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  1. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  2. Low-frequency variability of meridional transport in the divergence zone of the North Atlantic subtropical and subpolar gyres. The WOCE section A2; Niederfrequente Variabilitaet meridionaler Transporte in der Divergenzzone des nordatlantischen Subtropen- und Subpolarwirbels. Der WOCE-Schnitt A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbacher, K.

    2000-07-01

    The subinertial, climate relevant variability of the large-scale ocean circulation in the northern North Atlantic and its integral key parameters such as the advective transports of mass (volume), heat and freshwater are determined from observations alone using the hydrographic data from seven realisations of the so-called '48 N'-section between the English Channel and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The data consist of five available sets of the WOCE/A2-section during the Nineties for the years 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 and of two previous transatlantic cruises in April of 1957 and 1982. The realisations of the WOCE/A2-section were carried out in the same season (May to July), except for the cruise in October 1994. The '48 N'-section follows the divergence zone of the mainly wind-driven subtropical gyre and the more complex, with respect to the forcing, subpolar gyre. In the central Westeuropean and Newfoundland Basins the section runs a few degrees south of the line of zero wind stress curl (curl{sub z}{tau}). In the West, the WOCE/A2-section turns northwest to cross the boundary current regime perpendicularly. Therefore, this quasi-zonal hydrographic section covers all large-scale circulation elements on the regional scale that contribute essentially to the ocean circulation on the global scale - the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The transport estimates are given as the sum of the three transport components of a quasi-steady, large-scale ocean circulation: The ageostrophic Ekman-, and the two geostrophic components, the depth-independent, barotropic or Sverdrup- and the baroclinic component. To maintain the mass balance over the plane of the section the compensation of each component is assumed. In the case of the baroclinic component the balance is achieved through a suitable choice for a surface of 'no-motion'. The absolute meridional velocity as a function of the zonal distance along the section and depth is

  3. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

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    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1996-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  4. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Thomas Washington TUNES-1 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Key, R.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Sullivan, K.F. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences; Tsuchiya, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain measurements of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon ({Delta} {sup 14}C), as well as hydrographic and chemical data, during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and ended in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P17C, along 135{degree}W and between {approximately}5{degree}S and 36{degree}N, was completed during the 42-day expedition. All 123 hydrographic stations (including 9 large-volume stations) were completed to the full water-column depth. Spacing between stations was 30 nautical miles, except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S, where it was 10 nautical miles. At 30 stations, CO{sub 2} measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P17C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen (measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor), as well as bottle measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, {Delta} {sup 14}C, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  5. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

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    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  6. Low-frequency variability of meridional transport in the divergence zone of the North Atlantic subtropical and subpolar gyres. The WOCE section A2; Niederfrequente Variabilitaet meridionaler Transporte in der Divergenzzone des nordatlantischen Subtropen- und Subpolarwirbels. Der WOCE-Schnitt A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbacher, K.

    2000-07-01

    The subinertial, climate relevant variability of the large-scale ocean circulation in the northern North Atlantic and its integral key parameters such as the advective transports of mass (volume), heat and freshwater are determined from observations alone using the hydrographic data from seven realisations of the so-called '48 N'-section between the English Channel and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The data consist of five available sets of the WOCE/A2-section during the Nineties for the years 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998 and of two previous transatlantic cruises in April of 1957 and 1982. The realisations of the WOCE/A2-section were carried out in the same season (May to July), except for the cruise in October 1994. The '48 N'-section follows the divergence zone of the mainly wind-driven subtropical gyre and the more complex, with respect to the forcing, subpolar gyre. In the central Westeuropean and Newfoundland Basins the section runs a few degrees south of the line of zero wind stress curl (curl{sub z}{tau}). In the West, the WOCE/A2-section turns northwest to cross the boundary current regime perpendicularly. Therefore, this quasi-zonal hydrographic section covers all large-scale circulation elements on the regional scale that contribute essentially to the ocean circulation on the global scale - the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The transport estimates are given as the sum of the three transport components of a quasi-steady, large-scale ocean circulation: The ageostrophic Ekman-, and the two geostrophic components, the depth-independent, barotropic or Sverdrup- and the baroclinic component. To maintain the mass balance over the plane of the section the compensation of each component is assumed. In the case of the baroclinic component the balance is achieved through a suitable choice for a surface of 'no-motion'. The absolute meridional velocity as a function of the zonal distance along the section and depth is

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Akademik Ioffe cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, February--April 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Rubin, S.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Koshlyakov, M.H. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanography; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1997-07-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples during the Research Vessel (R/V) Akademik Ioffe Expedition in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on February 14, 1992, and ended in Wellington, New Zealand, on April 6, 1992. WOCE Section S4P, located along {approximately}67{degree}S between 73{degree}W and 172{degree}E, was completed during the 51-day expedition. One hundred and thirteen hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section S4P included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; bottle salinity; bottle oxygen, phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate, TCO{sub 2}; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 C.

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  9. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E, September 1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schneider, B. [Institut fuer Ostseeforschung, Rostock-Warnemuende (Germany); Mintrop, L. [Institut fuer Meereskunde, Kiel (Germany); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is characterized by an intense meridional circulation cell carrying near-surface waters of tropical and subtropical origin northward and deep waters of arctic and subarctic origin southward. The related {open_quotes}overturning{close_quotes} is driven by the sinking of water masses at high latitudes. The overturning rate and thus the intensity of the meridional transports of mass, heat, and salt, is an important control parameter for the modeling of the ocean`s role in climate. The Research Vessel (R/V) Meteor Cruise 18/1 was one in a series of cruises in the North Atlantic that started in March 1991 and continued until 1995. This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured during the RIV Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (Section A1E). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the German North Atlantic Overturning Rate Determination expedition, the cruise began in Reykjavik, Iceland, on September 2, 1991, and ended after 24 days at sea in Hamburg, Germany, on September 25, 1991. WOCE Zonal Section AlE began at 60{degrees}N and 42{degrees}30{prime} W (southeast of Greenland) and continued southeast with a closely spaced series of hydrocasts to 52{degrees}20{prime} N and 14{degrees}15{prime} W (Porcupine Shelves). Measurements made along WOCE Section AlE included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by a conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and underway pCO{sub 2}. A total of 61 CTD casts were made, including 59 bottle casts and 2 calibration stations.

  10. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  11. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  12. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992--January 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.; Schneider, B. [Inst. fuer Ostseeforschung, Rostock-Warnemuende (Germany); Mintrop, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany). Dept. of Geosciences

    1997-04-01

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity at Hydrographic stations as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise M22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on 27 December 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa on 31 January 1993. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using tow automated sample processors for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples which were coupled to a Coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for total alkalinity were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by Infra Red (IR) Photometry; precision was {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. From these cruises the large-scale three-dimensional distribution of temperature, salinity, and chemical constituents, including the carbonate system parameters will be mapped. Knowledge of these parameters and their initial conditions will allow determination of heat and water transports as well as carbon transport. An understanding of these transports will contribute to the understanding of processes which are relevant for climate change. This section in the South Atlantic subtropical Gyre is especially relevant for CO{sub 2} transport because it crosses both the Brazil and the Benguela Boundary Currents.

  13. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.

    2002-05-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Meteor oceanographic cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A8). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Recife, Brazil, on March 29, 1994, and ended after 35 days at sea in Walvis Bay, Namibia, on May 12, 1994. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMA) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}1.17 {micro}mol/kg. For the second carbonate system parameter, the fCO{sub 2} was measured in discrete samples by equilibrating a known volume of liquid phase (seawater) with a known volume of a gas phase containing a known mixture of CO{sub 2} in gaseous nitrogen (N{sub 2}). After equilibration, the gas phase CO{sub 2} concentration was determined by flame ionization detection following the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methane (CH{sub 4}). The precision of these measurements was less than or equal to 1.0%. The R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation that describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  14. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrograohic, and Chemical Parameters During the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 3 May - 4 July, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-03-31

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at hydrographic stations during the cruise of research vessel (R/V) Nathaniel B. Palmer in the Southern Indian Ocean on the S04I Section as a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)/World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The carbon-related measurements were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The expedition started in Cape Town, South Africa, on May 3, 1996, and ended in Hobart, Australia, on July 4, 1996. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. The TCO2 was measured in discrete water samples using the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) coulomteric system with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. TALK was determined by potentiometric titration with an overall precision of ±1.7 μmol/kg. During the S04I cruise pCO2 was also measured using the LDEO equilibrator-gas chromatograph system with a precision of 0.5% (including the station-to-station reproducibility) at a constant temperature of 4.0ºC. The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer S04I data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  15. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean. WOCE Section A9, February--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations (as well as in other radiatively active trace gases) because of human activity has produced serious concern regarding the heat balance of the global atmosphere (Moore and Braswell 1994). The increasing concentrations of these gases may intensify the earth`s natural greenhouse effect, and force the global climate system in ways that are not well understood. The oceans play a major role in global carbon cycle processes. Carbon in the oceans is unevenly distributed because of complex circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles, neither of which are completely understood. To better understand the ocean`s role in climate and climatic changes, several large experiments have been conducted in the past, and others are currently under way. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is a major component of the World Climate Research Program. Although total carbon dioxide (TC0{sub 2}) is not an official WOCE measurement, a coordinated effort, supported in the United States by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is being made on WOCE cruises (through 1998) to measure the global, spatial, and temporal distributions of TC0{sub 2} and other carbon-related parameters. The CO{sub 2} survey goals include estimation of the meridional transport of inorganic carbon in a manner analogous to the oceanic heat transport (Bryden and Hall 1980; Brewer et al. 1989; Roemmich and Wunsch 1985), evaluation of the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and the ocean, and preparation of a database suitable for carbon-cycle modeling and the subsequent assessment of the anthropogenic C0{sub 2} increase in the oceans. The C0{sub 2} survey is taking advantage of the sampling opportunities provided by the WOCE cruises during this period. The final data set is expected to cover {approx_gt}23,000 stations.

  16. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Meg

    2004-01-01

    The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Young Investigator Workshops goals and objectives are: a) to familiarize Young Investigators with WOCE models, datasets and estimation procedures; b) to offer intensive hands-on exposure to these models ard methods; c) to build collaborations among junior scientists and more senior WOCE investigators; and finally, d) to generate ideas and projects leading to fundable WOCE synthesis projects. To achieve these goals and objectives, the Workshop will offer a mixture of tutorial lectures on numerical models and estimation procedures, advanced seminars on current WOCE synthesis activities and related projects, and the opportunity to conduct small projects which put into practice the techniques advanced in the lectures.

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Korr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; December 1, 1994-January 19, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, A.V.

    2003-09-15

    This document describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations taken during the R/V Knorr Indian Ocean cruises (Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2) in 1994-1996. The measurements were conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The expedition began in Fremantle, Australia, on December 1, 1994, and ended in Mombasa, Kenya, on January 22, 1996. During the nine cruises, 12 WOCE sections were occupied. Total carbon dioxide was extracted from water samples and measured using single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to coulometers. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.20 {micro}mol/kg. The second carbonate system parameter, TALK, was determined by potentiometric titration. The precision of the measurements determined from 962 analyses of certified reference material was {+-} 4.2 {micro}mol/kg (REFERENCE). This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Department of Energy, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The R/V Knorr Indian Ocean data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of 18 oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  18. Northern and southern water masses in the equatorial Atlantic: Distribution of nutrients on the WOCE A6 and A7 lines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Oudot, C; Morin, P.; Baurand, F.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Le

    In the framework of the WOCE Hydrographic Program, two trans-Atlantic CTDO/tracer sections with closely-spaced stations, along 7 degrees 30'N and 4 degrees 30'S (WHP Lines A6 and A7), and two meridional sections, along 3 degrees 50'W and 35 degrees...

  19. H. W. Laboratory manual: 100 Area section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-07-01

    The purpose of this manual is to present a Hazard Breakdown of all jobs normally encountered in the laboratory work of the three sections comprising the Analytic Section, Metallurgy and Control Division of the Technical Department. A Hazard Breakdown is a careful analysis of any job in which the source of possible dangers is clearly indicated for each particular step. The analysis is prepared by individuals who are thoroughly familiar with the specific job or procedure. It is felt that if the hazards herein outlined are recognized by the Laboratory personnel and the suggested safety cautions followed, the chance for injury will be minimized and the worker will become generally more safety conscious. The manual, which is prefaced by the general safety rules applying to all the laboratories, is divided into three main sections, one for each of the three sections into which the Laboratories Division is divided. These sections are as follows: Section 1 -- 200 Area Control; Section 2 -- 100 Area Control; Section 3 -- 300 Area Control, Essential Materials, and Methods Improvement.

  20. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (November 2-December 5, 1996) and A24, A20, and A22 (May 30-September 3, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.

    2003-10-23

    This documentation describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations on the North Atlantic Ocean sections AR24, A24, A20, and A22 during the R/V Knorr Cruises 147-2, 151-2, 151-3, and 151-4 in 1996 and 1997. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the expeditions began at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 24, 1996, and ended at Woods Hole on September 3, 1997. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. A total of 5,614 water samples were analyzed for discrete TCO{sub 2} using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2}. The overall accuracy of the TCO{sub 2} determination was {+-} 1.59 {micro}mol/kg. The TALK was determined in a total of 6,088 discrete samples on all sections by potentiometric titration using an automated titration system developed at the University of Miami. The accuracy of the TALK determination was {+-} 3 {micro}mol/kg. A total of 2,465 discrete water samples were collected for determination of pCO{sub 2} in seawater on sections A24, A20, and A22. The pCO{sub 2} was measured by means of an equilibrator-IR system by scientists from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The precision of the measurements was estimated to be about {+-} 0.15%, based on the reproducibility of the replicate equilibrations on a single hydrographic station. The North Atlantic data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of 12 ASCII data files, one Ocean Data View-formatted data file, a NDP-082 ASCII text file, a NDP-082 PDF file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files, as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  1. Ocean circulation and other data from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 17 May 1991 to 09 June 1993 (NODC Accession 9600064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean circulation and other data were collected from SUBSURFACE FLOATS and other platforms from the TOGA Area - Atlantic. Data were collected by Woods Hole...

  2. Peripheral nerve imaging: Not only cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano

    2016-08-28

    Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves. The relative drawback of peripheral nerve US is the long learning curve and the deep anatomic competence to evaluate even small nerves. In the recent years, the role of US in peripheral nerve evaluation has been widened. In the past, nerve US was mainly used to assess nerve-cross sectional area, but now more advanced measurements and considerations are desirable and can boost the role of peripheral nerve US. Nerve echotexture evaluation was defined in 2010: The ratio between the hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas of peripheral nerves on US was called "nerve density". For evaluation of patients who have peripheral neuropathies, the role of peripheral nerve is US wider than simple cross-sectional area evaluation. Quantitative measurements describing the internal fascicular echotexture of peripheral nerves introduce the concept of considering US as a possible quantitative imaging biomarker technique. The potential of nerve US has started to be uncovered. It seems clear that only cross-sectional area measurement is no more sufficient for a comprehensive US evaluation of peripheral nerves.

  3. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Surface meteorology data on CD-ROM, 2 disc set (NODC Accession 0000306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NODC Standard Product contains World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Version 2 sound velocity, water depth, bathymetry, and other data collected using echo...

  4. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) global data, version 3.0, 2002 (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0000841)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) which used resources from nearly 30 countries to make...

  5. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  6. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  7. Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models.

  8. Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: Relation to cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente R;

    2009-01-01

    If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability...... of measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness using the cross-sectional area of the muscle group as the criterion-related muscle-size variable. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound, and cross-sectional area using MRI in nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (eight with hemiplegia). Test......-retest reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was assessed in six healthy subjects. All measurements were made on both legs at 35% lower leg length. In the children with cerebral palsy, dorsiflexor muscle-thickness and cross-sectional area were well correlated (r;{2} = 0.778, P

  9. Estimating the surface area of non-convex particles from central planar sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; H.Rafati, Ali; Kiderlen, Markus

    . In this section plane a modification of the area tangent count method is used. The Morse type estimator generalizes Cruz-Orive's pivotal estimator for convex objects to non-convex objects. The advantages of the Morse type estimator over existing local surface area estimators are illustrated in a simulation study......In this paper, we present a new surface area estimator in local stereology. This new estimator is called the 'Morse type surface area estimator' and is obtained using a two-stage sampling procedure. First a plane section through a fixed reference point of a three-dimensional structure is taken....... The Morse type estimator is well suited for computer assisted confocal microscopy and we demonstrate its practicability in a biological application: the surface area estimation of the nuclei of giant-cell glioblastoma from microscopy images. We also present an interactive software that allows the user...

  10. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Soo; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup [ChungAng University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung Min [Bundang Cha Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 {+-} 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 {+-} 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 {+-} 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 {+-} 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  11. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  12. A Proposed Area for Study of Accessory Section and Point of Terrestrial Permian-Triassic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After the establishment of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB), the definition of the accessory section and point (ASP) of the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary (TPTB) is now on the agenda. However, all good TPTB sections so far known have the following shortcomings: (1) the exact TPTB horizon is difficult to define paleontologically with high-resolution, and (2) accurate correlation between marine and terrestrial PTBs is hard to attain. In order to enhance the understanding of the nature of the global life crisis in both the marine and terrestrial environments across the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition, these shortcomings need to be addressed. In western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan, Southwest China, some fossiliferous PTB sections which include marine, paralic and terrestrial are well-developed, allowing bed-to-bed correlation of the PTB sequences.Fortunately, the marine PTB sequence in this area is almost the same as found at the Meishan Section,where the GSSP of the PTB is located, which may provide a reliable auxiliary marker for high-resolution demarcation of the TPTB. These features found in western Guizhou and eastern Yunnan make this area a good place to study the ASP of the TPTB, so we propose to study the ASP of the TPTB in this area.

  13. Empirical relationship between inlet cross-sectional area and tidal prism: A re-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Ji, L.; Brouwer, R.L.; Van de Kreeke, J.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The well-known empirical relationship between the equilibrium cross-sectional area of tidal inlet entrances (A) and the tidal prism (P), first developed by O’Brien (1931), has been extensively reviewed. Our theoretical investigations indicate that a unique A-P relationship should only be expected fo

  14. Pressure/cross-sectional area probe in the assessment of urethral closure function. Reproducibility of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    -pressure zone and distally in the urethra. The in vitro study showed that cross sectional areas of 13-79 mm2 were determined with a SD of 1.4 mm2. In vivo measurements revealed that the urethral parameters: elastance, hysteresis, pressure and power of contraction during coughing and squeezing were fairly...

  15. Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed.

  16. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross-Sectional Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Sectional Area by Richard Styles PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) focuses on inlet stability theory in...earlier treatments, Escoffier used the hydraulic radius instead of water depth in the friction term (Walton and Escoffier 1981). However, the ratio of...a0) tidal amplitude ratio. The details can be found in his original work and are not presented here except to note that Escoffier introduced two

  17. SANITATION PREVAILING IN WEAKER SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY LIVING IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hither i t o , majority of health problems are related to the poor sanitary conditions prevailing in the premises of households major parts of which are in the rural areas in India. RESEARCH QUESTION : what is the sanitary condition and its impact on the health of weaker sections of the society living in rural area of the Krishna District? OBJECTIVES: 1. To know the sanitary condition prevailing in weaker sections of the society in rural area of Krishna Distrct. 2. To identify the impact of poor sanitation on the health of the study group . STUDY DESIGN: C ross sectional study. SETTING: Rural area of Krishna District , Andhara Pradesh. PARTICIPANTS : People belong to BPL (Below Poverty Line residing in rural area of Krishna district. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P roportions , percentages and chi - square test. RESULTS: In this study group access to safe water source was observed to be 86.18% and access to improved sanitation is 27.21%. About 50% of the study people are practicing open field defection; about 37% of households treat the water at domestic level. Our study findings related to hand washing practices with reference to after defection , before eating and before preparing food are 43% , 41% and 28% respectively. The current study has relived overcrowding (69% , lack of adequacy of ventilation(73% , lake of adequacy of lightening (75.45% lack of adequacy of water supply(57.58% , absence of separate kitchen(86% , no sewage drains (47%. In this study about 54% adults and 57% of children are found to be suffering from malnutrition , 25% have history of diarrhoea , 46.21% fever and 31.82% passing worms in stools. And significantly 46.97% of study subjects suffering from Anaemia.

  18. Sandblasting Effect on Flexural Strength and Fracture Resistance of Two Zirconia with Two Cross Sectional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Norberto Calvo Ramírez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yttrium stabilized zirconia a ceramic material currently considered as an “aesthetic” alternative in fixed partial denture. Clinical studies they have shown micro fractures in the area of the connectors, detachment or “chipping” ceramic coating and also the difficulties in fitting for her cementing. Objective: To establish the influence of sandblasting on flexural strength and fracture toughness of two Yttrium stabilized zirconia with two cross- sectional areas. Material and methods: Two materials were tested VITA Inceram YZ and IPS e.max ZirCAD, for each material was obtained 20 bars of 25mm in length, 2x2mm±0.02 width and height and 20 bars of 3x3mm±0.03 width and height. The samples were sintered; ten samples of each group were subjected to surface treatment with sandblasting. Each specimen was loaded to fracture in a Universal Testing Machine with a transverse head speed of 1±0.5mm/min. The data were analysed with the t student test. Results: The zirconia e.max ZirCAD has the highest flexural strength (1232.78 MPa and the load-bearing fracture (802.74N. Surface treatment VITA Inceram YZ had a higher flexural strength (906.85 MPa and supported a major load 565,55N. The test t student indicated statistically significant differences in the group IPS e.max ZirCAD when it is sandblasting, so much in the resistance to the flexion, since in the maximum load up to the fracture in both areas. There were no statistically significant differences between two ceramics, it having considered both cross-section areas and surface treatment (with and without sandblasting. Conclusions: Sandblasting, the values flexural strength and fracture toughness of the two ceramics in the two areas of cross section significantly decreasing.  

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Transitional Tube with Constant Sectional Area along Derivative Central Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-bao; TONG Bao-guo; PAN Zi-jian; LI Hai-xing

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, sample square-circular transition tube along straight central route was modeled on CATIA software. The parameters are as follows: let the tube length is L, and the constant cross section area is S, and S = πR^2 = a2, in which R stands for the circle radius on one end, and a the square side length on the other end; set up the coordinate system with OX axis on the central route in which the origin O is on centroid of the square end and assume the cross section size at x as the square shaped with all four comers filleted in radius r which is proportional to x, that is, the linear slope of r is R/L, thus, both values r and square side length ax can be attained on the constant cross section area assumption. Secondly, some sample polygonal-circular transition tubes along straight, circular and helical central route were implemented similarly. Thirdly, numerical analysis of stress and displacement of these tubes were carried out on MSC/PATRAN software which are important to the distribution of turbulent flow and the layout of these transitional tube structures.

  20. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW, south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.

  1. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  2. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrographic survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shore based analyses. Technical data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Emanuele, G. III

    1991-12-31

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research, of the US Department of Energy (DOE), actively supports global survey investigations of carbon dioxide in the oceans. This large scale study is in conjunction with the hydrographic program of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE/HP). On ocean cruises operated by WOCE/HP, carbon dioxide analysis groups, from various oceanographic institutions, perform shipboard chemical measurements of the inorganic carbon system in the ocean. Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are of central importance to this carbon survey. Shipboard measurements of DIC were made by employing a coulometric technique. The majority of coulometric measurements were made on an integrated automatic device, the Single Operator Multi-Parameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). In addition to DIC determinations, shipboard analytical groups measured at least one additional parameter of sea water carbon chemistry. This was done to more fully characterize the inorganic carbon system of the sea water sample. This thechnical data report presents DIC and ALK measurements performed in the SIO laboratory on replicate samples collected on the five expedition legs of the WOCE/HP cruises.

  3. The relationship between nasal resistance to airflow and the airspace minimal cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Hariri, Benjamin M; Patel, Ruchin G; Rhee, John S

    2016-06-14

    The relationship between nasal resistance (R) and airspace minimal cross-sectional area (mCSA) remains unclear. After the introduction of acoustic rhinometry, many otolaryngologists believed that mCSA measurements would correlate with subjective perception of nasal airway obstruction (NAO), and thus could provide an objective measure of nasal patency to guide therapy. However, multiple studies reported a low correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency, and between mCSA and R. This apparent lack of correlation between nasal form and function has been a long-standing enigma in the field of rhinology. Here we propose that nasal resistance is described by the Bernoulli Obstruction Theory. This theory predicts two flow regimes. For mCSA>Acrit, the constriction is not too severe and there is not a tight coupling between R and mCSA. In contrast, when mCSAfluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in 3-dimensional models based on computed tomography scans of 15 NAO patients pre- and post-surgery (i.e., 60 unilateral nasal cavities). Airspace cross-sectional areas were quantified perpendicular to airflow streamlines. Our computational results are consistent with the theory. Given that in most people mCSA>Acrit (estimated to be 0.37cm(2)), this theory suggests that airway constrictions are rarely an exclusive contributor to nasal resistance, which may explain the weak correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency.

  4. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  5. Accuracy of MRI technique in measuring tendon cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, R. B.; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has commonly been applied to determine tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) and length either to measure structural changes or to normalize mechanical measurements to stress and strain. The ability to reproduce CSA measurements on MRI images has been reported......, but the accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar...... tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% lower than...

  6. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.

  7. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Bo

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.  ……

  8. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. H., E-mail: zhaohui@physics.umanitoba.ca; Bai, Lihui; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 Canada (Canada); Hemour, S.; Wu, K. [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada); Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S. [The Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Houssameddine, D. [Everspin Technologies, 1347 N. Alma School Road, Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  9. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  10. Mixed Layer Mesoscales for OGCMs: Model development and assessment with T/P, WOCE and Drifter data

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V M; Leboissetier, A

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for mixed layer (ML) mesoscale (M) fluxes of an arbitrary tracer in terms of the resolved fields (mean tracer and mean velocity). The treatment of an arbitrary tracer, rather than only buoyancy, is necessary since OGCMs time step T, S, CO2, etc and not buoyancy. The particular case of buoyancy is used to assess the model results. The paper contains three parts: derivation of the results, discussion of the results and assessment of the latter using, among others, WOCE, T/P and Drifter data. Derivation. To construct the M fluxes, we first solve the ML M dynamic equations for the velocity and tracer M fields. The goal of the derivation is to emphasize the different treatments of the non-linear terms in the adiabatic vs. diabatic ocean (deep ocean vs. mixed layer). Results. We derive analytic expressions for the following variables: a) vertical and horizontal M fluxes of an arbitrary tracer, b) M diffusivity in terms of the EKE, c) surface value of the EKE in terms of the vertical M buoyancy fl...

  11. Force per cross-sectional area from molecules to muscles: a general property of biological motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    We propose to formally extend the notion of specific tension, i.e. force per cross-sectional area-classically used for muscles, to quantify forces in molecular motors exerting various biological functions. In doing so, we review and compare the maximum tensions exerted by about 265 biological motors operated by about 150 species of different taxonomic groups. The motors considered range from single molecules and motile appendages of microorganisms to whole muscles of large animals. We show that specific tensions exerted by molecular and non-molecular motors follow similar statistical distributions, with in particular, similar medians and (logarithmic) means. Over the 10(19) mass (M) range of the cell or body from which the motors are extracted, their specific tensions vary as M(α) with α not significantly different from zero. The typical specific tension found in most motors is about 200 kPa, which generalizes to individual molecular motors and microorganisms a classical property of macroscopic muscles. We propose a basic order-of-magnitude interpretation of this result.

  12. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method.Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet.Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  13. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass.

  14. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  15. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in sharp river bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of three compared with the reach averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a 3D finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm/s) advects longitudinal momentum towards the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross-section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross-section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  16. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in a sharp river bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Labeur, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small-scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches, and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large-scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of 3 compared with the reach-averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a three-dimensional finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm s-1) advects longitudinal momentum toward the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  17. Simulations of IEF in microchannel with variable cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2009-03-01

    This study develops a 1-D mass transport model to describe the electrophoresis transport behavior within a microchannel with a variable cross-sectional area. Utilizing three different numerical schemes, simulations are performed to investigate the IEF of proteins in ampholyte-based pH gradients within both a planar microchannel and a contraction-expansion microchannel, respectively. The simulation results obtained using the modified 1-D mass transport model and the finite-volume method (FVM) for the IEF separation of a single protein sample in a ten-ampholyte-based pH gradient within a planar microchannel are consistent with those presented by Shim et al. [Electrophoresis 2007, 28, 572-586] using a 2-D FVM scheme. In addition, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number insensitive conservation element and solution element (CNI-CESE) method is found to be both more robust and more computationally efficient than the conventional CESE scheme when modeling IEF phenomena within a contraction-expansion microchannel. In modeling the IEF separation of four sample ampholytes in a 20-ampholtye-based pH gradient within a contraction-expansion microchannel, the results obtained using the CNI-CESE scheme are in good agreement with those published in literature. Moreover, the simulations can be performed significantly faster with the new 1-D model and the CNI-CESE scheme. Finally, the results obtained using the modified 1-D mass transport model and the CNI-CESE scheme demonstrate that the concentration of the focused test sample and the resolution of the pH gradient within the microchannel increase as the number of ampholytes used to accomplish the IEF separation process is increased.

  18. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville [Clinical Center, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm{sup 2}/s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm{sup 2}. The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm{sup 2} at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Wrist Deviation on Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area at Proximal Carpal Tunnel Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yeap LOH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Computer users exhibit various wrist angles while typing. Dynamic changes of wrist angle may cause different degrees of median nerve compression. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the effects of the combination of wrist flexion-extension with wrist deviation on median nerve cross-sectional area (MNCSA.Methods:  Eight right-handed participants were recruited in this study. Both wrists were examined by sonographic ultrasound (US at the proximal carpal tunnel level in the transverse plane. A total of nine wrist positions were examined, including wrist neutral (WN, wrist flexion (WF30°, and wrist extension (WE30°, together with three wrist deviation conditions, namely, without radial deviation (RD and ulnar deviation (UD, with maximal RD and with maximal UD. MNCSA was measured by tracing method with ImageJ.Results: Paired t-test showed a significant difference of WN MNCSA between the dominant hand (7.93 ± 0.63 mm2 and the non-dominant hand (6.98 ± 0.42 mm2 (P<0.001. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (handedness as an independent factor showed that WF30° and WE30° caused significant differences of MNCSA when compared with WN (P<0.001. However, wrist RD/UD did not have a significant interaction with the changes of MNCSA in WN, WF and WE positions.Conclusion: The results indicate a significant reduction of MNCSA when WN changed to WF and WE. Wrist RD and UD did not cause significant changes of MNCSA at different wrist positions. Keywords: Median nerve, Ultrasound, Wrist active holding, Nerve deformation

  20. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magnano

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3 to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1, while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3 to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1. The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001 than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.

  1. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Mehmet Baki; Cakmak, Yusuf; Atac, Halit; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P0.05). In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients' requests influenced outcome. Trial of labor should take into consideration the patient's preference, together with the proper setting.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the standard error of measurement between US and MRI ranged from 0.91 to 2.09 sq cm with high limits of agreement analyzed by Bland-Altman plots. However, there were significant differences between absolute values of MRI and US for all muscles

  3. Transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during furnace sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkeun; Lee, Iksang; Yoo, Youngbum; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae, E-mail: smoon@hanyang.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink was monitored as a function of temperature. The ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average grain size of 50 nm. In order to determine the relationship between shrinkage and electrical properties, the cross-sectional area and specific resistance change were measured with various sintering temperatures and times. The samples were sintered at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 60, 120, 300, 600, 1200, and 3000 s. The cross-sectional profile was investigated in order to calculate the cross-sectional area of the ink using a surface profiler. To examine the mass transfer in a conductive line with various sintering temperatures and times, the surface morphology was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. As the temperature increased, the shrinkage ratio of the ink's cross-sectional area increased. By investigating the relationship between specific resistance and shrinkage, the sintering mechanisms can be determined.

  4. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressures...... to the polyurethane-bag and thereby opened and closed the urethra. Sound waves were continually sent into the polyurethane-bag and the cross-sectional area (CA) of the bag (urethra) could be measured from the reflections with Acoustic Reflectometry. The CA of the bag was measured for each mm of the bag and 10 times...

  5. Final Technical Report: Ocean CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1992-1995 Field Years: Shore Based Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon January 1, 1993-April 15, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Charles D.

    1998-04-15

    Participation in the hydrographic survey of the world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) began in December 1990 with a two year grant from DOE for shore related analyses of inorganic carbon in sea water. These analyses were intended to assure that the measurements carried out under difficult laboratory conditions on board ships were consistent with measurements made under more carefully controlled shore laboratory conditions.

  6. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... are to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, to determine... the flexibilities available in the voucher program, to set voucher payment standards at varying and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area...

  7. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressur...

  8. Human capital growth in a cross section of U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Growth of human capital, defined as the change in the fraction of a metropolitan area's labor force with a bachelor's degree, is typically viewed as generating a number of desirable outcomes, including economic growth. Yet, in spite of its importance, few empirical studies have explored why some economies accumulate more human capital than others. This paper attempts to do so using a sample of more than 200 metropolitan areas in the United States over the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The resul...

  9. Effect of histological processing and methacrylate sectioning on the area of gill tissue in teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Cruz

    Full Text Available Deformation of biological tissues may occur during histological processing and results in loss of accuracy when quantitative information about cells, tissues and organs is necessary. In this study, the gill tissue from armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was quantified in each step of processing using the stereological principles. During processing for glycol methacrylate embedding, gill tissue from shrinks significantly but regains its original dimensions after sectioning.

  10. Diagnostic Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Analysis of Ulnar Nerve Cross-sectional Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Yu Mee; Hong, Suk Joo; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea University Auam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of sonography for diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CUTS) confirmed by electrodiagnostic study. From February 2004 to March 2005, we prospectively analyzed 24 elbows in 19 patients (8 women, 11 men: mean age, 49.2 years: range 23-65 years) with cubital tunnel syndrome, including 5 bilateral cases. Diagnoses of CUTS were confirmed by both clinical symptom and electrodiagnostic study. Sonographic findings of 20 asymptomatic cases served as controls. In sonographic examination, the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve was measured at the inlet (at the level of medial epicondyle) and outlet (at the level of convergence of flexor carpi ulnaris tendons) of the cubital tunnel. The shape and echogenicity of the ulnar nerve were also evaluated, as were possible causes of entrapment. The accuracy of using ultrasonographic cross sectional area to diagnose CUTS was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet levels in CUTS patients was increased much more than in the asymptomatic cases. Decreased echogenicity and distortion of normal parallel echotexture of the ulnar nerve were observed in all CUTS patients. At the inlet level, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.816, and the ideal cut-off value for CUTS diagnosis was 0.08 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 58.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 66.7%. At the distal outlet level, the AUC was 0.785, and the cut-off value was 0.06 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 76%, and NPV of 73.7%. When the summation value of inlet and outlet cross sectional areas was used, the AUC was 0.853, and cut-off value was 0.14 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 85%, and NPV of 70.8%. Measurement of the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet of the cubital

  11. Area deprivation and its association with health in a cross-sectional study: are the results biased by recent migration?

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    Piro Fredrik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area deprivation and health has mostly been examined in cross-sectional studies or prospective studies with short follow-up. These studies have rarely taken migration into account. This is a possible source of misclassification of exposure, i.e. an unknown number of study participants are attributed an exposure of area deprivation that they may have experienced too short for it to have any influence. The aim of this article was to examine to what extent associations between area deprivation and health outcomes were biased by recent migration. Methods Based on data from the Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 in Oslo, Norway, we used six health outcomes (self rated health, mental health, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and exercise and considered migration nine years prior to the study conduct. Migration into Oslo, between the areas of Oslo, and the changes in area deprivation during the period were taken into account. Associations were investigated by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results After adjustment for individual socio-demographic variables we found significant associations between area deprivation and all health outcomes. Accounting for migration into Oslo and between areas of Oslo did not change these associations much. However, the people who migrated into Oslo were younger and had lower prevalences of unfavourable health outcomes than those who were already living in Oslo. But since they were evenly distributed across the area deprivation quintiles, they had little influence on the associations between area deprivation and health. Evidence of selective migration within Oslo was weak, as both moving up and down in the deprivation hierarchy was associated with significantly worse health than not moving. Conclusion We have documented significant associations between area deprivation and health outcomes in Oslo after

  12. MAASTRICHTIAN TO EOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE TABIAGO SECTION, BRIANZA AREA, NORTHERN ITALY

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    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic investigations have been carried out on samples collected from the Tabiago section, Brianza, northern Italy. This section records early Maastrichtian (CC23b nannofossil zone to early Eocene (NP10 nannofossil zone calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The Cretaceous-Tertiary transition is characterized by major changes in sedimentation rates and two likely stratigraphic gaps. The Cretaceous Brenno Formation was deposited with a high sedimentation rate (~20 m/m.y., whilst the Tabiago Formation of Paleogene age records a drastic decrease (~10 m/m.y.. The absence of the CC26 zonal marker Micula prinsii may indicate a stratigraphic hiatus or an extremely condensed level in the latest Maastrichtian. However, only two samples have been collected and analyzed in this interval due to low exposure of the outcrop, and the absence of M. prinsii could be the result of diagenetic overprint or insufficient sampling. A stratigraphic hiatus or a very condensed interval corresponds to the upper part of NP1 nannofossil zone and PƒÑ foraminiferal Zone and P1a Subzone in the early Paleocene. The poor exposure of the outcrop prevents to precisely locate the zonal boundaries between NP4 and NP5 and between NP9 and NP10 and impedes the documentation of possible further stratigraphic gaps or condensed intervals.    

  13. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

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    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  14. The effect of high-resistance training on the strength and cross-sectional area of the human quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Stokes, M; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1983-10-01

    Seventeen volunteers performed unilateral strength-training of the quadriceps with high-resistance, low-repetition, dynamic exercise, thrice weekly for an average of 5 weeks. Both before and after the training period, bilateral measurements were made of isometric quadriceps strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (by ultrasound scanning), and thigh circumference. There were no significant changes in the untrained thighs. The trained quadriceps increased their isometric strength by more than they changed their cross-sectional area (mean increments = 15% and 6% respectively). Quadriceps hypertrophy was underestimated by measurements of thigh circumference and could not be predicted from them. We conclude that studies of localized muscle growth require direct measurements of the size of the muscle(s) concerned. Nevertheless, these may still underestimate the improvements in strength produced by high-resistance training.

  15. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

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    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  16. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R. G. Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  17. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  18. The african origin of complex projectile technology: an analysis using tip cross-sectional area and perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Matthew L; Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  19. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Sisk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  20. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  1. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  2. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Wiesinger

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24% or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%. In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26% and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%. Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations.

  3. Quantitative ultrasound method for assessing stress-strain properties and the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yang, Chia-En; Wu, Jian-Xing; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly observed tendons injured with a variety of causes, such as trauma, overuse and degeneration, in the human body. Rupture and tendinosis are relatively common for this strong tendon. Stress-strain properties and shape change are important biomechanical properties of the tendon to assess surgical repair or healing progress. Currently, there are rather limited non-invasive methods available for precisely quantifying the in vivo biomechanical properties of the tendons. The aim of this study was to apply quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, including ultrasonic attenuation and speed of sound (SOS), to investigate porcine tendons in different stress-strain conditions. In order to find a reliable method to evaluate the change of tendon shape, ultrasound measurement was also utilized for measuring tendon thickness and compared with the change in tendon cross-sectional area under different stress. A total of 15 porcine tendons of hind trotters were examined. The test results show that the attenuation and broadband ultrasound attenuation decreased and the SOS increased by a smaller magnitude as the uniaxial loading of the stress-strain upon tendons increased. Furthermore, the tendon thickness measured with the ultrasound method was significantly correlated with tendon cross-sectional area (Pearson coefficient = 0.86). These results also indicate that attenuation of QUS and ultrasonic thickness measurement are reliable and potential parameters for assessing biomechanical properties of tendons. Further investigations are needed to warrant the application of the proposed method in a clinical setting.

  4. Value of Power Doppler and Gray-Scale US in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Contribution of Cross-Sectional Area just before the Tunnel Inlet as Compared with the Cross-Sectional Area at the Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcar, Nevbahar; Ozkan, Serhat; Mehmetoglu, Ozlem; Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki [Osmangazi University Hospital, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2010-12-15

    To determine the value of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Median nerves at the carpal tunnel were evaluated by using gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonography and by using accepted and new criteria in 42 patients with CTS (62 wrists) confirmed by electromyogram and 33 control subjects. We evaluated the cross-sectional area of the nerve just proximal to the tunnel inlet (CSAa), and at mid level (CSAb). We then calculated the percentage area increase of CSAb, and area difference (CSAb-CSAa). We measured two dimensions of the nerve at the distal level to calculate the flattening ratio. The power Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess the number of vessels, which proceeded to give a score according to the vessel number, and lastly evaluated the statistical significance by comparing the means of patients with control subjects by the Student t test for independent samples. Sensitivities and specificities were determined for sonographic characteristics mentioned above. We obtained the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the optimal cut-off values for the diagnosis of CTS. A statistically significant difference was found between patients and the control group for mean CSAb, area difference, percentage area increase, and flattening ratio (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). From the ROC curve we obtained optimal cut-off values of 11 mm{sup 2} for CSAb, 3.65 for area difference, 50% for the percentage of area increase, and 2.6 for the flattening ratio. The mean number of vessels obtained by power Doppler ultrasonography from the median nerve was 1.2. We could not detect vessels from healthy volunteers. Mean CSAbs related to vascularity intensity scores were as follows: score 0: 12.3 {+-} 2.8 mm{sup 2}, score 1: 12.3 {+-} 3.1 mm{sup 2}, score 2: 14.95 {+-} 3.5 mm{sup 2}, score 3: 19.3 {+-} 3.8 mm{sup 2}. The mean PI value in vessels of the median nerve was 4

  5. The best cutoff point for median nerve cross sectional area at the level of carpal tunnel inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sarraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy. It accounts 90% of all entrapment neuropathies all over the world. Ultrasound is a non-invasive, cost effective and available para-clinical method which could be applied for CTS diagnosis. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the level of the inlet is considered as a diagnostic criterion in CTS cases. In this study, thirty-eight patients with electrophysiologically confirmed idiopathic CTS and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventy-one affected nerves and 42 unaffected nerves were evaluated within 14 days after electrophysiological examination. The largest cross-sectional area (CSA was measured at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet and the maximum nerve perimeter was also recorded by means of the software. Mean CSA and perimeter were 14.02 ± 4.5 mm2 and 1.7±0.28m in all patients and 8.2±2.1 mm2, 1.3±0.19 m in controls (P<0.001, P<0.001. Mean CSA and Perimeter were significantly different between patient's groups and control. The best cut off point for CSA of the tunnel inlet was 10.5 mm2 with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 76% (AUC (Area under the Curve = 0.9, P<0.001. The best cut off point for inlet perimeter was 1.44 m with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77 % (AUC=0.87, P<0.001. Our findings showed that median nerve CSA at carpal tunnel inlet could be used as the diagnostic criteria for CTS.

  6. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  7. Quantitative Image Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Area in Histological Sections of Colorectal Cancer: An Emerging Diagnostic Tool

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    R. Rogojanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In colorectal cancer (CRC, an increase in the stromal (S area with the reduction of the epithelial (E parts has been suggested as an indication of tumor progression. Therefore, an automated image method capable of discriminating E and S areas would allow an improved diagnosis. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections from colorectal tumors (16 samples from patients with liver metastasis and 18 without. Noncancerous tumor adjacent mucosa (n=5 and normal mucosa (n=4 were taken as controls. Epithelial cells were identified by an anti-keratin 8 (K8 antibody. Large tissue areas (5–63 mm2/slide including tumor center, tumor front, and adjacent mucosa were scanned using an automated microscopy system (TissueFAXS. With our newly developed algorithms, we showed that there is more K8-immunoreactive E in the tumor center than in tumor adjacent and normal mucosa. Comparing patients with and without metastasis, the E/S ratio decreased by 20% in the tumor center and by 40% at tumor front in metastatic samples. The reduction of E might be due to a more aggressive phenotype in metastasis patients. The novel software allowed a detailed morphometric analysis of cancer tissue compartments as tools for objective quantitative measurements, reduced analysis time, and increased reproducibility of the data.

  8. Urethral pressure reflectometry, a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area in the prostatic urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) was introduced in 2005, for simultaneous measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra. It has shown to be more reproducible than conventional pressure measurement. Recently, it has been tested in the anal canal...... and the prostatic urethra. The primary aim of this study was to describe UPR in men without bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study investigated 18 men, median age 59 (range 50-77) with UPR and pressure-flow analyses (PQ), the International Prostate Symptom Score and the Danish...... version of Prostate Symptom Score, flow rate, residual urine measurements, transrectal ultrasound, urethral pressure profilometry and visual analogue scale (Discomfort). UPR parameters measured were opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance and hysteresis, from the bladder neck...

  9. EFFECTS OF STABILIZATION EXERCISE USING A BALL ON MUTIFIDUS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SinHo Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using balls to the effects of general lumbar stabilization exercises with respect to changes in the cross section of the multifidus (MF, weight bearing, pain, and functional disorders in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Twelve patients participated in either a 8 week (3 days per week stabilization exercise program using balls and control group (n = 12. The computer tomography (CT was used to analyze MF cross-sectional areas (CSA and Tetrax balancing scale was used to analyze left and right weight bearing differences. Both groups had significant changes in the CSA of the MF by segment after training (p < 0.05 and the experimental group showed greater increases at the L4 (F = 9.854, p = 0.005 and L5 (F = 39. 266, p = 0.000. Both groups showed significant decreases in weight bearing, from 9.25% to 5.83% in the experimental group and from 9.33% to 4.25% in the control group (p < 0.05, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggests that stabilization exercises using ball can increases in the CSA of the MF segments, improvement in weight bearing, pain relief, and recovery from functional disorders, and the increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments for patients with low back pain

  10. Composite active control system of roof and side truss cable for large section coal roadway in fold coal pillar area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Rong XIE; Er-Peng LI; Fu-Lian HE; Shou-Bao ZHANG; Guang-Chao ZHANG; Mao-Yu PANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the surrounding rock control problem of large section gangue replacement roadway under complicated conditions,this paper analyzed the impact to the roadway controlling produced by the geological conditions such as high ground stress,folded structure tilted roof asymmetry and soft wall rock,and built the tilt layered roof structural mechanics model to clarify the increase span mechanism of the weak coal instability.Then,we proposed the combined control system including roof inclined truss cable,coal-side cable-channel steel and intensive bolt support.And then by building the structural mechanics model of roof inclined truss cable system,the support principle was described.Besides,according to this model,we deduced the calculation formula of cable anchoring force and its tensile stress.Finally surrounding rock control technology of large section roadway in fold coal pillar area was formed.Field practice shows that the greatest roof convergence of gangue replacement roadway is 158 mm and coal-side deformation is 243 mm.Roadway deformation is controlled effectively and technical support is provided for replacement mining.

  11. A Section-based Method For Tree Species Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Discrete Points In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunjing, Y. C.; Hui, T.; Zhongjie, R.; Guikai, B.

    2015-12-01

    As a new approach to forest inventory utilizing, LiDAR remote sensing has become an important research issue in the past. Lidar researches initially concentrate on the investigation for mapping forests at the tree level and identifying important structural parameters, such as tree height, crown size, crown base height, individual tree species, and stem volume etc. But for the virtual city visualization and mapping, the traditional methods of tree classification can't satisfy the more complex conditions. Recently, the advanced LiDAR technology has generated new full waveform scanners that provide a higher point density and additional information about the reflecting characteristics of trees. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that it is feasible to detect individual overstorey trees in forests and classify species. But the important issues like the calibration and the decomposition of full waveform data with a series of Gaussian functions usually take a lot of works. What's more, the detection and classification of vegetation results relay much on the prior outcomes. From all above, the section-based method for tree species classification using small footprint and high sampling density lidar data is proposed in this paper, which can overcome the tree species classification issues in urban areas. More specific objectives are to: (1)use local maximum height decision and four direction sections certification methods to get the precise locations of the trees;(2) develop new lidar-derived features processing techniques for characterizing the section structure of individual tree crowns;(3) investigate several techniques for filtering and analyzing vertical profiles of individual trees to classify the trees, and using the expert decision skills based on percentile analysis;(4) assess the accuracy of estimating tree species for each tree, and (5) investigate which type of lidar data, point frequency or intensity, provides the most accurate estimate of tree species

  12. The in vivo relationship between cross-sectional area and CT dose index in abdominal multidetector CT with automatic exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S; Alvey, C M; Golding, S J, E-mail: stuart.meeson@nds.ox.ac.u [Radiology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The relationship between patient cross-sectional area and both volume CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product was explored for abdominal CT in vivo, using a 16 multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanner with automatic exposure control. During a year-long retrospective survey of patients with MDCT for symptoms of abdominal sepsis, cross-sectional areas were estimated using customised ellipses at the level of the middle of vertebra L3. The relationship between cross-sectional area and the exposure parameters was explored. Scans were performed using a LightSpeed 16 (GE Healthcare Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) operated with tube current modulation. From a survey of 94 patients it was found that the CTDI increased with the increase in patient cross-sectional area. The relationship was logarithmic rather than linear, with a least-squares fit to the data (R{sup 2} = 0.80). For abdominal CT the cross-sectional area gave a measure of patient size based on the region of the body to be exposed. Exposure parameters increased with increasing cross-sectional area and the greater radiation exposure of larger patients was partly a consequence of their size. Given increasing obesity levels we believe that cross-sectional area and scan length should be added to future dose surveys, allowing patient size to be considered as a factor of relevance when examining population doses.

  13. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  14. Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in Mediterranean natural areas: a comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, L; Lozano-García, B; Brevik, E C; Cerdá, A

    2015-05-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Over time, some researches have analyzed entire soil profile (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researches have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) to different thickness. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km(2) forested area in southern Spain. Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The soils investigated in this study included Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. Total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C (10,604.2 Mg km(-2)) to 0.6353 Tg C (8272.1 Mg km(-2)) respectively (1 Tg = 10(12) g). However, when the topsoil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to 59.8% in SCS compared to ESP. The comparison between ESP and SCS showed the effect of mixing pedogenetic horizons when depth increments were analyzed. This indicates an overestimate of T-SOCS when sampling by SCS.

  15. SECTIONAL AREA CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BLANK WHILE FORMING SPACE BETWEEN TWO TEETH OF SATELLITE GEAR OF PLANETARY PIN TOOTH REDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  16. Prevalence of diabetes among Han, Manchu and Korean ethnicities in the Mudanjiang area of China: a cross-sectional survey

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    Feng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.

  17. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  18. Ultrasonographic measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area reference values in a healthy Han population from Guiyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Shan Wu; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography was used to analyze the nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at 7 sites: the wrist crease, pisiform bone, hamate bone, 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm (where the nerve enters the pronator teres muscle), 4 cm proximal to the tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus (mid-point between elbow crease and axilla) in 200 healthy volunteers from Guiyang, China. Results showed similar CSA values between the left and right sides, but the CSA 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm, 4 cm proximal to tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus in males was greater than that of females. Moreover, CSA values at the wrist crease, pisiform bone, and hamate bone were greater in the middle-aged and old groups when compared to the young group, and correlated with body mass and height. Thus, reference values of median nerve CSA of the upper limbs can facilitate the analysis of abnormal nerve conditions.

  19. CO sub 2 measurements along WOCE P-16 and 19 sections in the South Pacific Ocean: A joint LDGO/WHOI program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Taro.

    1990-07-30

    This report covers the progress made since June 1, 1990, the beginning of this grant. The objective of the six-month period covered by this grant is to prepare for the field operations in the South Pacific Ocean. The coulometer and gas chromatograph systems, which will be used for the measurements of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} aboard research ships, are being calibrated presently. Various spare parts needed for the expedition are being ordered, and the Pure-Air generators and hydrogen generators are being serviced. Our preparation is on schedule. We have participated in two meetings where the problems associated with instrumentation and calibration were actively discussed among the participants of the DOE CO{sub 2} program.

  20. A linear laser scanner to measure cross-sectional shape and area of biological specimens during mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; Holden, Laurène; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2010-10-01

    Measure of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of biological specimens is a primary concern for many biomechanical tests. Different procedures are presented in literature but besides the fact that noncontact techniques are required during mechanical testing, most of these procedures lack accuracy or speed. Moreover, they often require a precise positioning of the specimen, which is not always feasible, and do not enable the measure of the same section during tension. The objective of this study was to design a noncontact, fast, and accurate device capable of acquiring CSA of specimens mounted on a testing machine. A system based on the horizontal linear displacement of two charge-coupled device reflectance laser devices next to the specimen, one for each side, was chosen. The whole measuring block is mounted on a vertical linear guide to allow following the measured zone during sample tension (or compression). The device was validated by measuring the CSA of metallic rods machined with geometrical shapes (circular, hexagonal, semicircular, and triangular) as well as an equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in static condition. We also performed measurements during mechanical testing of three SDFTs, obtaining the CSA variations until tendon rupture. The system was revealed to be very fast with acquisition times in the order of 0.1 s and interacquisition time of about 1.5 s. Measurements of the geometrical shapes yielded mean errors lower than 1.4% (n=20 for each shape) while the tendon CSA at rest was 90.29 ± 1.69 mm(2) (n=20). As for the tendons that underwent tension, a mean of 60 measures were performed for each test, which lasted about 2 min until rupture (at 20 mm/min), finding CSA variations linear with stress (R(2)>0.85). The proposed device was revealed to be accurate and repeatable. It is easy to assemble and operate and capable of moving to follow a defined zone on the specimen during testing. The system does not need precise centering of the sample

  1. Effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on gene expression and cross-sectional area in rat soleus muscle

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    Carolina Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Joint inflammation is a common clinical problem in patients treated by physical therapists. The hypothesis of this study is that joint inflammation induces molecular and structural changes in the soleus muscle, which is composed mainly of slow-twitch muscle fibers. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA, gene expression levels (atrogin-1, MuRF1, MyoD, myostatin, p38MAPK, NFκB, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha protein in the soleus muscle. METHOD: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 periods (2, 7 and 15 days and assigned to 4 groups (control, sham, inflammation, and immobilization. RESULTS: In the inflammation group at 2 days, MuRF1 and p38MAPK expression had increased, and NFκB mRNA levels had decreased. At 7 days, myostatin expression had decreased. At 7 and 15 days, this group had muscle fiber CSA reduction. At 2 days, the immobilization group showed increased atrogin-1, MuRF1, NFκB, MyoD, and p38MAPK expressions and reduced muscle fiber CSA. At 7 and 15 days, myostatin mRNA levels had increased, and the CSA had decreased. The sham group showed increased p38MAPK and myostatin expressions at 2 and 7 days, respectively. No changes occurred in TNF-alpha gene or protein expression. CONCLUSION: Acute joint inflammation induces gene expression related to the proteolytic pathway without reduction in muscle fiber CSA. Chronic joint inflammation induced muscle atrophy without up-regulation of important genes belonging to the proteolytic pathway. Thus, muscle adaptation may differ according to the stage of joint inflammation, which suggests that the therapeutic modalities used by physical therapists at each stage should also be different.

  2. Occupation, smoking, and chronic obstructive respiratory disorders: a cross sectional study in an industrial area of Catalonia, Spain

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    Kogevinas Manolis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the independent effects of occupational exposures and smoking on chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. We assessed the association between lifetime occupational exposures and airflow obstruction in a cross-sectional survey in an urban-industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. Methods We interviewed 576 subjects of both sexes aged 20–70 years (response rate 80% randomly selected from census rolls, using the ATS questionnaire. Forced spirometry was performed by 497 subjects according to ATS normative. Results Lifetime occupational exposure to dust, gases or fumes was reported by 52% of the subjects (63% in men, 41% in women. Textile industry was the most frequently reported job in relation to these exposures (39%. Chronic cough, expectoration and wheeze were more prevalent in exposed subjects with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 being highest among never-smokers (2.1 to 4.3. Lung function differences between exposed and unexposed subjects were dependent on duration of exposure, but not on smoking habits. Subjects exposed more than 15 years to dusts, gases or fumes had lower lung function values (FEV1 -80 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI -186 to 26; MMEF -163 ml, CI -397 to 71; FEV1/FVC ratio -1.7%, CI -3.3 to -0.2 than non-exposed. Conclusion Chronic bronchitis symptoms and airflow obstruction are associated with occupational exposures in a population with a high employment in the textile industry. Lung function impairment was related to the duration of occupational exposure, being independent of the effect of smoking.

  3. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  4. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban areas of China: a cross-sectional study in four cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Wang, Na; Chen, Yue; Xiao, Tian; Fu, Chaowei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The economic burden of COPD has not been well studied in China. This study investigated the total costs caused by COPD and the influencing factors for the high economic burden in urban areas of China. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 678 COPD patients in four cities in China in 2011. The average annual direct medical costs (DMCs), direct nonmedical costs (DNMCs), and indirect costs (ICs) on COPD were measured by median and mean (± standard deviation). Logistic regression model was used to explore factors related to high total costs on COPD. Results The median annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 5565 Yuan (US$ 862), 0 Yuan (US$ 0), and 0 Yuan (US$ 0), respectively, and the mean annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 11968 (±22422) Yuan [US$ 1853 (±3472)], 539 (±2092) Yuan [US$ 83 (±324)], and 2087 (±8110) Yuan [US$ 323 (±1256)], respectively. The annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs for diagnosed COPD patients were RMB 195.70 billion Yuan (US$ 30.30 billion), 8.78 billion Yuan (US$ 1.36 billion), and 34.10 billion Yuan (US$ 5.28 billion), respectively, in China. Hospitalization accounted for 56.7% of the total costs. High economic burden was significantly related to age, acute exacerbations, and disease severity in COPD patients. Conclusion COPD posed a heavy economic burden in China. Measures to delay the disease progression and to reduce the risks of acute exacerbation and hospitalization will help substantially lower the costs for COPD care.

  5. Epiglottis cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal airway length in male and female obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Melinda A; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA) and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL), can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions. Materials and methods Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected from 40 mild-to-severe OSA subjects (age 46.9±9 years, body mass index 30.4±5.4 kg/m2, Apnea–Hypopnea Index score 32.8±22.5, 28 males) and 54 control subjects (47±9 years, 24.7±3.8 kg/m2, 32 males) using a 3 T magnetic resonance-imaging scanner. Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and “other” subjects constituted the study pool. Both image series were realigned and averaged, and reoriented to a common space. CSA and OPAL were measured, normalized for subject height, and compared between sexes and disease-severity levels in OSA and control subjects. Results Significantly reduced epiglottis CSA appeared only in severe OSA vs controls (P=0.009). OPAL increased significantly with OSA severity vs controls (mild, P=0.027; moderate, Pepiglottis CSA and increased OPAL in OSA subjects may enhance airway-collapse vulnerability, more so with greater disease severity, and partially underlie male vs female susceptibility to the sleep disorder. PMID:27757056

  6. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  7. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

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    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  8. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia

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    Senturk MB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Baki Senturk,1 Yusuf Cakmak,2 Halit Atac,2 Mehmet Sukru Budak3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Batman State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diyarbakir Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P<0.01, but these were minor. The rate of blood transfusion and prevalence of changes in hemoglobin level were similar in both groups (P>0.05. In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients’ requests influenced outcome. Trial of

  9. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban areas of China: a cross-sectional study in four cities

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    Chen XY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Chen,1,2 Na Wang,1,2 Yue Chen,3 Tian Xiao,1,2 Chaowei Fu,1,2 Biao Xu1,2 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 2Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The economic burden of COPD has not been well studied in China. This study investigated the total costs caused by COPD and the influencing factors for the high economic burden in urban areas of China.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 678 COPD patients in four cities in China in 2011. The average annual direct medical costs (DMCs, direct nonmedical costs (DNMCs, and indirect costs (ICs on COPD were measured by median and mean (± standard deviation. Logistic regression model was used to explore factors related to high total costs on COPD.Results: The median annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 5565 Yuan (US$ 862, 0 Yuan (US$ 0, and 0 Yuan (US$ 0, respectively, and the mean annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 11968 (±22422 Yuan [US$ 1853 (±3472], 539 (±2092 Yuan [US$ 83 (±324], and 2087 (±8110 Yuan [US$ 323 (±1256], respectively. The annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs for diagnosed COPD patients were RMB 195.70 billion Yuan (US$ 30.30 billion, 8.78 billion Yuan (US$ 1.36 billion, and 34.10 billion Yuan (US$ 5.28 billion, respectively, in China. Hospitalization accounted for 56.7% of the total costs. High economic burden was significantly related to age, acute exacerbations, and disease severity in COPD patients.Conclusion: COPD posed a heavy economic burden in China. Measures to delay the disease progression and to reduce the risks of acute exacerbation and hospitalization will help substantially lower the costs for COPD care. Keywords: economic burden, hospitalization, acute exacerbations, disease severity

  10. Epiglottis cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal airway length in male and female obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Melinda A Ma,1 Rajesh Kumar,2–4 Paul M Macey,4,5 Frisca L Yan-Go,6 Ronald M Harper,1,4 1Department of Neurobiology, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, 4Brain Research Institute, 5UCLA School of Nursing, 6Department of Neurology, David Geffen School ofMedicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL, can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions.Materials and methods: Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected from 40 mild-to-severe OSA subjects (age 46.9±9 years, body mass index 30.4±5.4 kg/m2, Apnea–Hypopnea Index score 32.8±22.5, 28 males and 54 control subjects (47±9 years, 24.7±3.8 kg/m2, 32 males using a 3 T magnetic resonance-imaging scanner. Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and “other” subjects constituted the study pool. Both image series were realigned and averaged, and reoriented to a common space. CSA and OPAL were measured, normalized for subject height, and compared between sexes and disease-severity levels in OSA and control subjects.Results: Significantly reduced epiglottis CSA appeared only in severe OSA vs controls (P=0.009. OPAL increased significantly with OSA severity vs controls (mild, P=0.027; moderate, P<0.001; severe, P<0.001. OSA males showed increased CSA and greater OPAL than OSA females, which may underlie the increased proportion of affected males with higher apnea–hypopnea index scores. However, no significant differences appeared between CSA and OPAL

  11. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  12. The value of MRI iniIdiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome by measuring the cross-sectional area of tarsal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Lee, Sheen Woo; Choi Seung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Hong Gi [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MRI as a diagnostic test in tarsal tunnel syndrome. There are no published reports with this aim and no diagnostic standard for idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) using imaging modalities. We retrospectively searched our Picture Archiving and Communication System data and medical records to identify patients who were clinically and electomyographically diagnosed with idiopathic TTS without space-occupying lesion on MRI. Twenty five patients were included in the patient group. Another twenty-five patients who underwent ankle MRI for Achilles tendon disease were selected and included in the control group. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tarsal tunnel were manually measured independently by two radiologists who were blinded to clinical and surgical results, using three-dimensional reconstruction software in our hospital. Measurements were done on axial images at three levels (level 1, tibiotalar joint level; level 2, medial malleolar tip level; level 3, sustentaculum tali level). Patient and control group data were statistically analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test. The mean values of CSA at levels 1, 2, and 3 of the tarsal tunnel were 87.8 mm2, 98.2 mm2, and 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 100.0 mm2, 113.8 mm2, and 127.9 mm2 in the control group, respectively, in reader 1; and 86.2 mm2, 97.6 mm2, 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 99.7 mm2, 112.3 mm2, 124.4 mm2, respectively, in the control group, in reader 2. The mean CSA in the patient group was significantly less than that of the control group at all three levels (p < 0.05). Intra-class correlation coefficient value between reader 1 and reader 2 were 0.98 in group 1, and 0.97 in group 2, respectively. MRI can be helpful in the assessment of idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome. CSA measurements of tarsal tunnel at each level may predict TTS even though there are no space occupying lesions in the tarsal tunnel on MRI.

  13. Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge & Management Area Hunting and Fishing Plan : Intra-Service Section 7 Evaluation Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Section 7 Evaluation states that the Patoka River NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitats on the...

  14. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... opportunity areas, which are where jobs, transportation, and educational opportunities exist, and will reduce... CBSA, as calculated using methods employed for past metropolitan area FMR estimates (for a description... Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit for the PHA's HCV program, fraud or misconduct, or other...

  15. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

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    Samy Bouaicha

    Full Text Available To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI.Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2 of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position". The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated.The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167 and 841 mm2 (±191 for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 984 mm2 (±241 and 1568 mm2 (±338 for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129 and 438 mm2 (±128 for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 1953 mm2 (±553 and 2343 mm2 (±587 for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839 for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836 for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937 for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (p<0.0001 and a strong correlation when the CSA of the teres minor was added to the infraspinatus CSA (r = 0.665, p = 0.0008 and a strong positive

  16. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is quest

  17. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

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    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  18. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child health

  19. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  20. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Jin-Kyoung; Lim Min; Kang Yoon; Yun E Hwa; Son Jung

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rura...

  1. Use Of Pulsed IR Thermography For Determination Of Size And Depth Of Subsurface Defect Taking Into Account The Shape Of Its Cross-Section Area

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    Wysocka-Fotek O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to reconstruction of size and depth (distance from the tested surface of artificial defects with square and rectangular cross-section areas using the pulsed IR thermography. Defects in form of flat-bottom holes were made in austenitic steel plate. The defect size was estimated on the basis of surface distribution of the time derivative of the temperature. In order to asses the depth of defects with considered geometries on the basis of calibration relations (i.e. dependence of time of contrast maximum vs. defect depth for given defect diameter obtained for circular defects, the ‘equivalent diameter’ describing not only the defect cross-section area but also its shape was assigned. It has been shown that presented approach gives satisfactory results.

  2. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Apulco area by means of calpionellids and calcareous dinoflagellates: An alternative to the classical Mazatepec section in eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampling within the Pimienta and the Lower Tamaulipas Formations from a section in the Apulco area (Puebla State, Eastern Mexico), allows the delimitation of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The Late Tithonian was identified by the presence of calpionellids of the Crassicollaria Zone (Colomi Subzone) and calcareous dinocysts of the Proxima Zone. The Tithonian/Berriasian boundary was placed at the acme of Calpionella alpina (small forms) between samples MZT 45-46. The Berriasian was divided into two main units, namely the Calpionella Zone, further subdivided into the Alpina, Ferasini and Elliptica subzones, and the Calpionellopsis Zone, within which only the Oblonga subzone was identified. The vertical distribution of calpionellids and their assemblages in the biozones of this Mexican section fit those from other Tethyan areas.

  3. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

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    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  4. Does the ratio of the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas in the median nerve relfect carpal tunnel syndrome severity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Aierken Rehemutula; Feng Peng; Cong Yu; Tian-bin Wang; Lin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although ultrasound measurements have been used in previous studies on carpal tunnel syn-drome to visualize injury to the median nerve, whether such ultrasound data can indicate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome remains controversial. The cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet and outlet can show swelling and compression of the nerve at the carpal. We hypothesized that the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet to outlet accurately relfects the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. To test this, high-resolution ultrasound with a linear array transducer at 5–17 MHz was used to assess 77 pa-tients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The results showed that the cut-off point for the inlet-to-outlet ratio was 1.14. Signiifcant differences in the inlet-to-outlet ratio were found among patients with mild, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-section-al areas of the median nerve was 1.29 between mild and more severe (moderate and severe) carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 64.7% sensitivity and 72.7% speciifcity. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.52 between the moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 80.0% sensitivity and 64.7% speciifcity. These results suggest that the inlet-to-outlet ratio relfected the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  5. Does the ratio of the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas in the median nerve reflect carpal tunnel syndrome severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound measurements have been used in previous studies on carpal tunnel syndrome to visualize injury to the median nerve, whether such ultrasound data can indicate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome remains controversial. The cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet and outlet can show swelling and compression of the nerve at the carpal. We hypothesized that the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet to outlet accurately reflects the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. To test this, high-resolution ultrasound with a linear array transducer at 5-17 MHz was used to assess 77 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The results showed that the cut-off point for the inlet-to-outlet ratio was 1.14. Significant differences in the inlet-to-outlet ratio were found among patients with mild, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.29 between mild and more severe (moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 64.7% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.52 between the moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 80.0% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the inlet-to-outlet ratio reflected the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  6. Comparison of the effects of flexion and extension of the thumb and fingers on the position and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Toge

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the separate effects of thumb and finger extension/flexion on median nerve position and cross-sectional area. METHODS: Ultrasonography was used to assess median nerve transverse position and cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel at rest and its movement during volitional flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Both wrists of 165 normal subjects (11 men, 4 women, mean age, 28.6, range, 22 to 38 were studied. RESULTS: Thumb flexion resulted in transverse movement of the median nerve in radial direction (1.2 ± 0.6 mm, whereas flexion of the fingers produced transverse movement in ulnar direction, which was most pronounced during flexion of the index and middle fingers (3.2 ± 0.9 and 3.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Lesser but still statistically significant movements were noted with flexion of the ring finger (2.0 ± 0.8 mm and little finger (1.2 ± 0.5 mm. Flexion of the thumb or individual fingers did not change median nerve cross-sectional area (8.5 ± 1.1 mm(2. CONCLUSIONS: Volitional flexion of the thumb and individual fingers, particularly the index and middle fingers, produced significant transverse movement of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel but did not alter the cross-sectional area of the nerve. The importance of these findings on the understanding of the pathogenesis of the carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment remains to be investigated.

  7. Influence of body mass index on median nerve function, carpal canal pressure, and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Robert A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A

    2004-10-01

    Obese individuals have slowed conduction in the median nerve across the wrist, but the mechanism for this is not established. This case-control study of 27 obese subjects and 16 thin subjects was designed to test the hypothesis that obese individuals have higher carpal canal pressures and more median nerve swelling than thin individuals. All subjects were asymptomatic for hand symptoms, and had measurements of median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction in the nondominant hand, ultrasound measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area proximal to the carpal canal, and carpal canal pressure measurement. There was no difference in age or gender ratio between the obese and thin groups. The median nerve cross-sectional area was equal in the obese and thin groups (9.3 mm2 vs. 9.4 mm2), as was the carpal canal pressure (16.2 mmHg vs. 15.5 mmHg, respectively). There was a strong correlation between median nerve conduction slowing across the wrist and median nerve cross-sectional area at the wrist (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). Obesity does not influence carpal canal pressure or the size of the median nerve at the wrist. However, there is a strong association between slowed median nerve conduction and increased nerve size which suggests endoneurial edema as a metabolic mechanism; the conduction slowing does not appear to be related to mechanical stress.

  8. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  9. IMMUNE STATUS OF HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL FROM VARIOUS GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS IN INDIA AGAINST RUBELLA: A CROS S- SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rubella is a mild illness that presents with fever a nd rash with the infection occurring sub clinically. Its public health importanc e is due to its teratogenic effects on the growing foetus in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is insufficient data in India with regard to rubella virus immunity in the community. Occupat ional exposure of health care personnel to rubella infection disease requires special attentio n. Hence this study was taken up to analyse the rubella seroprevalence rate according to age, g eographical distribution, socio-economic class among health care personnel. Study design: Cro ss-sectional study. Methodology: 161 subjects aged between 15 to 30 years were given bac kground information about the study and those who provided voluntary and written consent wer e enrolled. Study was conducted in the month of August 2010. Analysis of rubella specific IgG and IgM antibodies was done by ELISA. Results: Among 161 subjects, 88 subjects were from South India, 42 from North India, 19 from Eastern region and 12 were from the western region of India. Serum IgG positivity was the highest 100% in subjects hailing from Western India , followed by 84.2% from Eastern India and 83.3% in subjects from north India. Subjects from S outh India showed the lowest seropositivity of 68.18%. Conclusion: Immunisation of health care personnel against rubella and whole population of India for rubella immunity is necessary

  10. Fatigue during dynamic muscle contractions in male sprinters and marathon runners: relationships between performance, electromyographic activity, muscle cross-sectional area and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzon, R; Johansson, C; Sjöström, M; Fagerlund, M; Fugl-Meyer, A R

    1988-04-01

    Knee extensor fatigue and endurance during repeated maximum isokinetic manoeuvres were studied in five sprinters and five marathon runners, all males. Fatigue and endurance were expressed in terms of output (contractional work, CW) and input (integrated electromyograms, iEMG), and was related to muscle fibre composition of m. vastus lateralis and to cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps. The initially performed contractional work was positively related to the calculated absolute type II fibre area of m. vastus lateralis, but not to the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps. During the first 25 contractions, sprinters fatigued, with a slope of decline in contractional work that was correlated to the absolute type II fibre area, also after correction of performed work for CSA of m. quadriceps. As the electromyographic activity decreased less than the contractional work, a drastic fall in the CW/iEMG ratio was found in the sprinter group. Three out of five sprinters could perform less than 50 knee extensions, due to subjective discomfort in tested thighs. In contrast, all marathon runners could, after a minor similar decline in electromyographic activity and contractional work during the first part of the experiment, maintain a steady-state endurance level of CW and iEMG throughout the test (200 knee extensions). In conclusion, fatigue during isokinetic maximal knee extensions is closely related to the muscle structure of m. vastus lateralis.

  11. Nutritional status of adolescent girls residing in rural area: A community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana S Baliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Nutritional requirements during this period increase tremendously compared to preceding years of growth. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. The present study was aimed to assess the current nutritional status of the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This one-year community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken at a village Peeranwadi of District Belgaum, Karnataka among 400 adolescent girls of 10 to 19 years. Information on socio-demographic variables was collected by an interview using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. A 24-hour recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. The nutrient intake was calculated using tables of nutritive value of Indian foods. For the comparison of anthropometric data, National Center for Health Statistics and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards were used. Results: The mean age among the study population was 12.9 ± 2.06 years. Majorities (73.5% of them were Hindus, 98.5% were literate, and 90% were currently studying. Adolescent girls between 10 and 14 years were more stunted (63.82% as compared to 15 to 19 years (40.84% (P = 0.0003 and thin (60.79% vs. 39.43%; P = 0.0009. Overall, the mean calorie intake was observed to be 1272.20 ± 133.28 kcal/day, protein intake was 40.99 ± 3.32 gm, and iron intake was 14.42 ± 2.58 mg. Conclusion: Overall, majority of girls were having dietary intake less than 50% of RDA, and almost three fourth of girls were anemic.

  12. HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN: A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL AREAS OF KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are the wealth of any nation as they constitute one of the important segments of the population. School is important for cognitive, creative and social development of children. The primary school children group is non - earning, depended to family and easily accessible for the health assessment, care and education through teachers, books etc. OBJECTIVES : a to assess the morbidity pattern amongst primary school children b To assess the association between morbidity pattern and socioeconomic status of the school children. METHODOLOGY: A c ommunity based cross sectional study was under taken amongst the primary school children in Boko - Bongaon block of Kamrup district, Assam from August 2012 to July 2013 with the help of a predesigned and pretested proforma, clinical examination, anthropometric measurement and laboratory investigation. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed in Microsoft excel and by using chi - square test and proport ions. RESULTS: 228 (57% school children were suffering from one or more morbidities. The leading cause of morbidities were anaemia (70%, under nutrition(31.25%, worm infestation (29%, vitamin (vitamin B complex and vitamin C deficiency disorder (29.75 %, skin disorder (24.25%, dental carries (23.75%, ocular disorder (13% etc. 139 (34.75% of school children were suffering from at least one episode of fever in the last 4 weeks followed by ARI 127 (31.75%. There is strong association between socioeconomic status and morbidities amongst the children and it is highly significant. CONCLUSION: In this study, Prevalence of diseases is found to be clubbed in the lower socioeconomic group. Health education and proper awareness to parents or guardians regarding prevention and treatment of common health problems and to improve personal hygiene of the children is necessary.

  13. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behavior Among Filipino Women in a Rural Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kashiwagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high among Filipino women. The lack of knowledge on preventive behavior and early detection related to breast cancer is considered a reason. Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge about breast cancer and selected sociodemographic characteristics, daily life factors, reproductive factors, and perceived breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. The study population consisted of 527 women. Interviews were conducted by the investigators. The contents of the questionnaire collected basic characteristics of the respondents, including their sociodemographic profiles, their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors, early detection, and their daily life and reproductive factors. Predictor variables were analyzed using a Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and a t-test. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for any significant differences (P < 0.005 among the predictor variables. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HDS were used to evaluate the association between education level and reproductive factors. Results Less than half of the women (42.7% had knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, and an equivalent number had knowledge on breast cancer symptoms. Women with higher educational levels were noted to give birth to their first child at a significantly older age and have a significantly lower number of childbirths. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index, education history, knowledge about symptoms, knowing how to conduct a breast self-examination, family history of cancer, and passive smoking could predict breast cancer knowledge. Conclusions Women who were aware of risk factors for breast cancer possessed a higher education level and had knowledge of the association of risk factors with preventive behaviors and early detection. However, a minority of

  14. Sexual, Reproductive Health Needs, and Rights of Young People in Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Kamara, Joseph K.; Georgeou, Nichole; Kamanga, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks, especially those living in urban slums. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with comprehensive categories of sexual and reproductive health, including sexual behaviours; sexual education and access to contraceptive services; family planning; prevention of STDs; sexual consent as a right; gender based violence; as well as HIV testing, counselling, disclosure and support. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and was carried out in July 2014 in Makindye and Nakawa Divisions of Kampala City, Uganda. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala’s urban slums. Results Sixty two percent of participants reported having ever had sex and the mean age of sexual debut was 16 years (95%CI: 15.6, 16.4 years, range: 5–23 years). The odds of reporting ever having had sexual intercourse were higher among respondents living alone (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.35, 5.61; psexual partners in the last 12 months preceding the survey averaged 1.8 partners (95%CI: 1.7, 1.9; range 1–4) with 18.1% reporting an age gap of 10 years or older. More than three quarters (80.6%) of sexually active participants reported that their first sexual encounter was consensual, suggesting that most young people are choosing when they make their sexual debut. Low prevalence of willing first sexual intercourse was associated with younger age (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.90, psexual intercourse was significantly higher among women for persuasion (13.2% vs. 2.4%, psexual abuse emerged from the data with 34.3% affirming that it was alright for a boy to force a girl to have sex if he had feelings for her; 73.3% affirming that it was common for strangers and relatives to force young females to have sexual intercourse with them without consent; 26.3% indicating that it was sometimes justifiable for a boy to hit his girlfriend, as long as

  15. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive/dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andy Charles; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding by performing micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns to expose the dentin surface. For each dentin surface, one half of it was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, while another half was shielded with glass slide and used as untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens with cross-sectional size of 1×1 mm2, 1×2 mm2 and 1×3 mm2 for μTBS test. The test results showed that plasma treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive/dentin bonding than their corresponding same tooth controls. As compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens having cross-sectional area of 1×1 mm2 and 1×2 mm2, with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive/dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. PMID:23841788

  16. Comparison of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Nerve Conduction Study in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnostic Value of Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area

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    A. Mohammadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. This study was performed to evaluate whether high-resolution ultrasonography may be an alternative diagnostic method for nerve conduction study (NCS in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. "nPatients and Methods: 132 wrists of 82 patients and 152 wrists of controls were enrolled in the study. The cross sectional area of the median nerve was measured at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet in all patients and controls. All patients had a nerve conduction study. Then comparison between ultrasonography and NCS was performed. Combination of clinical diagnosis and NCS was used as the gold standard. "nResults: The mean cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet was 11.4±1.7 mm2 for the patient group and 5.78 ±0.9 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The mean cross-sectional area at the tunnel outlet was 9.9±1.2 mm2 for the patient group and 4.7±0.7 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The best cut-off value of CSA at the tunnel inlet and the outlet was 7.5 mm2. "nConclusion: In patients with clinical diagnosis of CTS we confirmed that the diagnostic value of ultrasonography is similar to NCS and sonography may be used in primary evaluation of CTS.

  17. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

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    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  18. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

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    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  19. The use of the lumbosacral enlargement as an intrinsic imaging biomarker: feasibility of grey matter and white matter cross-sectional area measurements using MRI at 3T.

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    Marios C Yiannakas

    Full Text Available Histopathological studies have demonstrated the involvement of spinal cord grey matter (GM and white matter (WM in several diseases and recent research has suggested the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a promising tool for in vivo assessment of the upper spinal cord. However, many neurological conditions would benefit from quantitative assessment of tissue integrity at different levels and relatively little work has been done, mainly due to technical challenges associated with imaging the lower spinal cord. In this study, the value of the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE as an intrinsic imaging biomarker was determined by exploring the feasibility of obtaining within it reliable GM and WM cross-sectional area (CSA measurements by means of a commercially available MRI system at 3 tesla (T. 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 27.5 years, 6 female gave written informed consent and high resolution images of the LSE were acquired and analysed using an optimised MRI acquisition and analysis protocol. GM and WM mean CSA measurements were obtained from a 15 mm section at the level of the LSE and the reproducibility of the measurements was determined by means of scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer assessments. Mean (±SD LSE cross-sectional area (LSE-CSA was 62.3 (±4.1 mm2 and mean (±SD LSE grey matter cross-sectional area (LSE-GM-CSA was 19.8 (±3.3 mm2. The mean scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer % coefficient of variation (COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 2%, 2% and 2.5%, respectively and for measuring the LSE-GM-CSA were 7.8%, 8% and 8.6%, respectively. This study has shown that the LSE can be used reliably as an intrinsic imaging biomarker. The method presented here can be potentially extended to study the LSE in the diseased state and could provide a solid foundation for subsequent multi-parametric MRI investigations.

  20. Microconchids from Microbialites near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Zuodeng Section, Baise Area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China and Their Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yang; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Weiquan Ou

    2015-01-01

    Abundant microconchid worm tubes were extracted from the microbialites deposit near the Permian-Triassic boundary at the Zuodeng Section, Baise area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Re-gion, South China. These calcareous worm tubes were studied in both petrographic thin sections and isolated specimens using optical microscope and sensitive electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. They are categorized into two morphological types: helically coiled and planispirally coiled tubes, which are assignable to Microconchus aberrans (Hohenstein, 1913) and M. utahesis (Zatońet al., 2013), respectively. The tube wall ultrastructure is characterized by laminated micrites, which distinguish the studied microconchids from comparable microgastropods or spirorbid polychaete that usually has shell ultrastructure of spar texture. The overwhelm majority of microconchids from the microbialite possess the planispirally coiled tubes. The lifestyle of extant, morphologically convergent spirorbids suggests that these planispirally coiled microconchids may have colonized in some local oxygenic oases probably produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria in the oxygen-poor microbialite ecosystem in which they may have settled densely with high competition among various individuals and with other associated animals for oxygen consumption and food soucres. The deleterious environment condition of the mi-crobialite ecosystem immediately after the Permian-Triassic biocrisis is also indicated by various geo-chemical signals derived from the same section. Such a deleterious habitat may be inhospitable for most metazoans, but it has some local oxygenic oases that was favorable for opportunistic taxa to dwell.

  1. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

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    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  2. Child Sex Ratio and It’s Socio-Demographic Correlates: A Cross Sectional Study in an Urban Area of Eastern Maharashtra

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    Mamta K Shewte, Smita P Andurkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females in a society. Objective: The Objective of the study was to find Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra and socio?demographic factors affecting it. Methods: The present study is community based cross sectional study which involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban area of Aurangabad. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order and demographic informa-tion of family was noted. Results: Overall child sex ratio of study area was 853. The highest child sex ratio was obtained for (CSR 1255 Muslim religion, (CSR 2667 when father studies up-to primary school, (CSR1778 when mother was illiterate and (CSR 1000 for class V and III socio-economic status. Least CSR 605 was obtained when the families have all females in previous birth order. Conclusion: This part of country or Maharashtra has lower CSR than national average. There are demographic factors like socio-economic status, education status of parents, religion and previous birth order, which influence CSR. There is less girl child insubsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female.

  3. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, M; Oliver, R; Terradas, J; Karpen, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation p...

  4. A novel computer algorithm allows for volumetric and cross-sectional area analysis of indirect decompression following transpsoas lumbar arthrodesis despite variations in MRI technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Timothy A; Vasudevan, Ram R; Miller, Kai J; Stamatopoulou, Vasiliki; Mindea, Stefan A

    2014-03-01

    Many patients present for neurosurgical spine evaluation with MRI studies conducted at facilities outside of the treating medical center. These images often vary widely in technique, for example, variation in slice thickness, number of slices, and gantry angle. While these images may be sufficient in conjunction with a physical exam to make surgical evaluations, we have found they are often incapable of being used for objective post-operative volumetric comparisons. In order to overcome this, we created a computer program that compensates for these variations in MRI technique. For this study, we examined patients who had undergone outside MRI pre-operatively and were deemed appropriate for a lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody arthrodesis procedure. Volumetric analysis was performed on sagittal and axial T2-weighted pre- and post-operative MRI. The percentage change of central canal volume and foraminal area was calculated for each level. The authors identified five levels with MRI sufficient for volumetric analysis and eight levels (16 foramina) sufficient for foraminal cross-sectional analysis. Through use of our computer algorithm, average central canal volume and foraminal cross-sectional area was calculated to increase by 32.8% and 67.6% respectively following the procedure. These results are consistent with previous study findings and support the idea that restoration of the anterior column via a lateral approach can result in significant indirect decompression of the neural elements. Additionally, the novel algorithm created and used for this study suggests that it can achieve quick measurement and comparison of MRI studies despite variations in pre- and post-operative technique.

  5. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  6. Effect of supply/regeneration section area ratio on the performance of desiccant wheels in hot and humid climates: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehboudi, Alireza; Esmaeili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Desiccant cooling system is a suitable alternative option for conventional cooling system in humid climates. It is an environmental protection technique for cooling buildings. This study has investigated the effect of supply/regeneration section area ratio on the performance of desiccant wheels in hot and humid climates, using Silica Gel (WSG) and Molecular Sieve (LT3) desiccants. To this end, some parameters such as outlet air humidity ratio, process removed moisture, process outlet temperature, reactivation outlet temperature and reactivation outlet moisture have been examined as a function of rotational speed and inlet air humidity ratio in 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1 split. In this study, desiccant materials are regenerated using a constant regeneration temperature of 80 °C, wheel rotation speed range of 4-12 RPH (revolutions per hour) and variable humidity. The results show that a rise in area ratio causes an increase in process removed moisture, process outlet temperature, reactivation outlet temperature and a drop in reactivation outlet moisture and outlet humidity ratio of process air.

  7. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY TO FIND THE PREVALENCE AND VARIOUS SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OF MALNUTRITION AMONG 0 - 5 YEARS CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA RAJAPUR

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    Nigudgi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood is the most vulnerable phase in the life of human being, nutritional inadequacies will result in the hampering of the development of the body. If this nutritional inadequacy is continued for a long period of time it results into malnourishment. So the current study was undertaken to know the prevalence of malnutrition in under five children in urban field practice area. METHODS: The present study was a cross sectional study conducted in urban field practice area Rajapur which include 759 children whom 450 males and 309 females. Anthropometric data was collected from the study population and analysis was done according to IAP Classification. RESULTS: The percentage of underweight among under five children according IAP classification was 37.94%. Agewise distribution of malnourishment was found to be more 25% in 1 - 2 years. Males were more malnourished 51.04% than females. CONCLUSION: Malnourishment was more prevalent in 1 - 2 years and 2 - 3 years and in the SES IV followed by III. Mothers should be taught regarding the treatment of the common ailments in the house such as diarrhea using homemade ORS and to monitor the growth of their children by regular weighting and noting on the WHO growth charts, so that the growth faltering can be diagnosed at an earlier stage and the necessary timely interventions can be taken.

  8. Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

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    Pyke, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fescues of the Intravaginal group of Festuca L. section Festuca in the lowland and montane areas of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.— Morphologically similar fescues occur across the study area (Mediterranean area of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula at low and middle elevations. With the exception of the high mountain or alpine species, these populations are reviewed here, with particular attention being paid to the Festuca inops (F. gracilior group, as well as to some other species, in particular F. lemanii, which are not easily understood and can complicate identification, especially where the taxa occur sympatrically. The application of the binomen F. inops De Not. to some of the Iberian populations constituting the F. inops group is discussed. New records for F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis and F. heteroidea amplify the distribution range of these little-known taxa within the Iberian Peninsula.Diferentes especies de Festuca morfológicamente afines crecen en gran parte del territorio objeto de esta reseña (tierras mediterráneas del nordeste de la Península Ibérica, a baja y mediana altitud. Excluyendo las especies de alta montaña, estas poblaciones se han estudiado aquí haciendo hincapié en Festuca grupo inops (F. gracilior, y se han tratado otras especies (F. lemanii en especial que a veces complican la identificación de los miembros de dicho grupo, sobre todo cuando solapan sus distribuciones. Se comenta la aplicación del binomen F. inops De Not. a algunas poblaciones ibéricas del grupo F. inops. Nuevas citas de F. tarraconensis, F. occitanica, F. michaelis y F. heteroidea amplían la distribución de estos taxones dentro de la Península Ibérica.

  9. The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Masaki; Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. Purpose We aimed to investigate the variation in the lumbar facet joint orientation in an adult Asian population. The relationship between the facet joint orientation and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus and erector spinae was also clarified. Overview of Literature Several studies have reported that lumbar pathologies, such as lumbar spondylolysis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, were related to the horizontally shaped lumbar facet joint orientation at the lower lumbar level. However, data regarding variations in the facet joint orientation in asymptomatic subjects have not been well documented. Methods In 31 healthy male adult Asian volunteers, the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae were measured using magnetic resonance imaging at the L4–5 and L5–S1 levels. Variation in the facet joint orientation was examined using coefficients of variation (CV). Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae. Results Lumbar facet joint orientation had a wider range of variation at L5–S1 (CV=0.30) than at L4–5 (CV=0.18). The L4–5 facet joint orientation had a weak but significant correlation with the CSA of erector spinae (r=0.40; p=0.031). The CSA of the multifidus had no relationship with the facet joint orientation at the L4–5 (r=0.19; p=0.314) and the L5–S1 level (r=0.19; p=0.312). Conclusions The lumbar facet joint orientation was found to have a wide variation, particularly at the L5–S1 in the Asian adult population, and the facet joint orientation had a relationship with the CSA of the erector spinae at the L4–5.

  10. Biodiversity and ITS-RFLP characterisation of Aspergillus section Nigri isolates in grapes from four traditional grape-producing areas in Greece.

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    Dimosthenis Kizis

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of Aspergillus section Nigri species on grapes from four traditional grape-producing areas in Greece during the 2011/2012 vintage, and their capability to produce OTA was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight black aspergilli isolates were characterised at the species level initially by the use of morphological criteria in accordance with appropriate keys, followed by molecular characterisation performed with Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of the 5.8 ribosomal RNA gene Internal Transcribed Spacer region (5.8 rRNA ITS. Restriction enzyme digestion of the ITS amplicons using the HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, endonucleases distinguished eleven different patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, four for each of the HhaI and RsaI digests and three for HinfI. From a total number of 128 individual isolates, 124 were classified into four Aspergillus species corresponding to A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. ibericus, and the remaining 4 were classified as members of the A. niger aggregate. A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis being the main representative species were equally counted, with higher geographical representation of the former in southern and the latter in northern regions, respectively. All isolates were tested for their ochratoxigenic potential by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA, resulting in significant interspecies differences in OTA production.

  11. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  12. Experimental investigation and exergy analysis of the performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube with regard to nozzle cross-section areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, K.; Avci, A.; Berber, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Selcuk Univ., Selcuklu, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Gazi Univ., Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Exergy analysis and performance of a Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) with various nozzle cross-section areas (NCSA = 3 x 3, 4 x 4, 5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) were determined under inlet pressures (P{sub i}) of 260, 300 kPa (absolute) pressurized air. The maximum difference in the temperatures of hot output and cold output streams was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The total inlet exergy (sum E{sub i}), total outlet exergy (sum E{sub O}), total lost exergy (sum E{sub Lost}) and exergy efficiency ({eta}, %) were calculated. It was determined that the exergy efficiency of the system, varied between 1% and 39%, and the highest exergy efficiency was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The exergy efficiency strongly depends on the level of P{sub i}, {xi} and v{sub cold}. Variation of the exergy efficiency decreased with decreasing P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} and the highest and lowest exergy efficiencies were found when the values of P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} reached maximum and minimum levels, respectively. (author)

  13. Assessment of pulmonary venous stenosis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation by magnetic resonance angiography: a comparison of linear and cross-sectional area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Radiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)

  14. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative importance of living in an urban versus rural setting and malaria in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anaemia (MA and anaemia respectively in apparently healthy primary school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 727 school children aged between four and 15 years living in an urban (302 and rural (425 settings in the Mount Cameroon area. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Based on haemoglobin (Hb measurements, children with malaria parasitaemia were stratified into MA (Hb<11 g/dL; mild MA (Hb of 8-10.9 g/dL; moderate MA (Hb of 6.1-7.9 g/dL and severe MA (Hb≤6 g/dL. Evaluation of potential determinants of MA and anaemia was performed by multinomial logistic-regression analysis and odds ratios used to evaluate risk factors.Out of the 727 children examined, 72 (9.9% had MA. The prevalence of MA and anaemia were significantly higher (χ2 = 36.5, P <0.001; χ2 = 16.19, P <0.001 respectively in children in the urban (17.9%; 26.8% respectively than in the rural area (4.2%; 14.8% respectively. Majority of the MA cases were mild (88.9%, with moderate (5.6% and severe MA (5.6% occurring in the urban area only. The age group ≤6 years was significantly (P <0.05 associated with both MA and anaemia. In addition, low parasite density was associated with MA while malaria parasite negative and microcytosis were associated with anaemia.Malarial anaemia and anaemia display heterogeneity and complexity that differ with the type of settlement. The presence of severe MA and the contributions of the age group ≤6 years, low parasite density and microcytosis to the public health problem of MA and anaemia are noteworthy.

  15. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  16. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  17. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects.

  18. Intra-rater and Inter-rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of Multifidus Muscle Thickness, Cross Section Area and Bladder Wall Displacement in Multiparous Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Teymuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pregnancy related changes can affect the role of multifidus (MF and pelvic floor muscles (PFM in the spinal stability and load transfer mechanism. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI is a powerful tool that provides unavailable information about the myofascial system. Objective. This study aimed to determine intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of ultrasound imaging in the measurement of MF thickness, cross section area (CSA and bladder wall displacement as a reflection of PFM action in multiparous healthy women. Design.A single-group repeated measures reliability study was conducted. Methods. Ten healthy multiparous women (mean age=35.36 SD=7.71 participated in this study. Bladder wall displacement in the transverse plan through trans-abdominal (TA approach, MF muscle thickness at rest and during contralateral arm lift (CAL and MF muscle CSA were obtained by using RUSI. Infraclass correlation coefficient (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC were calculated for all variables. Results: ICC values with 95% CI showed that bladder wall displacement has high intra-rater (ICC: 0.91-0.99 and high inter-rater reliability (ICC: 0.93-0.96, MF muscle thickness has good to high intra-rater (ICC: ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 and good to high inter-rater reliability (ICC ranged from0.73 to 0.98 and MF muscle CSA has good to high intra-rater (ICC: 0.78-0.86 and fair inter-rater reliability (ICC: 0.54-0.61. SEMs ranged from 0.69 to 3.98 mm and MDCs ranged from 1.92 to 11.03 mm. Limitation.The number of delivery was not equal between subjects. Conclusions. RUSI is a reliable method in measurement of bladder wall displacement, MF muscle thickness and CSA in multiparous women.

  19. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting.

  20. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (<25, 25-50, 50-75, ≥75 percentile of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ, cross-sectional comparisons of body size and neurodevelopment scales and comparisons of longitudinally assessed body size were performed respectively. At birth, head circumference of girls in the ≥75 percentile group was significantly larger than those in the <25 and 50-75 percentile groups. At 4 months of age, the weight and body mass index (BMI of boys in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Increase in weight was significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in both sexes from birth to 1 month but only in boys at 1-4 months of age. Estimated marginal mean values in a mixed model of weight and BMI during the first 4 months of life were significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in boys. In girls, marginal mean values for head circumference were increased with increase in dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  1. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  2. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  3. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR, we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, π0,λ, as a function of wavelength, λ. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm π0,λ is much lower compared to π0,λ at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic part of the aerosol as the only possible absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS along with the inferred π0,λ to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC for the organic carbon. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic carbon MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct" because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic carbon relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are

  4. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B Beggs

    Full Text Available Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV cross-sectional area (CSA in these two groups, something previously unknown.65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years and 74 healthy controls (HCs (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA.PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072 between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019 and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020; and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026 and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039, whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021. Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015.In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients.

  6. Flow patterns and their transition characteristicsof the air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with asudden-changed cross-section area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns in upstream and downstream straight tubes of sudden-changedareas in ahorizontal straight pipe were experimentally examined. Both sudden-expansioncross-section (SECS)and sudden-contraction cross-section (SCCS) were investigated. The flow pattern mapsupstream anddownstream were delineated and compared with those in straight tubes with uniformcross-sections.The effects of the SECS and SCCS on flow patterns were discussed and analyzed.Furthermore, flowpattern transition mechanisms resulting in occurrences of different flow patternswere simplydiscussed and some transition criteria for the flow pattern transitions were deduced byusing the non-dimensionlized analysis method.

  7. Ichnological record of palaeoenvironment from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval at El Kef, Tunisia: The first study of old and new sections at the stratotype area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A.; M'Hamdi, A.; Riahi, S.; Ismail-Lattrache, K. B.

    2016-08-01

    Trace fossil analysis of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary interval at El Kef (Tunisia) has provided new information on the response of the macrobenthic tracemaker community to the K/Pg boundary event. Ichnological data from the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary were completed with those from a new, well-exposed section nearby. The trace fossil assemblage consists of dominant Trichichnus, frequent Chondrites, and rare Thalassinoides and Zoophycos in the uppermost Maastrichtian, and only Trichichnus in the lowest Danian, the diversity being comparatively lower than in other K/Pg boundary sections worldwide. Bioturbational structures are observed continuously across the K/Pg boundary interval, without primary lamination; this discards anoxic conditions. However, the upward-decreasing diversity in the sections may be related to a transition from a moderately dysoxic or slightly dysoxic macrobenthic habitat in the sediment during the latest Maastrichtian to a strong or very strong dysoxia during early Danian. Comparison with micropaleontological data reveals a minor influence of the K/Pg boundary event on the macrobenthic tracemaker community, while the change in oxygenation of pore waters at the El Kef sections can be attributed to local or regional phenomenon, marked by increasing clay content in the Danian sediments.

  8. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of

  9. Investigation on Seasonal Water Area Change in Lake Sakata Based on POLSAR Image Analysis(Sensing,Section>2006 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ryoichi; Yajima, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines seasonal change of the true water area of Lake Sakata by using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLSAR) image analysis. The true water area includes not only the body of water but also the water area under emerged-plants and/or floating-leave plants in the lake. Statistical POLSAR image analysis is carried out for both X- and L-band data, based on the three-component scattering power decomposition method, where the decomposed components are surface scattering, double...

  10. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  11. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  12. Overstep and imbrication along a sidewall ramp and its relationship to a hydrocarbon play in Tournaisian rocks of the Moncton Basin : the Peek Creek section, Albert Mines area, southeastern New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, A.F.; Kieghley, D.G.; Wilson, P. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Geology; St Peter, C.J. [New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Geological Surveys Branch

    2010-09-15

    This paper characterized the geological stratigraphic and structural relationships of the Peek Creek section of the Albert Mines area in southeastern New Brunswick with reference to the local absence of the nearby petroleum system, which has direct ramifications for petroleum exploration. The lithostratigraphic correlation in the Albert Mines area was discussed along with the structures produced during one episode of inversion along part of the Moncton Basin south margin, which involves Horton and Sussex group rocks included in thrust-bounded panels along the trace of the basement-bounding Caledonia Fault. The Horton Group contains the oil-gas play. Therefore, the explanation of this geometry and the local absence of the petroleum system have significance for exploration efforts. The paper focused on the relationships seen in the Peck Creek section located just west of Albert Mines. The Peek Creek section at the southern margin of the Moncton Basin preserves a well-exposed late Tournaisian Sussex Group succession with the bounding crystalline rocks of the Caledonia Uplift. Of particular interest was the relationship between deformation of the rocks in the Horton and Sussex groups and the unconformably overlying Hillsborough Formation. This section was subjected to a thrust-related deformation after the deposition of the Sussex Group but before the deposition of the Hillsborough Formation. The Sub-Hillsborough Formation unconformity and the Caledonia Fault, which impinge on the Peek Creek area, were also characterized along with the geometry and kinematics of the study area. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  13. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2, Sections 4 through 9: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU`s) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  14. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Sections 4 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  15. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chidi E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p 2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females though the difference was significant (p Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

  16. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  17. Collision cross sectional areas from analysis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance line width: a new method for characterizing molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve.

  18. Tackling the reasons for GP shortage: the workload of GPs in rural and urban areas in Austria. A cross-sectional study within the framework of QUALICOPC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, K.; Schober, J.; Schäfer, W.; Maier, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the near future Austria like many other European countries will face a shortage of GPs, especially in rural regions. The interest of young doctors to work in this profession is decreasing steadily. According to the literature, working in rural areas is often associated with a higher n

  19. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  20. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  1. 29 CFR 536.3 - “Area of production” as used in section 13(b)(14) of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include any city, town, or urban place of 2,500 or greater population or any area within: (i) One air-line mile of the city, town, or urban place with a population of 2,500 up to by not including 50,000, or (ii) Three air-line miles of any city, town, or urban place with a population of 50,000 up to but...

  2. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  3. Hydrology of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah, with emphasis on ground water; With a section on surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Sandberg, George Woodard

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the water resources of the Beryl-Enterprise area, Escalante Desert, Utah (pl. 1), was made during 1976-78 as part of a cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Wells were the most important source of water for all purposes in the Beryl-Enterprise area during 1978, but it has not always been so. For nearly a century after the first settlers arrived in about 1860, streams supplied most of the irrigation water and springs supplied much of the water for domestic and stock use. A few shallow wells were dug by the early settlers for domestic and stock water, but the widespread use of ground water did not start until the 1920's when shallow wells were first dug to supply irrigation water. Ground-water withdrawals from wells, principally for irrigation, have increased nearly every year since the 1920's. The quantity withdrawn from wells surpassed that diverted from surface sources during the mid-1940's and was about eight times that amount during the 1970's. As a result, water levels have declined measurably throughout the area resulting in administrative water-rights problems.The primary purpose of this report is to describe the water resources with emphasis on ground water. The surface-water resources are evaluated only as they pertain to the understanding of the ground-water resources. A secondary purpose is to discuss the extent and effects of the development of ground water in order to provide the hydrologic information needed for the orderly and optimum development of the resource and for the effective administration and adjudication of water rights in the area. The hydrologic data on which this report is based are given in a companion report by Mower (1981).

  4. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  5. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEWIVES IN RURAL AREAS OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesley Elsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  8. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  10. Knowledge and practices on maternal health care among mothers: A Cross sectional study from rural areas of mid-western development region Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gyawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the

  11. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  12. 40Ar-39Ar dating and geologi-cal implication of auriferous altered rocks from the middle-deep section of Q875 gold-quartz vein in Xiaoqinling area, Henan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 40Ar-39Ar age method is employed in this work to analyze the aurif erous altered rocks from the middle-deep section of the Q875 gold-quartz vein in the Xiaoqinling area, and the results show that the main gold deposition of the Q875 occurred in ca. 128-126 Ma. As a typical gold-bearing quartz vein in this gold-rich area, the age data obtained from the Q875 also constrain on the metal logenic time of the lode gold deposits developed in the same geological settings . This geochronological study supplies new evidence for further understanding the timing of gold mineralization, the genesis of gold deposits and the geodynamic settings in Xiaoqinling area.

  13. The role of health extension workers in improving utilization of maternal health services in rural areas in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhanyie Araya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. Since 2003 the government of Ethiopia has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community based health workers named health extension workers (HEWs. This initiative has been called the health extension program. Very few studies have investigated the role of these community health workers in improving utilization of maternal health services. Methods A cross sectional survey of 725 randomly selected women with under-five children from three districts in Northern Ethiopia. We investigated women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care, birth assistance, postnatal care, HIV testing and use of iodized salt and compared our results to findings of a previous national survey from 2005. In addition, we investigated the association between several variables and utilization of maternal health services using logistic regression analysis. Results HEWs have contributed substantially to the improvement in women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care and HIV testing. However, their contribution to the improvement in health facility delivery, postnatal check up and use of iodized salt seems insignificant. Women who were literate (OR, 1.85, listened to the radio (OR, 1.45, had income generating activities (OR, 1.43 and had been working towards graduation or graduated as model family (OR, 2.13 were more likely to demonstrate good utilization of maternal health services. A model family is by definition a family which has fulfilled all the packages of the HEP. Conclusions The HEWs seem to have substantial contribution in several aspects of utilization of maternal health services but their insignificant contribution in improving health facility delivery and skilled birth attendance remains an important problem. More effort is needed to improve the effectiveness of HEWs in these regards. For example, strengthening HEWs

  14. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  15. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  16. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels.

  17. Distribution and health risk assessment of dissolved heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China (section in the main urban area of Chongqing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Ting-Yong; Zhang, Tao-Tao; Luo, Wei-Jun; Li, Jun-Yun

    2017-01-01

    -carcinogenic heavy metals. As was the most important risk factor, followed by Cr. The results of this study hold great significance for a timely understanding of the changing water quality for affected departments to ensure the health of the residents in the TGR area.

  18. 变截面管道内流噪声预报与实验测量%Numerical Prediction and Experimental Measurement of Flow Noise in Pipes with Variable Cross-Sectional Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕景伟; 季振林

    2011-01-01

    The time-domain CFD method based on the large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to predict the flow noise in pipes with variable cross-sectional area.For the pipes with sudden area contraction and expansion, the numerical predictions agree with the experimentally measured results very well.Afterwards, the affects of pipe' s connection structures on the flow noise are investigated numerically.This work provides a reference for low-noise design of pipes with variable cross-sectional area.%应用大涡模拟(LES)时域CFD方法计算变截面管道内的气流噪声,对于突缩和突扩管道,CFD计算结果和实验测量结果吻合较好,进而研究不同的过渡形式对变截面管道内部流噪声的影响,为变截面管道的低噪声设计提供依据.

  19. Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagkal Midilli, Tulay; Ciray Gunduzoglu, Nazmiye

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.

  20. 椎旁肌横截面积变化可导致退行性腰椎滑脱%Alterations in cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle induce degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱康; 孙根文; 乔培柳; 塔依尔•阿不都哈德尔

    2014-01-01

    背景:近年来,关节突关节形态在退变性腰椎滑脱症发病中所起的作用是讨论的焦点,但多集中于关节角及骨关节炎 CT 表现的研究。有研究表明椎旁肌横截面积的变化被认为可能是退行性腰椎滑脱的病理学诊断的重要标志,但既往的研究由于样本量偏小、研究对象的年龄较小以及测量等诸多问题限制了其结论的准确性。  目的:观察退变性腰椎滑脱两侧椎旁肌的MRI影像学变化。  方法:采用回顾性研究方法,选取退行性腰椎滑脱的患者80例作为腰椎滑脱组,选取健康者80例作为对照组。应用Image J软件测量两组MRI T2加权像上L 3-5椎体下终板水平两侧竖脊肌和腰大肌的横截面积,并计算相关数据的比值。  结果与结论:与对照组相比,腰椎滑脱组同侧并同水平椎旁肌的横截面积比值增高(P0.05)。结果说明,椎旁肌横截面积的变化可导致退行性腰椎滑脱,可考虑其作为退行性腰椎滑脱的诊断标准。%BACKGROUND:Recently, the effects of lumbar facet joint morphology on the onset of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis have been a discussion point. However, the discussion mainly concerned CT manifestations of joint angle and osteoarthritis. Studies have shown that the changes in cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle were considered as the essential marker for the pathological diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, previous studies limited the accuracy of the conclusion due to smal sample size, young age, and measurement. OBJECTIVE:To observe changes in MRI images of bilateral paraspinal muscles after degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS:This study adopted the method of retrospective study, selected 80 cases of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis as lumbar spondylolisthesis group, and 80 healthy persons as control group. Image J software was utilized to measure cross-sectional

  1. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  2. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  3. PRES 2012 special section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Qiuwang;

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing the m...... the main points. The main areas of this issue can be summarised as: Process Integration for Energy Saving, Integrating Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Optimisation issues.......This Special Section provides introduction to the 15th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2012). In this editorial introduction, the editors are highlighting the individual articles included in this issue and discussing...

  4. Analysis of potential risk factor of plague in Wanzhou section of the There Gorges Reservoir area%2001-2009年三峡水库万州段鼠疫潜在危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 万时学; 毛德强; 冉贞卫; 丁建武; 李丹; 刘纯华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To find out the potential risk factor of plague in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of plague. Methods Rodents were captured by rat traps/cages at night and identified into species in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area from 2001 to 2009. Flea was counted and serum antibodies against plague F1 of rats, cats and dogs were detected by indirect hemagglutination (IHA). Plague surveillances were performed in human beings and rats. Results The rodents captured belonged to 9 species, 2 families, 2 orders and 1 classes. The average indoor rodent density was 1.16% (961/82 558), and was 1.12% (1345/119 671) outdoors. Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species,accounting for 50.37%. The proportion of R. Flavipectus was 3.80% in 2004, 4.50% in 2008 and 10.12% in 2009,showing an increasing trend year by year. There were three kinds of mice infected fleas in Wanzhou, which including Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Ctenocephalides felis. The average rate of flea infected mice was 1.18%(82/6959) and the total flea index was 0.036. No F1 antibody against plague was detected in 6959 dogs and 160 cats serum samples. Conclusions No plague is found in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area. But R.Flavipectus, Xenopsylla cheopis and Leptopsylla segnis are dominant species in Wanzhou section, and the proportion of which shows an increasing trends year by year. There is a potential risk of plague outbreaks in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.%目的 分析三峡水库万州段鼠疫潜在危险因素,为全区鼠疫防治及预警工作提供科学依据.方法 2001-2009年,在三峡水库万州段的9个镇(乡),采用夹夜法和笼夜法捕鼠,对捕获鼠类及检获蚤类进行鉴定,计算鼠带蚤率和蚤指数;用鼠疫间接血凝试验(IHA)法检测鼠、猫、犬血清鼠疫F1抗体,开展人间及鼠间鼠疫疫情监测.

  5. A Shadow Map Approach to Calculate Cross Section Area of Spacecraft%应用阴影图的航天器迎风面积计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成; 唐歌实; 李勰; 陈光明

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric drug must be fully taken into account for accuracy orbit determining of space-craft below 500 km. In this paper, a computer graphical approach based on the fundamental idea of shadow map is proposed to accurately calculate the cross section area of spacecraft. Firstly, the complex geometry surface of spacecraft is represented in the form of triangle grids, and the relative motion among spacecraft components is considered. Secondly, the shadow map algorithm is employed to project the spacecraft model onto a shadow plane, and then the cross section area can be found out by analysis the amount of shadow pixels in the shadow graph. The simulation and experiments are given to validate the proposed method and the results indicate that this method can deal with complex spacecrafts whose components have relative motion.%航天器轨道低于500 km时大气阻力影响显著,该阻力与航天器迎风面的面积成正比.对于复杂外形的航天器, 其迎风面积常常进行近似处理, 会对阻力分析结果带来一定误差. 针对航天器迎风面积对大气阻力的影响, 提出一种复杂航天器迎风面积的精确计算方法. 该方法同时考虑航天器几何外形和部件运动, 根据活动部件的实际运动状态对复杂外形和结构进行精细三维建模; 利用图形学中的实时阴影生成方法产生航天器在投影面的阴影图像, 进一步分析得到航天器的迎风面积. 该方法易于实现, 能处理复杂外形航天器及其活动部件的运动, 具有较好的通用性. 将文中方法应用到我国航天测控任务中, 证明了该方法的有效性.

  6. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  7. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  8. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  9. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  10. Lower insulin sensitivity is related to lower relative muscle cross-sectional area, lower muscle density and lower handgrip force in young and middle aged non-diabetic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382

  11. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  12. The Stratigraphy and Lithofacies of the Paleoproterozoic Volcaniclastic Sequences in the Cape Three Points Area- Akodda section of the Southern in Ashanti Belt in the Birimian of southwest Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimaru, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Nyame, F. K.; Tetteh, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Era is thought to have experienced one of the most significant changes in earth's environment during earth history. Early continents started to diverge and collide accompanied by first major oxidation of the atmosphere-oceanic system known as the Great Oxidation Environment (GOE). Due to their well-preserved oceanic sedimentary sequences, Paleoproterozoic belts are usually good targets for studies on the history of earth's past environment. In addition, these belts provide great help to understand the nature of the Paleoproterozoic deeper oceanic environments. Birimian greenstone belt in southwestern Ghana is likely to have made up of subduction of oceanic basin to form a volcanic island arc. Birimian rocks are separated by nonconformity from the Tarkwaian Group which is a younger paleoplacer deposit (Perrouty et al., 2012). The Birimian is made up of island-arc volcanic rocks; foreland basin made up of shale, sandstone, quartzite and turbidities derived from 2.17 Ga granite intrusions during Birimian volcanism. In this study, we focused on the coastal area around Cape Three Points at the southernmost part of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) belt in Ghana. In the eastern part of the area, excellently preserved Paleoprotorozoic deeper oceanic sedimentary sequences extensively outcrop for over 4km stretch. This volcano-sedimentary sequence has been affected by greenschist facies metamorphism. Structurally, this region preserves S1 cleavage and asymmetrical synform with west vergence and S0 younging to the east. Provisional stratigraphy is very continuous up to more than 2000m thick and, in addition, suggests at least four different fining upward sequences in the area to the east and west of Atwepo, west of Kwetakora and Akodda. These sub-sequences are mainly composed of volcaniclasitc, sandstone, black shale and rare volcanics such as pillow basalt or massive volcanic lava. In other words, this continuous sequence suggests distal submarine

  13. Method of Fault AreaSection Location for Non-solidly Earthed Distribution System%配网自动化系统中小电流接地故障区段定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑顾平; 姜超; 李刚; 齐郑; 杨以涵

    2012-01-01

    中国中压配电网以架空线为主,多为小电流系统,单相接地故障占到电网故障总数的80%以上,但中国配网自动化系统基本上没有小电流接地故障定位功能,使配网自动化系统在提高可靠性的作用上大打折扣。给出一种小电流接地故障区段定位新方法,在线路上配置广域相量测量固定测点,获取小电流电网单相接地故障特征信息。基于测点相邻矩阵区段起始测点标识向量和故障路径标识向量概念,提出确定故障区间边界节点算法。物理模拟实验和挂网测试表明:该故障分区分段定位方法能够在线求解小电流接地故障段边界节点,缩小线路维护巡视范围。确定故障区间边界节点算法还可用于确定故障区相关负荷开关,为线路维护和馈线自动化提供依据。%Medium voltage distributions in China use overhead line mainly, and most of them are small current neutral grounding system, single-phase-to-earth faults account for over 80% of the total fault, but most of our country's distribution automation systems do not have the function of locating the small-current-to-earth faults, so that the distribution automation system's efficiency in improving the reliability of power-up has been reduced drastically. The new method of locating the small-current-to-earth faults was studied. First of all a lot of measurement nodes must be fixed on the line to get the feature information of small-current-to-earth fault. And then the algorithm to find fault area boundary nodes (AFFABN) was put forward based on the matrix of adjacent point, the vector of section-starting-point identification and the logo vector of fault path. The physical simulation and practical tests show that the theory of areasection location can locate the fault to a section of the line, to narrow the range of lines' maintenance. The AFFABN can also be used to determine the related load switches in a

  14. Chemical characteristics of groundwater in Lankao section along abandoned area of Yellow River%黄河故道兰考段地下水水化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝长水; 靳孟贵; 王献坤; 杨晓双; 刘海风

    2011-01-01

    为了基本查明黄河故道兰考段地下水水化学特征,采集代表性地下水样进行了27项无机指标和37项有机指标测试,结果表明,兰考县地下水水化学类型多数为HCO3-Na.Ca.Mg型水,咸水、微咸水、高铁、高锰、高氟等原生劣质水均有分布;其中,黄河故道区水质较好,背河洼地区和县城周围水质较差;县城周围浅层地下水已经受到污染,污染组分主要是总硬度、总溶固和NO 3-;检测的37项有机指标中,甲苯为本区普遍分布的有机物,县城西南部多种有机组分均有检出,提示存在工业或生活污染源,但各点含量均较低,没有超过生活饮用水标准;有机氯农药总六六六和滴滴涕检出点数较多,与兰考县地处黄河故道,地表岩性颗粒较粗,地下水防污性能较差有关。%In order to identify the chemical characteristics of groundwater in Lankao section,an abandoned area of Yellow River,the representative groundwater samples are extracted 27 kinds of inorganic indexes and 37 kinds of organic indexes.The result shows that the main type of groundwater quality is HCO3-Na·Ca·Mg,and is mixed by many kinds of primitive original poor quality water,such as brackish water,hot metal,highmanga water,high-fluorine water in Lankao county.Groundwater quality has a zonal characteristic which is good in the abandoned area of Yellow River,and poor in low-lying areas that back around the river and the area around the county.Meanwhile,shallow groundwater around the county has been contaminated,and the main pollution components are total hardness,total dissolved solid and NO-3.The organics widespread distributed in the study area is toluene which has been detected from a variety of organic components in southwest county.As a result of that there may be sources of industrial or life.However,the lower content of each point does not exceed drinking water standards.More samples are detected BHC and DDT,relating to the Lankao county which

  15. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh R. Aryal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results: The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24, the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68, adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04, and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95. Conclusions: Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors

  16. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations

  17. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on

  18. 鄂尔多斯盆地姬塬地区长8段孔隙度演化定量模拟%Quantitative Simulation on Porosity Evolution of Chang-8 Section in Jiyuan Area of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊; 庞国印; 唐丽; 马晓峰; 王琪

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristics and major controlling factors of Chang-8 section sandstone reservoir in Jiyuan area of Ordos Basin and the study on corresponding stratigraphic and diagenetic history, combined with petroleum geology theory and mathematical statistics method, porosity evolution was divided into two processes including the decrease and increase of the porosities under the condition of the restriction of present porosity, and a model for the porosity evolution of Chang-8 section sandstone reservoir in the research area was built. Porosity varied with the depth of burial and geological time from the initial burial to the present in the model. The results showed that the model with quantitative porosity evolution was a piecewise function with four sections. Mechanical compaction stage was a model with the decrease of porosity, which was a continuous function with the independent variable of burial depth; compaction and cementation stage was a model with the decrease of porosity, which was a continuous function with the variables of geological time and burial depth; the secondary porosity increase was caused by the dissolution of acid fluid within a temperature range of 70℃ -110℃ , so that dissolution stage was a model with the increase of porosity, which was a composite function of depth and burial time; after the dissolution stage, formation porosity was in compaction and maintenance stage, which was a model with the decrease of porosity, and the model was a superimposed composite function of depth, burial time and the porosity increase amount. Finally, taking one well in the research area as an example, it was verified that the model with quantitative porosity evolution was consistent with actual geological condition, and could be applied to calculate the porosity of any strata.%在对鄂尔多斯盆地姬塬地区长8段砂岩储层特征、主控因素及地层埋藏史和成岩史研究的基础上,结合石油地质理论,应用数理

  19. 安徽省皖江地区自然人群乙型肝炎流行现况调查%A cross-sectional survey on hepatitis B among general population in areas along Yangzi River in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽鸿; 李筱青; 叶冬青; 郑迎军; 葛阜阳; 蔡标; 黄芬

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemic status of hepatitis B along the Yangzi River area,ill Anhui province.Methods A croSS-sectional seroepidemiological survey was conducted and the samples were collected by stratified cluster sampling.Serological biomarkers to hepatitis B virus were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)reagents.Results Among 2282 people.the prevalence rates of HBsAg,HBsAb,HBeAg.HBeAb,HBeAb and hepatitis B virus infection were 9.8%,43.5%.1.0%,7.8%,10.3%and 40.6%respectively.The prevalence rate of HBsAg among males was higllel"than that offemales(P<0.05).The vaccination rate was 24.7%,higher in urban than in taral areas.The vaccination rate was high in children younger than ten years old and in students.The prevalence rates of HBsAg and HBV among people who had received vaccines were lower than those who had not.Conclusion The standardized prevalence rates of HBsAg(9.3%)Was high in the area along the Yangzi River in Althai province.The vaccinate rate Was low in the country side.Expanded vaccinate which can obviously reduce the prevalence rate of HBsAg should be enhanced.%目的 了解安徽省皖汀地区自然人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)病毒(HBV)感染状况.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法对皖汀地区自然人群进行问卷调查并采集血标本,用ELISA方法检测HBV感染标志.结果 在2282例血清标本中,乙肝HBsAg、HBsAb、HBeAg、HBeAb及HBcAb流行率分别为9.8%、43.5%、1.0%、7.8%、10.3%;HBV总感染率(HBV流行率)为40.6%(926/2282).HBsAg流行率男性高于女性(X2=3.992,P<0.05).乙肝疫苗的接种率为24.7%(539/2178),10岁以下年龄组疫苗接种率最高为97.4%(76/78),学生疫苗接种率较高为78.2%(355/454),乙肝疫苗接种率农村低于城市.接种乙肝疫苗后HBsAg及HBV流行率均显著降低(P<0.01).结论 皖江地区HBsAg的标化流行率为9.3%,为全国乙肝高流行区;尤其是农村地区乙肝疫苗接种率偏低.

  20. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  1. Morbidade da doença de Chagas. II. Estudos seccionais em quatro áreas de campo no Brasil Morbidity of Chagas' disease. II - Sectional studies in 4 field areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues Coura

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional de campo do tipo "caso controle" sobre a morbilidade da doença de Chagas em quatro áreas endêmicas no Brasil, duas no Estado de Minas Gerais, uma no Estado do Piauí e outra no Estado da Paraíba, incluindo 716 pares de indivíduos da mesma idade e sexo, cada par constando de um indivíduo com sorologia positiva e outro com sorologia negativa para a infecção chagásica. Com esse tipo de estudo procurou-se determinar o componente exclusivamente chagásico na morbidade da doença em diferentes áreas do país. O gradiente de manifestações clínicas e alterações eletrocardiográficas entre o grupo com sorologia positiva e outro com sorologia negativa, estudado em 264 pares na área de Iguatama-Paris e 274 em Virgem da Lapa, ambas em Minas Gerais, e em 109 pares estudados nas localidades de Colônia e Oitis, em Oeiras, Piauí e em 69 nos municípios de Aguiar e Boqueirão dos Cochos na Paraíba, mostra nitidas diferenças regionais na morbilidade da doença. Nas áreas de Minas Gerais, embora a transmissão natural da infecção estivesse interrompida há 15 e 5 anos, respectivamente, o grau de morbilidade cardiológica pelo componente chagásico, considerando apenas as alterações eletrocardiográficas mais expressivas e específicas, no momento do estudo, foi de aproximadamente 30%, enquanto em Oeiras, no Piauí e em Aguiar e Boqueirão dos Cochos, na Paraíba, mesmo com transmissão ativa da infecção, a morbidade cardiológica pelo componente chagásico foi inferior a 15 e 10%, respectivamenteA cross-section study, type "case-control" was performed in four endemic areas for Chagas' disease in Brazil, two of them in Minas Gerais State, one in the State of Piauíand the other in the State of Paraíba. A total of 716 pairs of persons with same age and sex, one with a positive serology and the other with a negative serology for Chagas' disease were included in the study. This kind of study was performed

  2. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho [Busan Wooridul Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 {+-} 4.93 years, height: 157 {+-} 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 {+-} 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 {+-} 2.08 kg/m{sup 2}]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 {+-} 2.27 years, height: 156 {+-} 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 {+-} 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 {+-} 2.94 kg/m{sup 2}]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, {rho} = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, {rho} = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, {rho} = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, {rho} = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, {rho} 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent

  3. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES AMONG OBESE AND NON OBESE PERSONS, IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hubbe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT : Obesity is increasing in the developed as well as developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is on the rise among the slum population. Increased incidence of vis ceral adiposity, hypertension, n on insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM and coron ary heart disease often cluster in the same individual and there have been speculations that a common mechanism may be responsible for all these pathological conditions. This risk factor constellation, which is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiova scular disease, is referred to as “Syndrome X . AIMS : To assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among obese and non obese in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : P r esent study was undertaken in a s lum in Chennai in persons above 4 0 years age group . One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, the diet pattern , the intake of non - vegetarian and oily foods , past history of hypertension and diabetes . Anthropometric data regarding height and weight was taken to assess body mass index (BMI , blood pressure was checked using mercury column sphygmomanometer and blood gluco se level b y G lucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. RESULTS : The prevalence of obesity was 13.66% and of overweight was 27.72%. The prevalence of Hy pertension among obese was 39.13%, pre obese 32.39% and non obese 24.93%. The prevalence of Dia betes among obese was 28.98%, pre obese 19.71% and non obese 15.34%. CONCLUSION : There is a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban slum dwellers. The prevalence of

  4. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  5. 1989 and 2010/11 Aquatic Areas Data: Mississippi River Navigation Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, Open River Section 2, and the Illinois River’s La Grange Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhser, Janis; DeJager, Nathan R.; Rogala, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). Aerial images of Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010 at 8”/pixel and 16”/pixel respectively using a mapping-grade Applanix DSS 439 digital aerial camera. In August 2011, CIR aerial images of Pools 14-Open River South, Upper Mississippi River and Pools Dresden-Lockport, Illinois River were collected at 16”/pixel with the same camera. The CIR aerial images were interpreted and automated using a 31-class LTRMP vegetation classification. These data have been used to create a variety of products, one of which is a data set used to classify aquatic areas. The 2010/11 aquatic areas data sets were created by first generalizing the available land cover/use data into a land/water data set, then reinterpreting the areas classified as water to determine the type of aquatic area. Area coverage for this data set is the Upper Mississippi River between Minneapolis, MN and Cairo, IL, and the Illinois River from its confluence with the Mississippi to Joliet, IL.

  6. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  7. Geothermal investigations in Idaho, Part 2, An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho - with a section on a reconnaissance audio-magnetotelluric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Tippens, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression (possibly a graben) in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. They are transected by a prominent system of northwest-trending faults. For discussion purposes, the aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-metres underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/l) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/l. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/l. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5 to 83.0 degrees C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0 to 83.0 degrees C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35 degrees C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150 degrees C. However, a mixed-water geochemical thermometer indicates that temperatures at depth may exceed 180 degrees C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers. The thermal waters

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  11. A contribuição de estudos transversais na área da linguagem com enfoque em afasia Contribution of cross-section studies in the language area with focus on aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Ibelli Sitta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: um dos delineamentos mais empregados na pesquisa epidemiológica consiste no estudo transversal. Este consiste em uma ferramenta de grande utilidade para a descrição de características da população e para a identificação de grupos de risco. Considerando a afasia uma desintegração da linguagem, é necessário compreender as dissociações e comprometimentos pertinentes. OBJETIVO: analisar estudos epidemiológicos de caráter transversal que focam alterações em pacientes afásicos adultos para investigação das suas principais manifestações. CONCLUSÃO: estudos transversais mostram meios de buscar compreender como esta modificação de saúde abrange os sinais e sintomas relacionados. Considerando que a linguagem por ser um meio de comunicação privilegiado, para o afásico, a perda desse instrumento torna-se uma fonte de isolamento e de solidão. Assim, a identificação de indivíduos portadores de afasia pode contribuir ao diagnóstico preciso, corroborando a compreensão dos achados fonoaudiológicos em linguagem e no auxílio à reabilitação. Porém, estas evidências científicas deverão ser efetivadas em conjunto aos estudos longitudinais para dar suporte à criação de novas técnicas e estratégias de recuperação para os lesionados cerebrais favorecendo a melhora da comunicação e consequente interatividade.BACKGROUND: one of the most widely delineations used in epidemiological research is the cross-sectional study. It consists of a very useful tool for describing characteristics of the population and identifying risk groups. Considering aphasia as a disintegration of language, it is necessary to understand the dissociations and relevant commitments. PURPOSE: to analyze epidemiological studies that analyzed cross-sectional changes in adult aphasic patients in order to investigate their main manifestations. CONCLUSION: the cross-sectional studies show ways to understand how this change in health covers signs and

  12. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross-section

  13. Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Modi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs′ incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39, deliveries (N = 102, and infant deaths (N = 5 found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%, 101 (99.01%, and 5 (100% were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration.

  14. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: eWOCE electronic atlas of WOCE data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic, temperature, salinity, and chemical data were collected using bottle, CTD, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from January 1, 1987 to December...

  15. Delivery by Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Delivery by Cesarean Section Page Content Article Body More than one mother in three gives birth by Cesarean section in the United States (it is also called ...

  16. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  17. Cross-sectional investigation on overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Huaian urban area%淮安市城区中学生超重和肥胖现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 过晓阳; 陈晓敏

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Huaian urban area,provide evidence for formulating the nutritional improvement measures.[Methods] The students were collected from 8 secondary schools in Huaian urban area by random and cluster sampling method,to calculate BMI,and the results were evaluated according to the BMI classification standard for overweight and obesity screening in school-age children and adolescents in China.[Results] A total of 18 299 secondary school students aged 12-17 yeas old were investigated,including 9 831 boys and 8 468 girls.The detection rate of overweight and obesity was 14.5% and 8.4% respectively.The rate of overweight in boys and girls was 18.4% and 11.4% respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=253.50,P<0.05).The rate of obesity in boys and girls was 10.0% and 5.0% respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=241.13,P<0.05).The rate of overweight in junior and senior high school students was 15.0% and 14.1%,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=3.53,P>0.05).The rate of obesity in junior and senior high school students was 9.8% and 7.3%,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=36.34,P<0.05).[Conclusion] The overweight and obesity coexist among secondary school students in Huaian urban area,and this problem should be paid attention to.%目的 了解淮安市城区中学生超重、肥胖分布现况,为制定营养改善措施提供依据.方法 采取随机整群抽样方法,选择淮安市城区8所中学学生为调查对象,计算体重指数(BMI),根据《中国学龄儿童青少年超重、肥胖筛查BMI值分类标准》进行评价.结果 共调查了18 299名中学生,年龄为12~17岁,其中男生为9 831名,女生为8 468名;超重和肥胖检出率分别为14.5%、8.4%.男女生超重率分别为18.4%和11.4%,差异有统计学意义(x2=253.50,P<0

  18. Seismic stability evaluation for bank sections of gravity dams in gorge area%峡谷区重力坝岸坡坝段动力稳定性评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 张社荣; 于茂

    2014-01-01

    From the viewpoint of probability theory, combined with the deterministic vector sum method, the stability evaluation methods are studied for the bank sections of gravity dam under random seismic loads. Firstly, deterministic stability evaluation is made through the history curve of safety factors, which is obtained by dynamic vector sum method, under a certain seismic load. Secondly, the probability density function(PDF) of the minimum value of dynamic stability safety factors and the dynamic reliability are got through the Gram-Charlier series fitting method and the weighted maximum entropy method under random seismic loads. Thirdly, comprehensive evaluation is made by both deterministic results and probabilistic ones during the whole design period. The example results show that the deterministic and probabilistic methods can complement each other to make a comprehensive seismic stability evaluation for the bank sections of the gravity dam during the whole design period.%从概率的观点出发,结合确定性矢量和安全系数方法,对设计基准期内随机地震条件下的重力坝岸坡坝段动力抗滑稳定性评估方法问题进行了初步探讨。首先,基于确定性动力时程分析法,得出坝段抗滑矢量和安全度时程曲线,评价一次确定性设计地震作用下的坝体稳定;然后,考虑基准期设计烈度下地震的随机性,进行坝体动力稳定的可靠度分析。通过Gram-Charlier 级数拟合法和随机加权最大熵法,得到坝体动力稳定安全度时变曲线中最小值的概率分布函数及其动力可靠度;最后,结合确定性和概率性分析结果,综合评价设计基准期内地震作用下的坝体抗滑稳定性。工程实例分析结果表明,采用确定性与概率性结合的互补方法,能够进一步认识动力稳定分析中安全裕度的合理性评价问题,进而更加合理地评估整个设计基准期内重力坝的动力抗滑稳定性。

  19. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among never smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an area of high incidence of esophageal cancer – a cross-sectional study with repeated measurement of urinary 1-OHPG in two seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad eIslami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG, a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly-selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference= 0.40. In winter, red meat intake (β= 0.208; P= 0.03, processed meat intake (β= 0.218; P= 0.02 and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (null genotype: β= 0.228; P= 0.02 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA+GA genotypes: β= –0.256; P= 0.008 showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (>weekly versus never: β= 0.203; P= 0.04, second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β= 0.254; P= 0.01, and GSTM1-02 null genotype (β= 0.198; P= 0.04 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT+TT versus CC: β= –0.218; P= 0.03 showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.

  20. Railway Location Schematic Study of Southern Section of Luoyang-Zhanjiang Railway in Low Mountain and Hilly Area%洛湛铁路南段低山丘陵地区选线方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄

    2013-01-01

    Railway location is the foundation work for comprehensive railway design, which requires overall planning, all-round consideration, sound adaptation to local conditions and reasonable choices because of its broad involvement. Across Hunan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, Luoyang-Zhanjiang Railway passes through diverse geomorphic units such as low mountains and hills, karst isolated peaks and plains. Adverse geological conditions and special rock and soil are widely distributed along the line. In this paper, by studying the minimum curve radius, maximum grade, reasonable plan and profile standards applicable to the topographic and geologic conditions along the line, the author carried out a wide range of comparison of locations over mountain in the reservoir area which achieved good route selection effects, proposed essential principles of route selection according to the characteristics of the karst regions, and made a successful trial on how to improve engineering geologic location of line in landslide area, which provided valuable experience and lesson for railway location in such topographic and geological conditions.%铁路选线是铁路设计综合性的基础工作,涉及面广,必须统筹兼顾,因地制宜及合理取舍。洛湛铁路经过湘、桂、粤三省区,线路经过低山、丘陵、岩溶孤峰及平原等不同的地貌单元。沿线不良地质和特殊岩土广泛分布,本文通过研究适应沿线地形地质条件的最小曲线半径、最大坡度,对水库地区线路越岭方案进行了大范围的比较,取得了良好的选线效果;根据岩溶地区特点提出了基本的选线原则;对如何加强滑坡地区工程地质选线进行了成功的尝试,为在此类地形、地质条件下的铁路选线提供可以借鉴的经验和教训。

  1. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  2. Utilization pattern of antenatal health care services among married women of reproductive age group in the rural area of Surendranagar district, Gujarat, India: a community based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Bhimani

    2016-01-01

    Results: A total of 403 women were included in the study. Pregnancy registration was done by 88.77% of the women at either government facility or private doctor. Out of total registered women, majority i.e. 54.25% had registered their pregnancy during 2nd trimester. In response to frequency of antenatal visits, study showed that, 59.18% (216 women had availed three or more than three antenatal visits. It was found that 81.92% (299 had taken complete (2 doses tetanus immunization. About 47% of women had completed full course of iron and folic acid tablets. It was observed that only 46.03% women had availed complete ANC package. Conclusions: Although Antenatal services in India have been created, strengthened and expanded over the years, their output in terms of utilization particularly in rural area is still limited. The present study has brought out many significant socio cultural barriers like caste, women's literacy, husband's literacy, occupation of women, socio-economic class and parity of women affecting the utilization of services. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 252-261

  3. Research on Economic Optimization of Section Areas of Conductors for UHVDC Projects%特高压直流输电导线经济截面选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁涵卿; 张文亮; 梁旭明

    2013-01-01

    根据中国电力需求增长趋势和能源分布格局,中国未来将建设30项特高压直流输电工程。而输电线路导线总截面及分裂型式的选择,是决定直流输电工程在全寿命周期内获得良好经济效益的重要因素。从最基本的累计净现值公式着手,综合考虑建设投资和运行损耗两个方面,重点研究直流输电工程的线路损耗小时、上网电价、线路工程造价等因素对导线经济电流密度的影响,整理推导出直流输电导线经济电流密度的计算公式。通过收集大量工程建设和运行中实际数据,对已建成的直流工程进行验证计算。结合当前建设成本和电价水平,提出对于长期重载直流输电系统,输电导线经济电流密度应在0.6 A/mm2左右。%To meet the demand of electric power growth trend and the energy distribution pattern in China, 30 ultra high voltage (UHV) DC transmission projects in China will be built. Selection of total cross-section and split type for transmission line conductor is an important factor in obtaining good economic benefits during the entire life-cycle of DC power transmission projects. Starting from the accumulative net present value formula, this paper considered two aspects of construction investment and operation loss, studied the impact of line loss hours, on-grid power tariff, line construction cost of DC power transmission projects on conductor economic current density, and derived the calculation formulas of DC power transmission conductor economic current density. By collecting a large number of actual data about construction and operation of projects, completed HVDC projects were calculated. Combining with current construction cost and the price level, the paper proposed that transmission conductor economic current density should be around 0.6 A/mm2 for long-term overloaded DC transmission systems.

  4. COPD and its association with smoking in the Mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of 0.5 million men and women from ten diverse areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2,3 Jenny Wang,1 Iona Y Millwood,1 Junshi Chen,4 Rory Collins,1 Yu Guo,2 Zheng Bian,2 Jiangtao Li,5 Biyun Chen,6 Kaixu Xie,7 Weifan Jia,8 Yali Gao,9 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group 1Nuffield Department of Population Health, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, 3Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, 4China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, 5NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Huixian CDC, Huixian, Henan, 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Tongxiang CDC, Zhejiang, 8NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuyang CDC, Baiyikengdao, Liuyang, Changsha, Hunan, 9NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Sichuan CDC, Sichuan, Mainland China Purpose: In adult Chinese men, smoking prevalence is high, but little is known about its association with chronic respiratory disease, which is still poorly diagnosed and managed. Methods: A nationwide study recruited 0.5 million men and women aged 30–79 years during 2004–2008 from ten geographically diverse areas across the Mainland China. Information was collected from each participant regarding smoking and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CB/E, along with measurement of lung function indices. Logistic regression was used to yield sex-specific odds ratios (ORs relating smoking to airflow obstruction (AFO, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC <0.7 and CB/E, adjusting for age, areas, education, and income. Results: Overall 74% of men were ever regular smokers; among them, 7.2% had AFO compared with 5.4% in never-smokers, yielding an OR of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34–1

  5. Awareness and management of chronic disease, insurance status, and health professional shortage areas in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Raegan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited financial and geographic access to primary care can adversely influence chronic disease outcomes. We examined variation in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia according to both geographic and financial access to care. Methods We analyzed data on 17,458 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study with either hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes and living in either complete Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA counties or non-HPSA counties in the U.S. All analyses were stratified by insurance status and adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors. Results 2,261 residents lived in HPSA counties and 15,197 in non-HPSA counties. Among the uninsured, HPSA residents had higher awareness of both hypertension (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.08, 4.89 and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01, 2.22 compared to non-HPSA residents. Also among the uninsured, HPSA residents with hypertension had lower blood pressure control (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29, 0.71 compared with non-HPSA residents. Similar differences in awareness and control according to HPSA residence were absent among the insured. Conclusions Despite similar or higher awareness of some chronic diseases, uninsured HPSA residents may achieve control of hypertension at lower rates compared to uninsured non-HPSA residents. Federal allocations in HPSAs should target improved quality of care as well as increasing the number of available physicians.

  6. A cross -sectional study on self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area%杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎现况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 齐小娟; 吕鹏; 王绩凯; 陈莉莉; 章荣华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解浙江省杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎的患病状况及人群分布。方法采用多阶段抽样方法按人囗容量比抽取调查户,于2010年7月—2011年6月每月入户按生日确定调查其中1名家庭成员在近四周内急性胃肠炎发生情况及其就诊等情况。结果共调查居民9548人,急性胃肠炎四周患病率为2.95%,发病率为0.39次/人年。推算杭嘉湖地区全年有587.56万人次感染急性胃肠炎。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,女性四周患病率高于男性;7月和8月患病率较高;未到入学年龄人群急性胃肠炎四周患病率最高;农村患病率高于城市;家庭居住户人口数≥3人的月患病率高于居住人口数为1~2人户。56.38%的病例患病时曾去医院就诊,54.67%的病例服用抗菌药物;13.48%的病例因病误工,另有2.13%的病例因病误学。结论杭嘉湖地区人群自我报告急性胃肠炎患病率2.95%,自我报告患病率与性别、文化程度、月份(季节)、城乡居住地和家庭户人口数有关。%Objective To understand epidemiological characteristics of self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area in Zhejiang Province.Methods According to the population capacity,the household interview was conducted among families selected by multi stage sampling method from July 2010 to June 2011,and one person who was approaching birthday in every family was selected for investigation, including symptoms and treatment of acute gastroenteritis.Results Totally 9 548 people were investigated.The monthly prevalence of acute gastroenteritis among the surveyed population was 2.95% and the incidence was 0.39 per person year.It was estimated that there would be 5.875 6 million cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred during this year in the area.Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly prevalence in female was higher than in male

  7. Industrial Section Convenor's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M.; Riboni, P.

    2002-11-01

    recently into the areas of interest of our community (Hourdakis and Intrasoft) and the examples of an Industry historically committed to a strong R&D effort (SAES-Getters). Finally a case of involvement of industry in a "Big Science" project (CMS) completed the palette of the contributions to this Industry Section. The full set of transparencies of the lectures, are filed and made available at the conference site: .

  8. Applied technology section. Monthly report, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1994-01-28

    This monthly report contains abstracts of the progress made in various projects from the applied technology section at the Savannah River Plant. Research areas include engineering modeling and simulation, applied physics, experimental thermal hydraulics, and packaging and transportation.

  9. 47 CFR 24.202 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.202 Section 24.202... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.202 Service areas. Broadband PCS service areas are Major Trading Areas (MTAs) and Basic Trading Areas (BTAs) as defined in this section. MTAs and BTAs are based on the Rand...

  10. Cross-sectional study of rate-adaptive pacemaker in Shanghai area%频率应答起搏器在上海地区的应用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骁; 毛家亮; 刘志刚; 李京波; 蒋金发; 李莹; 乔增勇; 宿燕岗; 葛均波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the use of rate-adaptive pacemaker in Shanghai area and provide a preliminary overview of application of rate-adaptive function in clinical practice. Methods We selected 16 hospitals covering most districts of Shanghai and collected data in the patient demographics,types of arrhythmi-a,types of pacemaker and status of rate-adaptive function of pacemakers that were implanted from February 2013 to February 2014. In addition,we analyzed clinicians’ perspective in rate-adaptive function by means of questionnaire. Results The proportion of rate-adaptive pacemaker was 74. 86 ( predominantly DDDR) . How-ever,only 36. 63% of these pacemaker had rate-adaptive function turned on. Most were kept turned off on pur-pose. The main reason for rate-adaptive function turned off was that patients had been used to low heart rate be-fore pacemaker implantation,leading to 50. 97% patients had it turned off during follow up. Clinicians paid little attention to chronotropic incompetence or age before rate-adaptive pacemaker implantation. Conclusion The proportion of rate-adaptive pacemaker is high. However,the proportion of these pacemakers that had rate-adap-tive function turned on is low. More attention should be paid to standardize default setting and follow up strategy of rate-adaptive pacemakers.%目的:调查上海地区频率应答起搏器的使用情况,为国内该领域提供较为客观的临床现状数据。方法选取覆盖上海多数区县的16家医院,对2013年2月至2014年2月已植入频率应答起搏器患者的人口学情况、心律失常原因、起搏器类型和开启及开启后关闭频率应答功能的情况进行回顾性研究。另外,问卷调查每家医院2~3名植入医生对频率应答起搏器使用情况等的看法。结果①频率应答起搏器植入比例高达74.86%(主要为DDDR),但频率应答功能开启比例不高(平均36.63%),主观有意识不开启R功能的主要原因;②开启

  11. Research on Length of Blocked Road Section for Maintenance of Two-lane Highway in Mountain Area Based on Vissim%基于Vissim的山区双车道公路养护作业封闭段长度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文亮; 刘振清; 贺玉龙; 高发亮

    2012-01-01

    建立山区双车道公路养护作业区Vissim仿真模型,通过信号灯控制通行时间,模拟在不同封闭段长度下车辆的运行状态,对行程延误、排队长度、停车次数和停驶车辆百分比等参数进行分析,得出山区双车道公路单车道封闭,短期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于200 m,长期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于2500 m,这为山区双车道公路养护作业区设置和交通组织提供理论依据.%The simulation model of maintenance area for two-lane highway in mountain area was established based on Vissim. The model can simulate vehicles' running state with different lengths of blocked road section through signal lamp controlling time, and can analyze parameters such as trip delay, queuing length, number of stops and the percentage of suspended vehicles. The result shows that the blocked single-lane section length for short-term maintenance of two-lane highway in mountain area should be less than 200 m and that for long-term maintenance should be less than 2500 m. It provided a theoretical basis of setting maintenance area and transportation organizations for two-lane highway in mountain area.

  12. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  13. Debate: Nationalism or Sectionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Forrest; Genovese, Eugene D.

    1987-01-01

    McDonald contends that in the 1820s economic and technological changes were creating sectional differences in the United States while the political arena declined in influence. Genovese argues, however, that from the earliest days of the republic different ways of life in the north and south led to a sectional division changing the political…

  14. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages Técnica modificada para aumentar a área seccional externa da narina após o uso de enxerto cartilaginoso de costela e septo sob as cartilagens alares nasais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. METHODS: A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad®; 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage. Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the variable "area". RESULTS: There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica modificada para se aumentar a área seccional externa da narina com cartilagem septal e costal acima das cartilagens alares nasais. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma técnica cirúrgica modificada para obter, esculpir e inserir enxertos de cartilagem sobre as cartilagens alares. Realizou-se fotos padronizadas e mensuração de 90 áreas seccionais externas de narina em cadáveres com Autocad®; 30 antes sem procedimento; 60 após a inclusão de enxertos sob a cruz lateral (30 usando cartilagem costal e 30 usando cartilagem septal. A análise estatística foi feita com um modelo de medidas repetidas e ANOVA para a variável "área" RESULTADOS: Existe evidência estatística de que o enxerto de

  15. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  16. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  17. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  18. Flow Cytometry Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary goal of the Flow Cytometry Section is to provide the services of state-of-the-art multi-parameter cellular analysis and cell sorting for researchers and...

  19. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.102 Section 24.102... SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.102 Service areas. Narrowband PCS service areas are nationwide, regional, and Major Trading Areas (MTAs), as defined in this section. MTAs are based on the Rand McNally...

  20. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  1. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  2. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  3. The Golden Section Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, J.; Adams-Webber, J.

    1976-01-01

    The golden section is a proportion the aesthetic properties of which have been extolled since antiquity. The data from five experiments in which subjects made dichotomous judgements of acquaintances on bipolar dimensions (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant) were reported. (Editor)

  4. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  5. The first poroelastic test section in PERSUADE

    OpenAIRE

    BENDTSEN, Hans; Andersen, Bent; Kalman, Björn; Cesbron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The PERSUADE project aims at developing poroelastic road surfacing (PERS). A small size field test of PERS was constructed before constructing full scale test sections to gain experience from mixing and laying the PERS material outside the laboratory and to monitor the performance of the pavement over a winter as well as to investigate the performance of the PERS by measuring the characteristics of the surface. The test section was constructed in Denmark on a ramp from a parking area with low...

  6. Efeito da área de secção do enxerto na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior - estudo histológico em cães Effect of the grafting section area on the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery - histological study on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Violante Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relacionar a área de secção inicial do enxerto com o resultado da cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA. Foram operados oito cães, divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com o tamanho do enxerto: grupo A - 25% e grupo B - 40% da largura do ligamento patelar (LP. MÉTODOS: Após oito meses, os cães foram sacrificados para análise macroscópica e histológica dos ligamentos reconstruídos, utilizando-se o joelho contralateral do cão como controle. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os grupos, todos os ligamentos reconstruídos apresentaram-se viáveis e hipertrofiados; o enxerto de LP teve sua morfologia alterada, verificada através da medida do crimp e da celularidade, assemelhando-se com a do LCA. CONCLUSÃO: A área de secção do enxerto não influenciou o resultado histológico da cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA em cães.OBJECTIVE: To correlate the initial grafting section area with the outcomes from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction surgery. Eight dogs underwent operations, divided into two groups according to graft size: Group A, 25% and Group B, 40% of the patellar ligament (PL width. METHODS: After eight months, the dogs were sacrificed for macroscopic and histological analysis on the reconstructed ligaments. Each dog's contralateral knee was used as a control. RESULTS: In both groups, all the reconstructed ligaments were seen to be viable and hypertrophied. The morphology of the PL grafting had changed, which was observed by measuring the crimp and cellularity, and it resembled that of the ACL. CONCLUSION: The grafting section area did not influence the histological outcomes from ACL reconstruction surgery in dogs.

  7. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  8. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  9. 47 CFR 101.64 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.64 Section 101.64... Service areas. Service areas for 38.6-40.0 GHz service are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined below. EAs are.... Additionally, there are four EA-like areas: Guam and Northern Mariana Islands; Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  10. 10 CFR 850.26 - Regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated areas. 850.26 Section 850.26 Energy DEPARTMENT... Regulated areas. (a) If airborne concentrations of beryllium in areas in DOE facilities are measured at or above the action level, the responsible employer must establish regulated areas for those areas. (b)...

  11. 33 CFR 156.310 - Prohibited areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas. 156.310 Section... the Gulf of Mexico § 156.310 Prohibited areas. Lightering operations are prohibited within the following areas in the Gulf of Mexico: (a) Claypile—prohibited area. This prohibited area consists of...

  12. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office....503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies outside the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is...

  13. DESIGN OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORTING CANAL SECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE; Nimisha SWAMEE

    2004-01-01

    Design equations for minimum area or maximum velocity canal-sections for transport of bulk sediment carried by water have been obtained. Such canals are economically feasible in the terrain where large slopes are available. The design procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  14. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  15. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  16. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  17. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  18. Pheochromocytoma after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naghshineh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy.

  19. Disaster characteristics and optimum cross-section design of drainage canal of debris flow in Ganlanba-sha Gully in the Baihetan reservoir area on the Jinsha River%金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区橄榄坝沙沟泥石流灾害及其排导槽的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游勇; 柳金峰; 陈兴长

    2012-01-01

      The Ganlanba-sha gully is a right branch of the Jinsha River, with a catchment area of 6.98 km2 and a total length of 5.32km. The precipitation of the gully is concentrated from May to October ac⁃counting for 90% of the year. The composition of landform,geology and rainstorm provides favorable condi⁃tion for the formation of debris flow. Through field observation,the characteristics of the debris flow in Gan⁃lanba-sha Gully can be described as viscous debris flow. The density of the gully is 2.0~2.2t/m3. The type of debris flow in the gully can be defined as rainstorm valley type with high density,high viscosity and high frequency. The major activity characteristics of debris flow are as follows:(1) The loose solid ma⁃terial for debris flow is mainly supplied by the slope landslip;(2) the frequency of the debris flow is very high;(3) rapid damage,strong erosion and great damage. Based on the analysis of the disaster characteris⁃tics,the optimal cross-section design method for the“trapezoid-v”shaped debris flow drainage canal of the Ganlanba-sha gully is discussed. The depths (h1 and h2) of the cross-section of the“trapezoid-v”shaped drainage canal and the optimal cross-section parameters using these two measurements are defined. In addi⁃tion, several formulae for calculating the cross-section measurements are deduced under optimal hydraulic conditions when discharge (Q),debris grain composition (D50) and longitudinal ratio (I) are known. Final⁃ly,the optimal dimensions for the cross-section of the Ganlanba-sha gully debris flow canal are determined.%  金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区右岸橄榄坝沙沟的泥石流活动具有松散固体物质以坡面崩塌补给为主、泥石流活动频率高和成灾快,冲刷强烈,危害严重等特征。在分析泥石流危害及活动特征的基础上,对橄榄坝沙沟泥石流排导槽的最佳过流横断面进行了分析研究,在已知排导槽排泄流量、排导槽纵

  20. 武夷山风景名胜区云窝—天游片区景观感知差异研究%Study on Difference in Landscape Perception of the Yunwo-Tianyou Section in Wuyishan Mountain Scenic Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华敏; 熊居华; 郑郁善

    2012-01-01

    以武夷山风景名胜区云窝—天游片区为研究对象,通过40个样地典型样本照片,采用SBE评价法计算景观美景度值,并进行感知差异方差分析.结果表明:三大景观类型不存在显著差异;自然景观类要素间差异显著;人工景观类要素间差异极显著;文化景观类要素间不存在显著差异;九个景观构成要素间的感知差异极显著.%Taking the Yunwo-Tianyou section of the Wuyishan Mountain Scenic Area as the study object, the scenic beauty estimation values of 40 typical sample photos were calculated by SBE method and the ANOVA on preference difference was conducted. The results showed that there was no significant perception difference among the three major landscape types, there were significant differences among the natural landscape elements, and there were extremely significant differences among the artificial landscape elements. There were no significant differences among the elements of cultural landscape types. There were extremely significant differences among different types of landscape elements.

  1. 饮用水水源保护区内项目建设探讨——以合肥至杭州段铁路电气化改造为例%Disccusion on Construction Project in Drinking Source Water Protection Areas --Taking Railway Electrification Improvement of Hefei - Hangzhou Section for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾世文

    2012-01-01

    指出了由于历史原因,一些原本位于饮用水水源一级保护区内与水源无关的基础设施急需改扩建,建设遇到与现行法律法规相冲突的瓶颈约束。通过合肥至杭州铁路电气化改造工程实例,探讨了此类建设项目解决法律约束问题的办法。%With the rapid development of economy, some infrastructure which are originally located in drinking source water areas are now urgent to be rebuilt and expanded, but the constructions conflict with the existing laws and regulations. In order to resolve the law obstacles, this paper analyses the railway electrification improvement of Hefei - Hangzhou section, so as to provide references for such construction projects to solve the law obstacles.

  2. The Late Permian-Early Triassic cyclostratigraphy in Shangsi section of Guangyuan area, Sichuan Province: Implications for P-T geological event based on wavelet analysis%四川广元上寺剖面晚二叠世-早三叠世旋回地层:基于小波分析的P-T界线地质事件探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔彦国; 时志强; 王艳艳; 张彪

    2012-01-01

    利用小波分析技术,对采集自四川广元上寺剖面上二叠统-下三叠统格里斯巴赫亚阶以碳酸盐岩为主的沉积序列的自然伽马(GR)能谱序列进行深入分析研究,结果表明,该沉积序列很大程度上受到410∶102.5∶42.6∶21.5的米兰科维奇旋回控制.晚二叠世上寺剖面位于古特提斯洋的深水环境,沉积速率较低,平均为5 cm/ka;二叠纪-三叠纪过渡时期研究区构造活动强烈,陆地及海洋生物发生大灭绝,由于酸雨以及植被缺乏等气候及生态因素影响,陆地表面风化速率急剧增加,大量陆源物质注入导致早三叠世早期浅海系统沉积速率提高至25 cm/ka,并强烈影响了海洋生态系统,抑制了海洋生物的多样性,延缓了海洋生态复苏进程.在二叠纪末期,上寺剖面沉积记录的旋回性较为明显且稳定,到三叠纪早期旋回性有所变差.早三叠世沉积速率的显著变化和旋回性差异与该时期动荡的古气候、古海洋环境密切相关,地球表层环境变化对海洋生态系统具有较强的影响,且可能成为早三叠世海洋生态系统复苏缓慢的主要控制因素之一.%Based on the analysis of the GR energy spectrum collected from the Upper Permian to Lower Triassic carbonate rocks in Shangsi section at Cuangyuan area, Sichuan Province, it was indicated that the sedimentary layers are controlled by Milankovitch cycles, whose scale ratio was 410: 102. 5 :42. 6 : 21. 5. During the Late Permian, the Shangsi area was in a deep-water environment of the paleo-Tethys and the deposition rate was low to 5 cm/ka. During the P-T transitional period the tectonic movement was strong and terrestrial and marine fauna experienced mass extinction. At the same time, weathering rate increased sharply because of the acid rain and lack of terrestrial vegetation and mass terrigenous material fluxed into shallow sea in turn, which resulted in a rapid deposition rate of 25 cm/ka in Shangsi section

  3. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Frye, C.; Hoelscher, B.; Meyer, I.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Schneller, H.; Wjst, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt

  4. Radiation Chemistry Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    collaboration with Desalination and Effluent Engineering Division. Preliminary experiments with a valved-out test section in TAPS established the feasibility of achieving chemical decontamination. The initial Water Chemistry in RAPP-1 prior to and after criticality was closely observed and the data were analyzed. Opportunity was also taken during this period to observe the addition and removal of boric acid to the moderator system. In a joint program with the Metallurgy and the Reactor Operations Divisions the hot conditioning of the primary heat transport system of RAPP was followed by chemical and metallurgical evaluation of coupons especially installed for that purpose. In order to keep a close watch on material compatibility, the composition of crud samples from the primary heat transport was evaluated by several techniques. (auth)

  5. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  6. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  7. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential areas. 203.672 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.672 Residential areas. (a) For the purposes of occupied conveyance considerations, a residential area is any area...

  8. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1315 Section 101.1315... SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System License Requirements § 101.1315 Service areas. In the frequency bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas...

  9. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  10. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 54.207 Section 54.207... SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.207 Service areas. (a) The term service area means a geographic area established by a state commission for the purpose of determining...

  11. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.523 Section 101.523... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.523 Service areas. (a) The service areas for 24 GHz are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in this paragraph (a). The Bureau of...

  12. 50 CFR 648.97 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.97 Section 648.97... Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.97 Closed areas. (a) Oceanographer Canyon Closed Area. No fishing vessel or person on a fishing vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Oceanographer...

  13. 47 CFR 101.1401 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1401 Section 101.1401... Service areas. Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service (MVDDS) is licensed on the basis of Designated Market Areas (DMAs). The 214 DMA service areas are based on the 210 Designated Market...

  14. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.73 Section 648.73... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.73 Closed areas. (a) Areas closed because of environmental degradation. Certain areas are closed to all surf clam and ocean quahog fishing because of...

  15. 33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.310 Section... of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat... aft reference area of a boat is the aftmost two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.11052 - Refuge areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuge areas. 57.11052 Section 57.11052 Mineral... Escapeways-Underground Only § 57.11052 Refuge areas. Refuge areas shall be— (a) Of fire-resistant construction, preferably in untimbered areas of the mine; (b) Large enough to accommodate readily the...

  17. 33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference areas. 183.210 Section... of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat...) The aft reference area of a boat is the aft most two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck,...

  18. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  19. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  20. Activities: Sectioning a Regular Tetrahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsky, Evan M., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Worksheets are provided for use by students in grades 8 and above when sectioning a tetrahedron. Lesson objectives include the discovery of generalizations regarding the cross-sections of a tetrahedron. (MK)

  1. Modeling golden section in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this study, tree, flower and fruit models have been generated by using the corresponding golden section characteristics, resulting in more natural patterns. Furthermore, the golden section can be found in the bifurcate angles of trees and lobed leaves, extending the golden section theory.

  2. 南水北调中线工程对丹江口库区生物多样性的影响%Environmental Impact of the Middle Section of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on Biological Diversity in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包洪福; 孙志禹; 陈凯麒

    2015-01-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir area is the primary water resource of the middle section of South-to-North Water Transfer Project and the ecological environment of this area directly influences drinking water quality in North Chi-na.The effect of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of Danjiangkou Reservoir area,especially after water impoundment has caused concern.Biological diversity is an important component of ec-ological stability.In this study,the biological diversity of plants,animals and aquatic organisms in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area was investigated and analyzed,based on field investigations and previously collected data.The goals are to (1)assess the influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of the Danjiangkou reservoir area,(2)provide a base for conserving biodiversity and the ecological integrity of the re-source and (3)protect the quality of drinking water.A total of 2 059 species of vascular plant (752 genera and 171 families),306 terrestrial vertebrate species (96 families,28 orders and 4 classes),100 phytoplankton species (60 genera,8 phyla),96 zooplankton species (4 categories)and 88 fish species (17 families,7 orders)were re-corded during the investigation.Construction and operation of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project required immigrant resettlement and deforestation resulting in habitat loss for terrestrial vertebrates and water impoundment inundated plant habitat and altered the aquatic environment.The plankton composition in Danjiangkou Reservoir did not change markedly,but plankton biomass increased significantly after the dam height was increased.The zoo-benthos community structure also remained about the same,but the distribution of the zoobenthos increased with reservoir width after water impoundment and seasonal variation increased.After impoundment,the decrease in res-ervoir water flow severely affected spawning of four major Chinese carp species and other

  3. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? 591.216 Section 591.216 Administrative... combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas? (a) Washington,...

  4. Efeito de diferentes doses de nandrolona associado ao treinamento de força sobre o perfil fenotípico e área de secção transversa do músculo de ratos Effect of different doses of nandrolone associated with resistance training on muscle phenotypic profi le and cross-sectional area of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozangela Verlengia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes doses de decanoato de nandrolona (DN associado ao Treinamento de Força (TF sobre o fenótipo de fibras e área de secção transversa (AST do músculo extensor longo dos dedos (EDL em ratos "Wistar". Os animais foram divididos em sete grupos: controle (GC e grupos de acordo com a concentração de DN (0,1, 1, 2, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg administrada intramuscular 3 vezes/semana. O TF consistiu de saltos em meio líquido (carga 50-70% do peso corporal 3x/semana, durante cinco semanas. A associação do TF e DN promoveu ação modulatória sobre os tipos de fibras. Houve hipertrofia das fibras de contração rápida (tipo II em comparação com as fibras de contração lenta (tipo I. Em conclusão, apesar da associação do TF com DN aumentar a AST muscular e alterar o fenótipo das fibras, não houve efeito gradual das doses mais altas.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND associated with Strength Training (ST on the phenotype of fibers and cross-sectional area (CSA of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL in Wistar rats. The animals were divided into seven groups: control (CG and the groups according to the dose of ND administered (0,1, 1, 2, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg. The ST consisted of water jumping with loads of 50-70% of their body mass, three times per week during five weeks. The association of ST with ND promoted a modulatory role on the muscle fiber types. There was a hypertrophy of fast twitch fibers (type II as compared with slow twitch (type I. In conclusion, although the association of ST with ND increased muscle CSA and modified fiber phenotype, there was no additional effect of higher doses.

  5. The cross-sectional area of the superficial digital flexor tendon of trained and untrained Thoroughbred racehorses Área transversal do tendão flexor digital superficial de cavalos Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida em treinamento e sem treinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guiomar Matos Santiago Reis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Thoroughbred racehorses were ultrasonographically evaluated to determine the relation between normal values of the cross-sectional area (CSA of the right and left forelimbs superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT in the metacarpal region for trained and untrained Thoroughbreds racehorses. Ultrasonography revealed that CSA at 26cm distal to the accessory carpal bone is larger than other proximal levels, for either left or right forelimbs. In addition, the CSA at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14cm distal to the accessory carpal bone of the left forelimb are larger (P0.05 between left and right forelimb for CSA of the SDFT, at any level, for either trained or untrained horses, and there was no significant difference between untrained or trained horses for the CSA of right forelimb. In conclusion, the CSA of the left forelimb SDFT for horses that had been in continuous race training remains larger when they were trained anticlockwise, contrary to horses that had not been training for more than one year.Vinte cavalos da raça Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida foram submetidos a exame ultrassonográfico, com o intuito de determinar a relação entre os valores normais da área do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS na região metacarpiana dos membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, em cavalos com e sem treinamento. O exame ultrassonográfico revelou que a área do tendão 26cm distal ao osso acessório do carpo é maior em comparação com as alturas proximais, tanto nos membros torácicos esquerdos, como nos membros torácicos direitos. Além disso, a área do TFDS nas alturas 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 14cm, no membro torácico esquerdo, é maior (P0,05 nas áreas do TFDS entre os membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, tanto para os animais em treinamento, como para os animais sem treinamento. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa em comparação com o membro direito dos cavalos em treinamento e sem treinamento. Conclui-se que os cavalos

  6. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  7. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  8. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due t...

  9. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the...

  10. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  11. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  12. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  13. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a) Personnel entry control shall be maintained for each radiological area. (b) The degree of control shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.8528 - Unventilated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unventilated areas. 57.8528 Section 57.8528 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8528 Unventilated areas. Unventilated areas shall be sealed, or barricaded and...

  15. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  16. 14 CFR 139.307 - Unpaved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unpaved areas. 139.307 Section 139.307... Operations § 139.307 Unpaved areas. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder..., or loading ramp and parking area on the airport that is available for air carrier use as follows:...

  17. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  18. 9 CFR 78.42 - Quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 78.42 Section 78.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Brucellosis Areas § 78.42 Quarantined areas. None....

  19. 46 CFR 197.535 - Regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulated areas. 197.535 Section 197.535 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.535 Regulated areas. (a) Based on the employer's evaluation of the environmental monitoring, whenever the airborne concentration of benzene within an area exceeds or...

  20. 14 CFR 139.305 - Paved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paved areas. 139.305 Section 139.305... Operations § 139.305 Paved areas. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder... area on the airport that is available for air carrier use as follows: (1) The pavement edges must...

  1. 14 CFR 139.309 - Safety areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety areas. 139.309 Section 139.309... Operations § 139.309 Safety areas. (a) In a manner authorized by the Administrator, each certificate holder... area of at least the dimensions that— (1) Existed on December 31, 1987, if the runway or taxiway had...

  2. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special areas. 37.32 Section 37.32... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA Environmental Protection § 37.32 Special areas. (a) Caribou calving and post-calving special areas. The Regional Director shall designate within the coastal plain...

  3. 10 CFR 835.602 - Controlled areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled areas. 835.602 Section 835.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Posting and Labeling § 835.602 Controlled areas. (a) Each access point to a controlled area (as defined at § 835.2) shall be posted whenever...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  5. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a... implemented under this part only in or from those management areas for which the United States has received...

  6. 7 CFR 1735.71 - Nonrural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonrural areas. 1735.71 Section 1735.71 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.71 Nonrural areas. Loan funds may be approved for the acquisition and improvement of... located in and serving a nonrural area is necessary to serve as the nucleus of an expanded system...

  7. Introduction to Special Section: Magmatism and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Rodney V.; Smith, Eugene I.

    1995-06-01

    The relationship between magmatism and the formation of continental rift zones is the subject of much controversy. In particular, the cause and effect relationships between magmatism and extension and the mode of generation of magma during the process of extension are still hotly debated. This controversy served as the theme of a symposium on "Cenozoic Magmatism in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Adjacent Areas" and a field trip held as part of the Geological Society of America Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section meeting in Reno, Nevada [Metcalf et al., 1993]. It was clear from data presented at the symposium that a considerable amount of new information has become available regarding magmatism and extension since the last special section on this topic published by the Journal of Geophysical Research (June 1989).

  8. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  9. Caesarean section: an historical riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    2001-01-01

    Etymologically, the word 'Caesar' originates from the Latin word 'Caedaere' meaning - 'to cut'. So cutting remains the core point, but little is known about the real origin of the history of Caesarean Section. There is evidence that, the ancient Hindus excelled in surgery and many operations were performed, including caesarean section. This operation was mentioned several times in the Mishnah of Rabbi Judah, the first large commentary on the Hebrew Bible. There are also several mythological anecdotes in Hindu, Buddhist and Greek mythologies. The myth of caesarean section did not even escape the keen eyes of William Skakespeare. The landmarks, treatises and the advancement in this operative procedure are presented in this article.

  10. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  11. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  12. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  13. Distribution of gamma-glutamyl transferase and its correlated factors in rural men of Yanbian area:a cross-sectional study%延边农村男性居民GGT异常及其相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金永哲; 朴鲜女; 熊英环; 方今女

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of gamma-glutamyl transferase(GGT) and its correlated factors in rural men of Yanbian area. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2 001 residents aged 30 - 70 years. Results The level of the natural logarithm GGT among Korean men(3.55 ±0. 86) was significantly higher than among Han men(3. 27 ±0.72, F = 69. 366; P < 0.000), and the prevalence of GGT disorder in Korean men(25.5%, 260/1 018) was significantly higher than in Han men( 13.2% , [ 130/983] ,x2MH = 51.408;P <0.000). Single factor analyses revealed that age (x2k = 18.788, P < 0.01), education level (xk2 = 8. 387, P < 0.01), drinking and smoking (x2k趋势=33.876,P < 0.000;x2H趋势 = 30.527, P < 0.000), hypertension (xk2 = 13.922,P < 0.000; x2H = 16.629, P < 0.000), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) (xk2 = 9. 363, P < 0.01 ;x2H, = 8. 219, P < 0.01) and systolic hypertension (SDH)(xk2 = 11.276,P<0.01;x2H = 14. 422,P<0.000) were correlated factors for GGT disorder; multiple factor analyses showed that nationality(Korean),age,alcohol drinking,hypertension,SDH,IDH,and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) were correlated factors for GGT disorder( P < 0.05) ,and a dose-response relationship was observed between GGT disorder and alcohol drinking. Conclusion The prevalence of GGT disorder had significant ethnic difference. The prevalence of GGT disorder was positively correlated with age, alcohol drinking, hypertension, SDH, IDH, and ISH (P < 0. 05) among men in the area,and dose-response relationship was sobserved between GGT disorder and alcohol drinking.%目的 调查延边农村地区不同民族男性居民γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)分布特征及其相关因素.方法 于2009年8-9月对本地区30~70岁常住男性居民2 001人进行现况调查.结果 朝鲜族及汉族的GGT的自然对数平均水平分别为(3.55±0.86)和(3,27±0.72) mmol/L,其异常者检出率分别为25.5% (260/1 018)和13.2%(130/983),朝鲜族的GGT平均水平及

  14. [Cesarean section and eye disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karska-Basta, Izabella; Tarasiewicz, Marta; Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Miniewicz, Joanna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a growing tendency for cesarean birth has been noted both, in Poland and worldwide. Non-obstetric problems constitute a large part of indications for cesarean section. Many ophthalmologists and obstetricians still believe that high myopia, the presence of peripheral retinal degenerations, history of retinal detachment surgery, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma are indications for surgical termination of pregnancy. However, these recommendations are not evidence-based. The literature offers no proof that high myopia and previous retinal surgery increase the risk of retinal detachment during spontaneous vaginal delivery. There is only one indication for cesarean section in myopic patients, i.e. the presence of choroidal neovascularization, which can cause subretinal bleeding with acute visual loss. Prolonged and intensified Valsalva maneuver during labor in patients with an active proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be an indication for an elective cesarean section. Uterine contractions during the second stage of vaginal delivery lead to a marked elevation of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the delivery may damage retinal ganglion cells, resulting in further progression of visual field. Thus, glaucoma associated with advanced visual field changes is the next ophthalmic indication for cesarean section. The report presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of pregnancy on pre-existing ocular disorders and the influence of physiological changes on the clinical course of these diseases during the stages of natural delivery. The authors discuss also the ophthalmic indications for cesarean section.

  15. Automatic morphometry of nerve histological sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, E; Cuisenaire, O; Denef, J F; Delbeke, J; Macq, B; Veraart, C

    2000-04-15

    A method for the automatic segmentation, recognition and measurement of neuronal myelinated fibers in nerve histological sections is presented. In this method, the fiber parameters i.e. perimeter, area, position of the fiber and myelin sheath thickness are automatically computed. Obliquity of the sections may be taken into account. First, the image is thresholded to provide a coarse classification between myelin and non-myelin pixels. Next, the resulting binary image is further simplified using connected morphological operators. By applying semantic rules to the zonal graph axon candidates are identified. Those are either isolated or still connected. Then, separation of connected fibers is performed by evaluating myelin sheath thickness around each candidate area with an Euclidean distance transformation. Finally, properties of each detected fiber are computed and false positives are removed. The accuracy of the method is assessed by evaluating missed detection, false positive ratio and comparing the results to the manual procedure with sampling. In the evaluated nerve surface, a 0.9% of false positives was found, along with 6.36% of missed detections. The resulting histograms show strong correlation with those obtained by manual measure. The noise introduced by this method is significantly lower than the intrinsic sampling variability. This automatic method constitutes an original tool for morphometrical analysis.

  16. Primary cesearean section in multigravidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Arogya Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Complications may occur in women who previously had a normal vaginal delivery requiring interventions in the form of caesarean section and is not uncommon. Though to a small extent, they are contributing to rise is total caesarean section rates seen. There are many cases where a caesarean becomes mandatory for her. The fact that a multipara who has had one or more vaginal deliveries should be regarded as an optimistic historical fact, not as diagnostic-criteria for spontaneous delivery of the pregnancy at hand. A parous woman needs good obstetric care to improve maternal and neonatal outcome and still keeping caesarean section to a lower rate. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 3849-3852

  17. 46 CFR 59.10-25 - Stayed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stayed areas. 59.10-25 Section 59.10-25 Shipping COAST... areas. Welding repairs are permitted in staybolted areas or areas adequately stayed by other means so... located entirely within staybolted areas and shall not pass through the outer row of stays....

  18. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  19. Association of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the rate of glomerular filtration: a cross-sectional study in the population from certain areas of Beijing%北京部分地区人群心血管疾病危险因素与慢性肾脏病的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 叶平; 肖文凯; 骆雷鸣; 吴红梅

    2010-01-01

    Objective Data from several large prospective studies revealed that a low glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality in high-risk populations. Much on the association was explained by traditional CVD risk factors. However,findings from population-based studies were scarce and inconsistent. We explored the correlation between risks factors of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a general population from certain area of Beijing. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted during Sep. 2007 to Oct. 2008 in Beijing. Out of 5100 individuals who were selected,4515 met the inclusion criteria and responded to the investigation. By face to face interview,a questionnaire was used to find out the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Body height,body weight and blood pressures were measured. Serum creatinine and total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were detected. Glomerular filtration rate through using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was estimated.Participants were grouped into three:≥90,60-89,<60[ml·min~(-1)·(1.73m~2)~(-1)] by eGFR. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the associated risk factors. Results Exposure rate of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased along with the decrease of level of eGFR. Data from univariate logistic regression analyses suggested that age,smoking,history of hypertension and diabetes,BMI,SBP,LDL-C and TG were risk factors of CKD while results from multiple logistic regression indicated that age,smoking,hypertension,high level of TG appeared to be independent risk factors of CKD. Conclusion Exposure rate of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased along with the decrease of level of eGFR while age,hypertension,high level of TG and smoking were independent risk factors

  20. 46 CFR 45.117 - Freeing port area: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeing port area: General. 45.117 Section 45.117... Conditions of Assignment § 45.117 Freeing port area: General. (a) Where bulwarks on the weather portins of freeboard or superstructure decks form wells, the bulwarks must have the area prescribed in this section...

  1. The Hausdorff Dimension of Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min NIU; Lifeng XI

    2007-01-01

    The notion of finite-type open set condition is defined to calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of the sections of some self-similar sets, such as the dimension of intersection of the Koch curve and the line x = a with a ∈(Q).

  2. Vibratome sections of difficult tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    After 1 hours of aldehyde fixation, 4 to 20 hours of soaking in 2% BSA (bovine serum albumin) solution and another 17 hours in the same fixative, the vibratome will produce smooth, even sections from agar embedded guinea pig thyroid, skeletal muscle or larynx with the same ease as it will from soft...

  3. Neonatology and the caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, R; Minghetti, D

    2012-10-01

    The origins of the use of the Caesarean section date far back in human history. Traces of this procedure can be found in Greek mythology and in the history of Ancient Rome. Many documents about the history of religion make reference to a delivery from the abdomen.

  4. Special Section: Educating Elderly Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Bernice A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four articles in this special section report on (1) Arizona curriculum for home-based caregivers of the elderly in rural communities (Epstein, Koenig); (2) educational programs for nursing home caregivers (Marsden); (3) extension programs for helping low-income elderly with money management (Koonce); and (4) energy education for the elderly…

  5. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  6. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  7. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuivey RW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block2 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Independent consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. Keywords: cesarean section, vacuum, forceps, birth, delivery

  8. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  9. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quarantined area only in accordance with § 78.10 and this section. (a) Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  10. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  11. PREFACE: Focus section on superconducting power systems Focus section on superconducting power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, D. A.; Amemiya, N.; Fair, R.

    2012-01-01

    This focus section of Superconductor Science and Technology looks at the properties, technology and applications of (RE)BCO and MgB2 based superconductors for power engineering systems. Both bulk and conductor forms of material are addressed, including elements of materials fabrication and processing, and the measurement of their applied properties for various levels of system application. The areas of research include ac losses in type II materials in power devices, cables and coated conductors, the development of high current dc cables and the application of superconductors in levitation devices, motors and fault current limiters. This focus section presents a broad cross-section of contemporary issues, that represent state-of-the-art for power applications of superconductors, and highlights the areas that require further development if commercial applications of these rapidly emerging materials are to be realised. It contains papers from some of the major groups in the field, including contributions from Europe, the USA and Japan, and describes devices that are relatively close to market.

  12. 北京地下直径线大断面暗挖隧道衬砌施工技术%Lining Technology for Large Cross-section Tunnel Constructed by Mining Method in Urban Area: Case Study on Underground Tunnel Connecting Beijing Railway Station and Beijing West Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宏亮

    2013-01-01

    Different lining methods are studied in terms of lining efficiency,economy and settlement and deformation control,so as to select proper lining methods for the PBA section and CRD section of the underground tunnel connecting Beijing Railway Station and Beijing West Railway station.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1) Both composite steelformwork lining method and formwork trolley lining method have their own applicability and limitations and should be rationally selected according to the excavation methods,cross-section dimensions and environment of the tunnel.2) The mentioned two lining methods are optimized in terms of safety and quality control.The paper can provide reference for similar projects in the future.%为解决复杂边界条件下大断面暗挖隧道衬砌施工方法选择的问题,针对北京站一北京西站地下直径线洞桩法隧道段和CRD法隧道段的衬砌具体项目,从施工效率、经济性和沉降变形控制等方面进行研究.主要得出以下结论:1)组合钢模和模板台车2种施工方法各有其适用性和局限性,应根据开挖方法、断面尺寸和作业环境等合理选用;2)对2种施工方法在安全质量控制措施上进行了相关补充完善,可为类似工程提供参考.

  13. Upper section for anchor timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Pishulin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to exclude rotation of the fixing device around the anchor with screwing of the tightening nut and simplification of the fixing device design. The support fixing device is made of a section of pipe and is equipped with a rotation delimiter made in the form of a female fixing device of the projection arranged on it at an angle to the longitudinal axis.

  14. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  15. Three-section expiratory CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; de Bruijne, Marleen; Hartmann, Ieneke C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    . Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use...... of three-section and linear mixed models.Results: For the Brody II system, the intraclass correlation coefficient for set 1 versus those for sets 2 through 7 was 0.75 versus 0.87; however, mean scores from sets 6 and 7 were significantly lower than the mean score from set 1 (P = .01 and P ..., respectively). For the quantitative system, the number of sections did not affect TA assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.82-0.88; P > .13 for all). CT and PFT estimates were not correlated (rs = 20.19 to 0.09, P = .43-.93). No change in TA over time was found for CT or PFT (P > .16 for all...

  16. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  17. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors.

  18. 40 CFR 258.13 - Fault areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault areas. 258.13 Section 258.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.13 Fault areas. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  19. 32 CFR 1602.4 - Area office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area office. 1602.4 Section 1602.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.4 Area office. The Selective Service Office which is responsible for all administrative and operational...

  20. 47 CFR 101.1501 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1501 Section 101.1501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1501 Service areas. The 70/80/90...

  1. 46 CFR 120.530 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 120.530 Section 120.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Systems and Requirements § 120.530 Hazardous areas. (a) Electrical equipment in lockers used to...

  2. 46 CFR 183.530 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 183.530 Section 183.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.530 Hazardous areas. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 129.520 - Hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous areas. 129.520 Section 129.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.520 Hazardous areas. (a) No OSV that carries flammable or...

  4. 14 CFR 417.413 - Hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard areas. 417.413 Section 417.413 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.413 Hazard areas. (a) General. A launch operator...

  5. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    presents two initiatives for cod avoidance in Kattegat; a fisher initiative sharing information about cod bycatch which could lead to real time closures in areas with high bycatch of juveniles, for vessels with low cod quota to avoid catch of all cod, and a Danish Swedish Government initiative of permanent......The article examines the experiences of two initiatives of cod avoidance by area regulations in the Kattegat in the light of the upcoming discard ban in EU fisheries. The first section highlights elements of the discard ban in the reformed EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The second section...... and temporary area closures in Kattegat. The third section discusses the lessons learned in the light of implementation of the discard ban. The fourth section sums up the lessons learned; Regional measures of implementation of the discard ban should include all vessels with quota in the region to be regarded...

  6. section of an accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a section of an accelerating cavity from LEP, cut in half to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  7. Non destructive localization by gamma tomography of fission products emission in a fuel pencil area after an accidental sequence; Localisation non destructive par tomographie gamma d`emission des produits de fission dans une section de crayon combustible ayant subi une sequence accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducros, G.; Confort, E.; Drevon, P.

    1994-12-31

    The transverse gamma spectrometry of an irradiated fuel pencil, associated to a tomography method of gamma emitters reconstruction in a straight section of the pencil, is a non destructive technique which proves efficient when there are enough projections. For a little irradiated fuel, four to six projections equally distributed on 180 degrees and associated to an activity repartition initial model with symmetry of revolution are generally sufficient. For a very damaged fuel, it is necessary to practice eighteen projections every ten degrees; the initial repartition model is no more a noticeable parameter. Applied to the VERCORS safety programme, it allows to know the fuel behavior in situation of serious accident and the radial migrations of fission products. The localization of gamma emitters fission products brings informations supplementary to others optical techniques (ceramographies), or chemical techniques (micro-probe). Then, by its non destructive aspect, it can be in certain cases, unavoidable in front of usual destructive techniques. (N.C.). 4 refs.

  8. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  9. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  10. Study on the Landscape Design of Yellow River Dike——Taking the Inner Mongolia River Section in Upstream Hetao Area as an Example%黄河上游河套地区内蒙河段堤防景观设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈照方

    2012-01-01

    指出了黄河上游河套地区的邻近黄河区域的黄河大堤堤防景观设计应是集黄河、河套、沙漠、湿地、水利工程、宗教习俗和历史文化的融合,分析了黄河堤防景观设计的区位特色,探讨了景观规划设计的目标。%Dike landscape design of Yellow River dike adjacent to upstream Hetao area is a natural element with strong contrast which combines Yellow River,bend of the river,desert,wetlands,hydraulic engineering,religious custom,history and culture as a whole,and provides nature ecological park group which possesses biodiversity connected by chains of ecology in Yellow River dike,rich activities and entertainment.It is a regional water conservancy scenic area which blends tourist,vocation and ecological entertainment as well.

  11. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kardulias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this thematic section were originally presented in two venues. Approximately half of the contributions were delivered first in a session at the Annual Meeting of the Central States Anthropological Society in Indianapolis, Indiana in March, 1995. The full complement of presentations took place at the 94th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Washington, D.C., in November, 1995. Two participants in the Washington symposium chose not to include their papers in this section. A number of the papers have thus benefitted from several stages of discussion and criticism. While anthropologists (and especially archaeologists dominated both panels, the disciplinary breadth represented by the various members contributed to an invigorating discussion which we now bring to the pages of this journal. In this attempt to reach a broad audience, however, we realize there is the problem of disciplinary specificity, i.e., the particular approaches and data with which scholars deal may not be easily comprehensible to those in other fields. For the current collection, this issue is especially acute for prehistorians, whose focus on the material record and a specialized archaeological terminology may confound some readers. The archaeologists have made efforts to minimize the use of esoteric jargon. In addition, chronological periods are clearly defined in order to fix the temporal setting. While some readers may already be very familiar with the periods in question, we thought it best to err on the side of caution.

  12. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  13. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 24 CFR 135.36 - Preference for section 3 business concerns in contracting opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOW- AND VERY LOW-INCOME PERSONS Economic Opportunities for Section 3 Residents and Section 3 Business... business concerns that provide economic opportunities for section 3 residents in the service area...

  15. 42 CFR 136a.15 - Health Service Delivery Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health Service Delivery Areas. 136a.15 Section 136a... Receive Care? § 136a.15 Health Service Delivery Areas. (a) The Indian Health Service will designate and... Federal Indian reservations and areas surrounding those reservations as Health Service Delivery Areas....

  16. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL... DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably necessary... may be provided in conjunction with a safety rest area at such locations where accommodations...

  17. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  18. 28 CFR 551.162 - Designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated smoking areas. 551.162 Section... MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.162 Designated smoking areas. (a) The Warden must designate a smoking area for use in instances where smoking is part of an authorized inmate religious activity....

  19. Relationship between genetic expression of BDNF and NRG-1 and myelinated nerve fiber density and cross-sectional area in thoracic sympathetic trunk of palmar hyperhidrosis%手汗症患者胸交感神经干脑源性神经营养因子和神经调节因子-1基因表达与有髓神经纤维密度及横截面积的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣刚; 涂远荣; 李旭; 林敏; 陈剑锋; 邱明链

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BD-NF) and neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in thoracic sympathetic trunk and their relation to myelinated nerve fiber density and single myelinated nerve fibers cross-sectional area in palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods Fast red-fast green myelin sheath staining was used to show myelinated nerve fibers. Using the micro-image analysis system,30 cases of myelinated nerve fiber density and single myelinated nerve fibers cross-sectional area were observed in T3 thoracic sympathetic trunk of patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. BDNF and NRG-1 gene expression was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Eight cases of non-palmar hyperhidrosis patients served as controls. Results In 33 thoracic sympathetic trunk of patients with palmar hyperhidrosis, myelinated nerve fiber density and single myelinated nerve fibers cross-sectional area were significantly increased as compared with controls (t = 7. 023,P < 0.05 ; t = 7.462, P < 0.05 respectively). The expression of BDNF and NRG-1 in 33 thoracic sympathetic trunk of patients with palmar hyperhidrosis was 1. 176 00 ± 0.028 70,1. 216 10± 0.075 39 respectively, and that in control group was 1. 037 50 ± 0.053 79,1. 042 70 ± 0.043 57 respectively. The former was significantly higher than the latter ( t = 9.940,P < 0.05 ; t = 6. 195. P < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion BDNF and NRG-I gene over expression increased myelinated nerve fiber density and single myelinated nerve fibers cross-sectional area of thoracic sympathetic trunk in patients with palmar hyperhidro-sis. Thus transmission speed and ability of excitatory of thoracic sympathetic nerve were also increased, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of palmar hyperhidrosis.%目的 观察手汗症患者胸交感神经干脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和神经调节因子-1(NRG-1)基因表达及对有髓神经纤维密度和单个纤维横截面积的影响,探讨与手汗症发病机制的关系.方法 采用核

  20. To the Ocean Sciences section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Barbara

    To maximize our ability to obtain recognition of Ocean Sciences Section members as Fellows of AGU while minimizing the associated workload, I have, in consultation with our executive committee, established an Ocean Sciences Fellows Committee chaired by the President-Elect to oversee and assist in the nomination process.The committee asks that anyone wanting to sponsor a nomination send a one-page proposal telling why an individual should be made a Fellow. Proposals will be reviewed by the commitee, and a number equal to 1 ½ to 2 times our nomination quota will be chosen for full presentation. Committee members will then work with nominators to select and contact seconders, while the nominator provides the required curriculum vitae and publication list. The committee will assist in any manner possible to insure that the files that go forward are both timely and well documented.

  1. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  2. Manchester medical society (imaging section) presidential address 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeley, C. [University of Salford (United Kingdom); Manchester Royal Infirmary (CMFT) (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.blakeley@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, P. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This article is based partly upon the Presidential Address of the Manchester Medical Society (Imaging Section) in 2008. It reviews the development of radiology services in the Manchester (UK) area from their inception in 1896 to the installation of the first EMI body CT scanner in Europe. It considers some of the innovative people in the Manchester area and some milestone events that occurred in that area to help establish the role and value of X-ray in diagnostic imaging. In this article the first recorded case of when X-ray imaging was used in a forensic domiciliary case is also outlined; this occurred approximately 35 miles north of Manchester on 23rd April 1896. The article also explains some interesting background information on the development of the first EMI CT scanner, drawing particularly on the revenue stream generated by the music section of EMI through the success of The Beatles - a band which emanated 35 miles from Manchester in Liverpool.

  3. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  4. ESTUDIOS PETROGRÁFICOS Y DE CORTES DELGADOS PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS LÍTICAS EN EL SECTOR NORTE DEL VALLE DE HUALFÍN (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA (Petrographic and Thin Section Analysis for the Identification of Raw Lithic Materials in the Northern Area of the Hualfín Valley (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lynch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente trabajo se centra en el análisis macroscópico y en estudios petrográficos microscópicos realizados sobre materiales líticos arqueológicos recuperados de los sitios Villavil y Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar las materias primas utilizadas en la manufactura de artefactos asociados a ocupaciones del periodo de Desarrollos Regionales/Inka (ca. 900 al 1400 d. C. y, en base a la información geológica de la zona, se realizaron observaciones acerca de su posible procedencia. Esto permitió discutir las hipótesis planteadas con anterioridad acerca de las prácticas relacionadas con su aprovisionamiento. ENGLISH: The main objective of this study is the macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analysis of lithic materials recovered from the sites of Villavil and Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. The results obtained from this analysis allowed for the identification of the raw materials used in the manufacture of artifacts associated with Regional Developments/Inka Period (ca. 900 to 1400 A.D. occupations. Based on regional geological information, we are able to posit the source locations of these raw materials. This allows for a discussion of previous hypotheses regarding practices of lithic procurement in the area.

  5. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  6. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  7. Seasonal variation of the barrier layer in the PN section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan; WU Dexing; LIN Xiaopei; SHAN Feng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use the conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observation data and a three-dimensional ocean model in a seasonally-varying forcing field to study the barrier layer (BL) in the PN section in the East China Sea (ECS). The BL can be found along the PN section with obviously seasonal variability. In winter, spring and autumn, the BL occurs around the slope where the cold shelf water meets with the warm Kuroshio water. In summer, the BL can also be found in the shelf area near salinity front of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Dilution Water (YRDW). Seasonal variations of BL in the PN section are caused by local hydrological characteristics and seasonal variations of atmospheric forcing. Strong vertical convection caused by sea surface cooling thickens the BL in winter and spring in the slope area. Due to the large discharge of Changjiang River in summer, the BL occurs extensively in the shelf region where the fresh YRDW and the salty bottom water meet and form a strong halocline above the seasonal thermocline. The formation mechanism of BL in the PN section can be explained by the vertical shear of different water masses, which is called the advection mechanism. The interannual variation of BL in summer is greatly affected by the YRDW. In the larger YRDW year (such as 1998), a shallow but much thicker BL existed on the shelf area.

  8. Introduction to the Special Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry-Ann Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several theories of international migration have emerged to explain and predict the patterns created by the international flows of people. While used as an explanatory tool for other sociological phenomena, world-systems analysis has also emerged as a dominant paradigm through which international migration may be explored. In April 2008 Fairfield University in Fairfield, CT hosted the thirty-second annual conference of the Political Economy of the World-System section of the American Sociological Association. The theme was Flow of People and Money across the World-System: Past, Present and Future. The collection of papers presented at this conference was academically rich and produced a wealth of scholarship, some of which is presented in this issue. Vernengo and Bradbury examine the risks associated with dollarization in Ecuador, arguing that although these risks are minimized by the influx of migrant remittances into the country, the trend remains unstable and unsustainable, as was evident in Argentina. Rocha deconstructs the optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, instead arguing that they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism. Dick and Jorgenson focus on environmental consequences of foreign investment dependence for less-developed countries and how various types of ecological degradation can contribute to mass migration. Kentor, Sobel and Timberlake discuss the hierarchy of global cities through which so much money flows back and forth, and specifically the spatiality of inter-corporate integration in the global economy such as the spatial distribution of intra-firm corporate headquarter-subsidiary networks operations and centrality in transportation networks. Lastly, Degirmen presents a case study of globalization of capital in Turkey and how interest and exchange rate shocks produced particularly interesting effects on capital and liquidity structures.

  9. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  10. Special section on LGBT resilience across cultures: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jenkins, Richard A; Valenti, Maria

    2015-03-01

    This special section addresses a gap area of resilience and LGBT well-being. Although comprehensive global diversity regarding LGBT resilience was challenging to find, the special section includes representation from outside the US (Israel and Hong Kong), ethnic/racially diverse domestic populations, immigration, and one population for which LGBT identities might be considered marginalized-Christians in the US. The full range of LGBT identities are represented in the issue along with persons identifying as queer or questioning, although transgendered people were less well represented than lesbian, gay or bisexual identities.

  11. 某艾滋病治疗示范区人免疫缺陷病毒感染者合并隐匿性乙型肝炎病毒感染的调查分析%A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients in acquired immune deficiency syndrome area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红霞; 陈媛媛; 周荣; 张倩; 潘延凤; 谷军生; 李娟; 江河清; 余祖江

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients inacquired immune deficiency syndrome area. Methods Serum samples were obtained from 97 HIV-infected patients who transmitted by paid blood donation. ELISA was used to detect HBV erologic markers (HBsAg, Anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc) and HCV antibody. Flow Cytometry were used to detect CD4 +T cell count. Nested PCR was used to amplify surface protein region of HBV DNA. Results Ninety two patients were HBsAg negative in the 97 HIV-infected patients(94. 85% ). Twenty seven patients were co-infected with occult hepatitis B virus infection in the 92 HBsAg negative patients (29. 35% ).Seventy three patients were co-infected with HCV in the 92 HBsAg negative patients(79.35% ). CD4 cell count of subjects with occult HBV infection were significantly lower (212. 11 ± 133. 1 cells/mm3 versus 318.9 ± 172.2 cells/mm3, respectively, P <0. 01 ). A significantly higher prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was observed in HIV-infected subjects co-infectionded with occult HBV infection [62. 96% ( 13 of 27 )versus 18.46% (15 of 65 ) , P < 0. 01]. No statistical significant association could be established between the age, sex and whether co-infected with HCV. Conclusion It is found that occult HBV infection did occurs in HIV-infected patients. Individuals co-infected with HIV and occult HBV infection are more likely to have isolated anti-HBc than subjects with HIV alone. Co-infection with HIV and occult HBV is more%目的 调查分析某艾滋病治疗示范区人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)-1感染者中隐匿性乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染的情况及其影响因素.方法 采集某艾滋病治疗示范区97例经血感染HIV-1的感染者的血浆,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测乙型肝炎表面抗原与抗体(HBsAg与抗HBs)、乙型肝炎e抗原与抗体(HBeAg与抗Hbe)、乙型肝炎核心抗体(抗HBc)及丙型肝炎抗体(抗HCV);采用吸附柱法抽提HBV DNA;采用巢

  12. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Weisenstein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an intercomparison of several aerosol modules, sectional and modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Three versions of the sectional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the prescribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs. 150 used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sectional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all situations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signficant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol extinction and surface area density calculated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability, with a 20-bin sectional model performing much better than any of the modal models.

  13. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  15. Analytical study of indications of cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki M. Pandya

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of number of primary cesarean sections and successful VBAC trials are recommended to keep the rate of cesarean sections to the possible minimum level. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1460-1463

  16. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  17. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  18. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  19. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  20. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  1. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 § 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  2. 46 CFR Section 1 - Books of account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Books of account. Section 1 Section 1 Shipping MARITIME... TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounts Section 1 Books of account. A separate set of books of account... agreement. The books of original entry and ledgers may be similar in design to those heretofore employed...

  3. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  4. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  5. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  6. nxs a program library for neutron cross section calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boin, M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of routines for calculating neutron scattering and absorption cross sections on the basis of crystal structure descriptions is presented and implemented in the new and reusable nxs program library. An example program providing a graphical user interface to the nxs functions is created to demonstrate their usage. The flexibility of the library and the possibilities for multiple areas of application are shown by further examples involving Monte Carlo neutron simulations concerned ...

  7. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  9. 50 CFR 660.396 - EFH Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas. 660.396 Section 660.396 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.396 EFH Conservation Areas. EFH Conservation Areas are designated to minimize to the...

  10. 78 FR 38842 - Definition of a Ski Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 251 RIN 0596-AD12 Definition of a Ski Area AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is amending the definition of a ski area in its regulations to make it consistent with the authority in section 3 of the Ski Area Recreational...

  11. 14 CFR 1203a.103 - Access to security areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to security areas. 1203a.103 Section 1203a.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.103 Access to security areas. (a) Only those NASA employees, NASA contractor employees,...

  12. 14 CFR 1203a.104 - Violation of security areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violation of security areas. 1203a.104 Section 1203a.104 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA SECURITY AREAS § 1203a.104 Violation of security areas. (a) Removal of unauthorized persons. The directors of NASA...

  13. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gear areas. 697.23 Section 697... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed...) Restricted Gear Area I—(1) Duration—(i) Mobile Gear. From October 1 through June 15 of each fishing year,...

  14. 75 FR 20237 - Interagency Group on Insular Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... on Insular Areas By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Interagency Group on Insular Areas... Interagency Group on Insular Areas (IGIA) to address policies concerning Guam, American Samoa, the...

  15. 10 CFR 1303.103 - Public reading area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reading area. 1303.103 Section 1303.103 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.103 Public reading area. (a) A public reading area is available at the Board office located at 2300 Clarendon Blvd., Suite...

  16. 24 CFR 570.441 - Citizen participation-insular areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citizen participation-insular areas...-Entitlement CDBG Grants in Hawaii and Insular Areas Programs § 570.441 Citizen participation—insular areas. (a... shall comply with the citizen participation requirements described in this section. An insular...

  17. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  18. Downhole tool with replaceable tool sleeve sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, W. A.

    1985-10-29

    A downhole tool for insertion in a drill stem includes elongated cylindrical half sleeve tool sections adapted to be non-rotatably supported on an elongated cylindrical body. The tool sections are mountable on and removable from the body without disconnecting either end of the tool from a drill stem. The half sleeve tool sections are provided with tapered axially extending flanges on their opposite ends which fit in corresponding tapered recesses formed on the tool body and the tool sections are retained on the body by a locknut threadedly engaged with the body and engageable with an axially movable retaining collar. The tool sections may be drivably engaged with axial keys formed on the body or the tool sections may be formed with flat surfaces on the sleeve inner sides cooperable with complementary flat surfaces formed on a reduced diameter portion of the body around which the tool sections are mounted.

  19. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... the counties of Accomack, Northampton, Nansemond, James City, the cities of Chesapeake and...

  20. CD-ROM and Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This special section on local area networks includes three articles: (1) a description of migration at Joyner Library, East Carolina University (North Carolina) to a new network server; (2) a discussion of factors to consider for network planning in school libraries; and (3) a directory of companies supplying cable, hardware, software, and…

  1. 10 CFR 851.24 - Functional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; electrical safety; industrial hygiene; occupational medicine; biological safety; and motor vehicle safety. (b... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional areas. 851.24 Section 851.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.24 Functional...

  2. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD) in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Co...

  3. Urethral pressure reflectometry; a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    in several studies. But the technique, which was based on the field gradient principle, was never implemented in the clinical setting because of technical limitations. In 2005, urethral pressure reflectometry was introduced as a new technique in female urodynamics. The technique has been shown to be more...

  4. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 7. Eastern Study Area, Section 1. 0, Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Cation exchange capacities tend to be highest in the soils containing argillic or clay horizons. Typically, this is most notable below a depth of 12...for extended periods. They have properties related to a seasonally high water table. The Aquic Haplustolls lack an argillic horizon and may be mottled

  5. 76 FR 37617 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... to reflect current industry operating practices, and to solve marketing problems as they occur. The... with USDA to solve marketing problems. The marketing order continues to be beneficial to producers... / Tuesday, June 28, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural...

  6. Allied Geographical Section, Southwest Pacific Area, Terrain Handbook 57. Jolo Group (Philippine Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-02-12

    A political subdivision of a municipality. Baguio: Typhoon. Bodega: Warehouse. Banca : Canoe made by hollowing out a log. Batil: Small sailing...2 COASTAL INFORMATION A—OFFSHORE CONDITIONS 1. GENERAL: Jolo is one of largest and most centrally situated islands in Sulu Archipelago...has houses grouped tightly along Maimbung R which is main transportation avenue. h. Roads: Route 1 (Jolo to Liangliang) runs through central

  7. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio.

  8. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  9. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  10. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  11. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  12. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  13. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  14. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  15. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  16. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  17. 75 FR 65012 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... requirements of section 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of Section 1605(b)(2) (iron, steel, and... photovoltaic LED area lighting systems with a non- corrosive, stainless steel, powder-coated anti-weathering... used on eligible EERE-Recovery Act funded projects. DATES: Effective Date: September 30, 2010. ]...

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  19. Amplitude-Equalized Microwave C-Section

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2016-01-01

    An active microwave C-section is proposed which provides a flat magnitude transmission in a wide frequency band along with a frequency-dependent group delay response considering practical dissipation losses. The key lies in integrating a constant gain amplifier inside a microwave C-section, which perfectly compensates the distributed conductor and dielectric losses of the coupler, while preserving the intrinsic dispersion of the C-section. The operation of the proposed device is confirmed using numerical analysis.

  20. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  1. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  2. The Golden Section as Optical Limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available The golden section, ϕ = (1 + √5/2 = 1.618... and its companion ϕ = 1/ϕ = ϕ -1 = 0.618..., are irrational numbers which for centuries were believed to confer aesthetic appeal. In line with the presence of golden sectioning in natural growth patterns, recent EEG recordings show an absence of coherence between brain frequencies related by the golden ratio, suggesting the potential relevance of the golden section to brain dynamics. Using Mondrian-type patterns comprising a number of paired sections in a range of five section-section areal ratios (including golden-sectioned pairs, participants were asked to indicate as rapidly and accurately as possible the polarity (light or dark of the smallest section in the patterns. They were also asked to independently assess the aesthetic appeal of the patterns. No preference was found for golden-sectioned patterns, while reaction times (RTs tended to decrease overall with increasing ratio independently of each pattern's fractal dimensionality. (Fractal dimensionality was unrelated to ratio and measured in terms of the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting dimension. The ease of detecting the smallest section also decreased with increasing ratio, although RTs were found to be substantially slower for golden-sectioned patterns under 8-paired sectioned conditions. This was confirmed by a significant linear relationship between RT and ratio (p < .001 only when the golden-sectioned RTs were excluded [the relationship was non-significant for the full complement of ratios (p = .217]. Image analysis revealed an absence of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles-per-degree that was exclusive to the 8-paired (golden-sectioned patterns. The significance of this was demonstrated in a subsequent experiment by addition of uniformly distributed random noise to the patterns. This provided a uniform spatial-frequency profile for all patterns, which did not influence the decrease in RT with increasing ratio but abolished

  3. Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.

  4. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  5. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    2004-01-01

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  6. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  7. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  8. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  9. Revision of Cyrtandra section Dissimiles (Gesneriaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramley, G.L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Section Dissimiles C.B. Clarke is reviewed. Eleven species are known, one of which is newly described here (C. fulvisericea), and one species is reduced to synonymy (C. producta = C. trisepala). The section is centred on Borneo, with two outlying species in Sumatra and one in Peninsular Malaysia. Se

  10. Per operative findings in repeat cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sinha

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Chances of developing adhesions increases with each cesarean section, which leads to increase in morbidity of women. Thus cases of previous cesarean section should be educated about routine antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1093-1096

  11. Immunohistochemistry on freely floating fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry on free floating tissue sections is done for many reasons, all of which involve labeling tissue to visualize a certain cell type, protein, or structural component. Visualization is aided by mounting sections on microscope slides for stabilization, and is in most cases necessary for the appropriate use of objectives with a high numerical aperture and high degree of magnification.

  12. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  13. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic...

  14. Educational strategies in performing cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine; Grønbeck, Lene; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg;

    2012-01-01

    Cesarean section is a common operation and one of the first surgeries performed independently by trainees/residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Determination of trainees' technical skills level is dependent upon subjective faculty assessment. Based on three studies on learning curves in cesarean...... section, it is recommended that trainees perform 10-15 to 40 supervised cesarean sections prior to operating independently. Surgical technical skills of trainees/residents may be assessed by Objective Structured Assessment of Technical skills (OSATS), which provides a foundation for constructive feedback...... during surgical training. The Danish, Swedish and British Obstetric and Gynecological Societies' guidelines on cesarean section were reviewed regarding cesarean section surgical technique. Placental removal by traction on the umbilical cord is recommended uniformly, however, the Danish guidelines...

  15. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  16. Mineral and bone disorder in maintenance hemodialysis patients in disadvantaged areas of Guangdong Province:a cross-sectional study from Wuhua County of Meizhou City%广东省贫困地区维持性血液透析人群矿物质及骨代谢异常现况--梅州市五华县横断面调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张裕生; 陈源汉; 李志莲; 郑锐; 曾鹏飞; 钟丽红; 梁馨苓; 史伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic of mineral and bone disorder (MBD ) in disadvantaged areas of Guangdong Province .Methods A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in a poor county of Wuhua County . Biochemical indicators and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH ) was determined , and knowledge about MBD concept and diet habit was investigated through interview questionnaire . Results Forty-six Hakkas patients were investigated ,aged (46 ± 11 ) years ,80 .4% from rural population ,with a median of hemodialysis vintage of 35 months and a median of dialysis frequency of 4 times per two weeks . According to the K/DOQI criteria ,41 .3% qualified the optimal calcium standard ,while only 6 .5% and 19 .6% reached the optimal standard of phosphate and iPTH .None was up to the optimal standard of all the 3 indices .In the 43 patients who completed the interview questionnaire ,the awareness rate of of iPTH ,renal osteodystrophy ,low phosphorus diet and phosphate binder was 44 .2% ,55 .8% ,53 .5% and 69 .8% , respectively;and the rate of diet habits of meat soup ,meat intake without control ,and milk and soybeans intake was 58 .1% ,46 .5% ,28 .3% and 21 .7% ,respectively .Conclusions The performance of MBD in hemodialysis patients is not satisfied in disadvantaged areas of Guangdong Province . Poor economic and medical conditions ,insufficient health education ,poor compliance and traditional Hakka cuisine contribute to the challenge of local MBD health management .%目的了解广东省贫困地区血液透析人群矿物质及骨代谢异常的流行病学情况。方法在广东省特困县梅州市五华县进行横断面调查。检测维持性血液透析患者的生化指标和全段甲状旁腺激素,访谈式问卷调查患者对矿物质及骨代谢异常的知晓情况和饮食习惯。结果调查46例患者,年龄(46±11)岁,均为客家人,80.4%为农村人口,中位透析时间35月,每2周中位透析次数4次。根据K/DOQI指南

  17. A Synoptic Snapshot of the East Cape Eddy (ECE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu

    2005-01-01

    A synoptic snapshot in this study is made for the East Cape Eddy (ECE) based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P14C Hydrographic Section and Shipboard ADCP velocity vector data collected in September 1992.The ECE is an anticyclonic eddy, barotropically structured and centered at 33.64°S and 176.21°E, with warm and salinouscored subsurface water. The radius of the eddy is of the order O (110 km) and the maximum circumferential velocity is O(40cms-1); as a result, the relative vorticity is estimated to be O (7 × 10-6s-1). Due to the existence of the ECE, the mixed layer north of New Zealand becomes deeper, reaching a depth of 300 m in the austral winter. The ECE plays an important role in the formation and distribution of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) over a considerable area in the South Pacific.

  18. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  19. Cross-sectional imaging patterns of desmoplastic fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Wirtz, D.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of desmoplastic fibroma (DF). In 3 patients with histologically proven DF, the imaging characteristics obtained with cross-sectional techniques were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographs and CT scans were available in all patients, and plain and contrast-enhanced MR examinations in 2 patients. Compared with conventional radiographs, CT allowed more accurate assessment of the extent of bone destruction including cortical breakthrough and articular invasion. Intramedullary tumor growth and soft tissue extension was best detected with MRI. Apart from heterogeneity on MR images, DF displayed nonspecific low signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images and an intermediate to high signal intensity including areas of low intensity on T2-weighted images. Desmoplastic fibroma showed a distinct, inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Although cross-sectional imaging features of DF are nonspecific, some MR characteristics, such as inhomogeneous contrast enhancement and the presence of low-intensity regions on T2-weighted images, are helpful in determining the differential diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging of DF is useful for local staging of the tumor because it provides valuable information about the extent of bone destruction as well as medullary and extraosseous spread. (orig.)

  20. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  1. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  2. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  3. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  4. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  5. Driftless Area NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  7. VELOCITY AND CONCENTRATION OF BUBBLES IN OZONIZATION COLUMNS WITH CROSS SECTIONS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Vieira Soares,Leonardo; Alamy Filho,José Eduardo; Daniel,Luiz Antonio; Schulz, Harry Edmar

    2008-01-01

    The size of the cross section of an ozonization column influences its hydrodynamic characteristics, which, on its turn, has effects on phenomena that depend on the relative movement between gas bubbles and liquid. To observe the influence of the cross sectional area on gas concentration and bubbles velocity, two columns were used. The first column had a square cross section with side of 0.19m and the second had a circular cross section with diameter of 0.10 m. The ascendant velocities of the ...

  8. Groundwater Pathway Model for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Terry A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Strobridge, Daniel M. [Neptune Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cole, Gregory L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, Carl Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Broxton, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schofield, Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-10

    This report consists of four major sections, including this introductory section. Section 2 provides an overview of previous investigations related to the development of the current sitescale model. The methods and data used to develop the 3-D groundwater model and the techniques used to distill that model into a form suitable for use in the GoldSim models are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 presents the results of the model development effort and discusses some of the uncertainties involved. Eight attachments that provide details about the components and data used in this groundwater pathway model are also included with this report. The groundwater modeling effort reported here is a revision of the work that was conducted in 2005 (Stauffer et al., 2005a) in support of the 2008 Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008). The revision effort was undertaken primarily to incorporate new geologic information that has been collected since 2003 at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. The new data were used to create a more accurate geologic framework model (GFM) that forms the basis of the numerical modeling of the site’s long-term performance. The groundwater modeling uses mean hydrologic properties of the geologic strata underlying Area G; this revision includes an evaluation of the impacts that natural variability in these properties may have on the model projections.

  9. PLSS Townships and Sections, Section coverage, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Section coverage'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  10. PLSS Townships and Sections, TwnSections, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'TwnSections'. Data by this publisher...

  11. Acoustic propagation in ducts with varying cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to derive the equations that describe the spatial and temporal variation of the amplitudes and phases of a wave packet propagating in slowly varying hard-walled or lined ducts. The analysis is carried out for rectangular as well as circular ducts. These equations are statements of the conservation of energy. For large admittance or high-frequency modes, an approximate expression is obtained for the attenuation. This expression shows that all possible acoustic modes are attenuating. The results also show that decreasing the cross sectional area can lead to elimination of some of the acoustic modes.

  12. 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Michail; Georgiev, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on Advanced Computing in Industrial Mathematics, which is one of the most prominent interdisciplinary areas and combines mathematics, computer science, scientific computations, engineering, physics, chemistry, medicine, etc. Further, the book presents the tools of Industrial Mathematics, which are based on mathematical models, and the corresponding computer codes, which are used to perform virtual experiments to obtain new data or to better understand the existing experimental results. The book gathers the peer-reviewed papers presented during the 10th Annual Meeting of the Bulgarian Section of SIAM (BGSIAM) from December 21 to 22, 2015 in Sofia, Bulgaria.

  13. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  14. Use of frozen section in genitourinary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Steven S; Truong, Luan D; Ro, Jae Y; Ayala, Alberto G

    2012-08-01

    Frozen section diagnosis provides critical information for immediate surgical management decision making. Over the last several years, there have been some significant advances in treatment of genitourinary cancer, particularly with regard to surgical techniques. These changes in turn impact the type and frequency of intraoperative frozen section requests. In this review, we describe the main indications and diagnostic challenges of frozen section diagnosis during surgeries of each genitourinary organ system including prostate, kidney, bladder, testis, and penis. The pitfalls and approaches to different diagnostic situations are discussed. It is also stressed that pathologists must not only be familiar with the histological diagnosis, but also understand the limitations of frozen section diagnosis and communicate with urologists during the intraoperative treatment decision making process.

  15. Missing Broken Needle During Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Das

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Breakage of the needle and missing while repairing the uterine wound during cesarean section is an uncommon event. Subsequently it was removed under fluoroscopic guidance on the 7th postoperative day

  16. Cesarean Section: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An analysis of variations of indications and maternal-fetal prognosis for... Article: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Shivering during Cesarean Delivery under Spinal Anesthesia. Article: Optimal Pain Management After Cesarean Delivery. Cesarean Section -- see more ...

  17. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...... on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and beta-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  18. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  19. Area inequalities for stable marginally trapped surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a family of inequalities involving the area, angular momentum and charges of stably outermost marginally trapped surfaces in generic non-vacuum dynamical spacetimes, with non-negative cosmological constant and matter sources satisfying the dominant energy condition. These inequalities provide lower bounds for the area of spatial sections of dynamical trapping horizons, namely hypersurfaces offering quasi-local models of black hole horizons. In particular, these inequalities represent particular examples of the extension to a Lorentzian setting of tools employed in the discussion of minimal surfaces in Riemannian contexts.

  20. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  1. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  2. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  3. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera – Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Welzen, van, P.C.; J. W. F. Slik

    2005-01-01

    A revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera) in Malesia and Thailand is given. Descriptions, distribution maps, habit drawings, and a key to the species are provided. The diagnostic characters for the section are briefly discussed. Five species (M. kongkandae, M. leptostachyus, M. pallidus, M. philippensis, and M. repandus) are recognised. Mallotus chromocarpus is excluded from the section because it has more shared characters with the monospecific genus Octospermum...

  4. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  5. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  6. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  7. Hyperplane arrangements and Lefschetz's hyperplane section theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    The Lefschetz hyperplane section theorem asserts that a complex affine variety is homotopy equivalent to a space obtained from its generic hyperplane section by attaching some cells. The purpose of this paper is to give an explicit description of attaching maps of these cells for the complement of a complex hyperplane arrangement defined over real numbers. The cells and attaching maps are described in combinatorial terms of chambers. We also discuss the cellular chain complex with coefficient...

  8. Reconstruction Formulas for Photoacoustic Sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Elbau, Peter; Schulze, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The literature on reconstruction formulas for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is vast. The various reconstruction formulas differ by used measurement devices and geometry on which the data are sampled. In standard photoacoustic imaging (PAI), the object under investigation is illuminated uniformly. Recently, sectional photoacoustic imaging techniques, using focusing techniques for initializing and measuring the pressure along a plane, appeared in the literature. This paper surveys existing and provides novel exact reconstruction formulas for sectional photoacoustic imaging.

  9. A taxonomic revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera – Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra, S.E.C.; Welzen, van P.C.; Slik, J.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    A revision of Mallotus section Philippinenses (former section Rottlera) in Malesia and Thailand is given. Descriptions, distribution maps, habit drawings, and a key to the species are provided. The diagnostic characters for the section are briefly discussed. Five species (M. kongkandae, M. leptostac

  10. FDAMA Section 114: Why the Renewed Interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Burke, Laurie; Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Gaballah, Mena

    2015-05-01

    The FDA regulates the use of information by biopharmaceutical companies in their promotional activities. Section 114 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) was specifically designed to allow companies to more readily disseminate health care economic information (HCEI) to those who need it for formulary decision making. However, very little HCEI has been distributed promotionally under this provision over the past 17 years. There are recent discussions by stakeholders regarding the need for updates, revisions, or guidance regarding Section 114.In light of recent renewed interest in Section 114 of the FDAMA, the purpose of this commentary is to equip managed care decision makers with the information they need to understand and respond to industry communications that are governed by Section 114. This commentary reviews and synthesizes the regulatory history and language of the statute and changes to the promotion regulation generated by Section 114. It explores the reasons for the section's limited use to date, for recent renewed interest, and why changes by various stakeholders are suggested at this time. Also discussed is what managed care pharmacists need to know about Section 114, and suggestions are included regarding the active role pharmacists can play in this change process. Renewed interest in FDAMA Section 114 appears to stem largely from the increasingly visible and growing interest in comparative effectiveness research, the emergence of "big data," the expanding range of data sources available for deriving HCEI, and recent court decisions that might indicate a change in the regulatory environment. Various stakeholders are proposing recommendations regarding changes to FDAMA Section 114. Managed care pharmacists should be aware that companies are restricted when communicating HCEI promotional messages; this may mean seeing the use of FDAMA Section 114 as the "competent and reliable" effectiveness standard in promotion. If the

  11. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.2 - Southwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southwest marketing area. 1126.2 Section 1126.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.2 - Arizona marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Arizona marketing area. 1131.2 Section 1131.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order...

  15. 78 FR 5115 - General Schedule Locality Pay Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... RIN 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... locality pay areas. Section 5304 of title 5, United States Code, authorizes locality pay for General...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  16. 19 CFR 122.181 - Definition of Customs security area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of Customs security area. 122.181 Section 122.181 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.181 Definition...

  17. 20 CFR 628.405 - Service delivery areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service delivery areas. 628.405 Section 628... TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Local Service Delivery System § 628.405 Service delivery... evaluate the degree to which a proposed service delivery area meets criteria established by the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.17001 - Illumination of surface working areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illumination of surface working areas. 57.17001 Section 57.17001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Illumination § 57.17001 Illumination of surface working areas. Illumination sufficient to provide safe...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order...