biomarker: feasibility of grey matter and white matter cross-sectional area measurements using MRI at 3T.

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    Marios C Yiannakas

    Full Text Available Histopathological studies have demonstrated the involvement of spinal cord grey matter (GM and white matter (WM in several diseases and recent research has suggested the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a promising tool for in vivo assessment of the upper spinal cord. However, many neurological conditions would benefit from quantitative assessment of tissue integrity at different levels and relatively little work has been done, mainly due to technical challenges associated with imaging the lower spinal cord. In this study, the value of the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE as an intrinsic imaging biomarker was determined by exploring the feasibility of obtaining within it reliable GM and WM cross-sectional area (CSA measurements by means of a commercially available MRI system at 3 tesla (T. 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 27.5 years, 6 female gave written informed consent and high resolution images of the LSE were acquired and analysed using an optimised MRI acquisition and analysis protocol. GM and WM mean CSA measurements were obtained from a 15 mm section at the level of the LSE and the reproducibility of the measurements was determined by means of scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer assessments. Mean (±SD LSE cross-sectional area (LSE-CSA was 62.3 (±4.1 mm2 and mean (±SD LSE grey matter cross-sectional area (LSE-GM-CSA was 19.8 (±3.3 mm2. The mean scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer % coefficient of variation (COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 2%, 2% and 2.5%, respectively and for measuring the LSE-GM-CSA were 7.8%, 8% and 8.6%, respectively. This study has shown that the LSE can be used reliably as an intrinsic imaging biomarker. The method presented here can be potentially extended to study the LSE in the diseased state and could provide a solid foundation for subsequent multi-parametric MRI investigations.

  14. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

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    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  15. Testing of a JEF-1 based WIMS-D cross section library for migration area and k-infinity predictions for LWHCR lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell code WIMSD4 is used for the analysis of PROTEUS-LWHCR experiments. A library for this code which is based on the European evaluation JEF-1 was produced at EIR using the Los Alamos NJOY system with its module WIMSR and the Canadian management code WILMA. In general, this library delivered more accurate eigenvalues and reaction rates than the WIMS-Standard and WIMS81 libraries did in comparison to experimental values from PROTEUS-LWHCR Cores 1-3. However, large discrepancies (up to about 10%) occured between calculated migration areas (M2). Additional investigations have been undertaken to clarify this problem, since theoretical M2-values are needed for deducing k-infinity in the experiments. This has been done in the context of calculations for a reference LWHCR test lattice. The following major reasons for these deviations were found. First, the self-scattering term in non-moderators (P0 matrix) in the JEF-1 library was not transport corrected. Second, Standard and JEF-1 libraries use infinite dilute cross sections for 238U, whereas the WIMS81 library uses fully shielded cross sections. Third, the standard library uses the 'row' formula for the transport correction, whereas the 'inflow' formula is applied in the case of JEF-1 and WIMS81 libraries. Lastly, oxygen and 238U scattering cross sections in the fast energy range are smaller in the case of the WIMS81 library. Differences in calculated k-infinity values between the currently used library and WIMS81 (up to 3%) come (in order of importance for the reference LWHCR lattice) mainly from resonance cross sections for 240Pu capture, 238U capture and 239Pu fission. Recommendations have been made for generating a new JEF-1 library using updated versions of WIMSR and WILMA. (author)

  16. Child Sex Ratio and It’s Socio-Demographic Correlates: A Cross Sectional Study in an Urban Area of Eastern Maharashtra

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    Mamta K Shewte, Smita P Andurkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females in a society. Objective: The Objective of the study was to find Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra and socio?demographic factors affecting it. Methods: The present study is community based cross sectional study which involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban area of Aurangabad. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order and demographic informa-tion of family was noted. Results: Overall child sex ratio of study area was 853. The highest child sex ratio was obtained for (CSR 1255 Muslim religion, (CSR 2667 when father studies up-to primary school, (CSR1778 when mother was illiterate and (CSR 1000 for class V and III socio-economic status. Least CSR 605 was obtained when the families have all females in previous birth order. Conclusion: This part of country or Maharashtra has lower CSR than national average. There are demographic factors like socio-economic status, education status of parents, religion and previous birth order, which influence CSR. There is less girl child insubsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female.

  17. Endangering of the groundwater by acid rain - investigations in the catchment area of a drinking-water gallery of the Wiesbadener Hochtaunus. Pt. 1. Presentation of the investigation area and description of the water section-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research programme for water- and groundwater-acidification was realized in the catchment-area of the shallow groundwater-gallery ''Kalter Born'', which is part of the public water supply of Wiesbaden. The water chemistry of the sources and galleries shows the strongest acidification in the upper part of the aquifer, whereas the deeper groundwater sections show less acidification symptoms. Therefore the water of the deep gallery ''Kellerskopfstollen'' is nearly free of acidification signs in consequence of its long percolation distance (about 200-300 m) between the infiltration level and the gallery. On the other hand, we get an absolutely acid water with pH-values of about 4 and aluminium-concentrations of about 6 mg/l from the upper sources representing the highest groundwater level in the investigation area. As a whole, the aquifer can at least be separated in 4 levels of well distinguishable acidification rates. An exact analysis of the change of ion-concentrations by the water passage between the different water sections shows, that a considerable part of the acid depositions (H+) is temporarily neutralized by the aluminium puffer close below the infiltration level. So the acid is transported downwards masked as aluminium sulfates. In deeper regions the masked acid is converted and finally neutralized by contact with carbonates. (orig.)

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Pulsation in the Gap connecting with Two Parallel Rectangular Channels with Different Cross-section Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow pulsation in the gap connecting with two parallel channels is investigated by RANS and URANS approaches. The two parallel channels are connected by a small channel called for a gap. The parallel channels are designed to have different cross section area with its ratio of 0.5. Computations are conducted using a CFX 11.0 code. The bulk Reynolds number is 60,000. Predicted results are compared with the previous experimental data. Mean velocity profile at the center of gap region are compared with experiments for its validation. Spectral analysis on the lateral velocity in the center of the gap was performed. Auto correlation for the axial-flow velocity pattern was presented. The unsteady structure of the flow pulsation was visualized in the region of the gap in the parallel channel

  19. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, M; Oliver, R; Terradas, J; Karpen, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation p...

  20. An Empirical Method Permitting Rapid Determination of the Area, Rate and Distribution of Water-Drop Impingement on an Airfoil of Arbitrary Section at Subsonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergrun, N. R.

    1951-01-01

    An empirical method for the determination of the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The procedure represents an initial step toward the development of a method which is generally applicable in the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. Results given by the proposed empirical method are expected to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of heated-wing design, and can be obtained from a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The empirical method presented for incompressible flow is based on results of extensive water-drop. trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range. The differential equations pertaining to the paths of the drops were solved by a differential analyzer. The method developed for incompressible flow is extended to the calculation of area and rate of impingement on straight wings in subsonic compressible flow to indicate the probable effects of compressibility for airfoils at low subsonic Mach numbers.

  1. STUDY ON MORBIDITY AMONG UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN OF A R URAL AREA OF MANIPUR, THANGA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirendrakumar Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Children are the most precious assets of a country and their health status is highly reliable index of nation’s health. Major causes of deaths in the age group 0-5 years are preventable. OBJECTIVE : To determine morbidity pattern among under-five ch ildren in the area and to assess its association with some selected variables METHODS: A cross- sectional study was conducted among under-five chil dren in the village from September to December 2007. A sample size of 390 (13*30 was sele cted and participants were examined after interviewing mother or care taker. Chi square test was applied for significance in the difference. RESULTS : Out of 390 under-five children 92.3% were sick in the last 3 months of visit. Occurrence of illness was minimum (77.9% in age under one year as compared to other age categories (p= 0.0001. Majority of them (83.6% were suffering from ARI with episode of 2.6/child in last 3 months. CONCLUSION: ARI is the commonest morbidity in the rural area o f Manipur however the effect of flood on morbidity of under-five has to be studied further.

  2. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

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    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  3. SU-C-207-07: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of quantifying the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries using integrated density in a physics-based model with a phantom study. Methods: In this technique the total integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured so it is possible to account for the partial volume effect. The proposed method was compared to manual segmentation using CT scans of a 10 cm diameter Lucite cylinder placed inside a chest phantom. Holes with cross-sectional areas from 1.4 to 12.3 mm2 were drilled into the Lucite and filled with iodine solution, producing a contrast-to-noise ratio of approximately 26. Lucite rods 1.6 mm in diameter were used to simulate plaques. The phantom was imaged with and without the Lucite rods placed in the holes to simulate diseased and normal arteries, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used, and the root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) and errors (RMSE) were computed to assess the precision and accuracy of the measurements. In the case of manual segmentation, two readers independently delineated the lumen in order to quantify the inter-reader variability. Results: The precision and accuracy for the normal vessels using the integrated density technique were 0.32 mm2 and 0.32 mm2, respectively. The corresponding results for the manual segmentation were 0.51 mm2 and 0.56 mm2. In the case of diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.46 mm2 and 0.55 mm2, respectively. The corresponding results for the manual segmentation were 0.75 mm2 and 0.98 mm2. The mean percent difference for the two readers was found to be 8.4%. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density had improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in a Lucite phantom. The results indicate the potential for using integrated density to improve CSA measurements in CT angiography

  4. Gas hydrate identified in sand-rich inferred sedimentary section using downhole logging and seismic data in Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Downhole wireline log (DWL) data was acquired from eight drill sites during China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition (GMGS-1) in 2007. Initial analyses of the acquired well log data suggested that there were no significant gas hydrate occurrences at Site SH4. However, the re-examination of the DWL data from Site SH4 indicated that there are two intervals of high resistivity, which could be indicative of gas hydrate. One interval of high resistivity at depth of 171–175 m below seafloor (mbsf) is associated with a high compressional- wave (P-wave) velocities and low gamma ray log values, which suggests the presence of gas hydrate in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. The second high resistivity interval at depth of 175–180 mbsf is associated with low P-wave velocities and low gamma values, which suggests the presence of free gas in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. Because the occurrence of free gas is much shallower than the expected from the regional depth of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the free gas could be from the dissociation of gas hydrate during drilling or there may be a local anomaly in the depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. In order to determine whether the low P-wave velocity with high resistivity is caused by in-situ free gas or dissociated free gas from the gas hydrate, the surface seismic data were also used in this analysis. The log analysis incorporating the surface seismic data through the construction of synthetic seismograms using various models indicated the presence of free gas directly in contact with an overlying gas hydrate-bearing section. The occurrence of the anomalous base of gas hydrate stability at Site SH4 could be caused by a local heat flow conditions. This paper documents the first observation of gas hydrate in what is believed to be a sand-rich sediment in Shenhu area of the South China Sea.

  5. SU-E-I-25: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a physics-based model for accurate quantification of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries in CT angiography by measuring the integrated density to account for the partial volume effect. Methods: In this technique the integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured to account for the partial volume effect. Normal vessels were simulated as circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3mm. Diseased vessels were simulated as 2, 3, and 4mm diameter vessels with 10–90% area stenosis, created by inserting circular plaques. A simplified two material model was used with the lumen as 8mg/ml Iodine and background as lipid. The contrast-to-noise ratio between lumen and background was approximately 26. Linear fits to the known CSA were calculated. The precision and accuracy of the measurement were quantified using the root-mean-square fit deviations (RMSD) and errors to the known CSA (RMSE). Results compared to manual segmentation of the vessel lumen. To assess the impact of random variations, coefficients of variation (CV) from 10 simulations for each vessel were computed to determine reliability. Measurements with CVs less than 10% were considered reliable. Results: For normal vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.12mm2 and 0.28mm2, respectively. The corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.27mm2 and 0.43mm2. For diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.14mm2 and 0.19mm2. Corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.42mm2 and 0.71mm2. Reliable CSAs were obtained for normal vessels with diameters larger than 1 mm and for diseased vessels with area as low as 1.26mm2. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density showed improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in simulation. These results indicate the potential of using integrated density to quantify CSA of coronary

  6. SU-E-I-25: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T; Ding, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a physics-based model for accurate quantification of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries in CT angiography by measuring the integrated density to account for the partial volume effect. Methods: In this technique the integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured to account for the partial volume effect. Normal vessels were simulated as circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3mm. Diseased vessels were simulated as 2, 3, and 4mm diameter vessels with 10–90% area stenosis, created by inserting circular plaques. A simplified two material model was used with the lumen as 8mg/ml Iodine and background as lipid. The contrast-to-noise ratio between lumen and background was approximately 26. Linear fits to the known CSA were calculated. The precision and accuracy of the measurement were quantified using the root-mean-square fit deviations (RMSD) and errors to the known CSA (RMSE). Results compared to manual segmentation of the vessel lumen. To assess the impact of random variations, coefficients of variation (CV) from 10 simulations for each vessel were computed to determine reliability. Measurements with CVs less than 10% were considered reliable. Results: For normal vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.12mm{sup 2} and 0.28mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.27mm{sup 2} and 0.43mm{sup 2}. For diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.14mm{sup 2} and 0.19mm{sup 2}. Corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.42mm{sup 2} and 0.71mm{sup 2}. Reliable CSAs were obtained for normal vessels with diameters larger than 1 mm and for diseased vessels with area as low as 1.26mm2. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density showed improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in simulation. These results indicate the potential of using

  7. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND BASIC UNMET NEED OF THE ELDERLY: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF MEDICAL COLLEGE, DEHRADUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Srivastava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Change in socio economic status, nuclearisation of joint family, migration of youths, changing traditional values and role of women have contributed to the crisis of care for the elderly.Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study was done at the field practice area of the department of Community Medicine, HIMS, Dehradun. A total of 526 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed using a pre tested schedule in 4 randomly selected villages. The findings are described in percentages and proportions.Results: Around 63.1% belonged to age group 60 -69 years, 35.4 % were illiterate, 48.4 % were not happy in life and 34.7 % felt they were burden to family. Basic unmet need was seen in 11.2% of the elderly and 34.3% were aware about geriatric welfare schemes.  Conclusion: The financial and social needs of the elderly needs to be fulfilled by preserving strong traditional joint family system, providing light occupation, giving them time and attention. IEC activity to be increased about different geriatric welfare schemes. There is also urgent need of geriatric counselling centre to deal with their physical and psychosocial problems.

  8. On the mechanical power of joint extensions as affected by the change in muscle force (or cross-sectional area), ceteris paribus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Alberto E

    2002-02-01

    This paper offers a reference prediction for the changes of mechanical power generated during a maximal (vertical, horizontal or inclined) joint extension, as a consequence of just the changes of muscle force or cross-sectional area (CSA). Ceteris paribus (all other things being equal), for a given joint, the exponents at which the force changes have to be raised to predict the duration, final speed and power of the maximal extension are -0.5, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively, for horizontal movements. For example, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 19.5% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 16.3% and of 41.4% of its final speed and power. The equations for vertical or inclined extension performances are subject to the same exponents. However, the actual prediction is dependent upon the ratio between muscle strength and body weight, reflecting the fraction of the muscle strength (or CSA) acting against gravity during the manoeuvre. For instance, during a vertical extension, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 30.9% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 29.3% and of 50.5% of its final speed and power. Based on the proposed model, a methodology is also described to detect the effects on the extension power of other determinants, in addition to CSA, of the useful force change (e.g. neuromuscular factors, motor control). PMID:11990751

  9. Assessment of pulmonary venous stenosis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation by magnetic resonance angiography: a comparison of linear and cross-sectional area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Radiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)

  10. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  11. Tuberculosis infection among homeless persons and caregivers in a high-tuberculosis-prevalence area in Japan: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermediate-prevalence country, Japan. However, there have been few studies of homeless persons and caregivers. The objective of this study is to detect active TB and to assess the prevalence and risk factors for latent TB infection among homeless persons and caregivers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study for screening TB infection (active and latent TB infections using questionnaire, chest X-ray (CXR, newly available assay for latent TB infection (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube; QFT and clinical evaluation by physicians at the Osaka Socio-Medical Center Hospital between July 2007 and March 2008. Homeless persons and caregivers, aged 30-74 years old, who had not received CXR examination within one year, were recruited. As for risk factors of latent TB infection, the odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for QFT-positivity were calculated using logistic regression model. Results Complete responses were available from 436 individuals (263 homeless persons and 173 caregivers. Four active TB cases (1.5% among homeless persons were found, while there were no cases among caregivers. Out of these four, three had positive QFT results. One hundred and thirty-three (50.6% homeless persons and 42 (24.3% caregivers had positive QFT results. In multivariate analysis, QFT-positivity was independently associated with a long time spent in the Airin district: ≥10 years versus Conclusions Although no active TB was found for caregivers, one-quarter of them had latent TB infection. In addition to homeless persons, caregivers need examinations for latent TB infection as well as active TB and careful follow-up, especially when they have spent a long time in a TB-endemic area and/or have been exposed to TB patients.

  12. Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

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    Fox Matthew P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings has increased dramatically, some patients eligible for treatment do not initiate ART even when it is available to them. Understanding why patients opt out of care, or are unable to opt in, is important to achieving the goal of universal access. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 400 patients on ART (those who were able to access care and 400 patients accessing home-based care (HBC, but who had not initiated ART (either they were not able to, or chose not to, access care in two rural and two urban sites in Zambia to identify barriers to and facilitators of ART uptake. Results HBC patients were 50% more likely to report that it would be very difficult to get to the ART clinic than those on ART (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.21-1.82. Stigma was common in all areas, with 54% of HBC patients, but only 15% of ART patients, being afraid to go to the clinic (RR: 3.61; 95% CI: 3.12-4.18. Cost barriers differed by location: urban HBC patients were three times more likely to report needing to pay to travel to the clinic than those on ART (RR: 2.84; 95% CI: 2.02-3.98 and 10 times more likely to believe they would need to pay a fee at the clinic (RR: 9.50; 95% CI: 2.24-40.3. In rural areas, HBC subjects were more likely to report needing to pay non-transport costs to attend the clinic than those on ART (RR: 4.52; 95% CI: 1.91-10.7. HBC patients were twice as likely as ART patients to report not having enough food to take ART being a concern (27% vs. 13%, RR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.71-2.41, regardless of location and gender. Conclusions Patients in home-based care for HIV/AIDS who never initiated ART perceived greater financial and logistical barriers to seeking HIV care and had more negative perceptions about the benefits of the treatment. Future efforts to expand access to antiretroviral care should consider ways to reduce these barriers

  13. Prevalence and determinants of nutritional anemia in an urban area among unmarried adolescent girls: A community-based cross-sectional study

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    Vani Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition status prior to pregnancy is of vital importance. Inadequate iron stores bef ore conception is a major cause of iron deficiency.The primary objective of this research was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia and the secondary objective was to assess various epidemiological factors associated with anaemia. Methods: A community based, cross - sectional study was carried among 207 unmarried adolescent girls between 10 to 19 years, residing in urban field practice area of tertiary care hospital in Mumbai for one year. All study participants social demographic profile, diet history was collected. Findings of clinical examination, height and weight was recorded. Blood and stools samples were collected after obtaining verbal consent from their parents. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS 11.5 version. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 78.3%. Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 64.2%, 36.2% and 0.6% respectively. Study participants with BMI <18.5 Kg/M 2 had significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. 88.9% had no knowledge regarding anaemia. In logistic regression analysis body mass index, per capita income and intestinal parasites in stool were the variables independently associated with anaemia. Conclusions: The high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls indicates need for additional nutritional support, iron folic acid supplementation including prevention and control of worm infestation in urban communities. It would be desirable that action for improvement is initiated right at the adolescent stage, thereby ensuring adequate body stores of iron even before they marry and become pregnant.

  14. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery. In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured. All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment. The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. PMID:27149455

  15. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (pC4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  16. Barriers to and promoters of screening for falls in elderly community-dwelling patients by general practitioners: a large cross-sectional survey in two areas of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboreau, Yoann; Imbert, Patrick; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Royer De Vericourt, Guillaume; Couturier, Pascal; Gavazzi, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the factors affecting French GPs' implementation of annual screening for falls among patients of 75 years old and over. We conduct a cross-sectional study in two areas in the South-east of France (Savoie and Isère). An anonymized survey was sent by e-mail and/or post in May 2008 to all GPs with a large practice. Reminder letters were sent to GPs who hadn't answered between June and July 2008. Potentials barriers were measured by dichotomous scale. On GPs characteristics (socio-demographic, knowledge, attitude and practice), a multiple logistic regression was performed to identify others factors affecting falls screening. 493 questionnaires were analyzed (26.8%). 65.3% of respondents considered annual screening for falls to be useful, though only 28.8% of them implemented it each year and 9.3% every two to five years. Barriers to achieving annual screening included patient selecting (56.3%), forgetting to screen (26.6%), unsuitable working conditions (18.5%), lack of time (13.3%), of knowledge (13.3%), or of financial compensation (11.1%). Perception of the usefulness of annual screening for falls (OR=5.38 (2.07-14.08); p=0.001), satisfaction with medical care for falls (OR=1.34 (1.09-1.65); p=0.006) and increased consultation time (OR=2.65 (1.37-5.13); p=0.004), were found to have a significant impact on the implementation of annual screening for falls. Asking your patient each year if s/he has had any falls, inquiring about gait and balance disturbance is not time consuming. Finally, to improve a health-related quality of life, GPs should consider fall assessment as a fundamental feature of medical care. PMID:27015652

  17. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting. PMID:26384568

  18. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

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    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  19. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  20. Gender difference in knowledge of tuberculosis and associated health-care seeking behaviors: a cross-sectional study in a rural area of China

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    Shen Hongbing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB detection under the national TB control program in China follows passive case-finding guidelines, which could be influenced by the accessibility of health service and patient's health-care seeking behaviors. One intriguing topic is the correlation between men and women's knowledge on TB and their health-care seeking behaviors. Methods Two cross-sectional studies were separately carried out in Yangzhong County, a rural area of China. One study, by using systematic sampling method, including 1,200 subjects, was conducted to investigate the TB knowledge among general population. Another study in the same source population screened 33,549 people aged 15 years or over among 20 stratified cluster-sampled villages for identifying prolonged cough patients at households and individual interviews were then carried out. Gender difference in the knowledge of TB and health-care seeking behaviors was analyzed particularly. Results Among general population, only 16.0% (men 17.1% vs. women 15.0% knew the prolonged cough with the duration of 3 weeks or longer was a symptom for suspicious TB. Fewer women than men knew the local appointed health facility for TB diagnosis and treatment as well as the current free TB service policy. Moreover, women were less likely to learn information about TB and share it with others on their own initiatives. On the contrary, after the onset of the prolonged cough, women (79.2% were more likely to seek health-care than men (58.6% did. However, a large part of women preferred to visit the lower level non-hospital health facilities at first such as village clinics and drugstores. Conclusion TB and DOTS program were not well known by rural Chinese. Gender issues should be considered to reduce diagnostic delay of TB and improve both men and women's access to qualified health facility for TB care. Strengthening awareness of TB and improving the accessibility of health-care service is essential in TB

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome of mild and moderate severity in diabetic patients by using an 8-point measurement of median nerve cross-sectional areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using high-resolution ultrasonography (US to measure the median nerve cross-sectional areas (CSAs such as in the “inching test” conducted in nerve conduction studies is a valuable tool to assess carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. However, using this US measurement method to assess the median nerve CSA in diabetic patients with CTS has rarely been reported. Therefore, we used this US measurement method in this study to measure median nerve CSAs and to compare the CSAs of idiopathic, diabetic and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN patients with CTS. Methods 124 hands belonging to 89 participants were included and assigned into four groups: control (32, idiopathic (38, diabetic (38 and DPN (16 CTS. In the latter two groups, only patients with mild and moderately severe CTS were included. The median nerve CSAs were measured at 8 points marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and o3 in the inching test. The measured CSAs in each group of participants were compared. Results Compared with the CSAs of the control group, enlarged CSAs were found in the idiopathic, diabetic and DPN CTS groups. The CSAs were larger at i4, i3 and i2 in the diabetic CTS group compared to the idiopathic CTS group. The CSAs measured at the i1 and w levels of the DPN CTS group were smaller than those of the diabetic CTS group. In the diabetic CTS group, the cut-off values of CSAs measured at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet were 15.3 mm2, 13.4 mm2 and 10.0 mm2, respectively, and 14.0 mm2, 12.5 mm2 and 10.5 mm2, respectively, in the DPN CTS group. Conclusions Compared with the median nerve CSAs of the control and idiopathic CTS groups, the median nerve CSAs of the diabetic patients with CTS were significantly enlarged. However, compared with the diabetic CTS group, the CSAs were significantly smaller in the DPN CTS group. This US 8-point measurement method can be of value as an important complementary tool for CTS studies and diagnosis among diabetic

  2. Design and validation of a novel method to measure cross-sectional area of neck muscles included during routine MR brain volume imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixe H M Kilgour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Low muscle mass secondary to disease and ageing is an important cause of excess mortality and morbidity. Many studies include a MR brain scan but no peripheral measure of muscle mass. We developed a technique to measure posterior neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA on volumetric MR brain scans enabling brain and muscle size to be measured simultaneously. METHODS: We performed four studies to develop and test: feasibility, inter-rater reliability, repeatability and external validity. We used T1-weighted MR brain imaging from young and older subjects, obtained on different scanners, and collected mid-thigh MR data. RESULTS: After developing the technique and demonstrating feasibility, we tested it for inter-rater reliability in 40 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC between raters were 0.99 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.98-1.00 for the combined group (trapezius, splenius and semispinalis, 0.92 (CI 0.85-0.96 for obliquus and 0.92 (CI 0.85-0.96 for sternocleidomastoid. The first unrotated principal component explained 72.2% of total neck muscle CSA variance and correlated positively with both right (r = 0.52, p = .001 and left (r = 0.50, p = .002 grip strength. The 14 subjects in the repeatability study had had two MR brain scans on three different scanners. The ICC for between scanner variation for total neck muscle CSA was high at 0.94 (CI 0.86-0.98. The ICCs for within scanner variations were also high, with values of 0.95 (CI 0.86-0.98, 0.97 (CI 0.92-0.99 and 0.96 (CI 0.86-0.99 for the three scanners. The external validity study found a correlation coefficient for total thigh CSA and total neck CSA of 0.88. DISCUSSION: We present a feasible, valid and reliable method for measuring neck muscle CSA on T1-weighted MR brain scans. Larger studies are needed to validate and apply our technique with subjects differing in age, ethnicity and geographical location.

  3. Design and Validation of a Novel Method to Measure Cross-Sectional Area of Neck Muscles Included during Routine MR Brain Volume Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Alixe H. M.; Subedi, Deepak; Gray, Calum D.; Deary, Ian J.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Starr, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low muscle mass secondary to disease and ageing is an important cause of excess mortality and morbidity. Many studies include a MR brain scan but no peripheral measure of muscle mass. We developed a technique to measure posterior neck muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on volumetric MR brain scans enabling brain and muscle size to be measured simultaneously. Methods We performed four studies to develop and test: feasibility, inter-rater reliability, repeatability and external validity. We used T1-weighted MR brain imaging from young and older subjects, obtained on different scanners, and collected mid-thigh MR data. Results After developing the technique and demonstrating feasibility, we tested it for inter-rater reliability in 40 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between raters were 0.99 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.98–1.00) for the combined group (trapezius, splenius and semispinalis), 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for obliquus and 0.92 (CI 0.85–0.96) for sternocleidomastoid. The first unrotated principal component explained 72.2% of total neck muscle CSA variance and correlated positively with both right (r = 0.52, p = .001) and left (r = 0.50, p = .002) grip strength. The 14 subjects in the repeatability study had had two MR brain scans on three different scanners. The ICC for between scanner variation for total neck muscle CSA was high at 0.94 (CI 0.86–0.98). The ICCs for within scanner variations were also high, with values of 0.95 (CI 0.86–0.98), 0.97 (CI 0.92–0.99) and 0.96 (CI 0.86–0.99) for the three scanners. The external validity study found a correlation coefficient for total thigh CSA and total neck CSA of 0.88. Discussion We present a feasible, valid and reliable method for measuring neck muscle CSA on T1-weighted MR brain scans. Larger studies are needed to validate and apply our technique with subjects differing in age, ethnicity and geographical location. PMID:22509305

  4. Flow patterns and their transition characteristicsof the air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with asudden-changed cross-section area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns in upstream and downstream straight tubes of sudden-changedareas in ahorizontal straight pipe were experimentally examined. Both sudden-expansioncross-section (SECS)and sudden-contraction cross-section (SCCS) were investigated. The flow pattern mapsupstream anddownstream were delineated and compared with those in straight tubes with uniformcross-sections.The effects of the SECS and SCCS on flow patterns were discussed and analyzed.Furthermore, flowpattern transition mechanisms resulting in occurrences of different flow patternswere simplydiscussed and some transition criteria for the flow pattern transitions were deduced byusing the non-dimensionlized analysis method.

  5. Gulf of Mexico sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  6. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1. Sections I through IV.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The report provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it discusses the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  7. Ichnological record of palaeoenvironment from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval at El Kef, Tunisia: The first study of old and new sections at the stratotype area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A.; M'Hamdi, A.; Riahi, S.; Ismail-Lattrache, K. B.

    2016-08-01

    Trace fossil analysis of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary interval at El Kef (Tunisia) has provided new information on the response of the macrobenthic tracemaker community to the K/Pg boundary event. Ichnological data from the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary were completed with those from a new, well-exposed section nearby. The trace fossil assemblage consists of dominant Trichichnus, frequent Chondrites, and rare Thalassinoides and Zoophycos in the uppermost Maastrichtian, and only Trichichnus in the lowest Danian, the diversity being comparatively lower than in other K/Pg boundary sections worldwide. Bioturbational structures are observed continuously across the K/Pg boundary interval, without primary lamination; this discards anoxic conditions. However, the upward-decreasing diversity in the sections may be related to a transition from a moderately dysoxic or slightly dysoxic macrobenthic habitat in the sediment during the latest Maastrichtian to a strong or very strong dysoxia during early Danian. Comparison with micropaleontological data reveals a minor influence of the K/Pg boundary event on the macrobenthic tracemaker community, while the change in oxygenation of pore waters at the El Kef sections can be attributed to local or regional phenomenon, marked by increasing clay content in the Danian sediments.

  8. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  9. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  10. Equity of utilisation of cardiovascular care and mental health services in England: a cohort-based cross-sectional study using small-area estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Asthana, Sheena; Gibson, Alex; Bailey, Trevor; Moon, Graham; Hewson, Paul; Dibben, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: A strong policy emphasis on the need to reduce both health inequalities and unmet need in deprived areas has resulted in the substantial redistribution of English NHS funding towards deprived areas. This raises the question of whether or not socioeconomically disadvantaged people continue to be disadvantaged in their access to and utilisation of health care. Objectives: To generate estimates of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and common mental health disorders (...

  11. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2, Sections 4 through 9: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU`s) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  12. Cross-sectional Biomonitoring of Metals in Adult Populations in Post-war Eastern Croatia: Differences Between Areas of Moderate and Heavy Combat

    OpenAIRE

    Jergović, Matijana; Miškulin, Maja; Puntarić, Dinko; Gmajnić, Rudika; Milas, Josip; Sipos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in metal and metalloid exposure between residents of areas in eastern Croatia exposed to heavy fighting during the war in Croatia and residents of areas exposed to moderate fighting. Methods Concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn), reported to be associated with military operations, were determined in hai...

  13. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chidi E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p 2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females though the difference was significant (p Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

  14. Iodine Nutrition and the Prevalence of Thyroid Disease after Salt Iodization: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Shanghai, a Coastal Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan; Guo, Changyi; Song, Jun; HUANG, Cuihua; Zhu, Zhenni; Yu, Huiting; Guo, Yanfei; Lu, Xi; Ruan, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Background Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of children aged 8–10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. Objective To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. Design A cross-sectional survey ...

  15. Income-related inequalities in preventive and curative dental care use among working-age Japanese adults in urban areas: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Keiko; Aida, Jun; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; HASHIMOTO Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive dental care use remains relatively low in Japan, especially among working-age adults. Universal health insurance in Japan covers curative dental care with an out-of-pocket payment limit, though its coverage of preventive dental care is limited. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that income inequality in dental care use is found in preventive, but not curative dental care among working-age Japanese adults. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted usin...

  16. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E. J.; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. Results The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (p<0.001). Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001), obesity (p<0.0001) and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001) in women and obesity (p<0.0001) in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. Conclusion It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning. PMID:26317861

  17. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Sukumar Vora; Pallavi Ketan Vora

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an associa...

  18. Apatite fission track analysis for revealing tectonic events of the Bayinguole area in the west section of Eastern Kunlun Mountains, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Qimantage is an important tectonic metallogenic belt in western part of East Kunlun Mountain. It has experienced complex geological evolution, and significant mineralization. However, because of the plateau climate and inaccessibility, fewer research works have been done on this area, especially after Indo-sinian epoch. Purpose: Our work is to research tectonic activity, thermal history and uplifting around Bayinguole river in Qimantage belt. Methods: The apatite fission-track method was applied to research the tectonic setting, simulate the thermal history and calculate the uplift size and uplift speed. Results: A series of apatite fission track ages from granitoid samples in Bayinguole area of Eastern Kunlun Mountain were obtained, ranging from 120 Ma to 47 Ma that might be divided into three groups': 120-100 Ma, 67 Ma and 54-47 Ma. These ages reflected tectonic events in this area very well. Conclusions: The 120-100 Ma and 67 Ma ages present collision-convergences of Gangdese terrane and Himalayan terrane with their north-side terranes in Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous respectively. The ages of 54-47 Ma reflect post-orogenic stretching events in Eocene. Three stages of thermal evolution history are revealed by apatite fission track modeling in this area. Stage one 180-140 Ma is in the bottom temperature of apatite fission track anneal zone. Stage two 140-13 Ma records slow cooling. The last stage after 13 Ma records rapid cooling with temperature dropped 50℃. The uplifting ranges for these three stages are 1.0 km, 0.6 km and 1.4 km, respectively. The cumulative amount of uplift is about 3.0 km. The formula calculations for the 3 samples have their rock uplifts of 3623 m, 3317 m and 3769 m, respectively, averaging 3570 m, in accordance with the results based on the 3 stage thermal history. (authors)

  19. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  20. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bonney; Mayne, Darren J.; Jones, Bryan D.; Lawrence Bott; Stephen E J Andersen; Peter Caputi; Weston, Kathryn M.; Iverson, Don C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. Materials and Methods The study included 91776 adults who had BMI obje...

  1. Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

    OpenAIRE

    Fox Matthew P; Mazimba Arthur; Seidenberg Phil; Crooks Denise; Sikateyo Bornwell; Rosen Sydney

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While the number of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings has increased dramatically, some patients eligible for treatment do not initiate ART even when it is available to them. Understanding why patients opt out of care, or are unable to opt in, is important to achieving the goal of universal access. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 400 patients on ART (those who were able to access care) and 400 patients acc...

  2. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  3. A cross sectional study of knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis amongst front-line tuberculosis personnel in high burden areas of Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Minnery

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis, reported as the second most common infectious cause of death worldwide, is a key mortality contributor in developing countries and globally. The disease is endemic in Peru and while relative success was achieved during the 1990s in its control, this slowed as new complications, such as multi drug resistant TB arose. Health centre workers participating in the national DOTS program, create the front-line TB work-force in Peru meaning their knowledge and attitudes about the disease are key in its control. METHODS: A Spanish language, multiple choice knowledge and attitudes survey was designed based on previous successful studies and the national Peruvian TB control guidelines. It was applied to two health networks in Lima, Peru amongst 301 health workers participating in the national TB control program from 66 different health centres. The study results were analysed to test mean knowledge scores amongst different groups, overall gaps in key areas of TB treatment and control knowledge, and attitudes towards the disease and the national TB control program. RESULTS: A mean knowledge score of 10.1 (+/- 1.7 out of 15 or 67.3% correct was shown. Demographics shown to have an effect on knowledge score were age and level of education. Major knowledge gaps were noted primarily in themes relating to treatment and diagnostics. Greater community involvement including better patient education about TB was seen as important in implementing the national TB control program. Participants were in disagreement about the current distribution of health resources throughout the study area. Discussion Serious knowledge gaps were identified from the survey; these reflect findings from a previous study in Lima and other studies from TB endemic areas throughout the world. Understanding these gaps and observations made by front-line TB workers in Lima may help to improve the national TB control program and other control efforts globally.

  4. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEWIVES IN RURAL AREAS OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesley Elsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.

  5. [INVITED] Ultrafast laser photoinscription of large-mode-area waveguiding structures in bulk dielectrics. Invited paper for the section : Hot topics in Ultrafast Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, R.; D'Amico, C.; Bhuyan, M. K.; Cheng, G.

    2016-06-01

    Ultrafast laser photoinscription and laser-based refractive index engineering develop towards a unique way for three-dimensional optical design inside bulk materials for the conception of embedded photonic applications. The specific optical functions for the light guiding elements, notably their single mode characteristics and the accessible spectral domains, depend on the achieved refractive index contrast in the material transparency window and on the characteristic dimensions of the optical modification. We give here an overview of several laser processing options, developed to increase the effective index area and contrast using pulse engineering methods in space and time, and optical design involving focal shaping, tubular concepts, evanescently coupled waveguide arrays, or structured waveguides.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in an endemic area for malaria in Manaus: a cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Stela Santana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information regarding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in endemic areas for malaria in Latin America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study determined the prevalence of the G6PD deficiency in 200 male non-consanguineous individuals residing in the Ismail Aziz Community, on the outskirts of Manaus (Brazilian Amazon. Six individuals (3% were deficient using the qualitative Brewer's test. Gel electrophoresis showed that five of these patients were G6PD A(-. The deficiency was not associated with the ethnic origin (P = 0.571. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, G6PD deficiency protected against three or more episodes of malaria (P = 0.049, independently of the age, and was associated with a history of jaundice (P = 0.020 and need of blood transfusion (P = 0.045 during previous treatment for malarial infection, independently of the age and the previous malarial exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The frequency of G6PD deficiency was similar to other studies performed in Brazil and the finding of a predominant G6PD A(- variant will help the clinical management of patients with drug-induced haemolysis. The history of jaundice and blood transfusion during previous malarial infection may trigger the screening of patients for G6PD deficiency. The apparent protection against multiple malarial infections in an area primarily endemic for Plasmodium vivax needs further investigation.

  8. A Cross-sectional Study of Correlation of Body Image Anxiety with Social Phobia and Their Association with Depression in the Adolescents from a Rural Area of Sangli District in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Alka D Gore

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli dis...

  9. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  11. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  12. Ground Water Resources of the Bryce Canyon National Park Area, Utah: With a Section on the Drilling of a Test Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, I. Wendell

    1963-01-01

    The water need at Bryce Canyon National Park in 1957 was about 1.3 million cubic feet for a tourist season that lasted from the middle of May to the middle of October. To evaluate the adequacy of water-supply sources, a hypothetical future need of 5 million cubic feet of water per season is used. This amount of water might be obtained from the East Fork of the Sevier River, from wells in the alluvium of the East Fork, from Yellow Creek Spring and nearby springs, which are below the canyon rim, or from a well drilled about 2,000 feet to the top of the Tropic shale. Although the present source of water, consisting of wells in the alluvium of East Creek valley, may be an important supplemental source in the future, it will not yield sufficient water in dry years to meet the total demand for water at the park. The yield of Yellow Creek Spring and nearby springs is estimated at a total of 7.8 million cubic feet of water per season. The springs provide water of satisfactory chemical quality, and are a reliable source even in times of drought. A serious disadvantage of using this source of water is the difficulty of constructing a pipeline over extremely rugged terrain from the source to the lodge and headquarters area. A well drilled to the top of the Tropic shale of Cretaceous age in the lodge and headquarters area might penetrate two or more aquifers, one at the base of the Wasatch formation of Eocene age and one or more in the Wahweap and Straight Cliffs sandstones of Cretaceous age. The yield of this well would depend to a large degree on the number of fractures encountered. To assure the most favorable conditions for intercepting fracture zones in the bedrock, a test-well site is proposed near the crest of a gentle anticline where tension fractures in the rocks should be common. Shallow wells in the alluvium of East Creek valley cannot be depended upon to yield sufficient water in times of drought, but they are nevertheless an important source. The water

  13. Iodine nutrition and the prevalence of thyroid disease after salt iodization: a cross-sectional survey in Shanghai, a coastal area in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both insufficient and excess iodine may produce thyroid disease. After salt iodization in China, the median urine iodine concentration (UIC of children aged 8-10 years appeared adequate. However, it is unknown whether dietary changes due to rapid economic development in Shanghai have affected whole population iodine nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary iodine intake, UIC and the prevalence of thyroid disease in the general population of Shanghai. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with general participants aged 5-69 years (n = 7,904 plus pregnant and lactating women (n = 380 each selected by stratified multistage sampling. The iodine concentrations in their salt, drinking water and urine were measured. Daily iodine intake was estimated using the total diet study approach. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations and thyroid-related antibodies were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. RESULTS: The median iodine concentration in salt was 29.5 mg/kg, and 12.8 µg/L in drinking water. Iodized salt, used by 95.3% of participants, contributed 63.5% of total dietary iodine. Estimated daily iodine intake was 225.96 µg. The median UIC of general participants was 146.7 µg/L; UIC 300 µg/L (iodine excess in 10.1%. Pregnant women had a median UIC of 135.9 µg/L, with UIC <150 µg/L in 55.4%. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were found in 27.44% and 9.17%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: According to published criteria, the current dietary iodine intake in Shanghai was generally sufficient and safe, but insufficient in pregnant women. Thyroid nodules and subclinical hypothyroidism were the commonest thyroid diseases identified.

  14. A cross-sectional study of socio-demographic determinants of recurrent diarrhoea among children under five of rural area of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada S Avachat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAbout 2 million episodes of diarrhoea occur each year inIndia. Of the 6.6 million deaths among children aged 28days to 5 year; deaths from diarrhoea are estimated toaccount for 1.87 million. An average Indian child less than 5years of age can have 2-3 episodes of diarrhoea. Mother'sliteracy, family income, feeding practices, environmentalconditions are important determinants of the commonchildhood infection like diarrhoea. The present study wasundertaken to study these important determinants ofrecurrent diarrhoea among children under five in a ruralarea of western Maharashtra, India.MethodA cross-sectional study was conducted in six randomlyselected villages of Ahmednagar district in westernMaharashtra, India. Three villages from two primary healthcentres and 652 children under five from these villageswere chosen by a simple random sampling technique (everyfifth child enrolled in Anganwadi. House-to-house surveywas done and data was collected by interviewing themothers of these children. Nutritional status was assessedby measuring the weight and mid-arm circumference of thechild. Statistical analysis was done with Microsoft Excel andStatistiXL 1.8 using percentage, proportions and chi-squaretest wherever applicable.ResultsThe prevalence of recurrent diarrhoea was 9.81%.Recurrent diarrhoea was more common in the age group of13 - 24 months (29.6% and 25 – 36 months (23.4% andchildren belonging to lower socioeconomic class (64%.Malnutrition was significantly associated with recurrentdiarrhoea and 21% of malnourished children had the same.Recurrent diarrhoea was significantly more common(39.1% among children with introduction of top-up feedsbefore four to six months.ConclusionLow socioeconomic status, bad sanitary practices,nutritional status and weaning practices significantlyinfluence the prevalence of recurrent diarrhoea.Word count: 1667Tables: 3

  15. 40Ar-39Ar dating and geologi-cal implication of auriferous altered rocks from the middle-deep section of Q875 gold-quartz vein in Xiaoqinling area, Henan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 40Ar-39Ar age method is employed in this work to analyze the aurif erous altered rocks from the middle-deep section of the Q875 gold-quartz vein in the Xiaoqinling area, and the results show that the main gold deposition of the Q875 occurred in ca. 128-126 Ma. As a typical gold-bearing quartz vein in this gold-rich area, the age data obtained from the Q875 also constrain on the metal logenic time of the lode gold deposits developed in the same geological settings . This geochronological study supplies new evidence for further understanding the timing of gold mineralization, the genesis of gold deposits and the geodynamic settings in Xiaoqinling area.

  16. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  17. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  18. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arise with the mother and/or baby during pregnancy or labor. An emergency C-section might be required if: labor stops ... of possible problems with the placenta during future pregnancies. In the case of emergency C-sections, the benefits usually far outweigh the ...

  19. 对家用电器电源线截面积测量方法的研讨%Research on the Measuring Methods for Cross-Sectional Area of Supply Cordused in Household Electrical Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜台永

    2011-01-01

    In the selective examination of products quality, some quality inspection departments, manufactures or customers have some mistakes in measuring methods for cross-sectional area of supply cord used in household electrical appliances, and even make wrong judgements. That is due to their unfamiliarity with the relevant standards requirements. In the essay I come up with my opinion on measuring the cross-sectional area of supply cord used in household electrical appliances, which are based on electrical wires’ kinds,two measuring methods of electrical wires’ cross-sectional area, on the comparative analysis and research on standards and electrical cable manual, and the measurement of the samples.%在产品质量抽查中,一些质量监督部门、生产企业或用户由于不熟悉有关标准要求,对家用电器电源线截面积测量方法存在一些误解,甚至做出错误的判定。本文从电源线种类、电源线截面积两种测量方法原理出发,通过产品标准、电线电缆手册和实际样品的测量数据,进行分析和探讨,对家用电器电源线截面积测量的方法,提出了自己的见解。

  20. 长江南通段水域半潜作业浅析%Elementary Analysis of Semi-submersible Operations in Nantong Section Water Area of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超; 汤嘉辉

    2012-01-01

      In recent years, the speed of semi-submersible ships market development is swift and violent. With both sides of the Yangtze River shipping industry's rapid development, the Nantong section water area of the Yangtze River, semi-submersible operations are increasing. Nantong is located in the Yangtze River Estuary, water area under administration in semi-submersible operations have the advantage be richly endowed by nature. In this paper, it describes the analysis of the Nantong section water area of the Yangtze River in recent years' semi-submersible operations, induction and analysis the advantages and disadvantages. At the same time, it provides relevant suggestions of semi-submersible in this area.%  近年来,半潜船市场发展速度较为迅猛,随着长江两岸船舶产业的迅速发展,长江南通段水域半潜作业也日益增多。南通位于长江入海口,辖区水域在进行半潜作业方面有着得天独厚的优势。文中通过分析长江南通段近几年来的半潜作业情况,归纳分析长江南通段水域半潜作业的优劣势,同时为辖区半潜作业提供相关的建议。

  1. Influence of the cross section area on the conductive characteristics of titanium oxide memristor%横截面积参数对钛氧化物忆阻器导电特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓波; 徐晖; 李清江

    2014-01-01

    纳米钛氧化物忆阻器的导电过程因自身参数的改变及不同机理的共存而呈现复杂特性,但现有研究缺乏针对横截面积参数的改变对忆阻器导电特性影响的讨论。基于杂质漂移及隧道势垒机理,本文分析了忆阻器导电过程,研究了横截面积参数与导电过程中各关键物理要素间的关联,并基于此,分别研究了钛氧化物横截面积及隧道势垒横截面积的改变对忆阻器导电特性的影响,分析了两者的区别与联系。验证了两种机理共存情况下,相对于钛氧化物横截面积的改变,隧道势垒横截面积的改变是引发忆阻器导电特性变化的主要因素,且是导致忆阻器非理想导电特性的可能因素。研究成果有助于进一步解释忆阻器导电过程的复杂性,并为优化忆阻器模型的构建提供依据。%The conduction of nano-scale titanium oxide memristor exhibits complex characteristics, owing to the change of self-parameters and the coexistence of different conductive mechanisms. However, there has been no detailed discussion about the influence of the cross section area change on the conductive characteristics of memristor. Based on dopant drift and tunnel barrier mechanisms, the conductive process of memristor is analysed, and the relevance between cross section area and key physical factors of the conductive process is studied, then the influences of the changes of titanium oxide and tunnel barrier cross section area on conductive characteristics of memristors are studied, respectively. The differences and connections between the two cases are analysed. In the case of the coexistence of those two mechanisms, compared with the change of titanium oxide cross section area, the change of tunnel barrier cross section area is proved to be the chief factor which causes changes of memristor conductive characteristics, it is also a possible factor causing the change of non-ideal conductive

  2. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  3. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  4. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  5. 下颌后牙游离端缺失种植固定桥连接体横截面适宜受力面积研究%The appropriate area of cross section area of attachment body in the fixed bridge supported by implant in restoring mandibular single side distal free-end edentulism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁旭; 程纬; 孙应明; 曹雪; 汪大林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the appropriate area of cross section areas of attachment body in the fixed bridge supported by implant in restoring mandibular single side distal free-end edentulism for enuring that the porcelain layer is not broken. Methods Base on a three-dimensional finite element model of the fixed bridge supported by implant in restoring mandibular single side distal free-end edentulism and according to designed three different cross section areas of attachment body.we construct model l-l,l-ll,l-lll and model ll-l,ll-ll,ll-lll. Results In model I and in modedl-II,the maximum deflection of attactment body are 0.00106,0.000938,0.000563,0.00118,0.000958 and 0.000785. Conclusion In the second premolar to second molar and first premolar to second molar missing.the cross section areas of the attachment body should be more than or equal to 4mm2 and 8mm2,and strains are less than or equal to 0.1%,to ensure that the porcelain layer is not broken.%目的:探寻下颌后牙游离端缺失种植固定桥连接体横截面适宜受力面积,以保证瓷层不发生断裂.方法:在建立下颌单侧后牙游离端缺失种植固定桥三维有限元模型的基础上,建立不同桥体跨度不同连接体面积时的模型I-I、I-II、I-III和II-I、II-II、II-III,利用有限元分析软件ABAQUS找出连接体变形量小于0.001mm时连接体横截面积.结果:在模型I中和模型II中,连接体的最大变形量分别为0.00106、0.000938、0.000563、0.00118、0.000958和0.000785.结论:在第二前磨牙至第二磨牙缺失和第一前磨牙至第二磨牙缺失时,连接体横截面积分别大于或等于4mm2和8mm2时连接变形率小于0.1%,可确保瓷层不发生断裂.

  6. Effect of changes in intra-abdominal pressure on diameter, cross-sectional area, and distensibility of the lower esophageal sphincter of healthy dogs as determined by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Philipp D; Pitt, Kathryn A; Steffey, Michele A; Culp, William T N; Kass, Philip H; Marks, Stanley L

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on morphology and compliance of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) by use of impedance planimetry in healthy dogs and to quantify the effect of changes in IAP. ANIMALS 7 healthy, purpose-bred sexually intact male hound-cross dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and cross-sectional area (CSA), minimal diameter (MD), LES length, LES volume, and distensibility index (DI) of the LES were evaluated by use of an endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe. For each dog, measurements were obtained before (baseline) and after creation of a pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg. Order of the IAPs was determined by use of a randomization software program. RESULTS CSA and MD at 4 and 8 mm Hg were not significantly different from baseline measurements; however, CSA and MD at 15 mm Hg were both significantly greater than baseline measurements. The LES length and LES volume did not differ significantly from baseline measurements at any IAP. The DI differed inconsistently from the baseline measurement but was not substantially affected by IAP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pneumoperitoneum created with an IAP of 4 or 8 mm Hg did not significantly alter LES morphology in healthy dogs. Pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of 15 mm Hg caused a significant increase in CSA and MD of the LES. Compliance of the LES as measured by the DI was not greatly altered by pneumoperitoneum at an IAP of up to 15 mm Hg. PMID:27463542

  7. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  8. Turbine airfoil having outboard and inboard sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Stefan; Marra, John J

    2015-03-17

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and formed from at least an outboard section and an inboard section such that an inner end of the outboard section is attached to an outer end of the inboard section. The outboard section may be configured to provide a tip having adequate thickness and may extend radially inward from the tip with a generally constant cross-sectional area. The inboard section may be configured with a tapered cross-sectional area to support the outboard section.

  9. 川东北元坝地区飞三段鲕粒滩相储层分析%fei- three sections oolitic beach facies reservoir analysis in Northeastern sichuan yuan-ba area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣徽; 吴清杰

    2012-01-01

    元坝地区飞三段鲕粒滩相储层厚度薄、分布广,是重要的勘探远景目标。预测鲕粒滩储层分布是现阶段首要任务,区内鲕粒滩沉积相有两种类型:即台缘鲕粒滩坝微相和鲕粒边滩微相,台缘鲕粒滩相常因白云石化及溶解作用形成各类次生孔隙,成为良好的储集层,发育于古构造高的台缘亚相,地震反射呈平行一断续反射特征;鲕粒边滩微相发育于斜坡和陆棚亚相,地震反射呈斜交反射特征。因此,从鲕粒滩相带研究出发,分析鲕粒滩相地震响应特征,识别出工区内高能相一飞三段台缘鲕粒滩坝微相发育区。再结合古构造分析,确定有利于溶蚀孔隙发育的高部位鲕粒滩位置,最后,利用地震多属性综合预测滩体发育区,预测出工区中部是台缘鲕粒坝相鲕粒滩储层最发育的地区,是勘探开发的首选目标区。%Yuan-ba area fei-three sections oolitic beach facies reservoir thickness thin, wide distribution, is an important ex- ploration prospect target. Prediction oolitic beach reservoir distribution is the primary task, zone oolitic beach sedimentary facies have two types: namely platform margin oolitic beach dam microfacies and oolitic beach microfacies, in platform margin oolitic bank dolomitization was often the role in the formation and dissolved all kinds of secondary pore, become good reservoir, growth in the ancient tectonic high platform margin and phase, seismic reflection is parallel- concentres reflective characteristic; Oolitic beach microfacies development in slope and shelf and phase, seismic reflection show oblique reflective characteristic. Therefore, from oolitic beach facies belt research, analy~es oolitic beach seismic response characteristics, recognition in high energy phase needed zone platform margin three section includes microfacies oolitic beach development zone. Combine ancient tectonic analy- sis, determine pore

  10. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations

  11. The inhabitant's iodine nutrition status of some coastal areas in China: a cross-sectional study%中国部分沿海地区居民碘营养状况调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于钧; 刘鹏; 申红梅; 刘守军; 孙殿军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study whether the measure of consumption of iodized salt to prevent iodine deficiency disorders could lead to residents excessive iodine intake in the coastal areas in China.Methods A large population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in four typical costal provinces along the coastline from north to south,including Liaoning,Shanghai,Zhejiang and Fujian.In addition to survey all of its area of Shanghai,the other three provinces' investigation was carried out at urban and rural levels,respectively,including 5 costal cities,5 costal villages and 3 inland rural areas(as a control point) in each province.In each investigated spot,the local water iodine,residents qualified iodized salt consumption rate,per capita daily intake of salt and urinary iodine levels in different populations were investigated.Results A total of 7552 copies of drinking water samples,7996 salt samples and 9873 urine samples of different populations(adults,lactating women,pregnant women and children) were collected from the 4 provinces.Except the coastal cities and counties of Zhejiang province,the qualified iodized salt consumption rates at household were all greater than 90% in the investigated spots.The median urinary iodine(MUI) of adults and children investigated in the costal areas were in the range of 100 - 299μg/L.The MUIs of lactating women of all investigated areas were all greater than 100 μg/L.The MUI of pregnant women was at an insufficient iodine level which was lower than 150 μg/L in Shanghai,the costal cities of Zhejiang and the coastal counties of Fujian.Conclusions The overall level of iodine nutrition of coastal residents is appropriate; and it is insufficient among pregnant women in some coastal areas; coastal areas should adhere to the salt iodization measures to control iodine deficiency disorders.%目的 了解我国沿海地区食用碘盐防治碘缺乏病是否导致居民碘摄入过量.方法 采用横断面调查方法,在我国11个沿海

  12. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 ± 4.93 years, height: 157 ± 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 ± 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 ± 2.08 kg/m2]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 ± 2.27 years, height: 156 ± 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 ± 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 ± 2.94 kg/m2]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, ρ = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, ρ = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, ρ = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, ρ = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, ρ 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent t-tests revealed that both groups had statistically

  13. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES AMONG OBESE AND NON OBESE PERSONS, IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hubbe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT : Obesity is increasing in the developed as well as developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is on the rise among the slum population. Increased incidence of vis ceral adiposity, hypertension, n on insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM and coron ary heart disease often cluster in the same individual and there have been speculations that a common mechanism may be responsible for all these pathological conditions. This risk factor constellation, which is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiova scular disease, is referred to as “Syndrome X . AIMS : To assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among obese and non obese in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : P r esent study was undertaken in a s lum in Chennai in persons above 4 0 years age group . One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, the diet pattern , the intake of non - vegetarian and oily foods , past history of hypertension and diabetes . Anthropometric data regarding height and weight was taken to assess body mass index (BMI , blood pressure was checked using mercury column sphygmomanometer and blood gluco se level b y G lucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. RESULTS : The prevalence of obesity was 13.66% and of overweight was 27.72%. The prevalence of Hy pertension among obese was 39.13%, pre obese 32.39% and non obese 24.93%. The prevalence of Dia betes among obese was 28.98%, pre obese 19.71% and non obese 15.34%. CONCLUSION : There is a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban slum dwellers. The prevalence of

  14. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  15. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m2, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality of BMI relative to exposure

  16. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point "inching test" for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the "inching test", provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs like the "inching test" and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Methods Two hundred and twelve (212 "CTS-hands" from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ("A-hands" from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme. Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. Results There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of "CTS-hands" than of "A-hands". The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 "CTS-hands", 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of "CTS-hands" positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 "CTS-hands" were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In "inching test", segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common "positive-site". The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not "positive-site". Conclusions Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve CSA from inlet to outlet similar to the "inching test" has

  17. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point 'inching test' for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the 'inching test', provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the 'inching test' and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two hundred and twelve (212) 'CTS-hands' from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ('A-hands') from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of 'CTS-hands' than of 'A-hands'. The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 'CTS-hands', 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of 'CTS-hands' positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 'CTS-hands' were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In 'inching test', segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common 'positive-site'. The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not 'positive-site'. Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve

  18. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  19. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 6, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs

  7. Counting on rectangular areas

    OpenAIRE

    Janjic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In the first section of this paper we prove a theorem for the number of columns of a rectangular area that are identical to the given one. In the next section we apply this theorem to derive several combinatorial identities by counting specified subsets of a finite set.

  8. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: eWOCE electronic atlas of WOCE data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic, temperature, salinity, and chemical data were collected using bottle, CTD, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from January 1, 1987 to December...

  9. A contribuição de estudos transversais na área da linguagem com enfoque em afasia Contribution of cross-section studies in the language area with focus on aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Ibelli Sitta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: um dos delineamentos mais empregados na pesquisa epidemiológica consiste no estudo transversal. Este consiste em uma ferramenta de grande utilidade para a descrição de características da população e para a identificação de grupos de risco. Considerando a afasia uma desintegração da linguagem, é necessário compreender as dissociações e comprometimentos pertinentes. OBJETIVO: analisar estudos epidemiológicos de caráter transversal que focam alterações em pacientes afásicos adultos para investigação das suas principais manifestações. CONCLUSÃO: estudos transversais mostram meios de buscar compreender como esta modificação de saúde abrange os sinais e sintomas relacionados. Considerando que a linguagem por ser um meio de comunicação privilegiado, para o afásico, a perda desse instrumento torna-se uma fonte de isolamento e de solidão. Assim, a identificação de indivíduos portadores de afasia pode contribuir ao diagnóstico preciso, corroborando a compreensão dos achados fonoaudiológicos em linguagem e no auxílio à reabilitação. Porém, estas evidências científicas deverão ser efetivadas em conjunto aos estudos longitudinais para dar suporte à criação de novas técnicas e estratégias de recuperação para os lesionados cerebrais favorecendo a melhora da comunicação e consequente interatividade.BACKGROUND: one of the most widely delineations used in epidemiological research is the cross-sectional study. It consists of a very useful tool for describing characteristics of the population and identifying risk groups. Considering aphasia as a disintegration of language, it is necessary to understand the dissociations and relevant commitments. PURPOSE: to analyze epidemiological studies that analyzed cross-sectional changes in adult aphasic patients in order to investigate their main manifestations. CONCLUSION: the cross-sectional studies show ways to understand how this change in health covers signs and

  10. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross-section

  11. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among never smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an area of high incidence of esophageal cancer – a cross-sectional study with repeated measurement of urinary 1-OHPG in two seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FarhadIslami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG, a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly-selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference= 0.40. In winter, red meat intake (β= 0.208; P= 0.03, processed meat intake (β= 0.218; P= 0.02 and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (“null” genotype: β= 0.228; P= 0.02 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA+GA genotypes: β= –0.256; P= 0.008 showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (>weekly versus never: β= 0.203; P= 0.04, second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β= 0.254; P= 0.01, and GSTM1-02 “null” genotype (β= 0.198; P= 0.04 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT+TT versus CC: β= –0.218; P= 0.03 showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.

  12. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  13. Utilization pattern of antenatal health care services among married women of reproductive age group in the rural area of Surendranagar district, Gujarat, India: a community based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Bhimani

    2016-01-01

    Results: A total of 403 women were included in the study. Pregnancy registration was done by 88.77% of the women at either government facility or private doctor. Out of total registered women, majority i.e. 54.25% had registered their pregnancy during 2nd trimester. In response to frequency of antenatal visits, study showed that, 59.18% (216 women had availed three or more than three antenatal visits. It was found that 81.92% (299 had taken complete (2 doses tetanus immunization. About 47% of women had completed full course of iron and folic acid tablets. It was observed that only 46.03% women had availed complete ANC package. Conclusions: Although Antenatal services in India have been created, strengthened and expanded over the years, their output in terms of utilization particularly in rural area is still limited. The present study has brought out many significant socio cultural barriers like caste, women's literacy, husband's literacy, occupation of women, socio-economic class and parity of women affecting the utilization of services. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 252-261

  14. COPD and its association with smoking in the Mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of 0.5 million men and women from ten diverse areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2,3 Jenny Wang,1 Iona Y Millwood,1 Junshi Chen,4 Rory Collins,1 Yu Guo,2 Zheng Bian,2 Jiangtao Li,5 Biyun Chen,6 Kaixu Xie,7 Weifan Jia,8 Yali Gao,9 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group 1Nuffield Department of Population Health, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, 3Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, 4China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, 5NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Huixian CDC, Huixian, Henan, 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Tongxiang CDC, Zhejiang, 8NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuyang CDC, Baiyikengdao, Liuyang, Changsha, Hunan, 9NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Sichuan CDC, Sichuan, Mainland China Purpose: In adult Chinese men, smoking prevalence is high, but little is known about its association with chronic respiratory disease, which is still poorly diagnosed and managed. Methods: A nationwide study recruited 0.5 million men and women aged 30–79 years during 2004–2008 from ten geographically diverse areas across the Mainland China. Information was collected from each participant regarding smoking and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CB/E, along with measurement of lung function indices. Logistic regression was used to yield sex-specific odds ratios (ORs relating smoking to airflow obstruction (AFO, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC <0.7 and CB/E, adjusting for age, areas, education, and income. Results: Overall 74% of men were ever regular smokers; among them, 7.2% had AFO compared with 5.4% in never-smokers, yielding an OR of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34–1

  15. Paleomagnetism of an uppermost Permian section in the Lootsberg Pass area, central Karoo Basin: What remanence signal is recorded in the Permo-Triassic boundary sequences in the Karoo Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R.; Neveling, J.; Prevec, R.; Kamo, S.; Spencer, K.; Langwenya, M.

    2012-12-01

    The end Permian is associated with the greatest mass extinction in Earth history, with some 80 percent of genus-level extinctions and a range of 75 to 96 percent specie- level extinction in the marine environment, depending upon clade. Although most of our understanding of the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and extinction are based on information from marine sequences in Europe and Asia, a growing body of observations from continental sequences demonstrates a similar extinction event. Yet, the synchronicity of marine and terrestrial events is far from clear. As part of an ongoing, multifaceted effort to better understand one of the best-preserved terrestrial sequences deposited across the PTB, we have collected paleomagnetic data from part of the Beaufort Group of the central Karoo Basin in South Africa with the goal of identifying a magnetic polarity record that can be correlated with the now well-established polarity record across the PTB. We sampled a total of 40 distinct beds (typically each bed was sampled with 8 to 16 cores) at a 127 m thick section near Lootsberg Pass and five sites along the R61 at New Wapadsburg Pass; at both of these localities the PTB has been reported or interpreted to be exposed. Sampled beds at both localities are in siltstone, fine grained sandstone, and carbonate concretions in mudstone intervals. Intensities of NRM typically range from 10 to 50 mA/m. Most materials respond favorably to both progressive alternating field and thermal demagnetization; thermal treatment typically yields a more complete definition of the NRM, with laboratory unblocking temperatures up to about 580 C. NRM directions in all samples are of normal polarity, and most samples yield a well-defined magnetization of NNW declination and moderate negative inclination (normal polarity). At laboratory unblocking temperatures above ~450 C, some samples indicate the possible preservation of a reverse polarity remanence, but it is poorly defined in further

  16. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  17. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... c-section delivery without labor, there's an increased risk for the baby to need some extra help. ... with each successive c-section, there's an increased risk of there being scar tissue, which may increase ...

  18. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... classical cesarean sections, because the risk of uterine rupture with subsequent labor is greater, we generally don' ... With a BVAC, there's a risk of uterine rupture. With multiple cesarean sections, there's a risk of ...

  19. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JODI JACKSON, MD: Anytime that you have a c-section delivery without labor, there's an increased risk ... important to think about the reasons why a c-section is indicated. The literature suggests that once ...

  20. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  1. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages Técnica modificada para aumentar a área seccional externa da narina após o uso de enxerto cartilaginoso de costela e septo sob as cartilagens alares nasais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. METHODS: A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad®; 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage. Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the variable "area". RESULTS: There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica modificada para se aumentar a área seccional externa da narina com cartilagem septal e costal acima das cartilagens alares nasais. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma técnica cirúrgica modificada para obter, esculpir e inserir enxertos de cartilagem sobre as cartilagens alares. Realizou-se fotos padronizadas e mensuração de 90 áreas seccionais externas de narina em cadáveres com Autocad®; 30 antes sem procedimento; 60 após a inclusão de enxertos sob a cruz lateral (30 usando cartilagem costal e 30 usando cartilagem septal. A análise estatística foi feita com um modelo de medidas repetidas e ANOVA para a variável "área" RESULTADOS: Existe evidência estatística de que o enxerto de

  2. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... opinion on this seemingly growing trend to undergo electric cesarean section instead of traditional vaginal delivery, especially ... that we've got a completely dry operative field. And it looks really great. So we sort ...

  3. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  4. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  5. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for granted and feel that this is not something that's potentially dangerous, and therefore, maybe we might ... be with the family as much, so it's something to consider always when performing a c-section ...

  6. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sections sometimes have a good bit of scar tissue. Sometimes there's really not a whole lot there. ... there's an increased risk of there being scar tissue, which may increase the patient's risk for complications ...

  7. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  8. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  9. Cesarean Section: The Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: The operation 3:12 Dr. Siobhan ...

  10. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may increase the patient's risk for complications or injury to surrounding organs such as bowel or bladder. ... sections, there's a risk of scar tissue and injury to surrounding organs. So I think it's oftentimes ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hear the baby and the baby will be right here with her immediately after delivery. So we' ... a repeat cesarean section, we make the incision right through the patient's previous incision. This is called ...

  12. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We've already started, so things are going well. 00:05:37 FEMALE VOICE: [Unintelligible.] 00:05: ... D. RIDGWAY, MD: Sure. The repeat cesarean section. Well, typically we try not to do elective deliveries ...

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need a lot of special help. So it's real important when c-sections are performed that we ... patients, the particular risks of both, and both options need to be discussed. And then the patient ...

  14. Utility straight sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  15. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  16. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  17. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  18. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S ampersand A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S ampersand A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S ampersand A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S ampersand A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S ampersand A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan

  19. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  20. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cesarean section delivery during this hour-long period. I am Dr. Reagan Wittek. I am an obstetrician with Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... joined us for this webcast. Next to me I have Dr. Elizabeth Wickstrom, who is a maternal- ...

  1. PRES 2012 special section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing the...

  2. Sectional global sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the approach of sectional sensitivity measures is introduced. Opposite to well-known global sensitivity measures not only a singleton value is provided to appraise the functional input–output interrelation but rather a more detailed description of these interrelation is enabled. Therefore, the domain of definition (input space) and/or the codomain (result space) are subdivided in a finite number of subdomains/subranges. The evaluation of global sensitivity measures in these subdomains/subranges allows for a proper appraisal of the functional interrelation in local regions. The theoretic background of sectional sensitivity measures is elaborated in detail and exemplified by means of analytical functions. The advantages of sectional sensitivity measures are discussed by means of a medical intervention planning of a radio frequency ablation. - Highlights: • Global sensitivity measures provide just a singleton value per input dimension. • Sectional sensitivity measures enable evaluation of functional interrelation. • Subdivision of input and output in intervals (subdomains). • Usage of absolute partial derivatives as sensitivity measure. • Regional sensitivity statements in input as well as in output space possible

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  4. Total Cross Sections

    OpenAIRE

    G. GiacomelliBologna University and INFN

    2014-01-01

    The measurements of the hadron-hadron total cross sections are the first measurements performed when a new hadron accelerator opens up a new energy region; the measurements were made as function of the incoming beam momentum or c.m. energy and have often been repeated with improved accuracy and finer energy spacing.

  5. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  6. Automatic Morphometry of Nerve Histological Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, E.; Cuisenaire, O.; Denef, J.; Delbeke, J.; Macq, B.; Veraart, C.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the automatic segmentation, recognition and measurement of neuronal myelinated fibers in nerve histological sections is presented. In this method, the fiber parameters i.e. perimeter, area, position of the fiber and myelin sheath thickness are automatically computed. Obliquity of the sections may be taken into account. First, the image is thresholded to provide a coarse classification between myelin and non-myelin pixels. Next, the resulting binary image is further simplified usi...

  7. 人类股骨断面面积与形状的不对称性——基于三维激光扫描的形态测量分析%Bilateral Asymmetry in Human Femoral Cross-sectional Surface Areas and Shapes: Morphometric Analysis Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏偏偏; 邢松

    2013-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists have been paying more attention to human femoral crosssectional surface areas,shapes and bilateral asymmetry because of the application of this informations to human evolution,population differences,and survival movements.Traditional analyses of femoral cross-sections usually adopt methods of destructive cutting,or laborintensive model making.In this study,using 3D laser scanning,we nondestructively and conveniently get the outer contour of 20 paired femoral 3-D data from a modern Chinese population.With the software of CAD and method of geometric morphometrics,we examine bilateral asymmetry between the left and right femoral cross-sectional area and shape.The results indicate that bilateral asymmetry in femoral size and shape exists.Cross-sectional areas of paired femora have no significant differences in absolute values,but have significant differences in relative ones.Paired femora show flutuating asymmetry,rather than directional asymmetry.Moreover,significant differences on paired femoral cross-sectional shapes show fluctuating asymmetry.Directional asymmetry exists on paired femoral cross-sectional shapes,but it is not statistically significant.Average cross-sectional shapes and areas seem to indicate that human femora have a slight left-lateral dominance.Although the samples in this study are limited,and the conclusion need more specimens for further verification,our results show that using 3D laser scanning techniques,we can get data of femoral cross-sectional outer contour,and the methods of morphometric analysis does reveal some important information that traditional methods can not determine.This paper establishes a new method to examine bone asymmetry,and can be used for additional studies in human evolution.%人类股骨横断面面积、形状及其左右侧差异记载的人类演化、人群差异及生存活动的重要信息一直为古人类学研究所关注.多年来,对股骨断面的研究通常采用破坏性

  8. Safety Characteristics of Two-lane Highway Sections Passing through Towns/villages in Mountainous Area Based on Negative Binomial Prediction Model%基于负二项预测模型的山区双车道公路穿村镇路段的安全特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁军; 唐琤琤; 康云霞

    2012-01-01

    针对我国交通事故呈现出的在公路穿村镇路段聚集的趋势,在某山岭地形区域进行了双车道公路的交通事故、交通组成、道路和路侧等因素的大量数据采集,并对公路穿村镇路段的整体安全特性进行了分析,采用负二项模型等事故预测模型和相关检验理论对模型形式,以及公路穿村镇路段全部事故和追尾、碰撞、路侧等不同形态的事故规律特性进行了深入分析.研究结果发现,公路穿村镇路段的事故时空分布呈一定规律性;交通量、混杂率和道路横坡度为影响公路穿村镇路段交通安全的3个显著因素,且均呈正向影响.%Aimed at the aggregating trend of traffic accidents in highway sections passing through towns/ villages in China, a large number of two-lane highway safety data, such as traffic accident, traffic composition, highway and roadside factors were collected in a mountainous area. Moreover, the overall safety characteristics of town/village accidents were analyzed, and the accident prediction model such as negative binomial prediction model and relative test methods were used to deeply analyze the model form and the regularities of total accidents, collision, rear-ended crash, roadside accident, etc. It is found that (1) the accidents in road sections passing through towns/villages are in the regular temporal and special distribution; (2) truck proportion, traffic volume and cross slope are the significant factors influencing traffic safety of road sections passing through towns/villages, and all of them are positive in such sections.

  9. Transpacific section planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, James

    1984-04-01

    A transpacific section across the subpolar gyre near latitude 47°N is planned for September-October 1985. This complements the 24.5°N section planned for March-May 1985. The purpose of the expedition is to determine the western boundary current structure, to determine the meridional flow in the region of the Emperor Seamounts, to measure the transport of heat by ocean currents, to determine the net transport of water masses and estimate the meridional general circulation of the north Pacific, and to improve the mapping of tracer distributions in the deep north Pacific.Approximately 110 surface-to-bottom conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) rosette stations across the width of the ocean will be occupied, with maximum station spacing of 80 km over abyssal plains, closing to 30-50 km over rough topography and boundaries. Water samples will be collected and analyzed on board for salinity, oxygen, and nutrients.

  10. Section III. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year has seen the mirror program focus on two alternate mirror paths, the tandem mirror and the field-reversed mirror. Consequently there has been a moderate change in emphasis in the theory program. The fact that single-cell mirror physics is common to both paths necessitates continued studies in this area, which is now referred to as standard-mirror theory

  11. Area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation is normally subject to legal controls which specify limits, and restriction, of doses that both occupational workers and members of the public are exposed to. The dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and adopted by many countries are specified in terms of body dose equivalents, sometimes referred to as limiting quantities. However these quantities are not measurable since they are defined as average doses in organs and tissues of the human body. Thus for the same physical radiation field the dose delivered to an individual will not have a fixed value but will depend upon each individual's sex, age and physical construction as well as upon their orientation in the field. Ionizing radiation, also, cannot be detected by a person's physical senses of sight, smell, hearing and touch. Thus to control the levels of radiation to which individuals are exposed, special operational quantities are used and quantitative measurements have to be made using personal dosemeters or area monitoring equipment. This report describes the operational quantities that are being increasingly used worldwide for area monitoring. It provides information on the international standards that are available on the performance requirements for monitoring equipment designed to measure these operational quantities. It also reviews the recent international standards that have been published on the calibration and type testing of area monitors and gives an example of legislative requirements on area monitoring equipment. (author)

  12. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  13. Mutagenesis and Teratogenesis Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on research with mice in the areas of radioinduced and chemical mutagenesis, cytologic studies, radiation effects on DNA synthesis, radiation effects on germ cells, mutagenicity of coal-conversion products, and others. Research on Drosophila was concerned with mutagenesis and genetics of nucleases. Studies were conducted on hamster cells with regard to cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of alkylating agents, modification of the microtubule system, protein kinase activity, and others. Research on bacteria was concerned with effects of x radiation on bacteriophage of Haemophilus influenzae, x-ray induced DNA polymerase I-directed repair synthesis in Escherichia coli, transformation by DNA polymerase II in Bacillus subtilis, and others. Research on xenopus laevis was conducted in the areas of calcium-induced cleavage of oocytes, yolk degradation in explants, and others

  14. Pollutant Scavenging Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W. G.N.; Hales, J. M.; Hane, C. E.; Young, J. A.; Davis, W. E.; Drewes, D. R.; Tanner, T, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Wogman, N. A.; Dana, M. Terry; Glover, D. M.

    1976-03-01

    This section is comprised of 18 papers. The removal of atmospheric pollutants by clouds and precipitation is a major factor in determining budgets of pollutants distributed on a regional scale. The quantity and patterns of pollutants delivered to sensitive ecosystems, as well as the distributions remaining as inhalation hazards in scavenged air, can only be defined by a thorough investigation of precipitation scavenging processes. Results are reported from research studies on in-cloud scavenging in frontal and convective storms, and below-cloud scavenging of submicron particulates. (CH)

  15. Perimortem caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Richard; Asmussen, Tilo; Smith, Jason E

    2016-03-01

    This review describes a simple approach to perimortem caesarean section (PMCS) that can be used by a doctor in the resuscitation room or prehospital environment when faced with a mother of more than 20 weeks gestation in cardiac arrest. It explores the indications for and contraindications to the procedure, the physiological rationale behind it, equipment needed, technical aspects of the procedure and reviews recent literature on maternal and fetal outcomes. Like other uncommon procedures such as emergency department thoracotomy, rehearsal and preparation for a PMCS is essential to give both mother and baby the best chance of survival. PMID:25714106

  16. MedlinePlus: Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C-section C-section - slideshow Cesarean section Going home after a C-section Vaginal birth after C-section Related Health Topics Childbirth Childbirth Problems Languages Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - ...

  17. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  18. Environmental Impact Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Section is concerned with preparation of environmental statements and assessments and development of assessment methodologies for energy technologies. During 1976, activities involved nuclear, fossil, and geothermal energy; this work was supported by the U.S.Army, HUD, US ERDA, and US NRC. Two special studies--one on the effects of power plant intake structures on fish impingement and another on multiple uses of cooling lakes--were completed and should serve as references for future analyses. Two research projects sponsored by NRC--the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) to Power Plant Assessment and the Environmental Monitoring Data Evaluation Study--were continued. The purpose of the UA program is to develop fast-transient, one- and two-dimensional transport models for estimating thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological impacts in complicated water bodies. The impact of public use of various products that contain radioactive isotope is being evaluated. The Environmental Impact Sections assistance to NRC expanded to include assessments of fuel-fabrication facilities being considered for relicensing and two uranium in-situ solution mining facility proposals. The work for HUD comprises an assessment of the first application of MIUS in a new town development. A generic environmental statement was prepared and an environmental monitoring program for the facility was designed

  19. Mutagenesis and Teratogenesis Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: studies on chromosome damage and indirect indicators of genetic damage; cytogenetic, embryological, and biochemical studies of mutants in mammals; studies on mammalian gonads in relation to mutagenic effects; systems for detecting mutagenic effects of chemicals; processes in repair of damage to DNA; methods for detecting mutations that result in proteins with altered amino acid sequences; recombination in Drosophila; DNA repair processes in bacteria; development of a sensitive teratological prescreen; teratogenic end points in amphibians; and development of a method for long-term culture of Xenopus oocytes

  20. Terrestrial Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on ecological effects of coal combustion included the following: episodic air pollution stress; interaction of gaseous pollutants and acid precipitation; and brimstone: preliminary results from SO2 effects on forest growth. Studies on fate and transport of contaminants included deposition of aerosol-associated trace elements to a deciduous forest; hydrologic source areas; and environmental behavior of mercury. The environmental research park is described and forest resource management is discussed. Ecosystem analysis studies included hydrology of Walker branch; water budget of an oak-hickory forest; nutrient release from decaying wood; transpiration of the tulip poplar; and atmospheric CO2 and its interaction with biospheric changes

  1. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  2. Trans-Pacific Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trans-Pacific section along latitude 24.5°N is planned for 1985, with the field program tentatively scheduled for April 17 to June 27. The purpose of the expedition is to measure the transport of heat by ocean currents, to determine the net transport of water masses and estimate the meridional general circulation of the North Pacific, and to improve the mapping of tracer distributions in the deep North Pacific.Approximately 200 surface-to-bottom CTD/rosette stations will be occupied across the width of the ocean, with maximum station spacing of 80 km over abyssal plains, closing to 30-50 km over rough topography and boundaries. Water samples will be collected and analyzed on board for salinity, oxygen, and nutrients.

  3. Radiation and photochemistry section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane +·, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H·atom reactions yielding eaq- provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in aq- reactions

  4. Neutrino Cross section Future

    CERN Document Server

    Gollapinni, Sowjanya

    2016-01-01

    The study of neutrino-nucleus interactions has recently received renewed attention due to their importance in interpreting the neutrino oscillation data. Over the past few years, there has been continuous disagreement between neutrino cross section data and predictions due to lack of accurate nuclear models suitable for modern experiments which use heavier nuclear targets. Also, the current short and long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments focus in the few GeV region where several distinct neutrino processes come into play resulting in complex nuclear effects. Despite recent efforts, more experimental input is needed to improve nuclear models and reduce neutrino interaction systematics which are currently dominating oscillation searches together with neutrino flux uncertainties. A number of new detector concepts with diverse neutrino beams and nuclear targets are currently being developed to provide necessary inputs required for next generation oscillation experiments. This paper summarizes these effor...

  5. Group cross sections calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just a few methods have been developped to compute multigroup cross-sections from ENDF data. We have developped an original method in order to get accuracy and to reduce the number of discretization points in the same time; this is why we have tried to use polynomial integration. In this paper, we describe this method: in the first part, we recall some physical hypothesis generally used to solve the linear Boltzmann equation: that is the frame in which the numerical method has been developped. Polynomial methods are really powerfull only if discretization points are suitably chosen. This choice is explained in the next part of this paper. In conclusion, some numerical results are given to illustrate our method

  6. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Frye, C.; Hoelscher, B.; Meyer, I.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Schneller, H.; Wjst, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt

  7. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production area means all the area within the States of Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and...

  8. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  9. PLSS Townships and Sections, Sections, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'Sections'. Data by this publisher are...

  10. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  11. 南水北调中线工程对丹江口库区生物多样性的影响%Environmental Impact of the Middle Section of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on Biological Diversity in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包洪福; 孙志禹; 陈凯麒

    2015-01-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir area is the primary water resource of the middle section of South-to-North Water Transfer Project and the ecological environment of this area directly influences drinking water quality in North Chi-na.The effect of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of Danjiangkou Reservoir area,especially after water impoundment has caused concern.Biological diversity is an important component of ec-ological stability.In this study,the biological diversity of plants,animals and aquatic organisms in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area was investigated and analyzed,based on field investigations and previously collected data.The goals are to (1)assess the influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of the Danjiangkou reservoir area,(2)provide a base for conserving biodiversity and the ecological integrity of the re-source and (3)protect the quality of drinking water.A total of 2 059 species of vascular plant (752 genera and 171 families),306 terrestrial vertebrate species (96 families,28 orders and 4 classes),100 phytoplankton species (60 genera,8 phyla),96 zooplankton species (4 categories)and 88 fish species (17 families,7 orders)were re-corded during the investigation.Construction and operation of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project required immigrant resettlement and deforestation resulting in habitat loss for terrestrial vertebrates and water impoundment inundated plant habitat and altered the aquatic environment.The plankton composition in Danjiangkou Reservoir did not change markedly,but plankton biomass increased significantly after the dam height was increased.The zoo-benthos community structure also remained about the same,but the distribution of the zoobenthos increased with reservoir width after water impoundment and seasonal variation increased.After impoundment,the decrease in res-ervoir water flow severely affected spawning of four major Chinese carp species and other

  12. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  13. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  14. Diffractive and rising cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of the diffractive component of the proton-proton cross section is discussed and its contribution to the rise of the total cross section at high energies is examined. 17 refs., 9 figs

  15. C-section - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anesthesia, which renders the patient unconscious, for emergency C-sections because it can be administered quickly and takes effect almost immediately. When the C-section is planned, the doctor may order regional ...

  16. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: 14 MeV pulsed neutron facility; detection and measurement system; 238U capture cross sections at 23 and 964 keV using photon neutron sources; capture cross sections of Au-197 at 23 and 964 keV; and yttrium nuclear cross section measurement

  17. Scheduling a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  18. N Area Post-Deactivation ALARA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information about a wide range of radiological work activities at the N Area Deactivation Project. The report is divided into sections that are based on specific N Area scopes of work. Each section contains specific information that was of significant radiological importance in completing N Area Deactivation work. The information presented in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and in commercial industry

  19. Correlação da área do cordão umbilical com parâmetros antropométricos em gestações normais Correlation between umbilical cord cross-sectional area and normal anthropometric parameters in normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Prado Vasques

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este objetivou aferir a área de secção transversa do cordão umbilical (ASTCU em gestações normais, com idade gestacional entre 20 e 40 semanas, para a construção de uma curva de valores normais para tal parâmetro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal para determinar os valores de referência para a ASTCU em gestações normais (pacientes com datas precisas da última menstruação e exame ultra-sonográfico realizado antes da 20ª semana, sem qualquer doença conhecida. As medidas da ASTCU foram obtidas em plano adjacente à inserção do cordão umbilical no abdome. Os aparelhos de ultra-som utilizados foram da marca Synergy Multi Sync M500, Toshiba 140 e Toshiba Corevision, todos com transdutores transabdominais de 3,5 MHz. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTADOS: Os dados obtidos foram considerados normais pelo teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e a curva de normalidade foi calculada por regressão linear. A análise de variância obtida pelo teste F (F = 356,27 mostrou que o modelo de regressão foi significativo ao nível de p OBJECTIVE: To develop a nomogram for the umbilical cord cross-sectional area (UCCSA in normal pregnancies in women between 20 to 40 weeks gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was developed to determine reference ranges for the UCCSA during normal pregnancies (patients with known dates of last menstrual period, and a normal ultrasound examination before the 20th week of gestation. The measurements of the UCCSA were obtained using a plane adjacent to the insertion of the cord in the abdomen. A 3.5 MHz transabdominal transducer was used on all ultrasound equipment utilized (a Synergy Multi Sync M500, a Toshiba 140 and a Toshiba Corevision. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. RESULTS: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal

  20. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  1. Efeito de diferentes doses de nandrolona associado ao treinamento de força sobre o perfil fenotípico e área de secção transversa do músculo de ratos Effect of different doses of nandrolone associated with resistance training on muscle phenotypic profi le and cross-sectional area of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozangela Verlengia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes doses de decanoato de nandrolona (DN associado ao Treinamento de Força (TF sobre o fenótipo de fibras e área de secção transversa (AST do músculo extensor longo dos dedos (EDL em ratos "Wistar". Os animais foram divididos em sete grupos: controle (GC e grupos de acordo com a concentração de DN (0,1, 1, 2, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg administrada intramuscular 3 vezes/semana. O TF consistiu de saltos em meio líquido (carga 50-70% do peso corporal 3x/semana, durante cinco semanas. A associação do TF e DN promoveu ação modulatória sobre os tipos de fibras. Houve hipertrofia das fibras de contração rápida (tipo II em comparação com as fibras de contração lenta (tipo I. Em conclusão, apesar da associação do TF com DN aumentar a AST muscular e alterar o fenótipo das fibras, não houve efeito gradual das doses mais altas.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND associated with Strength Training (ST on the phenotype of fibers and cross-sectional area (CSA of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL in Wistar rats. The animals were divided into seven groups: control (CG and the groups according to the dose of ND administered (0,1, 1, 2, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg. The ST consisted of water jumping with loads of 50-70% of their body mass, three times per week during five weeks. The association of ST with ND promoted a modulatory role on the muscle fiber types. There was a hypertrophy of fast twitch fibers (type II as compared with slow twitch (type I. In conclusion, although the association of ST with ND increased muscle CSA and modified fiber phenotype, there was no additional effect of higher doses.

  2. The cross-sectional area of the superficial digital flexor tendon of trained and untrained Thoroughbred racehorses Área transversal do tendão flexor digital superficial de cavalos Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida em treinamento e sem treinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guiomar Matos Santiago Reis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Thoroughbred racehorses were ultrasonographically evaluated to determine the relation between normal values of the cross-sectional area (CSA of the right and left forelimbs superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT in the metacarpal region for trained and untrained Thoroughbreds racehorses. Ultrasonography revealed that CSA at 26cm distal to the accessory carpal bone is larger than other proximal levels, for either left or right forelimbs. In addition, the CSA at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14cm distal to the accessory carpal bone of the left forelimb are larger (P0.05 between left and right forelimb for CSA of the SDFT, at any level, for either trained or untrained horses, and there was no significant difference between untrained or trained horses for the CSA of right forelimb. In conclusion, the CSA of the left forelimb SDFT for horses that had been in continuous race training remains larger when they were trained anticlockwise, contrary to horses that had not been training for more than one year.Vinte cavalos da raça Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida foram submetidos a exame ultrassonográfico, com o intuito de determinar a relação entre os valores normais da área do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS na região metacarpiana dos membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, em cavalos com e sem treinamento. O exame ultrassonográfico revelou que a área do tendão 26cm distal ao osso acessório do carpo é maior em comparação com as alturas proximais, tanto nos membros torácicos esquerdos, como nos membros torácicos direitos. Além disso, a área do TFDS nas alturas 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 14cm, no membro torácico esquerdo, é maior (P0,05 nas áreas do TFDS entre os membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, tanto para os animais em treinamento, como para os animais sem treinamento. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa em comparação com o membro direito dos cavalos em treinamento e sem treinamento. Conclui-se que os cavalos

  3. 14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard areas. 417.413 Section 417.413... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.413 Hazard areas. (a) General. A launch operator must define a hazard area that confines the adverse effects of a hardware system should an event occur...

  4. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  5. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  6. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  7. 7 CFR 916.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 916.4 Section 916.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  8. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  9. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  10. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  11. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  12. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  13. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production area. Production area means all territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon,...

  14. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  15. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  16. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  17. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

  18. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  19. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  20. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 924.4 Section 924.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat...

  1. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  2. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  3. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.73 Section 648.73 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION.... latitude. (b) Areas closed because of small surf clams. Areas may be closed because they contain small...

  4. 30 CFR 57.11052 - Refuge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuge areas. 57.11052 Section 57.11052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Escapeways-Underground Only § 57.11052 Refuge areas. Refuge areas shall be— (a) Of...

  5. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into... board is established within the same geographical jurisdiction, registrants residing in that area...

  6. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  7. 40 CFR 52.590 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas. This page contains the periodic review requirements satisfying 40 CFR 51.306(c), and was adopted....590, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed..., 1988. Rule 391-3-1-.01, “Definitions”, mm, yyy, zzz, aaaa; Rule 391-3-1-.02(4)(c), “Ambient...

  8. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5...... containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, β-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and...

  9. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  10. (n,2n) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the fission products and a few of the actinides in ENDF/B-V do not have (n,2n) cross sections. A complete set of these cross sections is presented in the multigroup structure defined. These were constructed for future use in the DANDE Code System

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. Cross Sections and Lorentz Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Colladay, Don; Kostelecky, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The derivation of cross sections and decay rates in the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension is discussed. General features of the physics are described, and some conceptual and calculational issues are addressed. As an illustrative example, the cross section for the specific process of electron-positron pair annihilation into two photons is obtained.

  13. 40 CFR 52.939 - Original identification of plan section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...:005. General provisions: Section 3(2). (7) 53:010. Ambient air quality standards: Appendix A. (8) 55... requirements for the Jefferson County carbon monoxide nonattainment area, submitted on June 29, 1979, by the... ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment area, submitted by the Kentucky Natural Resources...

  14. Three-Section Expiratory CT:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board-approved pilot study, 20 subjects aged 6-20 years (12 female and eight male; median age, 12.6 years) contributed two expiratory CT studies (three-section baseline CT, volumetric follow-up CT) and two...... PFT studies over 2 years after parental informed consent was obtained. From follow-up CT studies, seven sets were composed: Set 1 was volumetric. Sets 2, 3, 4, and 5, had spacing of 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 20.4 mm, respectively, between sections. Sets 6 and 7 contained five and three sections, respectively....... Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...

  15. FOREWORD: Special section on imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, M.; Scherzer, O.

    2003-12-01

    Imaging is a rapidly growing area in applied sciences. It has an interdisciplinary character and a wide range of applications such as medicine, nondestructive evaluation, microscopy and astronomy, as well as many industrial processes. The increasing demand on imaging is due to the change of role of vision. Today vision is not through eyes only but complemented, for instance, by ultrasound, x-ray computerized tomography (CT), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), to name but a few. Moreover, traditional imaging systems such as microscopes and telescopes are now equipped with detection instruments (CCD cameras) and the resulting digital images are currently processed and enhanced. Finally, the relevance of imaging for industry is best documented by a recent feature by Robert West (West R 2003 In industry, seeing is believing Physics World June 2003). Today the scope of imaging has broadened and plays a central role in many different areas ranging, for instance, from remote sensing to seismology. In most cases the new imaging techniques are based on indirect measurements of physical parameters; therefore they quite naturally lead to the demand of solving (linear or nonlinear) inverse problems. This indicates the central role that inverse problems have in imaging science. This special section highlights several topics of recent advances in imaging. The first five papers concern problems originating from medical imaging which can have important applications in other domains. The paper by Ji et al covers a new and promising diagnostic tool in medicine: the identification of abnormal tissues by elastic shear wave properties. The two subsequent papers by Louis and by Defrise et al concern 3D cone beam tomography which is the most recent and advanced technique in x-ray CT. Both the case of circular and helical scanning are considered. The paper by Natterer et al is also about tomography but is intended to exploit the mathematical analogies between x-ray CT and synthetic

  16. Radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to estimate the radiation pressure cross section for fluffy aggregates by computing the asymmetry parameter and the cross sections for extinction and scattering. The ballistic particle-cluster aggregate and the ballistic cluster-cluster aggregate consisting of either dielectric or absorbing material are considered to represent naturally existing aggregates. We show that the asymmetry parameter perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation is maximized where the wavelength is comparable to the aggregate size, which may be characterized by the area-equivalent radius or the radius of gyration rather than the volume-equivalent radius. The asymmetry parameter for the aggregate depends on the morphology of the particle, but not on the constituent material. Therefore, the dependence of the radiation pressure cross section on the material composition arises mainly from that of the extinction and scattering cross sections, in other words, the single-scattering albedo. We find that aggregates consisting of high-albedo material show a large deviation of radiation pressure from the direction of incident radiation. When the aggregates are illuminated by blackbody radiation, the deviation of the radiation pressure increases with increasing temperature of the blackbody. Since the parallel component of the radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates is smaller than that for the volume-equivalent spheres at the size parameter close to unity, the Planck-mean radiation pressure cross section for the aggregates having radius comparable to the effective wavelength of radiation shows a lower value, compared with the volume-equivalent sphere. Consequently, the slope of the radiation pressure force per mass of the particle as a function of particle mass shows a lower maximum for the aggregates than for compact spherical particles. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Safety assessment of water resources in Chongqing Section of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area based on DPSIR model from the perspective of agricultural nonpoint pollution source%农业面源污染视角下的三峡库区重庆段水资源的安全性评价——基于DPSIR框架的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 何丙辉; 倪九派; 谢德体

    2013-01-01

    农业面源污染已成为我国流域污染的主要来源,并已威胁到城乡居民的饮水安全,影响社会经济的可持续发展.三峡库区是生态脆弱区,水资源安全对促进库区生态环境保护与区域经济社会和谐发展尤为重要.为探明三峡库区重庆段农业面源污染与流域水资源安全演进变化的过程与内在机制,根据DPSIR框架原理,运用结构方程模型进行分析,并评价了2000-2011年流域水资源安全程度.结果表明:流域水资源安全程度分为两个阶段,2000-2005年水资源安全等级从一般安全下降到很不安全,2005-2011年水资源安全等级从很不安全上升到安全,出现阶段变化的主要原因在于从2006年开始,政府认识到流域生态环境的重要性并加大了对农业面源污染的控制力度,加强了对水土流失的治理.因此,为有效地减缓农业面源污染、改善流域水体质量,需要调整农业经济发展方式和农业产业结构,依靠科学技术提高农业生产效率,降低农用化学药品的投入,推广有机农业、改善耕地质量;加强水资源监督管理,实施农业生产节水措施;进一步加强面源污染控制投入,有效控制水土流失程度以减缓面源污染,实现流域水资源安全可持续利用.%The agricultural non-point pollution source has become the major source of river basin pollution in China.It threatens the safety of urban and rural residents' drinking water and has some effects on the sustainable development of our economy.The Three Gorges Reservoir area is frangible ecotope.Therefore,water resource security is especially important for promoting the protection of ecological environment in this area and developing the regional economy.To explore the evolutionary process and inherent mechanism between agricultural nonpoint pollution source and river basin water resource security in Chongqing Section,this paper makes an assessment of river basin water resource

  18. Section XI -- 25 years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original concept of nuclear power plant designers was that the higher standards of design and fabrication would make inservice inspections unnecessary, and little attention was given to provisions for access. By 1966 the Atomic Energy Commission recognized that a planned program of periodic inservice inspections would be needed. They began development of criteria, and encouraged industry code-writing organizations to do likewise. These groups joined forces in 1968, and their product was published by ASME in 1970 as part of the Boiler and Pressure Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Systems. Section XI, 24 pages in 1970, is now 723 pages. While it originally covered only light water reactor Class 1 components and piping, it now includes Class 2, 3, and containment, and liquid metal cooled reactor plants. Along the way, rules have been developed for gas-cooled and low pressure heavy water reactor plants. The growth in size of Section XI from its modest beginning has been largely because of recognition that the rules governing plant inspection/operation need to be considerably different from the rules provided for the component designer/manufacturer. Rules have been developed in the areas of repair/replacement technology, NDE methodology, NDE acceptance standards, and analytical evaluation methods in the absence of appropriate rules in Section III

  19. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  20. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltov Anguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model’s plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB.

  1. Capture cross-section of threading dislocations in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study the effect of film stress on capture cross-section of interacting threads. ► Capture cross-section area diverges near film channeling stress. ► Thread interactions are much more likely when local stress is near critical stress. - Abstract: The capture cross section for annihilation of two threads with opposite Burgers vectors moving on orthogonal slip planes in a thin film is examined using a numerical model. The initial configurations of threads that lead to annihilation are mapped out for a range of applied film stresses. The area of the region of initial configurations that lead to annihilation at a given stress and thickness is the capture cross-section. The size of the capture cross-section is shown to be highly sensitive to the applied stress relative to the critical stress for dislocation motion imposed by the film thickness.

  2. 36 CFR 7.92 - Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.92 Section 7.92 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Aircraft-designated airstrip. (1) Fort Smith landing strip, located at approximate... Canyon National Recreation Area, except in the following areas: (i) In the gated area south of...

  3. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  4. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  5. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  6. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  7. Cesarean Section: Recovering After Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cesarean section: Recovering after surgery 3:47 Dr. ...

  8. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations...

  9. Measurement of fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented on the recent progress in the experiment of fission cross section measurement, including recent activity in Japan being carried out under the project of nuclear data measurement. (author)

  10. Who's afraid of Section 13?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the time restrictions of Section 13 of the Federal Power Act and its impact on independent hydroelectric plant project development. The topics of the article include Section 13 history, the Government Accounting Office report findings regarding developers 'banking' of proposed project sites and project construction commencement time limits, and a review of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission data on license applications, licenses granted and completed projects

  11. The total charm cross section

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that due to the small charm quark mass, which amplifies the effect of the other parameters in the calculation, the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  12. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due to...... the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability of particle sizes in the population. Methods for judging the difference between the distribution of estimated particle sizes and the distribution of true particle sizes are also provided....

  13. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric...

  14. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental areas and research natural areas. 251.23 Section 251.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental...

  15. [Cesarean section and eye disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karska-Basta, Izabella; Tarasiewicz, Marta; Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Miniewicz, Joanna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a growing tendency for cesarean birth has been noted both, in Poland and worldwide. Non-obstetric problems constitute a large part of indications for cesarean section. Many ophthalmologists and obstetricians still believe that high myopia, the presence of peripheral retinal degenerations, history of retinal detachment surgery, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma are indications for surgical termination of pregnancy. However, these recommendations are not evidence-based. The literature offers no proof that high myopia and previous retinal surgery increase the risk of retinal detachment during spontaneous vaginal delivery. There is only one indication for cesarean section in myopic patients, i.e. the presence of choroidal neovascularization, which can cause subretinal bleeding with acute visual loss. Prolonged and intensified Valsalva maneuver during labor in patients with an active proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be an indication for an elective cesarean section. Uterine contractions during the second stage of vaginal delivery lead to a marked elevation of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the delivery may damage retinal ganglion cells, resulting in further progression of visual field. Thus, glaucoma associated with advanced visual field changes is the next ophthalmic indication for cesarean section. The report presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of pregnancy on pre-existing ocular disorders and the influence of physiological changes on the clinical course of these diseases during the stages of natural delivery. The authors discuss also the ophthalmic indications for cesarean section. PMID:27306132

  16. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quarantined area only in accordance with § 78.10 and this section. (a) Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  17. Section concerns addressed at Spring Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger C.

    To keep abreast of current issues and plan future activities, Hydrology Section President Steve Burges brought a full agenda to the Executive Committee meeting held in Baltimore last May. The following highlights of that meeting are offered to keep you informed about what's new in the Hydrology Section.To communicate scientific results more effectively to the press at the Fall and Spring Meetings, section Press Officer Harry Lins is organizing a media-interest session that can highlight both science and policy aspects of a subject. Such a session will also help communicate scientific results to a more general audience. Special session convenors are also encouraged to open their session with a 5-10-minute introduction that highlights important issues to be presented in subsequent papers. These introductions are intended mainly for press representatives and nonspecialists in the audience. In general, the press is not well versed on water issues, and there is often less press interest in hydrology than in other areas of geophysics.

  18. 步兵踝关节肌力和跟腱横截面积与强化训练的关系%Correlation of the muscular strength of ankle joint and the cross-sectional area of achilles tendon with forced training in infantry soldiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾进伟; 黄昌林; 韩叶萍; 曹玉净; 张建福; 李沛

    2007-01-01

    , healing and remodeling mechanisms of tendonopathy is still unclear, even the pain due to chronic tendon dysfunction should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of forced training on the muscular strength of ankle joint and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of achilles tendon of infantry soldiers, and look for effective training methods.DESIGN: One-sample contrasting study.SETTING: Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA; InStitute of Military Training-related Medical Sciences, the 150 Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: The study was carried out in the Institute of Military Training-related Medical Sciences, the 150 Hospital of Chinese PLA from March to June 2004. Thirty male light infantry recruits and thirty one-year-trained male soldiers were regarded as recruit group and one-year soldier group. The enlisted age ranged from 17 to 18 years. Recruits did not have the history of special training and injury of ankle joints. All of them were able to undertake routinely physical training.METHODS: The recruits participated in routinely physical trainings, such as grenade throwing and 5 km cross-country race, and forced trainings, such as dorsiflexors and plantarflexors on ankle joint, twice a day for each training item for 8 successive weeks. The forced training included calf raise for 50 times and sit-ups for 50 times on 45° arched board.Moreover, one-year soldiers were undertaken routinely physical trainings. Eight weeks later, the isokinetic testing of ankle joint and CSA of achilles tendon were measured before and after trainings.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparisons of CSA of achilles tendon and changes of muscular strength of ankle joint between recruits before routine training and after 8-week forced training and one-year soldiers after routine training.RESULTS: All 60 soldiers were involved in the final analysis. Partial correlation was showed between CSA and body weight (r =0.446, P=0.015), and there was no difference in CSA before and after

  19. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors

  20. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  1. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  2. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  3. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  4. Library History Revisited: Research Areas and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, Lis

    This paper discusses research areas and methods related to library history. The first section outlines research areas, including activities such as services to children in public libraries, mobile libraries, cataloging rules and practice, classification rules and practices, development of bibliographies, organization models, literature offered to…

  5. The Hausdorff Dimension of Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min NIU; Lifeng XI

    2007-01-01

    The notion of finite-type open set condition is defined to calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of the sections of some self-similar sets, such as the dimension of intersection of the Koch curve and the line x = a with a ∈(Q).

  6. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  7. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  8. Vibratome sections of difficult tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    After 1 hours of aldehyde fixation, 4 to 20 hours of soaking in 2% BSA (bovine serum albumin) solution and another 17 hours in the same fixative, the vibratome will produce smooth, even sections from agar embedded guinea pig thyroid, skeletal muscle or larynx with the same ease as it will from soft......, homogeneous tissues such as liver or spleen....

  9. Neonatology and the caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, R; Minghetti, D

    2012-10-01

    The origins of the use of the Caesarean section date far back in human history. Traces of this procedure can be found in Greek mythology and in the history of Ancient Rome. Many documents about the history of religion make reference to a delivery from the abdomen. PMID:22958012

  10. Cross sections for nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General properties of low-energy cross sections and of reaction rates are presented. We describe different models used in nuclear astrophysics: microscopic models, the potential model, and the R-matrix method. Two important reactions, 7Be(p,γ)8B and 12C(α,γ)16O, are then briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Rising caesarean section rate: a matter of concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani A. Wanjari

    2014-06-01

    Methods: A one year observational study was done in a large government hospital receiving a large number of patients from urban as well as rural areas and also referrals from the periphery. An attempt was made to find out the caesarean section rate and to evaluate the indications that lead to a rise in caesarean section rate. Results: During the one year study period, there were total 14568 deliveries, out of which 5508 were caesarean sections giving a caesarean section rate of 37.8%. Repeat caesarean section after one prior caesarean delivery was the leading contributor of caesarean section rate and accounted for one in three caesarean sections carried out (32.80%. Other leading indications were foetal distress (9.36%, CPD (7.69%, PROM (7.31%, postdate pregnancy (6.62%, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (6.0%. Conclusions: Some of the measures that can reduce caesarean section rate can be 1 reduction in primary caesarean sections 2 giving the option of VBAC to women with one prior caesarean section 3 use of foetal heart tracings and scalp blood sampling for foetal monitoring 4 judicious use of oxytocin and plotting of the partogram for every labour. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 728-731

  12. Metonymy and Cross Section Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneev, Igor V.; Hildenbrand, Werner; Jerison, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Cross section consumer expenditure data are frequently used to make conclusions about consumer demand behavior. Such conclusions, however, can only be justified under certain assumptions, which are often left unstated in the empirical demand literature. An assumption of this type, the metonymy hypothesis, was stated rigorously and then exploited by Hardle, Hildenbrand and Jerison when analyzing the monotonicity property of aggregate demand functions. The purpose of the present paper is to exa...

  13. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    OpenAIRE

    David Jenn; Cuong Ton

    2012-01-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axi...

  14. New activation cross section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New nuclear cross section libraries (known as USACT92) have been created for activation calculations. A point-wise file was created from merging the previous version of the activation library, the U.S. Nuclear Data Library (ENDF/B-VI), and the European Activation File (EAF-2). 175 and 99 multi-group versions were also created. All the data are available at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center

  15. Progress report : Plasma Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the plasma physics section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India over the last five years (1970-75) are reported. The R and D programme of the section has been divided into four cells mainly i.e., (i) Thermal plasma (ii) Relativistic Electron Beam (iii) Energetics and (iv) Electron beam technology. The salient features of the development activities carried out in these cells are outlined. In the Thermal plasma group, considerable research work has been done in (a) fundamental plasma studies, (b) industrial plasma technology and (c) open cycle MHD power generation project. The relativistic electron beam group is engaged in improving the technology to realize high power lasers, and pulsed thermonuclear fusion. The energetics programme is oriented to develop high voltage d.c. generators and pulse generators. The electron beam techniques developed here are routinely used for melting refractory and reactive metals. The technical know-how of the welding machines developed has been transfered to industries. Equipment developed by this section, such as, (1) electron beam furnace, (2) plasma cutting torch, (3) impulse magnet charger etc. are listed. (A.K.)

  16. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  17. 36 CFR 7.55 - Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.55 Section 7.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Hunting. Hunting is allowed at times and locations designated as open for hunting. (b... Recreation Area except in the following areas: (i) Crescent Bay Lake. (ii) Kettle River above the...

  18. 32 CFR 1602.5 - Area office staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 Area office staff. The compensated employees, civilian and military, of the Selective Service System employed in an area office will be referred to as the area office staff. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office staff. 1602.5 Section...

  19. 25 CFR 265.1 - Definition of roadless area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of roadless area. 265.1 Section 265.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.1 Definition of roadless area. A roadless area has been...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  1. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible...

  2. Measurement of the fission cross section of 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission cross sections of 238Pu have been measured from 0.1 eV to 80 keV energy range using the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer. The cross sections were normalized to the 235U ENDF/B-V data broadened to the resolution of the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer system. The fission areas and widths were determined for the resolved low-energy resonances. The ENDF/B-V fission cross sections for the 238Pu isotope are, in general, not in good agreement with the measured cross sections and a new evaluation is recommended. The observations of structure in the unresolved fission cross sections is suggestive of the existence of intermediate structure. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. section of an accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a section of an accelerating cavity from LEP, cut in half to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  4. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we outline the progress achieved in two distinct under the DOE-sponsored cross section project: the initial results obtained from the pulsed 14 MeV neutron facility, and a cooperative effort with Argonne National Laboratory in the measurement of fast neutron cross sections in yttrium. In the 14 MeV neutron laboratory, this year has seen the maturation of the project into one in which initial scattering measurements are now underway. We have improved the accelerator and ion source in several significant ways, so that neutron intensities have now been proven to be adequate for our series of elastic scattering angular distribution measurements outlined in our initial proposal of two years ago. We have successfully tested all components of the time-of-flight spectrometer and recorded initial neutron spectra from the ring targets that we have obtained for our first angular distribution measurements. Examples of the time-of-flight spectra that have been obtained are given later in this report. At the present time, the accelerator is operating with the highest degree of reliability that we have experienced since installing the pulsing system. Improvements made over the past year have not only increased the available neutron intensity, but also increased our capability to deal with inevitable component failures that require repair or replacement. The measurements carried out in conjunction with Argonne have contributed significantly to the available database on fast neutron interactions in yttrium. Results indicate that the cross section for the 89 Y(n,p)89Sr reaction is substantially higher than represented in ENDF/B-VI

  6. Activities of Radiation Standard Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of the various facilities and services provided by the Radiation Standards Section (RSS) of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is given. RSS maintains the primary and secondary standards of various parameters of radiation measurements. It ensures accurate radiological measurements as per international requirements, through periodic international intercomparisons of national standards. It also provides calibration services to various users of radiation sources and instruments. The activities of RSS are described under the headings: (1) Radiological Metrology Standards, (2) Radionuclide Standards, Neutron Metrology, (4) Instruments Calibration, (5) Non-ionizing Radiations, and (6) Instrumentation. (author). figs., tabs

  7. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  8. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  9. Nuclear Data Section status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) related activity of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) for the period October 1998 to September 2000. It covers both online NSDD user service either Telnet or Web services, and offline NSDD service. The NSDD development programs and projects are related to NDS contribution to the IAEA Analytical Quality Control Services program, Coordinated Research Project on nuclear model parameter testing for nuclear data evaluation, Coordinated Research Project on updating of x-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration, and Coordinated Research Project on development of database for prompt gamma-neutron activation analysis

  10. Assistência à gestação e ao parto: resultados de dois estudos transversais em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil Health care during pregnancy and childbirth: results of two cross-sectional surveys in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurora D. Chrestani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em 2002 e 2005 realizou-se inquérito transversal em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil visando avaliar a assistência à gestação e ao parto entre mães de menores de cinco anos. Foram estudadas 1.528 e 1.529 crianças em 2002 e 2005, respectivamente. Neste período, a escolaridade média das mães aumentou em 1,5 anos, a renda familiar em R$ 100,00 e o fornecimento de água tratada passou de 23% para 41%; a realização de seis ou mais consultas de pré-natal aumentou de 42% para 52% e a imunização contra tétano neonatal de 54% para 77%; a avaliação da altura uterina de 54% para 77% enquanto a realização de teste para HIV e sífilis duplicou, passando de cerca de 8% para aproximadamente 16% e de ultra-sonografia de 44% para 64%. No entanto, a realização de exames ginecológicos caiu de 41% para 31% e as orientações sobre amamentação de 66% para 55%. Apesar de melhorias expressivas na maioria dos indicadores estudados, verifica-se que ainda estão abaixo das regiões mais desenvolvidas do país. Esforços devem ser feitos visando reduzir estes diferenciais.In 2002 and 2005, two surveys were conducted in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil to evaluate prenatal care received by mothers of children under five years old. The study covered 1,528 and 1,529 children in 2002 and 2005, respectively. In this three-year period, maternal schooling and monthly family income increased by 1.5 years and US$ 50.00, respectively, availability of safe drinking water increased from 23% to 41%, the proportion of pregnant woman with six or more prenatal visits increased from 42% to 52%, and immunization against neonatal tetanus increased from 54% to 77%. Coverage of uterine height evaluation increased from 54% to 77%. Testing for HIV and syphilis virtually doubled, from 8% to 16%. Meanwhile, gynecological examinations dropped from 41% to 31% and counseling for breastfeeding decreased from 66% to 55%. Despite improvements, the

  11. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  12. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  14. ESTUDIOS PETROGRÁFICOS Y DE CORTES DELGADOS PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS LÍTICAS EN EL SECTOR NORTE DEL VALLE DE HUALFÍN (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA (Petrographic and Thin Section Analysis for the Identification of Raw Lithic Materials in the Northern Area of the Hualfín Valley (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lynch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente trabajo se centra en el análisis macroscópico y en estudios petrográficos microscópicos realizados sobre materiales líticos arqueológicos recuperados de los sitios Villavil y Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar las materias primas utilizadas en la manufactura de artefactos asociados a ocupaciones del periodo de Desarrollos Regionales/Inka (ca. 900 al 1400 d. C. y, en base a la información geológica de la zona, se realizaron observaciones acerca de su posible procedencia. Esto permitió discutir las hipótesis planteadas con anterioridad acerca de las prácticas relacionadas con su aprovisionamiento. ENGLISH: The main objective of this study is the macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analysis of lithic materials recovered from the sites of Villavil and Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. The results obtained from this analysis allowed for the identification of the raw materials used in the manufacture of artifacts associated with Regional Developments/Inka Period (ca. 900 to 1400 A.D. occupations. Based on regional geological information, we are able to posit the source locations of these raw materials. This allows for a discussion of previous hypotheses regarding practices of lithic procurement in the area.

  15. Cross-Sectional Study on Pre-Hypertension Accompanied with Cardiovascular Risk Factors between Urban and Rural Areas in Chengdu%成都市城乡高血压前期伴危险因素的横断面调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓阳; 何瑜; 苏巧俐; 邹川; 刘健康; 王茹玲; 张廷杰; 袁波; 李双庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨成都市高血压前期患病率、合并心血管危险因素及城乡差异.方法 采用整群随机抽样方法选取成都市城市和农村社区35 ~ 70岁人群2011人,采用问卷、体格检查和实验室检查方式进行调查,以了解该市高血压前期患者的主要心血管危险因素.所获数据由专人双录入计算机,采用SPSS 13.0软件进行分析,计数资料采用x2检验,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果 ①成都市高血压前期患病率为33.6%,城市和农村分别为45.67%和46.31%,农村男性患病率(51.04%)高于女性(42.83%).②高血压前期合并吸烟人群主要是男性,其中农村男性比例达60.00% (132/220),远高于城市男性32.6% (59/181).③城市高血压前期患者合并糖尿病的人群占27.97%,高于农村(14.01%).④城市合并高胆固醇血症或低高密度脂蛋白血症人群比例达33.04% (150/454),是农村患病人群的2倍16.41% (76/471).⑤城市合并腹型肥胖(腰围)人群比例(28.41%)远多于农村(12.74%).结论 吸烟是成都市农村男性高血压前期患者重点干预的危险因素,糖耐量异常是城乡居民共同的主要危险因素,高脂血症是城市高血压前期患者合并的最主要危险因素,其后依次是糖尿病、腹型肥胖.%Objective To investigate pre-hypertension in aspects of its incidence, accompanied cardiovascular risk factors, and difference between urban and rural areas in Chengdu. Methods By cluster random sampling method, a total of 2 011 patients aged 35-70 years from urban and rural communities in Chengdu were selected as respondents. The investigation was conducted through questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests, so as to find out the main cardiovascular risk factors of pre-hypertension. All data were dual input into computer by a specially-assigned person. SPSS 13.0 software was used for analysis, Chi-square test was adopted for categorical data, and P<0

  16. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE....53 Open storage areas. This section describes the minimum construction standards for open...

  17. Medical Reasons for a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labor & birth > Medical reasons for a c-section Medical reasons for a c-section E-mail to ... have your baby through vaginal birth. What are medical reasons for having a c-section? Your health ...

  18. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies...

  19. 泉州市324国道泉州至塘头段路旁土壤中重金属来源分析%Multivariate Analysis Approach to Study the Source of Heavy Metals in Heavy Traffic Areas in the 324 National Highway Section of Quanzhou toTangTou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 于瑞莲; 胡恭任; 张雪琴

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, concentrations of Sc, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb and Bi in roadside soils alongside the 324 national highway section of QuanZhou to TangTou were measured by ICP-MS. Enrichment factor and multivariate analysis were taken to analyze the source and pollution characteristics of heavy metals. The results indicated concentrations of Pb, Sn, Sb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Sc, Cu and Bi were beyond the soil background content in Quanzhou city. And the high enrichment factors of Ni, Sb and Sn were likely to confirm an important role of anthropogenic pollution. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis showed the 14 metals came from three sources. Sn, Sb, Pb, Bi, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd were related to traffic; As, Sc and Fe came from the processes of industrial facilities; Co, Mn and V were associated with soil-based. The dendograms obtained from cluster analysis also supported the observed results.%分析了泉州市324国道泉州至塘头段路旁土壤中14种重金属元素Sc、V、Fe、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Cd、Sn、Sb、Pb、Bi的含量,用富集因子和多元统计分析方法探讨了重金属的污染特征和可能来源.结果表明,Pb、Sn、Sb、Cd、Ni、Zn、Sc、Cu和Bi的含量均超过泉州市土壤背景值,污染较严重;Ni、Sb、Sn的高富集系数说明其受人类活动影响较大.相关分析和因子分析结果显示,上述14种元素主要有3个来源:Sn、Sb、Pb、Bi、Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd主要来源于交通污染;As、Sc、Fe来源于人类工业活动;而Co、Mn、V主要来源于土壤母质.聚类分析的结果也验证了因子分析的结果.

  20. To the Ocean Sciences section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Barbara

    To maximize our ability to obtain recognition of Ocean Sciences Section members as Fellows of AGU while minimizing the associated workload, I have, in consultation with our executive committee, established an Ocean Sciences Fellows Committee chaired by the President-Elect to oversee and assist in the nomination process.The committee asks that anyone wanting to sponsor a nomination send a one-page proposal telling why an individual should be made a Fellow. Proposals will be reviewed by the commitee, and a number equal to 1 ½ to 2 times our nomination quota will be chosen for full presentation. Committee members will then work with nominators to select and contact seconders, while the nominator provides the required curriculum vitae and publication list. The committee will assist in any manner possible to insure that the files that go forward are both timely and well documented.

  1. Manchester medical society (imaging section) presidential address 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is based partly upon the Presidential Address of the Manchester Medical Society (Imaging Section) in 2008. It reviews the development of radiology services in the Manchester (UK) area from their inception in 1896 to the installation of the first EMI body CT scanner in Europe. It considers some of the innovative people in the Manchester area and some milestone events that occurred in that area to help establish the role and value of X-ray in diagnostic imaging. In this article the first recorded case of when X-ray imaging was used in a forensic domiciliary case is also outlined; this occurred approximately 35 miles north of Manchester on 23rd April 1896. The article also explains some interesting background information on the development of the first EMI CT scanner, drawing particularly on the revenue stream generated by the music section of EMI through the success of The Beatles - a band which emanated 35 miles from Manchester in Liverpool.

  2. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  3. Manchester medical society (imaging section) presidential address 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeley, C. [University of Salford (United Kingdom); Manchester Royal Infirmary (CMFT) (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.blakeley@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, P. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This article is based partly upon the Presidential Address of the Manchester Medical Society (Imaging Section) in 2008. It reviews the development of radiology services in the Manchester (UK) area from their inception in 1896 to the installation of the first EMI body CT scanner in Europe. It considers some of the innovative people in the Manchester area and some milestone events that occurred in that area to help establish the role and value of X-ray in diagnostic imaging. In this article the first recorded case of when X-ray imaging was used in a forensic domiciliary case is also outlined; this occurred approximately 35 miles north of Manchester on 23rd April 1896. The article also explains some interesting background information on the development of the first EMI CT scanner, drawing particularly on the revenue stream generated by the music section of EMI through the success of The Beatles - a band which emanated 35 miles from Manchester in Liverpool.

  4. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Annual Adjustment Factor (24 CFR part 888) most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of Section 23 Units to... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section...

  5. Nonelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental nickel were measured from 1.3 to 4.5 MeV, at intervals of approx. 50 keV, with resolutions of 30 to 50 keV and to accuracies of 1 to 2.5%. Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from 1.45 to 3.8 MeV, at intervals and with resolutions comparable to those of the total cross sections, and to accuracies of 3 to 5%. The nonelastic-scattering cross section is derived from the measured values to accuracies of greater than or equal to 6%. The experimental results are compared with previously reported values as represented by ENDF/B-V, and areas of consistency and discrepancy, noted. The measured results are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of a model previously reported by the authors. 4 figures, 1 table

  6. Organic research section. 1984 review and 1985 programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the major activities and accomplishments of the Organic Research Section in 1984 and presents the 1985 work program. The three major areas of the Section's research work are non-metallic materials which includes applications and uses of plastics, petroleum products, coatings and elastomers; reactor waste management; and activity transport/decontamination of nuclear systems. In 1984, 50% of the Section's resources were used on studies in support of nuclear generation, 13% on reactor waste, and 37% on general activities and work in support of utilization, transmission and distribution, and thermal and hydraulic programs. About 60% of the section's work was supported by transfer and revenue funds as a result of urgent short-term work requirements which resulted in 68% of the work falling into the technical investigation, consulting and testing categories

  7. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  8. Euro area business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Atilim Seymen

    2012-01-01

    The role of global, euro area and country-specific shocks in business cycle dynamics of six euro area member countries is assessed with the aid of SVAR models. Output fluctuations are driven by global shocks to a large extent in the euro area, and no Europeanisation of business cycles due to, for example the European Monetary Union, could be established. Business cycle heterogeneity is driven mainly by (asymmetric) country-specific shocks in the euro area and not by heterogeneous responses to...

  9. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  10. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  11. Introduction to the Special Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry-Ann Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several theories of international migration have emerged to explain and predict the patterns created by the international flows of people. While used as an explanatory tool for other sociological phenomena, world-systems analysis has also emerged as a dominant paradigm through which international migration may be explored. In April 2008 Fairfield University in Fairfield, CT hosted the thirty-second annual conference of the Political Economy of the World-System section of the American Sociological Association. The theme was Flow of People and Money across the World-System: Past, Present and Future. The collection of papers presented at this conference was academically rich and produced a wealth of scholarship, some of which is presented in this issue. Vernengo and Bradbury examine the risks associated with dollarization in Ecuador, arguing that although these risks are minimized by the influx of migrant remittances into the country, the trend remains unstable and unsustainable, as was evident in Argentina. Rocha deconstructs the optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, instead arguing that they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism. Dick and Jorgenson focus on environmental consequences of foreign investment dependence for less-developed countries and how various types of ecological degradation can contribute to mass migration. Kentor, Sobel and Timberlake discuss the hierarchy of global cities through which so much money flows back and forth, and specifically the spatiality of inter-corporate integration in the global economy such as the spatial distribution of intra-firm corporate headquarter-subsidiary networks operations and centrality in transportation networks. Lastly, Degirmen presents a case study of globalization of capital in Turkey and how interest and exchange rate shocks produced particularly interesting effects on capital and liquidity structures.

  12. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406 Section 3285.406 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  13. 10 CFR 1303.103 - Public reading area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading area. 1303.103 Section 1303.103 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.103 Public reading area. (a) A public reading area is available at the Board office located at 2300 Clarendon Blvd., Suite...

  14. 36 CFR 7.29 - Gateway National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gateway National Recreation Area. 7.29 Section 7.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.29 Gateway National Recreation Area....

  15. 36 CFR 7.50 - Chickasaw Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chickasaw Recreation Area. 7.50 Section 7.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.50 Chickasaw Recreation Area. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 7.70 - Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.70 Section 7.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Designated airstrips. (1) Wahweap, latitude 36°59′45″ N., longitude 111°30′45″ W. (2... within Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, from the Lees Ferry launch ramp downstream to the...

  17. 36 CFR 7.57 - Lake Meredith National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... launched at designated launch sites established by the Superintendent in accordance with 36 CFR 1.5 and 1.7... Recreation Area. 7.57 Section 7.57 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) The operation of motor vehicles within the Lake Meredith Recreation Area is...

  18. 36 CFR 7.62 - Lake Chelan National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.62 Section 7.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) Snowmobiles. After consideration of existing special situations, i.e., depth of snow... snowmobiles the following locations within the Lake Chelan National Recreation Area: (1) All open...

  19. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  20. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area of production means Riverside County, Calif. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4...

  1. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  2. 47 CFR 32.5001 - Basic area revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic area revenue. 32.5001 Section 32.5001... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5001 Basic area revenue. (a) This account shall include revenue derived from the provision of the following: (1) Basic area...

  3. 14 CFR 141.43 - Pilot briefing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot briefing areas. 141.43 Section 141.43... Pilot briefing areas. (a) An applicant for a pilot school certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that the applicant has continuous use of a briefing area located at each airport...

  4. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  5. 25 CFR 33.5 - Area education functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Area education functions. 33.5 Section 33.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.5 Area education functions. A Bureau Area Education Programs Director shall perform those...

  6. 50 CFR 660.390 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.390 Section 660.390 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.390 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.302, a groundfish conservation area...

  7. 50 CFR 660.396 - EFH Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas. 660.396 Section 660.396 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.396 EFH Conservation Areas. EFH Conservation Areas are designated to minimize to the...

  8. Special section on LGBT resilience across cultures: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jenkins, Richard A; Valenti, Maria

    2015-03-01

    This special section addresses a gap area of resilience and LGBT well-being. Although comprehensive global diversity regarding LGBT resilience was challenging to find, the special section includes representation from outside the US (Israel and Hong Kong), ethnic/racially diverse domestic populations, immigration, and one population for which LGBT identities might be considered marginalized-Christians in the US. The full range of LGBT identities are represented in the issue along with persons identifying as queer or questioning, although transgendered people were less well represented than lesbian, gay or bisexual identities. PMID:25566819

  9. Overview. Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy. Section 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research at the Department of Nuclear Radiospectroscopy of thr H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics covers three areas: magnetic resonance, magnetic resonance imaging and solid state physics by computer simulation. In first of the mentioned above research directions, we apply magnetic resonance method in studies of molecular rotation in solids. Two ways of rotation have been distinguished: tunneling through the potential barriers and random jumps between distinct orientations. In the second one, the magnetic resonance microscope based on a 6.3 T superconducting magnet was completed. Each part of this system was tested and appropriate software has been written in the Laboratory and used for testing, optimization and running the experiment. In the field of solid state physics the work was concentrated around consequences of tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition, experimentally observed in high temperature superconducting materials. In this section of the Annual Report, the detail descriptions of mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  10. 46 CFR 120.530 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 120.530 Section 120.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION...

  11. Protected areas and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ...

  12. Area studies after poststructuralism

    OpenAIRE

    J K Gibson-Graham

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of 'what next after poststructuralism' through a reassessment of area studies. In a narrative of our own involvement with place-oriented research and institutions, we examine the traditional position of area studies in geography and anthropology and its reevaluation by poststructuralist scholars in a number of disciplines. We argue that both prestructuralist and poststructuralist treatments of areas are oriented by a narrative of capitalist development; a...

  13. Optimal Currency Area Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Mersch

    2011-01-01

    Several euro area member states are under increased market scrutiny although public finances in the euro area as a bloc are in a much better shape than in the US or Japan. The main reason is that the euro area is an alliance of sovereign countries with most of the relevant political decisions - including public finance - being taken by national governments whereas the other major currencies are sovereign states with central governments and budgets. In the absence of a central government and a...

  14. Segmentation with Area Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Niethammer, Marc; Zach, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation approaches typically incorporate weak regularity conditions such as boundary length or curvature terms, or use shape information. High-level information such as a desired area or volume, or a particular topology are only implicitly specified. In this paper we develop a segmentation method with explicit bounds on the segmented area. Area constraints allow for the soft selection of meaningful solutions, and can counteract the shrinking bias of length-based regularization. We ...

  15. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  16. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  17. Accuracy of MRI technique in measuring tendon cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, R. B.; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring;

    2014-01-01

    accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar...... tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% lower than the...... mould tendon CSA, respectively. Also, 3 tesla tendon CSA, based on the red-green border on the National Institute of Health (NIH) colour scale, was lower than the mould tendon CSA by 2.8%. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. The typical error between examiners was...

  18. Method of Fault AreaSection Location for Non-solidly Earthed Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guping; JIANG Chao; LI Gang; QI Zheng; YANG Yihan

    2012-01-01

    Medium voltage distributions in China mainly use overhead lines; and most them are small current systems, whose single phase to-earth fault accounts for over 80% of the total failure in power grid. Fault monitoring is one of the main functions of distribution automation, so the new generation of power distribution automation systems in China should thoroughly solve the problem of the orientation of small current grounding fault.

  19. Measurement of Peak Esophageal Luminal Cross Sectional Area Utilizing Nadir Intraluminal Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifan, Ali; Ledgerwood-Lee, Melissa; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) is currently used to monitor gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal bolus clearance. We describe a novel methodology to measure maximal luminal CSA during bolus transport from MII measurements. METHODS Studies were conducted in-vitro (test tubes) and in-vivo (healthy subjects). Concurrent MII, HRM, and intraluminal ultrasound (US) were recorded 7 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Swallows with two concentrations of saline, 0.1N and 0.5N, of bolus volumes 5cc, 10cc and 15cc were performed. The CSA was estimated by solving two algebraic Ohm’s law equations, resulting from the two saline solutions. The CSA calculated from impedance method was compared with the CSA measured from the intraluminal US images. KEY RESULTS The CSA measured in duplicate from B-mode US images showed a mean difference between the two manual delineations to be near zero, and the repeatability coefficient was within 7.7% of the mean of the two CSA measurements. The calculated CSA from the impedance measurements strongly correlated with the US measured CSA (R2 ≅ 0.98). A detailed statistical analysis of the impedance and US measured CSA data indicated that the 95% limits of agreement between the two methods ranged from −9.1 to 13mm2. The root mean square error (RMS) of the two measurements was 4.8% of the mean US-measured CSA. CONCLUSIONS We describe a novel methodology to measure peak esophageal luminal CSA during peristalsis. Further studies are needed to determine if it is possible to measure patterns of luminal distension during peristalsis across the entire length of the esophagus. PMID:25930157

  20. Visualizing surface area and volume of lumens in three dimensions using images from histological sections

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, David P.; TUONG, TAN D.; Kissling, Grace E.; Cullen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Visualizing the interior (lumen) of a tubular structure within tissue can provide a unique perspective on anatomical organization of the tissue. Portal tracts of the liver contain several vessels and ducts in various patterns of intertwining branches and are an example of such spaces. An inexpensive method, using light microscopy and a sample of conventionally stained canine livers, was used to colorize and allow visualization of the lumens of vessels within the portal tract in three dimensio...

  1. Analytical study of indications of cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki M. Pandya

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of number of primary cesarean sections and successful VBAC trials are recommended to keep the rate of cesarean sections to the possible minimum level. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1460-1463

  2. 40 CFR 86.1204 - Section numbering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1204 Section numbering. The section numbering system set forth...

  3. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  4. Section Level Public Land Survey - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Data are derived primarily from Section corner locations captured from paper USGS seven and one-half...

  5. Evaluation of cross section for 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely new evaluation for the neutron cross sections is presented. The experimental data mainly referred to EXFOR, and the recommended cross sections are compared with ENDF/B-6, BROND-2, JENDL-3.2 and JEF-2

  6. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  7. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  8. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  9. Comprehensive area assessment consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    The proposals for the new comprehensive area assessment are a very positive step forward for sustainable development compared to previous local performance assessment frameworks, but will need further strengthening if they are to help support the Government's aim of putting sustainable development at the heart of sustainable community strategies and their delivery mechanism, local area agreements. Publisher PDF

  10. Management of mangrove areas

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article discusses the management of mangrove areas in the Philippines to prevent further negative effects of mangrove depletion on the income of coastal fishers. The article suggests that the conversion of mangrove areas should be regulated by means of land lease.

  11. 46 CFR Section 1 - Books of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Books of account. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Section 1 Books of account. A separate set of books of account shall be opened for the purpose...

  12. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  13. Water Chemistry Section: progress report (1981-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Water Chemistry Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, during the years 1981 and 1982 are reported in the form of individual summaries. The research activities of the Section cover the following areas: (1) chemistry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials, (2) crystal structure of organo-metallic complexes using X-ray diffraction, (3) thermophysical and phase transition studies, (4) solid state chemistry and thermochemical studies, (5) water and steam chemistry of heavy water plants and phwr type reactors, and (6) uranium isotope exchange studies. A survey is also given of: (i) the Section's participation in advisory and consultancy services in nuclear and thermal power stations, (ii) training activities, and (iii) assistance in chemical analysis by various techniques to other units of BARC and outside agencies. A list of publications and lectures by the staff during the report period is included. (M.G.B.)

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of bodies with rectangular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, H. G.; Schamel, W.; Esch, H.; Schneider, W.

    Systematic wind tunnel tests for a series of missile bodies were conducted by varying cross section shape and body length in the subsonic Mach number range and up to high angles of attack. Tests with a body-wing and a body-tail configuration were performed in order to investigate the body-wing and body-tail interference for bodies of revolution and bodies with rectangular cross section. At a constant angle of attack, the boxlike body supplies far more normal force than the body of revolution with the same cross section area. The boxlike body shows strong coupling effects between the pitch, yaw and roll. The interference effect of the wing and body can be described well, in the case of boxlike bodies with wings in high or low wing positions, by the known slender body interference factors, assuming the width of the box to be the diameter of an equivalent, axially symetrical body.

  15. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  16. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 235U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to 235U. However, the more difficult 235U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the 235U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  19. Progress report - physics and health sciences - physics section 1990 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the ninth semi-annual report on the Physics section of Physics and Health Sciences. Major areas of discussion include: nuclear physics, accelerator physics, general physics, neutron's solid state physics, theoretical physics and fusion

  20. Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  1. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (smbullet) Uranium fuel production (smbullet) Test reactor and separations experiments (smbullet) Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex (smbullet) .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  2. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  5. USW area analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of and methodology for the development of a set of environmental analogs of operational Undersea Warfare (USW) areas within fleet training areas. It is primarily a discussion of the identification of parameters that characterize the tactical USW environment, prioritization of these parameters, identification of existing databases that contain these parameters and an outline of the processes required to extract the desired data fro...

  6. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  7. Education outreach programs at the Eastern Washington Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.A. [Battelle, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The Eastern Washington Section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) has tried a number of different approaches to reach out to the local communities and to work alongside educators to increase their awareness of nuclear technology. Some of the programs that the authors have started may serve as examples for other sections in their outreach activities. The Eastern Washington Section of the ANS has an education committee coordinator who is assigned the task of working with high school and college students to increase the awareness of nuclear energy. The most effective approach that the authors have found to reach out to the area schools is to get directly involved with community activities that already interface with the schools and get to know the science teachers at the local schools. The Hanford project has a student internship program called ``Inquiry into Science``. The program allows students to work at Hanford for Science credits. Another program that the local section sponsors is grants to high schools to promote the awareness of nuclear technology. The local section has also worked alongside local community groups to increase nuclear science education. For years the authors have been active in the local science fair, providing awards to nuclear-related science projects. Other community events that the ANS has been involved in include the US Department of Energy Knowledge Bowl and National Engineers.

  8. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  9. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    regarded fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers...... and temporary area closures in Kattegat. The third section discusses the lessons learned in the light of implementation of the discard ban. The fourth section sums up the lessons learned; Regional measures of implementation of the discard ban should include all vessels with quota in the region to be...

  10. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  11. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  12. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

  13. Psychosocial Factors for Women Requesting Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Yajuan Zhao; Shuangyun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors, there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. The psychosocial factors for requesting cesarean section were analyzed in our study. Methods: A self-made questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were ...

  14. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  15. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume II contains cross-sections for K+ and K- induced reactions. (orig.)

  16. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of remote frozen sections compared with paraffin-embedded sections: a telepathology project in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Patrizia; Soegner, Peter I.; Stadlmann, Sonja; Jacobs, Jan; Mikuz, Gregor

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of remote frozen sections examined by telepathology. The gold standard was the diagnosis made using direct examination of paraffin-embedded sections. A consecutive series of 134 frozen-section cases were examined by six qualified pathologists. We used the Zeiss telepathology system with robot microscopy, which allowed different magnifications and fields of view to be chosen. The wide-area network used the TCP/IP protocol. The diagnosis made on the frozen sections was compared with the final diagnosis in the paraffin-embedded sections. Times were recorded for each telepathology session, as well as the users comments on usability and software, and on any communication problems which occurred. In addition, we evaluated the importance of the macroscopic sampling of the surgical specimen, applied to each type of tissue. The diagnostic evaluation showed complete agreement in approximately 80% of cases, in 20% diagnosis was not possible due to insufficient quality of the slides. The median time for the telemedicine diagnosis was 14 min 30 sec.

  18. Ion and electron impact ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several current projects are described in which cross sections of interest to radiation physics are being measured. These include total and multiple ionization cross sections for protons on several gases covering a wide energy range, the measurement of cross sections differential in the angle and energy of ejected electrons for several gases including water vapor, and a review of proton ionization data. The work on water vapor has also been extended to electron and neutral hydrogen impact. A brief discussion is also given of some systematics of ionization cross sections. 13 references

  19. Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.

  20. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.