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Sample records for areas sierra sur

  1. Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area - Sierra Nevada [ds568

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Southern Sierra Fisher Conservation Area encompasses the known occupied range of the Pacific fisher in the Sierra Nevada. This consists of an elevational band...

  2. Ignimbrite Flare-up in the North-Central Sierra Madre del Sur, Southern Mexico: a Continuation of the Sierra Madre Occidental Ignimbrite Province?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Zenteno, D. J.; Alba-Aldave, L.; Gonzalez-Torres, E. A.; Martiny, B.; Bravo-Diaz, B. A.; Sohn, E.

    2007-05-01

    The north-central Sierra Madre del Sur, immediately south of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, is made up of a series of Eocene silicic volcanic centers distributed along a WNW trending 300 km long belt from Valle de Bravo to Huautla (98°50'-100°30'W longitude). This belt constitutes an inland arc near parallel to, and coeval with, the coastal batholitic belt of southern Mexico. It includes at least 9 exhumed volcanic edifices that display diverse caldera styles controlled by regional fracture zones and rheological contrasts in the host rocks. Initiation of the volcanism ranges from 37 Ma in the west to 32 Ma in the east, and extinction of magmatism was nearly simultaneous in the eastern half of the belt. Southwest of the silicic volcanic belt, andesitic volcanism is slightly younger (33-29 Ma) and the combined effect of post-Eocene uplift and erosion removed most of the extracaldera facies. The remnants of the silicic volcanic cover extend over an area of ~3000 km2. Reactivated fracture zones related to the volcanic activity include NW to W- trending faults that reveal a transition from left lateral to right lateral slip as result of a change in the stress field during the last stages of silicic volcanism. These and other groups of N-S to NNW trending faults accommodated the collapse structures and were the sites of emplacement of massive pyroclastic dikes. Immediately north of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, ignimbrites and related rocks of the Mesa Central and southern Sierra Madre Occidental are slightly younger and display a westward 30 to ~15 Ma migration pattern accompanied by E-W regional extension. These patterns have been attributed to the roll back of the subducted slab, which caused the ascent of asthenospheric mantle and probably triggered ignimbrite flare-up. The distinct tectonic and geochronologic patterns of the arc volcanic rocks in the northern Sierra Madre del Sur and the southern Sierra Madre Occidental-Mesa Central suggests two slab segments

  3. Patrones biogeográficos de la avifauna de la Sierra Madre del Sur Biogeographic patterns of the avifauna of the Sierra Madre del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos la avifauna de 26 subcuencas de la provincia biótica de la Sierra Madre del Sur y sus relaciones biogeográficas utilizando el análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE. A partir de información distributional de las especies obtenida de la base de datos del Atlas de las aves de México y de la literatura disponible, construimos una matriz de datos para 26 subcuencas y 437 especies. Se obtuvo un cladograma que sugiere la existencia de 3 grupos de subcuencas: el primero agrupa subcuencas de climas áridos, ubicadas geográficamente de norte a sureste en el estado de Oaxaca; el segundo, otras subcuencas de ambientes climáticos subhúmedos, y el tercero, las restantes subcuencas de ambientes climáticos húmedos de mayor complejidad ambiental.We analyzed the avifauna of 26 sub-basins of the Sierra Madre del Sur biotic province and their biogeographical relationships applying a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Based on the distributional information of the species obtained from the Atlas de las aves de México and published literature, we built a data matrix for 26 sub-basins and 437 species. The single cladogram obtained suggests the existence of three groups of sub-basins:the first with 5 sub-basins from arid environments, geographically located in north-southeastern Oaxaca; the second with another 5 sub-basins form subhumid environments; and the third one with the remaining sub-basins, from humid and environmentally more complex habitats.

  4. La Economía Campesina y su Integracioh al Mercado:El Caso de la Sierra Sur del Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Figueroa

    1980-01-01

    En el presente articulo se presentaun marc23analítico para estudiar el proceso de produccibn e intercambio en Ias economías campesinas. La realidad estudiada se compone de las comunidades campesinas de la sierm sur del Perú, La visibn común que se tiene de la sociedad peruana es que los campesinos de la sierra constituye una economía ‘auto-suficiente" ‘“fuera del mercado”, Pero dadas sus características culturales, se espera que las comunidades de la sierra sur sean el caso más extremo de dua...

  5. La spatialisation des précipitations sur les deux versants de la Sierra Madre occidentale

    OpenAIRE

    Descroix, Luc; Nouvelot, Jean-François; Estrada, Juan; Gutierrez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On a vu comment l'aridité pouvait être une contrainte au développement, au Nord-Mexique comme dans d'autres régions. La connaissance de la répartition des précipitations est rendue difficile dans ces régions peu peuplées et de fait équipées d'un réseau de mesure d'autant plus lâche que de nombreuses stations ont été arrêtées ces dernières années. La répartition des précipitations annuelles sur la partie centrale de la Sierra Madre occidentale (correspondant aux régions hydrologiq...

  6. Diversidad de maiz en la sierra sur de Oaxaca, México: conocimiento y manejo tradicional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca representa un importante acervo de maíz en México. Estudios previos han indicado la presencia de muchas variedades locales y razas agronómicas en la Sierra Norte y Valles Centrales. La Sierra Sur ha sido poco estudiada a pesar de la presencia de comunidades indígenas zapotecas, las cuales cultivan maíz, entre otras especies, y han preservado las variedades locales. El presente estudio responde a las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuál es la diversidad de maíz en términos de variedades tradicionales y razas agronómicas en la región zapoteca de Los Loxicha?, ¿la diversidad de maíz sigue un patrón de distribución a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal?, ¿cuáles prácticas promueven y mantienen esta diversidad? Para contestar estas preguntas se realizó un estudio en cinco municipios de la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca. Durante 2007 se aplicaron entrevistas estructuradas a 930 agricultores para describir el proceso de manejo de semilla. La caracterización morfológica de las razas agronómicas se basó en muestras de mazorcas obtenidas en 375 milpas, con 20 plantas por milpa. Se encontraron altos niveles de diversidad local de maíz, con 36 variedades tradicionales correspondientes a 10 razas agronómicas. Las razas exhibieron diferencias en términos de variación fenotípica, distribución altitudinal y algunas muestran adaptación local. Los agricultores practican algunas formas de manejo ancestral para la selección de mazorcas y semillas, manteniendo, así, ciertos niveles de diferenciación entre las variedades y las razas agronómicas. Sin embargo, al sembrar diferentes variedades dentro de la misma parcela, se promueve el flujo génico y la introgresión entre ellas, manteniendo y promoviendo la diversidad fenotípica y genética.

  7. The vascular flora and floristic relationships of the Sierra de La Giganta in Baja California Sur, Mexico La flora vascular y las relaciones florísticas de la sierra de La Giganta de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis León de la Luz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra de La Giganta is a semi-arid region in the southern part of the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. Traditionally, this area has been excluded as a sector of the Sonoran Desert and has been more often lumped with the dry-tropical Cape Region of southern Baja California peninsula, but this classical concept of the vegetation has not previously been analyzed using formal documentation. In the middle of the last century, Annetta Carter, a botanist from the University of California, began explorations in the Sierra de La Giganta that lasted 24 years, she collected 1 550 specimens and described several new species from this area, but she never published an integrated study of the flora. Our objectives, having developed extensive collections in the same area over the past years, are to provide a comprehensive species list and description of the vegetation of this mountain range. We found a flora of 729 taxa, poorly represented in tree life-forms (3.1%, a moderate level (4.4% of endemism, and the dominance of plants in the sampling plots is composed mainly for legume trees and shrubs. Additionally, using a biogeographical approach, we compare our list with other known lists of plants from 5 areas, 3 in the Cape Region, 1 in the Sonoran Desert, and other in the thornscrub area of NW Mexico. We conclude that the La Giganta flora has a mixed composition, primarily made up of plants shared with the lowlands of the southern Cape Region, but also share an important proportion of the flora with the desert mountains of the central peninsula and some with the Sonoran desertscrub of mainland Mexico. Consequently we support that the La Giganta flora is part of a floristic continuum along the volcanic mountains of the southern peninsula that eventually could be considered a new eco-region in the same peninsular land.La sierra de La Giganta se localiza en el estado de Baja California Sur, México, en una región semi-árida. Tradicionalmente, esta

  8. Avistamientos recientes de águila real (Aquila chrysaetos en la sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, México Recent sightings of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in the Sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Guerrero-Cárdenas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevos avistamientos de águila real durante 3 años consecutivos (2007-2010 en 2 localidades de la sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito y las Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. Los avistamientos, se realizaron con cámaras-trampa y por observación directa. En BCS, los registros más recientes son de la sierra de la Laguna en el 2000. Se han detectado al menos 4 individuos diferentes, entre juveniles y adultos. La importancia de estos nuevos avistamientos reside en que por primera vez se registra la presencia del águila real en cuerpos de agua dulce.We report new sightings of Golden Eagle for 3 consecutive years (2007-2010 at 2 localities of the Sierra El Mechudo (El Saucito and Tarabillas, Baja California Sur. These sightings were recorded with camera traps and by direct observation. Most recent records from BCS are for the Sierra de la Laguna in 2000. At least 4 different individuals, both juveniles and adults, have been recorded. The importance of these new sightings is that for the first time we registered Golden Eagles infresh water wetlands.

  9. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  10. Historia ambiental de Las Ánimas, Baja California Sur, México: un oasis en la Sierra La Giganta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Castillo Maldonado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la historia ambiental de la comunidad de Las Ánimas, ubicada en la Sierra La Giganta, en el estado de Baja California Sur, en el noroeste de México. Las Ánimas se caracteriza por su riqueza biocutural y por la alta capacidad adaptativa de su comunidad ranchera, que ha sido capaz de sustentarse en el aislamiento y la aridez, con base en un hilo de agua que brota en los manantiales serranos y corre disimuladamente por cañadas. Sin embargo, el proceso de modernización que está llegando a esa comunidad rural, tiende a desarticular las tradicionales relaciones sociedad/naturaleza, lo que ha dado atisbos de conflictos socio ambientales. Para enfrentarlos, actualmente en Las Ánimas se está llevando a cabo un importante proceso de conservación y ordenamiento sin precedentes en la región.

  11. Stratigraphic review of Punta Coyote (Baja California Sur, Mexico) and implications for the volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Comondu arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new stratigraphic evidence for a migration of the Upper Volcanic Supergroup that formed the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic arc in northwestern Mexico during the Oligocene-Miocene. Particularly we discuss the transition from the frontal arc to the Comondu volcanic arc in Punta Coyote, Baja California Peninsula. This information complements the knowledge of the stratigraphic evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic arc in Baja California and its correlation with the Upper Volcanic Supergroup of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. We present new stratigraphic and sedimentologic data of the volcanosedimentary succession of the lower unit of the Comondu group near of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, in Punta Coyote. Facies analysis and new 40Ar/39Ar dating allowed to interpret the sedimentary environment and evolution of volcanic pulses in the lower unit of the Comondu group in Punta Coyote. The study area was part of the forearc basin westward to the SMO volcanic arc during the Oligocene to early Miocene. The sedimentary environment of the lower unit of the Comondu group was initially a braided river system that prograded to an alluvial fan environment and three tuffs units: Los Azabaches tuff (30.6 ± 0.4 Ma), La Capilla and El Oro tuffs (22.0 ± 0.4 Ma). The succession studied provides new stratigraphic information related to the evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic arc in the Baja California Peninsula and its correlation with the Upper Volcanic Supergroup of the SMO in northwestern Mexico. (Author).

  12. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans (Marion P.G.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame, simil

  13. Geología de la parte sur de la Sierra de San Luis y granitoides asociados, Argentina

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    Llambías, E. J.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower Palaeozoic basement of the southern part of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina, is made up of metamorphic rocks, granitoids and ultramafic rocks. The metamorphic grade ranges from the lower limit of greenschist facies through the upper limit of amphibolite facies, in apparent transition. The lower grade metamorphic rocks include slates, metavolcanics, metaconglomerates, quartzites and phyllites. Rocks with intermediate metamorphism are biotite-quartz-oligoclase schists with abundant pegmatoid veins. The higher grade metamorphism is represented by gneisses, amphibolites and migmatites, to which mafic and ultramafic bodies are associated. Three deformation phases have been recognized, being the last one (D3, of ordovician age, responsible of the most marked structures.The granitoids were grouped into pre-, syn- and post-kynematic bodies respect to D3. The pre-kynematic granitoids are located within the belt of lower grade metamorphic rocks and are composed of tonalites, granodiorites and monzogranites, strongly deformed. Their age is unknown. The syn-kynematic bodies are mainly garnet-moscovite-bearing leucogranodiorites. They show low thermal and rheological contrasts respect to the country rocks, and the age is 454 ± 21 m.a. The post-kynematic granitoids are mainly monzogranites with K-feldspar megacrysts and abundant sphene. They are subcircular and discordant, and are associated with an extensional regime. Their age is comprised between 423 and 320 m.a., and corresponds to the end of the Famatinian cycle.El basamento cristalino de la parte sur de la Sierra de San Luis, de edad Paleozoico Inferior, está constituido por rocas metamórficas, granitoides y rocas ultramáficas. El grado de metamorfismo varía desde la parte baja de esquistos verdes hasta la parte alta de la facies anfibolita, siendo sus relaciones de aparente transicionalidad. Las rocas con menor grado metamórfico consisten en pizarras, metavolcanitas, metaconglomerados

  14. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  15. 75 FR 42601 - Establishment of the Sierra Pelona Valley Viticultural Area (2010R-004P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... viticultural area in the Federal Register (74 FR 35146) on July 20, 2009. In that notice, TTB invited comments... the consumer with adequate information as to the identity and quality of the product. The Alcohol and... Valley'' or ``Sierra Pelona'' and any currently used brand names. In response to that notice, we...

  16. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

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    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  17. Geología y petrología de los granitoides del sur de la Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba, Argetina

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    Otamendi, J. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The petrography and petrology characteristics of a group of granitoid bodies from the crystalline basement of Southern Comechingones Hills, is described here.In the metamorphic Complex biotitic gneisses, anphibolites, marbles and metabasic rocks were recognized. The main metamorphic episode in this area reached high-temperature within medium grade conditions.These granitoid are: biotitic granites, leucogranites and gneissic granites.The biotitic granites, with biotite, apatite sillimanite and garnet, are elongate bodies, concordant with the main penetrative schistosity. Have medium to small grain, with an important foliation, shown by the lineation of micaceous minerals.The muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, dumortierite and biotite leucogranites have tabular shape, and an extension more than one kilometre.The gneissic granites are plutons that intruded concordant to the regional structural trend. Biotite, sillimanite, monacite and apatite minerals are characteristic of these rocks. Radimetric ages obtained in nearby areas, show that granitoids may be of Lower Paleozoic age.Geology and petrology characteristics of granitoids suggest that they may have been produced by partial melt of crustal metasedimentary rocks.Se describe la petrografía y petrología de los granitoides aflorantes en el basamento cristalino del sur de la Sierra de Comechingones.Dentro del complejo metamórfico regional predominan gneises biotíticos, paranfibolitas, mármoles y metabasitas. El evento metamórfico principal alcanzó condiciones de alta temperatura dentro del grado medio.Entre los granitoides se reconocieron los siguientes tipos litológicos: granitos biotíticos, leucogranitos y granitos gnéisicos.Los granitos biotíticos con apatito, sillimanita y granate conforman cuerpos elongados, concordantes con la esquistosidad penetrativa principal. Son de grano fino a medio, con marcada foliación, dada por la alineación de elementos micáceos.Los leucogranitos, cuyos

  18. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  19. A Quantitative Evaluation of the Conservation Umbrella of Spotted Owl Management Areas in the Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Ryan D.; Roberts, L. Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a...

  20. La estructura del Grupo Sierras Bayas en el sector norte de las sierras homónimas, noroeste de las Sierras Septentrionales de Buenos Aires The structure of Sierras Bayas Group in the north area of the homonymous hills, northwest of Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Massabie

    2005-03-01

    ían vincular la materialización de esta estructura con un único episodio de deformación constriccional. No obstante, el diseño de interferencia de tipo 1 podría haberse producido también por una superposición de pliegues en respuesta a dos deformaciones contraccionales y ortogonales, de carácter regional, bajo condiciones reológicas de bajo contraste de ductilidad. El episodio tectónico vinculado con la interferencia de pliegues del Grupo Sierras Bayas habría ocurrido con anterioridad a la Formación Balcarce de edad cambro-ordovícica de las Sierras Septentrionales, durante el lapso Precámbrico tardío - Paleozoico Inferior bajo. La deformación por interferencia de pliegues del Grupo Sierras Bayas con participación del basamento por la reactivación tectónica de anisotropías penetrativas principales, se correlaciona con diseños estructurales comparables, correspondientes al ciclo tectónico panafricano, que fueron relevados en unidades coetáneas, de la Secuencia Damara y el Grupo Nama de África Sudoccidental.The Sierras Bayas Group of Late Precambrian age is formed by sedimentary Villa Mónica, Cerro Largo and Loma Negra formations. It is located in the northwest area of Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires Province. The outcrops of this group are located around Olavarría city, mainly in the low isolated hills of Sierras Bayas and also though in a limited way, in the Barker city area. The morphstructure of these sedimentary rocks in the Northern sector of Sierras Bayas is defined by an asymmetric basin subtly tilted to south - southwest. Two interfering fold systems, F1(NE and F2(NW which define a type 1 domes and basins pattern , were recognized based on systematic structural mapping of de Sierras Bayas Group formations. Both F1 and F2 foldings with interference angles between 70º to 90º have subvertical axial planes and subhorizontal B axis. In adopted mapping scales, folding systems were observed in three fold orders which exert a direct control

  1. Revisión estratigráfica de Punta Coyote (Baja California Sur, México e implicaciones para el volcanismo de la Sierra Madre Occidental y el arco Comondú

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    Puy-Alquiza, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present new stratigraphic evidence for a migration of the Upper Volcanic Supergroup that formed the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO volcanic arc in northwestern Mexico during the Oligocene-Miocene. Particularly we discuss the transition from the frontal arc to the Comondú volcanic arc in Punta Coyote, Baja California Peninsula. This information complements the knowledge of the stratigraphic evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic arc in Baja California and its correlation with the Upper Volcanic Supergroup of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. We present new stratigraphic and sedimentologic data of the volcanosedimentary succession of the lower unit of the Comondú group near of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, in Punta Coyote. Facies analysis and new 40Ar /39Ar dating allowed to interpret the sedimentary environment and evolution of volcanic pulses in the lower unit of the Comondú group in Punta Coyote. The study area was part of the forearc basin westward to the SMO volcanic arc during the Oligocene to early Miocene. The sedimentary environment of the lower unit of the Comondú group was initially a braided river system that prograded to an alluvial fan environment and three tuffs units: Los Azabaches tuff (30.6±0.4 Ma, La Capilla and El Oro tuffs (22.0±0.4 Ma. The succession studied provides new stratigraphic information related to the evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic arc in the Baja California Peninsula and its correlation with the Upper Volcanic Supergroup of the SMO in northwestern Mexico.

    Se presentan nuevos datos sobre la estratigrafía y sedimentología de la sucesión volcanosedimentaria de la Unidad Inferior del Grupo Comondú (UIGC al noreste de la ciudad de La Paz, en Punta Coyote, Baja California Sur, México. El análisis de facies, así como las nuevas dataciones 40Ar /39Ar permitieron interpretar la evolución del ambiente sedimentario y

  2. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.M.; Miller, J.D.; Thode, A.E.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate interactions between successive naturally occurring fires, and assess to what extent the environments in which fires burn influence these interactions. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning relatively freely over a 31-year period, we demonstrate that fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in an upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. We use the term 'self-limiting' to refer to recurring fire as a process over time (that is, fire regime) consuming fuel and ultimately constraining the spatial extent and lessening fire-induced effects of subsequent fires. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme (burning index fire burning into the previous fire area is extremely low. Analysis of fire severity data by 10-year periods revealed a fair degree of stability in the proportion of area burned among fire severity classes (unchanged, low, moderate, high). This is in contrast to a recent study demonstrating increasing high-severity burning throughout the Sierra Nevada from 1984 to 2006, which suggests freely burning fires over time in upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests can regulate fire-induced effects across the landscape. This information can help managers better anticipate short- and long-term effects of allowing naturally ignited fires to burn, and ultimately, improve their ability to implement Wildland Fire Use programs in similar forest types. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ryan D; Roberts, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006). A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk) for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems. PMID:25905920

  4. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Burnett

    Full Text Available Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis. To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006. A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  5. Changes in Structure and Diversity of Woody Plants in a Secondary Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biotic province of the Sierra Madre del Sur presents a mosaic of woodlands at different successional stages due to frequent modifications in land use. In this study, we analyzed changes in woody flora across three successional stages of pine-oak forest: early, intermediate, and mature. Vegetation composition and diversity were characterized in 10 plots (each 0.28 ha. The mature stage had the highest values for species richness, abundance, and diversity. Pioneer plants were dominant in the early-successional site and may promote the establishment of late-successional species. The vegetation structure was more complex in the mature stage, where members of the Quercus genus were co-dominant with Pinus species. Pine tree richness was highest in the early-successional stage, and its abundance increased at the intermediate-successional site. These results suggest that Pinus species can grow in perturbed and sunny environments but also require favorable edaphic and microclimatic conditions, such as those found in intermediate woodlands. Results of this fieldwork support the initial floristic composition succession model, which suggests that species present at early stages will also occur in subsequent stages. Ecological succession may be considered to be a natural restoration process, and thus, conservation strategies should focus on maintaining distinct successional communities in addition to mature forests in order to preserve a high number of species.

  6. Geología, petrología y mineralogía del granito Inti Huasi, sur de la sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Otamendi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El granito de Inti Huasi que aflora en el extremo sur de la sierra de Comechingones es uno de los tres ejemplos del magmatismo monzogranítico débilmente peraluminoso post-Famatiniano de las Sierras de Córdoba. Considerando datos de relevamiento geofísico se puede notar que el granito Inti Huasi está mayormente cubierto (> 90 % por sedimentos modernos del Cuaternario. Esta relación de campo impide diferenciar el número de pulsos magmáticos independiente que podrían haber formado plutones discretos dentro del granito Inti Huasi. No obstante, la diversidad litológica de las rocas que afloran, reflejan que los tipos litológicos del granito están vinculadas genéticamente por la acción de procesos petrológicos que ocurrieron a nivel de epizona. La roca ígnea más abundante es un monzogranito con biotita y muscovita. Estos monzogranitos se caracterizan por ser félsico (SiO2 > 73 %, y FeO* + MgO + TiO2 < 2,4, débilmente peraluminosos (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O = 0,98 - 1,11, y contener como minerales accesorios ilmenita, titanita, apatita y circón. Aunque los monzogranitos poseen un rango composicional acotado, se puede definir que la variación química reflejaría el fraccionamiento de plagioclasa y biotita. Los leucogranitos que ocurren como dique post-magmáticos tienen una composición química típica de un líquido residual fuertemente deprimido en elementos compatibles. Por otro lado, el techo del cuerpo ígneo está conformado por monzogranitos con muscovita que pueden aparecer masivos o encapados, y además presentan evidencias de interacción de fluidos de posible origen magmático con el monzogranito primitivo. Los enclaves tonalíticos ricos en biotita y plagiocasa, pueden definirse a través de la química mineral como elementos cognados, generados por la acumulación de minerales cristalizados a partir del magma monzogranítico. Las evidencias geológicas y petrológicas permiten impulsar la idea de que el magmatismo de

  7. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  8. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos prepampeano y pampeano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero propone cinco estadios metalogenéticos, de los cuales los dos primeros se abordan en este trabajo: el estadio 1 - vinculado con la apertura y expansión neoproterozoica del océano proto-atlántico - forma parte del ciclo extensional prepampeano. Durante el mismo se generaron depósitos volcanogénicos submarinos de Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co en basaltos, W (B-F-Zn en calizas y dolomías impuras y Fe en sedimentos silicoclásticos, y manifestaciones transicionales entre estos y MVT de Cu (Au-Ag y Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au en calizas y dolomías impuras; a él se asocian concentraciones magmáticas de Cr en tectonitas del manto y de Fe-Ti en ultramafitas-mafitas de la zona de transición corteza-manto. En una reconstrucción global neoproterozoica, se establece la distribución de los depósitos prepampeanos y su relación espacial con los principales distritos volcanogénicos submarinos, SEDEX y MVT del océano protoatlántico. El ciclo compresional pampeano - famatiniano comprende dos estadios. El estadio metalogenético 2 (Neoproterozoico - Cámbrico temprano corresponde al ciclo orogénico pampeano, durante el cual se desarrollaron numerosas estructuras deformaciónales y magmatismo, generandose manifestaciones magmático-metamórficas de Fe-Ti en diques ultramáficos y máficos en tectonitas del manto, manifestaciones metasomáticas de Fe-Ti en rodingitas y pegmatitas portadoras de Be-Li-U-ETR, ademas de transformaciones (metamorfismo, deformación, removilización y recristalización en depósitos de Cr, Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co, W (B-F-Zn, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au y Fe, que condicionan su respuesta magnética. Para los depósitos y manifestaciones de los estadios metalogenéticos descriptos se propone una distribución espacial según fajas vinculadas con megaestructuras activas a partir de los ciclos prepampeano y pampeano, y las asociaciones petrogen

  9. Constraints on the history and topography of the Northeastern Sierra Nevada from a Neogene sedimentary basin in the Reno-Verdi area, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, James; Cashman, Patricia; Cosca, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Neogene (Miocene–Pliocene) sedimentary rocks of the northeastern Sierra Nevada were deposited in small basins that formed in response to volcanic and tectonic activity along the eastern margin of the Sierra. These strata record an early phase (ca. 11–10 Ma) of extension and rapid sedimentation of boulder conglomerates and debrites deposited on alluvial fans, followed by fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation and nearby volcanic arc activity but tectonic quiescence, until ~ 2.6 Ma. The fossil record in these rocks documents a warmer, wetter climate featuring large mammals and lacking the Sierran orographic rain shadow that dominates climate today on the eastern edge of the Sierra. This record of a general lack of paleo-relief across the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada is consistent with evidence presented elsewhere that there was not a significant topographic barrier between the Pacific Ocean and the interior of the continent east of the Sierra before ~ 2.6 Ma. However, these sediments do not record an integrated drainage system either to the east into the Great Basin like the modern Truckee River, or to the west across the Sierra like the ancestral Feather and Yuba rivers. The Neogene Reno-Verdi basin was one of several, scattered endorheic (i.e., internally drained) basins occupying this part of the Cascade intra-arc and back-arc area.

  10. Caracterización hidrológica de la vertiente sur de la Sierra de Gádor (Almería)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rosales, Wenceslao; Vallejos, Ángela; Pulido Bosch, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The instantaneous maximum discharges have been calculated in the different subbasins that integrate the southern edge of Sierra de Gádor (Almería), for diverse return periods. The utilized methodology for the calculation has been the Modified Rational Formula. In general, the calculated flows can be considered anomalously high if they are had in counts the reduced size of the basins as well as the relative permeability of the lithologies that appear in them. Their low times of concentration, ...

  11. Evolución tectónica andina entre las Sierras de Hualfín, capillitas y extremo sur de Aconquija, provincia de Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Seggiaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Sierras Pampeanas septentrionales están integradas por bloques de basamento cristalino basculados por fallas de rumbo NE-SO, que forman parte del lineamiento de Aconquija o de Tucumán. Las unidades cenozoicas, dispuestas en los valles intramontanos que separan las sierras de Capillitas, Hualfín y Aconquija, presentan relaciones de inconformidad sobre el basamento y registran cuatro sucesivos eventos deformacionales andinos. El primer evento deformacional presenta estratos de sincrecimiento asociados a fallas normales en la Formación Hualfín. Durante el segundo evento, la Formación Hualfín fue intensamente plegada y erosionada previamente a la depositación del Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro. El tercer evento, de carácter transtensivo, se registra en el Compelo Volcánico Farallón Negro con fallas normales y discordancias progresivas. Este evento es coincidente con la irrupción del vulcanismo en la cuenca. A los fines de analizar la cinemática de la cuarta y última etapa de deformación se realizaron mediciones de indicadores cinemáticos a lo largo de fallas regionales y estructuras menores, con resultados que reflejan desplazamientos dextrales transpresivos. Los desplazamientos correspondientes a esta etapa estarían asociados a la elevación de las sierras y el emplazamiento de cuerpos subvolcánicos, algunos de los cuales como los de cerro Atajo, Capillitas y Agua Rica entre otros, son de interés económico. La tectónica transpresiva, aún vigente, se registra en fallas activas asociadas a avalanchas y flujos de detritos provenientes de las laderas de las sierras.

  12. Meteoric isotopic gradient on the windward side of theSierra Madre Oriental area, Veracruz Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pérez Quezadas; Alejandra Cortés Silva; Salvatore Inguaggiato; María del Rocío Salas Ortega; Juan Cervantes Pérez; Victor Michael Heilweil

    2015-01-01

    The isotopic composition ( d 18 O , d D ) of precipitation in the windward side of the Sierra Madre Oriental on the eastern flank of the Mexican Volcanic Belt was characterized along a 90 km transect from sea level up to an altitude of 4220 meters. Rain samples were collected during the rainy season (May through October) from 2007 through 2012. The Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), determined with linear regression of isotope results, is d D = 7.44 d 18 O + 7.3, R 2 = 0.99. Thi...

  13. El área de abastecimiento de las ortocuarcitas del grupo Sierras Bayas y las posibles técnicas para su obtención entre los cazadores y recolectores pampeanos The supply area of Sierras Bayas group orthoquartzites and possible methods of procurement among pampean hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Colombo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las investigaciones que se vienen desarrollando en el sector centro-sur del sistema serrano de Tandilia, entre las localidades de San Manuel (partido de Lobería y Barker (partido de Benito Juárez. Éstas estuvieron enfocadas tanto en delimitar el área de aprovisionamiento en la que los grupos cazadores y recolectores pampeanos se abastecieron de ortocuarcitas del Grupo Sierras Bayas como en comprender los modos en que ocurrió dicho aprovisionamiento. A partir de una serie de prospecciones sistemáticas que incluyeron distintas escalas de análisis, se han hallado evidencias que muestran que el área de aprovisionamiento de estas rocas posee dimensiones significativamente mayores que las conocidas y se han detectado algunas modalidades de extracción no descriptas hasta el momento para la región.This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in the mid-south Tandilia mountain range, between the towns of San Manuel (Lobería District and Barker (B. Juárez District. The archaeological research was focused on understanding the ways in which Pampean hunters-gatherers obtained raw material in the study area, especially in relation to the Sierras Bayas group ortho quarzites. Based on a series of systematic surveys, including analyses at various scales, evidence shows that the area of raw material procurement is significantly larger than was previously considered. In addition, possible new procurement modalities, previously unknown in the region, were identified.

  14. Lead poisoning in a calf from the mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rodríguez-Estival

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se notifica el primer caso registrado de intoxicaci n por plomo (Pb en un ternero del antiguo distrito minero de Sierra Madrona y el Valle de Alcudia (Espa a, que apareci en una finca ganadera con restos visibles de antiguas activides mineras en los terrenos circundantes. El nivel de Pb en sangre detectado en el animal fue de 311 g/dL, y estuvo asociado a diversos s ntomas de intoxicaci n cl nica por Pb, que incluyen par lisis severa, p rdida de sensibilidad en los cuartos traseros e incoordinaci n. Los suelos, las plantas y los puntos de agua presentes en la finca mostraron niveles de Pb por encima de los valores umbral, siendo considerados como suelos altamente contaminados, pastos t xicos para el ganado y agua no potable para el consumo humano. Estos datos indican que la contaminaci n por Pb implica un riesgo para la salud del ganado criado en la zona minera de Sierra Madrona y el Valle de Alcudia.

  15. Impactos de los arreglos preferenciales comerciales en el sector agropecuario: Un análisis exploratorio del caso del producto agrí­cola no transable maí­z amiláceo de la sierra sur del Perú, 1971-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Tello

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of preferential trade arrangements (PTAs) on relative prices and supplied quantity of a representative nontradable agricultural product, Maiz Amilaceo, produced in the four poorest regions of Peru, located in the Sierra Sur for the period 1971-2005. Two key results are on the one hand, PTAs affect (statistically and significantly) in a greater proportion more on relative prices than on supplied quantity. On the other hand, differences in PTAs affects differentl...

  16. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  17. Atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-Seine and Alfortville; Pollution atmospherique dans la zone de Vitry-sur-Seine et d'Alfortville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, P.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this report, demanded by the environmental minister, is the present state and the evolution of the atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-seine and Alfortville, near Paris. In the first part the report takes stock of the air quality to show a decrease in the pollution due to fixed sources. A special interest is given in a second part to exhaust gases from the main factory of the area: the EDF power plant. The report concludes on the decrease of the industrial air pollution, the increase of the traffic air pollution and asks for the public information. (A.L.B.)

  18. Soil moisture trends in mountainous areas: a 50-yr analysis of modelled soil moisture over Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture conditions the energy and water fluxes through the ground surface and constitutes a major hydrological state variable in the analysis of environmental processes. Detecting potential changes in soil moisture and analyzing their trend over a long period of study can help to understand its evolution in other similar areas and to estimate its future role. In mountainous areas, the snow distribution highly conditions soil water content and its implications on the local water cycle. Sierra Nevada, Southern Spain, is a linear mountain range, with altitude higher than 3000 m.a.s.l., where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist. The snow dynamics dominates the hydrological regime, and the medium and long term trends observed in the snow persistence constitute one of the main potential drivers for soil moisture changes both on a seasonal and annual basis. This work presents a 50-yr study of the soil moisture trends in Sierra Nevada (SN); the distributed monthly mean soil moisture evolution during the recent past (1960-2010) is simulated and its relationship with meteorological variables (precipitation and temperature) analyzed in the five head river basins that the SN area comprises. For this, soil water content is simulated throughout the area by means of WiMMed, a distributed and physically based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions that includes snow modelling, which had been previously calibrated and validated in the study area. The analysis of soil moisture shows a globally decreasing annual rate, with a mean value of 0.0011 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1 during the study period averaged over the whole study area, which locally ranges between 0.174 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1 and 0.0014 mmṡmm‑1ṡyear‑1. As previous studies reported, the observed trend in precipitation is more influent than temperature on the snowfall regime change; therefore, as expected, the estimated trends of soil moisture are more related to this variable. Moreover, an

  19. [Presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns in disturbed areas of Sierra Nevada, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Romero, Ma Lucía; Zavala Hurtado, José Alejandro; Pacheco, Leticia

    2011-03-01

    Diverse reproductive strategies shown by ferns and lycophytes allow them to colonize a variety of habitats, particularly after the incidence of natural or anthropogenic disturbances. This study assessed the presence, abundance and reproductive strategies of ferns growing in soils of temperate forests with different levels of disturbance at the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the State of Mexico. Vegetation, soil and environmental variables were recorded in 200 m2 permanent plots located in four forest stands. One-Way ANOVA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis resulted in the recognition of three landscape types defined by the degree of environmental alteration: low, moderate and severe. Also, from five soil samples collected in each stand, germination of ferns and lycophytes was induced. A positive relationship was found between the alteration degree and Cheilanthes abundance. Under a low landscape alteration regime, species richness is restricted to Cheilanthes bonariensis, C. marginata and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia. The soil is a reservoir of spores of Cheilanthes and Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia because their spores can remain viable for different time intervals. Apogamy is the usual reproductive strategy of Cheilanthes species in disturbed ecosystems, although these species also show sexual reproduction in natural ecosystems with adequate water availability. Apogamy may be related to a shorter generation time in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. On the other hand, Pellaea ternifolia subsp. ternifolia only has sexual reproduction. Apogamy might be related to a faster generation in comparison with a low disturbed ecosystem. PMID:21516659

  20. Modelling air pollution transfers in the Fos-Sur-Mer area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'puff' gaussian model with determined standard deviations based on transfer times of two classes of vertical stability of the atmosphere was developed in order to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of industrial discharges in the Fos-sur-Mer area. This research was carried out within the framework of a large study for the processing of the data obtained during the measurement campaign organized by the European Communities. The model in its analytic form allows consideration of the main phenomena which modify the puff content during the transfer: reflectance, wet and dry deposition, physical-chemical transformation of the pollutant SO2. The model includes the site meteorological parameters measured in three dimensions (wind speed and direction at ground level and in altitude) and the characteristics of the different stacks. It can also calculate pollutions resulting from a short emission or from continuous emissions. Examples are presented. (author)

  1. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos famatiniano, gondwánico y ándico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se propone la evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeaneas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero en cinco estadios, de los cuales los dos primeros se expusieron en un trabajo anterior. El estadio metalogenético 3, que corresponde al segundo ciclo orogénico del Pampeano-Famatiniano, se caracterizó por la migración de fluidos hidrotermales y la generación y reactivación de estructuras. Durante el mismo sucedieron transformaciones en depósitos de Cr (Fe-Ti, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au, Fe y Cu- Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co, y se originaron pegmatitas portadoras de Be-Nb-Ta-W-P-U-ETR, depósitos biextendidos de W-Bi (Mo-Cu-Sn- Zn-Au-B-F-Te y de U asociados a granitoides, depósitos metasomáticos de Fe-Cu (Ti-Au y vetas de Au (Cu-Zn-Pb-As y polimetálicas de Ag-Pb-Zn (V-Sn-Mn-Cd-Au-Cu-As-Bi-Sb-Co. Para este estadio se establece una correlación con depósitos en cinturones orogénicos. El estadio metalogenético 4, correspondiente al ciclo extensional gondwánico y vinculado con la apertura del rifting Atlántico, formó depósitos de Mn (Fe-F-Ba en vetas y de F (Fe-Mn en vetas asociados con granitos. El estadio metalogenético 5 se desarrolló durante el ciclo compresional Ándico y generó manifestaciones de Au epitermal y depósitos y manifestaciones de U-V (Mn-Fe en sedimentitas. Los sucesivos estadios de depositación y movilización de elementos metálicos definieron fajas mineralizadas que otorgan a este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas un carácter de dominio especializado en Cr, W, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ti, Au, Bi, Be, Li, U, Mn, F y B y subordinado en Sn, Mo, ETR, Ta, Nb, V, Cd, Ag, Sb, Co, P, As, S, Te, Se y Ba.

  2. Geología, petrología y mineralogía del granito Inti Huasi, sur de la sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba Geology, petrology and mineralogy of the Inti Huasi Granite, southern Sierra de Comechingones, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Otamendi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El granito de Inti Huasi que aflora en el extremo sur de la sierra de Comechingones es uno de los tres ejemplos del magmatismo monzogranítico débilmente peraluminoso post-Famatiniano de las Sierras de Córdoba. Considerando datos de relevamiento geofísico se puede notar que el granito Inti Huasi está mayormente cubierto (> 90 % por sedimentos modernos del Cuaternario. Esta relación de campo impide diferenciar el número de pulsos magmáticos independiente que podrían haber formado plutones discretos dentro del granito Inti Huasi. No obstante, la diversidad litológica de las rocas que afloran, reflejan que los tipos litológicos del granito están vinculadas genéticamente por la acción de procesos petrológicos que ocurrieron a nivel de epizona. La roca ígnea más abundante es un monzogranito con biotita y muscovita. Estos monzogranitos se caracterizan por ser félsico (SiO2 > 73 %, y FeO* + MgO + TiO2 The Inti Huasi granite at the southern end of the Sierra de Comechingones is one of three examples of post-Famatinian, alkali-rich, weakly-peraluminous monzogranitic magmatism of the Sierra de Córdoba. According to geophysical data the Inti Huasi granite is largely covered (> 90% by Quaternary sediments. The sedimentary cover, however, makes it impossible to identify and map satisfactorily all the possible sub-intrusions units which represent individual magmatic pulses that fed the Inti Huasi granite. Nevertheless, rock diversity seems to reflect the effect of high-level differentiation processes. The most common rock type is a biotite ± muscovite bearing monzogranite. Monzogranites are characteristically felsic (SiO2 > 73 %, and FeO* + MgO + TiO2 < 2,4, weakly peraluminous (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O = 0,98 - 1,11, and contain ilmenite, sphene, apatite and zircon as accessory minerals. Although the compositional range of the monzogranites is small, it defines a differentiation trend that is essentially controlled by biotite and

  3. Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation. PMID:22218460

  4. Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land Use in Protected Areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Villar, Sergio; Plascencia-Vargas, Héctor; Vaca, Raúl; Schroth, Götz; Zepeda, Yatziri; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Nahed-Toral, José

    2012-03-01

    Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people's livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future. Payments for environmental services and access to carbon markets are identified as options to ensure forest permanence but still face problems. Challenges for the future are to integrate these incentive mechanisms with sustainable land management and a stronger involvement of land holders in conservation.

  5. La actividad neotectónica en la sierra Baja de San Marcos - Cruz del Eje, flanco occidental de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales Neotectonic activity in the Sierra Baja de San Marcos-Cruz del Eje area, west flank of Sierras Pampeanas Orientales

    OpenAIRE

    A Massabie; Sanguinetti, A; G Lo Forte; Cegarra, M.

    2003-01-01

    El área pedemontana de San Marcos Sierra-Cruz del Eje constituye, en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, una comarca clave para el análisis neotectónico en las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. En esta región se han realizado estudios centrados en la unidad morfoestructural sierra Baja de San Marcos donde, aplicando un control múltiple de datos estructurales, geomorfológicos, sedimentológicos, paleontológicos y radimétricos, se ha determinado temporal y espacialmente la evolución de la actividad ...

  6. Depósitos piroclásticos gondwánicos en el sur de la sierra de Varela, provincia de San Luis: su petrografía y geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera, David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gondwanic pyroclastic deposits in southern Sierra de Varela, San Luis province: petrography and geochemistry. This work presents the results of the petrographic and geochemical characterization of the pyroclastic deposits of the Cerro Varela Formation (Anisian, located in the southern portion of the Sierra de Varela, western San Luis province. This unit is linked regionally and chronologically to the Choiyoi Group and also fills the Beazley basin. The base of the Cerro Varela Formation overlies the Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic metamorphic basement and it is covered discordantly by the Upper Cretaceous Lagarcito Formation. In the study area two types of pyroclastic deposits area recognized: crystal-rich welded tuffs and fall deposits, both of rhyolitic composition. The crystal-rich welded tuffs comprise the majority of the outcrops, whereas the fall deposits are morerestricted because of their low degree of preservation. The pyroclastic flow deposits form red-colored layers with eutaxitic texture, columnar jointing and quartz and sanidine phenocrysts in a micrograin, felsitic and granophyric matrix with abundant iron oxides. Felsic volcanic lithic cognates and devitrified vitroclasts are also observed. The fall deposits are solid, orange-colored layers of fine grain size, with underformed vitreous fragments and quartzcrystaloclasts. The chemistry of the pyroclastic units is comparable to the middle to upper section transition of the Permo-Triassic Choiyoi Group in the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza and San Juan. Their environment of generation is linked to rifting phenomena in a normal to thin crust where extension can be associated with the firststage of break-up of Gondwana during the Mesozoic.

  7. L’impact de la mobilisation écorégionale sur les politiques en matière de montagne dans les Alpes suisses et la Sierra Nevada en Californie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Balsiger

    2009-07-01

    meant their increasing marginalization. During the last four decades, both polities have devised targeted strategies, policies, and programs for mountain regions. This article suggests that ecoregional mobilization has played a significant role in shaping the nature and evolution of these policies. Expanding and specifying arguments found in the policy networks literature, it argues that changes in the nature of dynamics of ‘organizational landscapes’ (the assemblage of state and non-state actors sharing a common concern for a policy issue or set of issues precipitate transformations in ‘policy architectures (the structure and substantive orientation of public policy goals and instruments. Applying this framework to developments in the Swiss Alps and California’s Sierra Nevada during the last forty years, the article explains how ecoregional mobilization shaped opposite trends in the mountain areas, namely a shift form infrastructure development to nature conservation in the Alps, and a shift from nature conservation to local economic development in the Sierra Nevada.

  8. Sedimentología y evolución paleoambiental de la Formación Patquía (Pérmico en el extremo sur de la sierra de Maz y cerro Bola, provincia de La Rioja, Argentina Sedimentology and palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Patquía Formation (Permian, in the Sierra de Maz and cerro Bola, La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Caselli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las características sedimentológicas de la Formación Patquía en la Sierra de Maz y en el Cerro Bola (perfiles de cerro Guandacol, La Cortadera, cerro Noqués y cerro Bola, donde fueron reconocidas siete asociaciones de facies. La facies A está compuesta por aglomerados, brechas y conglomerados depositados en pequeños abanicos aluviales. Areniscas gruesas y conglomerados integran la facies B, la que fue probablemente depositada en planicies fluviales entrelazadas. La facies C incluye conglomerados y areniscas gruesas correspondientes a sistemas fluviales de baja sinuosidad. La facies D es la más extendida regionalmente y está compuesta por sabulitas, areniscas, pelitas y tobas, interpretadas como cursos fluviales de elevada sinuosidad. Un episodio de sedimentación eólica está registrado en la facies E, constituida por areniscas finas a medianas mostrando estratificación entrecruzada de gran escala. La facies F, areniscas y pelitas interestratificadas, fue depositada en lagos clásticos, someros y permanentes. La facies G incluye areniscas blanquecinas y pelitas rosadas, con intercalaciones de areniscas finas con estratificación entrecruzada de gran escala, sedimentadas en sistemas fluviales sinuosos con migración de dunas eólicas en las planicies. La composición modal de las areniscas permite identificar tres petrofacies. La cuarzoféldica representa el aporte del basamento de las Sierras Pampeanas. La cuarzofeldlítica incluye fragmentos de volcanitas ácidas y mesosilícicas relacionadas a la faja volcánica Permo-Triásica ubicada al oeste. La litomíxtica está dominada por líticos sedimentarios y paleovolcánicos provenientes de la Precordillera. Finalmente, el análisis estratigráfico de las facies arriba descriptas permitió la identificación de dos secuencias depositacionales.The sedimentological characteristics of the Patquía Formation in the Sierra de Maz and Cerro Bola areas were analyzed

  9. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos famatiniano, gondwánico y ándico Metallogenic evolution of the Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba and south of Santiago del Estero: Famatinian, Gondwanic and Andean cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se propone la evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeaneas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero en cinco estadios, de los cuales los dos primeros se expusieron en un trabajo anterior. El estadio metalogenético 3, que corresponde al segundo ciclo orogénico del Pampeano-Famatiniano, se caracterizó por la migración de fluidos hidrotermales y la generación y reactivación de estructuras. Durante el mismo sucedieron transformaciones en depósitos de Cr (Fe-Ti, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au, Fe y Cu- Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co, y se originaron pegmatitas portadoras de Be-Nb-Ta-W-P-U-ETR, depósitos biextendidos de W-Bi (Mo-Cu-Sn- Zn-Au-B-F-Te y de U asociados a granitoides, depósitos metasomáticos de Fe-Cu (Ti-Au y vetas de Au (Cu-Zn-Pb-As y polimetálicas de Ag-Pb-Zn (V-Sn-Mn-Cd-Au-Cu-As-Bi-Sb-Co. Para este estadio se establece una correlación con depósitos en cinturones orogénicos. El estadio metalogenético 4, correspondiente al ciclo extensional gondwánico y vinculado con la apertura del rifting Atlántico, formó depósitos de Mn (Fe-F-Ba en vetas y de F (Fe-Mn en vetas asociados con granitos. El estadio metalogenético 5 se desarrolló durante el ciclo compresional Ándico y generó manifestaciones de Au epitermal y depósitos y manifestaciones de U-V (Mn-Fe en sedimentitas. Los sucesivos estadios de depositación y movilización de elementos metálicos definieron fajas mineralizadas que otorgan a este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas un carácter de dominio especializado en Cr, W, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ti, Au, Bi, Be, Li, U, Mn, F y B y subordinado en Sn, Mo, ETR, Ta, Nb, V, Cd, Ag, Sb, Co, P, As, S, Te, Se y Ba.Five metallogenic stages are proposed for the metallogenic evolution of the Sierra Pampeaneas of Córdoba and south of Santiago del Estero, havin. having already been exposed the first two previous work. Metallogenic stage 3, corresponding to the second orogenic cycle of the Pampean-Famatinian compressive cycle, was characterized by

  10. Origen de arcillas alumínicas en horizontes de alteración de materiales graníticos del borde sur de la sierra de Guadarrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, M. T.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Three weathering profiles of granitic rocks and two arkoses in the NW of Madrid Province have been studied. Rocks are granodiorites and adamellites with albites showing variable degrees of sericitization, and no-weathered potassic feldspars. Clay fraction in the weathered horizons from these rocks displays high content in beidellite, and minor amounts of illite and 7 Ǻ-halloysite. On the other hand, beidellite, illite and well crystallized kaolinite are clay minerals in the arkosic rocks. Microfabric characteristics from SEM studies show abundant weathered albites with clean surfaces and formation of beidellite in all areas of the samples. Moreover, spatial relations between albite and beidellite are not observed. In pedochemical weathering of albite, sodium from this mineral should be exchanged with protons from soil solution with very quick kinetics. This initial alkalinization produces an increase in the silica solubility released from albite network. In these environments, a continued contact between weathering solution and albite causes a silica and alumina enrichment and beidellite or 7 Ǻ-halloysite precipitation. Microclimatic variations in weathering environment may cause fluctuations in silica and alumina activities with resultant pH changes. So, when silica activities are high, beidellite neoformation is favoured; on the contrary, 7 Ǻ-halloysite is precipitated.Se han estudiado tres perfiles de alteración de rocas graníticas y dos muestras de arcosas en la zona NO de la provincia de Madrid. Las rocas, clasificadas como granodioritas y adamellitas, presentan albitas con sericitización variable, y escasos feldespatos potásicos muy poco alterados. La fracción arcilla de los horizontes de alteración de estas rocas presenta un alto contenido en beidellita, así como porcentajes menores de ilita y haloisita-7Ǻ. Por otra parte, los minerales de la arcilla presentes en las arcosas son ilita, beidellita y caolinita bien

  11. Randon emanometry in the uraniferous district of Sierra Pena Blanca and in other volcanic areas of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are difficulties associated with the repeatability of radon measurements using portable emanometers owing to the effects of meteorological phenomena on soil gases. The paper describes a correction method based on fluctuation curves. Orientation surveys were carried out on different days at the Las Margaritas and Nopal I deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the radon concentrations measured at the same stations were found to be very different. In the surveys, fluctuation curves at stations were determined, and the readings from the surveys were subsequently corrected. The surveys performed on the first day showed no conspicuous anomalies directly above the deposits, but after correction of the measurements the anomalies increased to a factor of 3-4 above the normal concentration. The second surveys showed considerable anomalies above the deposits and also increased after correction of the measurements. The fluctuation curves obtained at the Sierra de la Gloria and other prospects of the north central part of Chihuahua showed highs in the mornings and evenings. The most common variations in the fluctuation curves are between 100% and 200%, although they can be higher. The corrections to the measured concentrations were calculated by means of straight-line graphs and also by the CORRAD program, which calculates a curve by the least squares method. Systematic surveys without any correction show strong line effects which render their use impractical. Corrections calculated with straight-line graphs reduce the line effect, while surveys corrected with the CORRAD program show a better distribution of anomalies, making them more useful. (author)

  12. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos prepampeano y pampeano Metallogenic evolution of the Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba and south of Santiago del Estero: Prepampean and Pampean cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero propone cinco estadios metalogenéticos, de los cuales los dos primeros se abordan en este trabajo: el estadio 1 - vinculado con la apertura y expansión neoproterozoica del océano proto-atlántico - forma parte del ciclo extensional prepampeano. Durante el mismo se generaron depósitos volcanogénicos submarinos de Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co en basaltos, W (B-F-Zn en calizas y dolomías impuras y Fe en sedimentos silicoclásticos, y manifestaciones transicionales entre estos y MVT de Cu (Au-Ag y Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au en calizas y dolomías impuras; a él se asocian concentraciones magmáticas de Cr en tectonitas del manto y de Fe-Ti en ultramafitas-mafitas de la zona de transición corteza-manto. En una reconstrucción global neoproterozoica, se establece la distribución de los depósitos prepampeanos y su relación espacial con los principales distritos volcanogénicos submarinos, SEDEX y MVT del océano protoatlántico. El ciclo compresional pampeano - famatiniano comprende dos estadios. El estadio metalogenético 2 (Neoproterozoico - Cámbrico temprano corresponde al ciclo orogénico pampeano, durante el cual se desarrollaron numerosas estructuras deformaciónales y magmatismo, generandose manifestaciones magmático-metamórficas de Fe-Ti en diques ultramáficos y máficos en tectonitas del manto, manifestaciones metasomáticas de Fe-Ti en rodingitas y pegmatitas portadoras de Be-Li-U-ETR, ademas de transformaciones (metamorfismo, deformación, removilización y recristalización en depósitos de Cr, Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co, W (B-F-Zn, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au y Fe, que condicionan su respuesta magnética. Para los depósitos y manifestaciones de los estadios metalogenéticos descriptos se propone una distribución espacial según fajas vinculadas con megaestructuras activas a partir de los ciclos prepampeano y pampeano, y las asociaciones petrogen

  13. Revisión estratigráfica de Punta Coyote (Baja California Sur, México) e implicaciones para el volcanismo de la Sierra Madre Occidental y el arco Comondú

    OpenAIRE

    Puy-Alquiza, M. J.; Miranda-Avilés, R.; M. López-Martínez

    2010-01-01

    We present new stratigraphic evidence for a migration of the Upper Volcanic Supergroup that formed the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic arc in northwestern Mexico during the Oligocene-Miocene. Particularly we discuss the transition from the frontal arc to the Comondú volcanic arc in Punta Coyote, Baja California Peninsula. This information complements the knowledge of the stratigraphic evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic arc in Baja California and its correlation with the Upper ...

  14. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  15. A strategic analysis of Sierra wireless

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Juan-Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper performs a strategic analysis of Sierra Wireless, a leader in wireless data communications hardware and software. Sierra Wireless operates in the cellular modem industry and develops, manufactures, markets and supports wide-area wireless modems and enterprise software. The company faces challenges to its market leadership across its product lines due to commoditization of the market. It needs to change its differentiation strategy, develop lower-cost products and reduce its operati...

  16. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  17. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  18. Estudio petrográfico de las facies piroclásticas de la Formación Cerro Varela en el sur de la Sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancay N. Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de San Luis, existen tres sub-cuencas denominadas Las Salinas, Beazley y Mercedes. Estas cuencas corresponden a depocentros de rift elongados en sentido NO, que alojan rocas ígneas de edad triásica con espesores que llegan hasta los 4.000 metros. Las rocas ígneas de la Formación Cerro Varela forman parte del cerro homónimo que constituye los últimos asomos australes de la sierra de San Luis. Las riolitas triásicas que afloran en la sierra de Varela se disponen dentro de un esquema estructural extensional asociado a la formación de cuencas de tipo rift. Las unidades analizadas de la Formación Cerro Varela están compuestas por tobas cristalinas tanto de alto grado como de bajo grado de soldadura, de composición riolítica e interpretadas como depósitos originados por flujos piroclásticos. Por su litología, edad y contexto regional, las rocas de la Formación Cerro Varela integran el magmatismo gondwánico del Grupo Choiyoi de edad permotriásica de la Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza y San Juan.

  19. Impact of three rounds of mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis in areas previously treated for onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Koroma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 1974-2005 studies across Sierra Leone showed onchocerciasis endemicity in 12 of 14 health districts (HDs and baseline studies 2005-2008 showed lymphatic filariasis (LF endemicity in all 14 HDs. Three integrated annual mass drug administration (MDA were conducted in the 12 co-endemic districts 2008-2010 with good geographic, programme and drug coverage. Midterm assessment was conducted 2011 to determine impact of these MDAs on LF in these districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mf prevalence and intensity in the 12 districts were determined using the thick blood film method and results compared with baseline data from 2007-2008. Overall mf prevalence fell from 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.0% to 0.3% (95% CI: 0.19%-0.47%, a decrease of 88.5% (p = 0.000; prevalence was 0.0% (100.0% decrease in four districts: Bo, Moyamba, Kenema and Kono (p = 0.001, 0.025, 0.085 and 0.000 respectively; and seven districts had reductions in mf prevalence of between 70.0% and 95.0% (p = 0.000, 0.060, 0.001, 0.014, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 for Bombali, Bonthe, Kailahun, Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko and Tonkolili districts respectively. Pujehun had baseline mf prevalence of 0.0%, which was maintained. Only Bombali still had an mf prevalence ≥1.0% (1.58%, 95% CI: 0.80%-3.09%, and this is the district that had the highest baseline mf prevalence: 6.9% (95% CI: 5.3%-8.8%. Overall arithmetic mean mf density after three MDAs was 17.59 mf/ml (95% CI: 15.64 mf/ml-19.55 mf/ml among mf positive individuals (65.4% decrease from baseline of 50.9 mf/ml (95% CI: 40.25 mf/ml-61.62 mf/ml; p = 0.001 and 0.05 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.03 mf/ml-0.08 mf/ml for the entire population examined (96.2% decrease from baseline of 1.32 mf/ml (95% CI: 1.00 mf/ml-1.65 mf/ml; p = 0.000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that mf prevalence decreased to <1.0% in all but one of the 12 districts after three MDAs. Overall mf density reduced by 65.0% among mf

  20. Mansonelosis en el area sur-oriental de la Orinoquia venezolana Mansonelliasis in the Southeast area of the Venezuelan Orinoquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia E. Medrano

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available En 26 asentamientos selváticos del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, fueron muestreados el 10% o más de sus residentes mediante examen físico, biopsias de piel y toma de sangre periférica. En 13 de las comunidades se detectaron 153 indígenas y un mestizo infectados con Mansonelosis, representando un índice global de 36,40% para el área endémica. La parasitosis se concentró en tres focos: El mayor situado en la región Suroccidental y formando parte de una extensa superficie infectada, que abarca territorios vecinos de Venezuela y Brasil; con aldeas de índices parasitarios colectivos de 80,76% y 94,44%. Un segundo foco está situado en la región Suroriental y los portadores, al igual que en el anterior, están infectados con Mansonela ozzardi. El tercer foco Centro-oriental presentó infecciones por M. pertans. No fue posible concretar un cuadro nosológico en los infectados por M.ozzardi, a pesar de haberse detectado densidades parasitarias individuales de 30.000 microfilarias por ml de sangre y de 22.000 por gr de piel.Physical exam and skin biopsy were performed and peripheral blood samples drawn from 10% of the inhabitants of 26 jungle villages of the State of Bolívar, Venezuela. One hundred and fifty three Indians and an inhabitant of mixed blood from 13 different communities were found to be infected with mansonelliasis representing a global index of 36.40% in the endemic area. The parasitosis was found to be concentrated in three areas. The largest, located in the southwest of the country and forming part of an extent infected area embarking neighboring parts of Venezuela and Brazil, contains villages with a parasite index of 80.76% and 94.44%. A second focus is located in the southeast, its carriers, as those of the first, are infected with Mansonella ozzardi. In a third, central eastern focus infections with Mansonella pertans were found. The patients infected with M. ozzardi were apparently asintomatic and their physical exam was

  1. Estudio petrográfico de las facies piroclásticas de la Formación Cerro Varela en el sur de la Sierra de San Luis Petrographic study of the pyroclastic facies of the Cerro Varela Formation in the south of the Sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancay N. Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de San Luis, existen tres sub-cuencas denominadas Las Salinas, Beazley y Mercedes. Estas cuencas corresponden a depocentros de rift elongados en sentido NO, que alojan rocas ígneas de edad triásica con espesores que llegan hasta los 4.000 metros. Las rocas ígneas de la Formación Cerro Varela forman parte del cerro homónimo que constituye los últimos asomos australes de la sierra de San Luis. Las riolitas triásicas que afloran en la sierra de Varela se disponen dentro de un esquema estructural extensional asociado a la formación de cuencas de tipo rift. Las unidades analizadas de la Formación Cerro Varela están compuestas por tobas cristalinas tanto de alto grado como de bajo grado de soldadura, de composición riolítica e interpretadas como depósitos originados por flujos piroclásticos. Por su litología, edad y contexto regional, las rocas de la Formación Cerro Varela integran el magmatismo gondwánico del Grupo Choiyoi de edad permotriásica de la Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza y San Juan.In the San Luis province, there are three sub-basins called Las Salinas, Beazley and Mercedes. These basins correspond to elongated rift depocenter with a NO orientation that host Triassic igneous rocks with thicknesses that reach 4,000 meters. The igneous rocks from Cerro Varela Formation, part of the homonym hill, is the last vestige of the southern Sierra San Luis. The Triassic rhyolites that crop up in the sierra de Varela, are placed within a structural pattern associated with the formation of extensional basins. Crystal tuffs of Cerro Varela are corresponds to tuffs with high and low degree of welding, of rhyolitic composition and interpreted as pyroclastic deposits. For its lithology, age and regional context, the rocks of the Cerro Varela Formation integrate the Gondwanic magmatism of Permo-Triassic age, related to the Choiyoi Group of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza and San Juan.

  2. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  3. Sierra County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  4. Geological synthesis of Las Tres Virgenes geothermal area, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Sintesis geologica de la zona geotermica de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Hernandez, Aida (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-01-15

    The Las Tres Virgenes geothermal area is placed in middle Baja California Peninsula, in a zone affected by deformational events since Late Miocene. As a result of tensional stress, NW-SE faults were generated. During this process the Santa Rosalia basin was formed starting the deposition of marine sediments. At the same time La Reforma and Aguajito volcanic centers were emplaced, their deposits were interfingered with sand deposits. At the end of the volcanic activity at Aguajito, the stress regimen changed, old normal faults were reactivated as lateral faults and a pull apart system was initiated. NE-SW and NNE-SSW faults resulted from this deformational stage, and Las Tres Virgenes volcanic products were erupted through this weakness zone. The hydrothermal active system is hosted in a grid constructed by NE-SW, NW-SE faults within the granodioritic basement under the El Azufre volcano. The fluid's discharged take place at Las Viboras zone where intense superficial fracturing is present, associated with El Azufre dextral fault. Drilling results from seven wells confirm the existence of high temperatures making feasible the exploitation of this resource to generate electric energy.

  5. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  6. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  7. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  8. Sierra Nevada Mountain Range as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountain Range can be seen in this north-looking high oblique view taken in October, 1993, by the STS-58 crew. Visible in the view to the west of the Sierra Nevada are the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys of central California. The San Francisco/Oakland Bay Area can be seen to the west of the valley at the extreme left of the photograph. To the east or right of the Sierra Nevada, the basin and Range Region of central and northern Nevada is visible. Mono Lake, Lake Tahoe and Pyramid lake are also visible in this scene. The long northwest/southeast trending Walker Lane Shear Zone, which lies just to the east (right) of the Sierra Nevada is also visible. Near the top of the view (near the horizon), the snow covered volcanic peak Mount Shasta can be seen.

  9. La economía campesina de la sierra de La Libertad

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Pontoni B.

    1982-01-01

    A pesar de esa similitud en la pobreza, consideramos que existen importan- tes diferencias entre las familias campesinas, tanto en materia de recurws e ingrc- sos como de comportamiento economice. Una de las preocupaciones del estudio ha sido, justamente, efectuar comparaciones entre las familias-campesinas de la’, microrregi¿m, como también comparar nuestros resultados con los obtenidos en otros ámbitos de la-sierra peruana más intensamente analizados, como es el caso de la Sierra Sur.

  10. Estado de conservación de la flora serpentiófita de l sur de Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Latorre, Andrés Vicente; Hidalgo Triana, Noelia; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Una de las endemofloras más singulares de la Península Ibérica está constituida por aquellos táxones ligados de un modo más o menos estricto a los afloramientos de peridotitas. El mayor macizo peridotítico al sur de la Península se localiza en la provincia de Málaga y está conformado por Sierra Bermeja y otros afloramientos menores (Sierra de Alpujata, Sierra de Aguas, Sierras del Valle del Guadalhorce). Estas rocas intrusivas procedentes del manto terrestre poseen características físico-quím...

  11. Patrimonio, Minería y Rutas en el Valle de Alcudia y Sierra Madrona (Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizares Ruiz, María del Carmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to analyze the territorial heritage linked with mining activities through the preparation of a specific route in the Valley of Alcudia-Sierra Madrona territory. To this end, the information provided by the Association for the Sustainable Development of the Valley of Alcudia and Sierra Madrona has been very helpful, along with a review of bibliographical sources and fieldwork. Results are summarized in the characterization of the mining heritage of the region, the inclusion of leading resources in the Mining Route, and its complementarity with other routes (Route of the Cave Paintings, Route of Transhumance, etc.. We propose, in addition, to make good use of the synergies offered by other nearby mining areas in the elaboration of a route of greater entity that would also integrate Almaden, recently declared a Heritage Site of Humanity, and Puertollano, both in the province of Ciudad Real (Castilla-La Mancha.Analizar el patrimonio territorial vinculado con las actividades mineras mediante la confección de una ruta específica en el Territorio Valle de Alcudia-Sierra Madrona es el objetivo principal de este artículo. La información ofrecida por la Asociación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Valle de Alcudia y Sierra Madrona ha sido de gran utilidad junto con la revisión de fuentes bibliográficas y del trabajo de campo. Los resultados se resumen en la caracterización del patrimonio minero en esta zona, de la inserción de los elementos más destacados en la Ruta de la Minería, y de su complementación con otras rutas (Ruta de las Pinturas Rupestres, Ruta de la Trashumancia, etc.. Se propone, además, aprovechar las sinergias ofrecidas por otros territorios mineros próximos para la elaboración de un itinerario de mayor entidad que integre Almadén, declarada recientemente Patrimonio de la Humanidad, y Puertollano, ambos en la provincia de Ciudad Real (Castilla-La Mancha. [fr] L’objectif principal de cet

  12. Fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Sophie and Pierre have enrolled in the operational team of a humanitarian organisation for two months, in order to help contain the Ebola epidemic. They landed in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, only yesterday. PMID:26146002

  13. Sierra Meadows Project [ds4

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Recognizing Montane Meadows and Quaking Aspen communities are a rare and valuable resource to plant and animal species in the Sierra Nevada, this project represents...

  14. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto; Mauriès, Jean-Paul; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...... led to the discovery of a high number of millipedes, each of the species present showing a different degree of establishment in this subterranean environment. An update of the knowledge on the millipedes of this region, the first data of the millipede communities in the MSS and the description of...... Ceratosphys cryodeserti Gilgado, Mauriès & Enghoff n. sp. are here provided, as well as the first data on the humidity and temperature fluctuations in the MSS of this high mountain. The new species is similar to other Baetico-Riffan species, while the only previously known congener from the region, C...

  15. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  16. Implementing an Ebola Vaccine Study - Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Schrag, Stephanie J; Carter, Rosalind J; Carr, Wendy; Legardy-Williams, Jennifer; Gibson, Laura; Lisk, Durodami R; Jalloh, Mohamed I; Bash-Taqi, Donald A; Kargbo, Samuel A Sheku; Idriss, Ayesha; Deen, Gibrilla F; Russell, James B W; McDonald, Wendi; Albert, Alison P; Basket, Michelle; Callis, Amy; Carter, Victoria M; Ogunsanya, Kelli R Clifton; Gee, Julianne; Pinner, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E; Goldstein, Susan T; Seward, Jane F; Samai, Mohamed; Schuchat, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences of the University of Sierra Leone, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and CDC joined the global effort to accelerate assessment and availability of candidate Ebola vaccines and began planning for the Sierra Leone Trial to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola (STRIVE). STRIVE was an individually randomized controlled phase II/III trial to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV). The study population was health care and frontline workers in select chiefdoms of the five most affected districts in Sierra Leone. Participants were randomized to receive a single intramuscular dose of rVSV-ZEBOV at enrollment or to receive a single intramuscular dose 18-24 weeks after enrollment. All participants were followed up monthly until 6 months after vaccination. Two substudies separately assessed detailed reactogenicity over 1 month and immunogenicity over 12 months. During the 5 months before the trial, STRIVE and partners built a research platform in Sierra Leone comprising participant follow-up sites, cold chain, reliable power supply, and vaccination clinics and hired and trained at least 350 national staff. Wide-ranging community outreach, informational sessions, and messaging were conducted before and during the trial to ensure full communication to the population of the study area regarding procedures and current knowledge about the trial vaccine. During April 9-August 15, 2015, STRIVE enrolled 8,673 participants, of whom 453 and 539 were also enrolled in the safety and immunogenicity substudies, respectively. As of April 28, 2016, no Ebola cases and no vaccine-related serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability, were reported in the study population. Although STRIVE will not produce an

  17. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goba Augustine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. Findings To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. Conclusions These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  18. School Libraries in Sierra Leone's Educational System: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargbo, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of school libraries in Sierra Leone's (Africa) educational system and the problems affecting their development. Discusses the need for materials to support teaching activities; sociological factors; teachers' and students' information needs; current trends and changes; rural areas with no school libraries; and lack of standards,…

  19. Critical Habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas designated as critical habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep. Critical habitat for the species occurs in twelve units: Mount...

  20. Sierra Leone Temne Language Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    A language guide to Temne is designed for Peace Corps volunteers serving in Sierra Leone. It contains introductory sections about the Temnes and Temne phonology and orthography, teacher notes on the use of the manual, and 12 lessons. Each lesson consists of a dialogue or narrative, notes on classroom presentation, vocabulary and useful phrases,…

  1. Susu Language Manual: Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Freetown (Sierra Leone).

    A teacher's guide for Susu is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Sierra Leone. It contains a section on Susu phonology and 28 lessons on these topics: situation-specific greetings, basic greetings, introducing a friend, the market, travel and getting directions, visiting…

  2. English Teaching Profile: Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Sierra Leone are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system, (2) teachers of English, (3) materials support; (4) educational administration for English teaching, (5) development and planning, (6) British support for the teaching of English, and (7) commercial opportunities.…

  3. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories

    OpenAIRE

    Wurie, Haja R.; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. Methods This article is based on participatory life histories...

  4. Sierra County 1990 Census Subcounty Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is a vector digital data structure taken from the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO 7.0.3

  5. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  6. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  7. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M.; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J.; Jones, Abigail B.; Illick, Megan M.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Haislip, Allyson M.; Bishop, Christopher M.; Elliot, Deborah H.; Brown, Bethany L.; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Gire, Stephen K.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B.; Spence, Jennifer S.; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Happi, Christian T.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geske, F. Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E.; Wilson, Russell B.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Henderson, Lee A.; Khan, S. Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Conclusions/Significance Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to

  8. Retours sur la posture

    OpenAIRE

    David Vrydaghs; Denis Saint-Amand

    2011-01-01

    Ce huitième numéro de la revue COnTEXTES se propose de s’arrêter sur le concept de posture. L’occasion de revenir sur la genèse de cette notion, d’en interroger les usages, mais aussi de dégager ses limites. Pour ce faire, amorçons ici la réflexion en nous fondant sur trois axes problématiques : un axe purement métacritique, tout d’abord, qui invite à une réflexion épistémologique générale sur les enjeux et les limites du concept de posture ; deux axes directement liés à des questions particu...

  9. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A;

    2011-01-01

    , have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm–Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Co´rdoba when compared...... to the other units. The TDM model ages from the Sierras de Chepes (*1.82 Ga) and the Sierra Norte (*1.79 Ga) are significantly older than the data from the Sierras de Córdoba (1.67 Ga). The Pb data are homogeneous for the different units. Only the 208Pb/204Pb ratios of some samples from the Sierras de Co......´rdoba are higher. A late Pampean detrital zircon peak around 520 Ma from the Sierras de Chepes is in accordance with the new data from the San Luis Formation. This is similar to the literature data from the Famatina Belt located to the northwest of the Sierras de Chepes and also fits the detrital zircon peaks...

  10. Carbon dioxide fluxes across the Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Inclán Cuartas, Rosa; Uribe Vallejos, Carla; Torre, D. de la; Sánchez Ledesma, Dolores María; Clavero Sánchez, M. Angeles; Fernández Díaz, Ana Maria; Morante Sánchez, Ramón; Cardeña Contreras, Ana; Fernández, M.; Rubio Sánchez, Agustín

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in soil respiration within small geographic areas is essential to accurately assess the carbon budget on a global scale. In this study, we investigated the factors controlling soil respiration in an altitudinal gradient in a southern Mediterranean mixed pine–oak forest ecosystem in the north face of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain. Soil respiration was measured in five Pinus sylvestris L. plots over a period of 1 year by means of a clos...

  11. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Grant, Donald S; John S Schieffelin; Boisen, Matt L; Augustine Goba; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M; Mohammed Fullah; Mambo Momoh; Mbalu Fonnie; Richard Fonnie; Lansana Kanneh; Koroma, Veronica J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the po...

  12. Lassa Fever in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Grant, Donald S; John S Schieffelin; Boisen, Matt L; Goba, Augustine; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Levy, Danielle C.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Moses, Lina M; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the p...

  13. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  14. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were observe

  15. My Great Migration from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's personal narrative as an immigrant from Sierra Leone who has undergone so many challenges in life and ended up turning all these obstacles into opportunities. In this article, the author describes his life growing up in Sierra Leone, his first experience of the horrors of war, his life as a student, and his dream…

  16. Diseño de un observatorio urbano generadora de información continua sobre la ciudad de Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Lino, Frisman; Tapia Huarina, Reynaldo Jose

    2015-01-01

    Santa Cruz de la Sierra es la capital y sección municipal del departamento de Santa Cruz, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Está ubicado a orillas del rio Pirai. Con una población de 1.967.943 habitantes, con una extensión de 370.621 km2, Santa Cruz de la sierra cuenta con 15 distritosy 3 distritos rurales; El Palmar de Oratorio, Paurito, Montero Hoyos.Su crecimiento está entre los más rápido de américa del surY como toda ciudad en pleno crecimiento y desarrollo presenta problemas que trae con...

  17. Génesis de la estructura arqueada de la Sierra de las Cabras al Gibalto (Subbético, provincias de Málaga y Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Subbetic sierras of Las Cabras to the Gibalto form an arched structure, giving it a high relief, constituted by many tectonic slices, verging to the South in its southern border and to the North and West in its concave border. Although it could be interpreted as an allochthonous structure, really is rooted in the transitional area between the Median and the Internal Subbetic. Several local factors have influenced this complex structure, but the final cause is the oblique collision (transpression of the In-ternal Zone against External Zone of the Betic Chain, producing an important strike-slip system.

    Las sierras subbéticas de las Cabras al Gibalto forman una estructura arqueada, que da un fuerte relieve, constituida por escamas tectónicas, vergentes al sur en su borde convexo, meridional, y al nor-te y oeste en su borde cóncavo. Aunque podría interpretarse como una estructura alóctona, se en-cuentra enraizada en el área de tránsito entre el Subbético Medio y el Interno. En su génesis han in-fluido varios factores locales pero la causa que controla a todos ellos es la colisión oblicua, en trans-presión, de la Zona Interna Bética contra la Externa, que produjo un importante sistema de desgarre.

  18. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  19. Deformación sísmica reciente de la sierra de Pie de palo, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Monsalvo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la actividad sísmica en la sierra de Pie de Palo durante enero 2008 a diciembre 2009. Los datos utilizados fueron registrados por 52 estaciones sismológicas de los experimentos SIEMBRA y ESP. En ese período, 149 sismos corticales fueron localizados con magnitudes locales entre 0,8sierra de Pie de Palo con una ausencia en el sector centro occidental de la sierra y valle de Tulum. Además, se observa una distribución de sismos diferente para la corteza situada al norte con respecto al sur de la sierra: en el bloque norte, 52 hipocentros ocurrieron a niveles de corteza media a inferior mientras que en el boque sur, 73 sismos se concentraron principalmente en niveles corticales intermedios. Se observa una buena correlación de la sismicidad con el modelo de corteza local propuesto por Perarnau et al. (2010 posicionándose la mayor ocurrencia de actividad sísmica a profundidades de corteza media a inferior y ninguna determinación sísmica en el nivel más inferior sugiriendo un comportamiento probablemente más dúctil. Un total de 128 mecanismos focales fueron determinados utilizando primeros arribos de ondas P que indican soluciones principalmente de tipo inverso e inverso con componente de rumbo. Los resultados están de acuerdo con un acortamiento cortical en dirección aproximada este-oeste. Además, el estudio de las fuentes sísmicas realizado sugiere una deformación asociada diferente para los bloques que componen a la sierra, tanto en su extensión areal como en profundidad cortical.

  20. Eventos de avalanchas y represamientos reiterados de ocurrencia prehistórica en la cuenca del río Villavil, sierra de Aconquija, Andalgalá, Catamarca Avalanches and dammed valleys events of Prehistoric occurrence in the Villavil river basin, Sierra de Aconquija, Andalgalá, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Luis Banchig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la existencia de un cuerpo sedimentario cuyos mecanismos depositacionales involucran procesos gravitacionales de gran envergadura, identificado como una avalancha de rocas (2,69 x10(9 m³, de carácter prehistórico con reactivaciones sucesivas, generado en la ladera oriental del cerro Zapallar (3.100 m s.n.m., en el extremo sur de la sierra del Aconquija (Sierras Pampeanas. Las múltiples reactivaciones de este depósito han generado reiterados represamientos en el río Villavil. La zona de estudio se emplaza en afloramientos de rocas ígneas graníticas del basamento y en proximidades de la intersección de dos grandes fallamientos regionales que, al parecer, han influido en la generación de estos eventos. Evidencias de actividad cuaternaria de los fallamientos regionales permiten deducir una posible sismogénesis asociada a estas estructuras, aunque esto no se correlaciona con la sismicidad histórica. La ocurrencia de colapsos sucesivos asociados a la oclusión reiterada del río Villavil, representa un riesgo potencial al desarrollo de la localidad de Villavil ubicada en la misma quebrada.The study reports reactivations of an ancient rock avalanche (2.69 x10(9 m³ generated in the eastern hillslope of Zapallar peak (3,100 m a.s.l. in the southern sector of Sierra del Aconquija (Sierras Pampeanas. Multiple events of the original deposit have generated several natural dams in the Villavil river. The area is located in basement outcrops constituted by granites crossed by two regional faults that favored the occurrence of these events. Evidence of Quaternary activity of these regional faults suggests a seismic triggering mechanism associated with these structures even though this hypothesis is not supported by seismic historical records. The occurrence of these successive collapses related to damned paleo-lakes along the Villavil river is a potential risk for the developiment of Villavil village located in this gully.

  1. El Banco del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo abordaremos las características principales del Banco del Sur como una institución financiera sudamericana. Primero presentaremos sus principales características y explicaremos las características de un banco de desarrollo regional. Luego, expondremos el proceso de conformación del mismo haciendo un recorrido por sus principales antecedentes. Por último, cerraremos con una evaluación sobre el estado actual del Banco del Sur. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)...

  2. Datos preliminares sobre el metamorfismo de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo G. Baldo; Casquet, César; Galindo Francisco, Mª del Carmen

    1998-01-01

    The Sierra de Pie de Palo belongs to the Western Sierras Pampeanas. Although still poorly known in detail, the sierra consists of a relatively autochthonous sequence of shelf sediments metamorphosed to low grade (the Caucete Group) and an allochthonous complex of polymetamorphic medium-to-high grade igneous and sedimentary rocks thrust towards the west and northwest. Mylonitization is widespread. Radiometric dating by different methods (U-Pb, 4°Ar/39Ar and K-Ar) suggests that at l...

  3. Datos preliminares sobre el metamorfismo de la Sierra de Pie de Palo, Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo G. Baldo; Casquet Martín, César; Galindo, Carmen

    1997-01-01

    The Sierra de Pie de Palo belongs to the Western Sierras Pampeanas. Although still poorly known in detail, the sierra consists of a relatively autochthonous sequence of shelf sediments metamorphosed to low grade (the Caucete Group) and an allochthonous complex of polymetamorphic medium-to-high grade igneous and sedimentary rocks thrust towards the west and northwest. Mylonitization is widespread. Radiometric dating by different methods (U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar) suggests that at least two tec...

  4. SIERRA framework version 4 : solver services.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alan B.

    2005-02-01

    Several SIERRA applications make use of third-party libraries to solve systems of linear and nonlinear equations, and to solve eigenproblems. The classes and interfaces in the SIERRA framework that provide linear system assembly services and access to solver libraries are collectively referred to as solver services. This paper provides an overview of SIERRA's solver services including the design goals that drove the development, and relationships and interactions among the various classes. The process of assembling and manipulating linear systems will be described, as well as access to solution methods and other operations.

  5. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  6. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  7. Sierra Nevada snow melt from SMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, L. C.; Mcmillan, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A film loop from SMS-2 imagery shows snow melt over the Sierra Nevadas from May 10 to July 8, 1975. The sequence indicates a successful application of geostationary satellite data for monitoring dynamic hydrologic conditions.

  8. El centro volcánico Sierra Grande: caracterización petrográfica y geoquímica del magmatismo extensional liásico, noroeste de la Patagonia Sierra Grande volcanic center: petrographical and geochemical characterization of the extensional liasic magmatism, northeastern Patagonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Márquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo expone los datos, interpretaciones y conclusiones, obtenidos del mapeo litofacial de un área de aproximadamente 400 km2 del Complejo Marifil en la localidad de Sierra Grande sector noreste del macizo de Somún Cura, provincia de Río Negro. En el complejo volcánico del Jurásico inferior se identificaron facies intrusivas (stocks, diques, filón capa y domos y facies piroclásticas (ignimbritas con distinto grado de soldamiento y tobas de caída asociadas a sedimentos volcanogénicos y niveles de calizas. Las litofacies se distribuyen de manera inhomogénea, con los flujos piroclásticos dominando en la parte sur, los stocks en el sector oeste y los diques, domos y filones concentrados en la sierra Grande. A través de microscopía, se determinaron rocas riolíticas con abundante sanidina y cuarzo, proporciones variables de plagioclasa y biotita englobadas en una mesostasis de similar mineralogía y con grados diversos de desvitrificación. Los análisis geoquímicos de las litofacies principales establecen la presencia de riolitas y riodacitas. La orientación N y NNO de los diques, domos y filóncapa muestra fuerte coincidencia con la estructura del basamento sedimentario paleozoico, lo que se interpreta como una actividad estructural múltiple sobre fallas regmáticas que controlan el emplazamiento del centro volcánico Sierra Grande, para el que se propone un origen fisural. Se postula asimismo una secuencia relativa del volcanismo que se inicia con conglomerados sedimentarios, sedimentos volcanogénicos, ignimbritas, filón capa, tobas de caída y calizas, stocks y finaliza con el emplazamiento de domos seguidos por diques.The data, interpretations and conclusions obtained from the lithofacial mapping of Marifil Complex, in an area of 400 km2 near Sierra Grande, northeast of Somún Cura Massif, Río Negro province are presented here. intrusive facies (stocks, dykes, sills and domes and pyroclastic ones (ignimbrites with

  9. Impacts of snow water equivalent on forest disturbance in the Sierra Nevada with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; Mueller, C.; Petrakis, R.; Adkins, S.; Kuss, O.; Kumaran, M.; Meyer, M.; Schmidt, C.

    2013-12-01

    High Sierra snow and ice provide the primary water supply for the Sierra Nevada ecosystem. Understanding how climate change affects high Sierra snowmelt and how these changes impact forest disturbance is important for future forest management. Snow water equivalent (SWE) anomalies were averaged on a monthly basis and overall trends of snowpack availability and timing of snowmelt were examined throughout the Sierra Nevada from 2003 - 2012. Periods of decreased snowpack were examined alongside periods of decreased soil moisture, increased soil temperature, and increased wild fires. This project used NASA Earth Observations (EOS) such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for snow cover and Landsat 5 for extent of forest disturbance and vegetative analysis. We also used ancillary and modeled datasets such as temperature, precipitation, and water flow rate to provide a better understanding of the relation between snowpack, soil moisture availability, and soil temperature to wildfires. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to make predictions of future forest disturbance patterns as well to analyze the sensitivity of particular variables indicative of wildfire. This information is useful for forest management decisions within the US Forest Service and will assist in the incorporation of climate change impact assessments on forest health. Layers of various climatic and surface conditions along with areas of fire are used in the Generalize Additive Model to create a wildfire risk map of the Sierra Nevada M261E Ecological Region, CA.

  10. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain. The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic inventory was created to gather useful information for the proper management of Pinus plantations in Sierra Nevada. This is the only dataset that shows a comprehensive view of the forest flora in Sierra Nevada. This is the reason why it is being used to assess the biodiversity in the very dense pine plantations on this massif. With this dataset, managers have improved their ability to decide where to apply forest treatments in order to avoid biodiversity loss. The dataset forms part of the Sierra Nevada Global Change Observatory (OBSNEV, a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  11. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  12. [Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2012-09-01

    Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of conservation areas. Since, there is actual evidence that environmental and anthropogenic variables may modify vertebrate species distribution with time, in this study we predicted the potential distribution of Panthera onca using MaxEnt for this Southeastern region. In addition, we made a projection considering the effect of a moderate climate change scenario, to evaluate the stability of the conservation area for a period of 24 years. Furthermore, we applied three threat scenarios for the actual prediction to define conservation priorities areas. In our results, we have found that 18 361Km2 (29%) of this state has a permanent suitable habitat for jaguar conservation in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Pacific coast, with a possible loss of 2 000km2 in 24 years. This habitat is characterized by a 56% of temperate forest (mainly conifers and hardwoods 34%), and 35% of tropical deciduous forest. With the projections, the Southeastern region resulted with the higher anthropogenic impacts, while at the same time, an area of 7 900km2 in the Central-Western state was determined as a priority for conservation. To assure jaguar conservation, we propose the inclusion of this new conservation area, which is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, with which we may potentially preserve other 250 species of threatened vertebrates. This way, the suggested habitat conservation may represent a local effort in Guerrero and will strengthen the biological corridor network for P. onca protection in Latin America. PMID:23025104

  13. PROBLEMS IN THE ADMISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SIERRA DE SONORA, CASE: UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ángel Vásquez-Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues and find solutions to align somewhat academic models of institutions of higher average level and above found in the central highlands of the state of Sonora, as are the University of Sierra, and the CBTA 53 and confront the culture of the people of the importance of young people studying a degree in that region.The above educational institutions are located in the geographical catchment area and education, in fact, in the same population, in the northeastern state of Sonora. The mountains of Sonora had always intended to have a school of higher education. To justify the town of Montezuma as a geographically strategic point, and thanks to the efforts made by the governor in turn was as the University of Sierra opens its doors to students on the mountain in August 2002.For the analysis of the functioning of an educational institution in the rural sector, should take into account a wide range of factors, however, this work will be key to analyze the dislocation and inconsistency of educational models from an institution of higher average level in relationship to another level, which serve as a unique educational opportunities for the people of Sonora and surrounding Montezuma. In addition, the cultural aspect, which reflects a regional behavior of the inhabitants of the region. La Sierra University is located in the mountainous region of the state of Sonora, in the town of Montezuma, with a catchment area of more than 30 municipalities in this area, which lacked a college until recently time.

  14. Faja Intrusiva La Majada, sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca: Caracterización petrológica-estructural La Majada magmatic belt, Sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca: Petrological and structural characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Cisterna

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La Faja Intrusiva La Majada se extiende con rumbo NNO-SSE a lo largo de 40 km aproximadamente, en el sector centro - sur de la sierra de Ancasti, SE de la provincia de Catamarca. Está constituida por un basamento metamórfico compuesto por esquistos y gneises bandeados cuyas paragénesis minerales corresponden a un metamorfismo de mediano a alto grado. Están deformados según dos episodios D1 y D2. En este tramo de la sierra, donde la deformación D2 es más intensa, se produce un importante magmatismo, representado por la intrusión de una secuencia ígnea sintectónica cuya composición varía de gabros y dioritas, tonalitas, granodioritas y monzogranitos. Su emplazamiento se produjo en el pico del metamorfismo M2, junto con el desarrollo de procesos de fusión del cual resultaron distintos tipos de migmatitas. También se reconoce la intrusión de granitos, leucogranitos y pegmatitas, que se emplazan en una etapa sin a tardío tectónica. El estrecho vínculo entre mayor deformación y metamorfismo, con desarrollo de migmatitas y mayores volúmenes de emplazamientos de plutonitas sugiere que el magmatismo, metamorfismo y deformación estarían estrechamente vinculados temporalmente y ligados a una zona de cizalla profunda de edad paleozoica inferior.La Majada area occur within a NNW-SSE trending along 40 kilometers in the SE Catamarca province. Is formed by schists and gneisses where the first schistosity (D1 is tightly folded and transposed by a second deformation (D2, which is coeval with the peak metamorphism (M2 and magmatism. Synkinematic granitoids emplacements are two different suites of igneous rocks : a a magmatic sequence, consisting of small gabbro - diorite bodies and tonalite, granodiorite and monzogranite plutons; and b granites, leucogranites and pegmatites. The relations between folds and crenulation cleavage in the metamorphic rocks and deformational fabrics in the granitoids and migmatites provide good evidence for the

  15. Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell; Ginneken, Meike van

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the ...

  16. Altiplano Sur de Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Flores, Ricardo; Bommel, Pierre; Bourliaud, Jean; Chevarria Lazo, Marco; Cortes, Geneviève; CRUZ, Pablo; Del Castillo, C.; Gasselin, Pierre; Joffre, Richard; Leger, Francois; Nina Laura, Juan Peter; Rambal, Serge; Rivière, Gilles (ed.); Tichit, Muriel; Tourrand, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Alimento de base de las poblaciones andinas desde hace milenios, la quinua se ha convertido hoy en un producto apreciado en el mercado internacional de alimentos dietéticos, orgánicos y equitativos. Este cambio lo iniciaron los mismos productores del Altiplano Sur de Bolivia hace aproximadamente unos 40 años. En medio de un desierto de altura, ellos lograron desarrollar una floreciente producción agrícola de exportación. Aunque cuentan con lucrativos nichos de mercado, los productores de quin...

  17. Geology, Geochemistry and Re-Os systematics of manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía Basin and adjacent areas in Baja California Sur, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; Ochoa-Landín, L.; Noriega, O.; Barra, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.; Paz-Moreno, F.

    2008-06-01

    The manganese ores in the Santa Rosalía region, western Mexico, are mainly stratiform horizons or mantos, constrained to the initial stages of sedimentary cycles of the Miocene Boléo Formation. The manganese mineralization is generally restricted to isolated paleo-basins and related to NW-SE faults formed during the early stages of the opening of the Gulf of California. Jasper, Fe, and Mn oxides associated to the NW-SE structures may represent feeder zones for the mineralized system. The manganese oxide minerals include pyrolusite, cryptomelane, todorokite, hollandite, jacobsite, and pyrochroite. Trace elements in the manganese ores indicate a hydrothermal origin for the deposits of the Santa Rosalía area. Rare earth elements (REE) patterns obtained for manganese minerals from the Lucifer and El Gavilán deposits also support a hydrothermal origin, whereas the middle REE enrichment observed in samples from the Boléo district indicates mixing between hydrothermal and hydrogenous sources. Osmium and rhenium concentrations of the manganese minerals range between 33-173 ppt and 0.14-89 ppb, respectively. The initial 187Os/188Os ratios in the manganese oxides from Lucifer and the Boléo district range between 0.43 to 0.51 and 0.70 to 0.74, respectively. These ratios are different from seawater at 7 Ma (0.84-0.89), which suggests important contributions of osmium from underlying rocks such as the Miocene volcanic rocks and the Cretaceous quartz-monzonite basement. Field evidence, manganese oxide mineralogy coupled with major and trace element geochemistry and Re-Os systematics support a hydrothermal origin for the manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía region. The ore deposition style indicates an exhalative-intraformational environment restricted to isolated basins in a diagenetic stage related to the initial evolution of the Gulf of California.

  18. Sierra toolkit computational mesh conceptual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  19. Modeling Patterns of Precipitation Phase in the Central Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikas, O.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Snowpack provides 75% of summer hydrologic flow in the western United States. This summer flow is vitally important in California, the country's leading producer of agriculture, with $43.5 billion dollars in cash receipts in 2011. Snowpack in the California Sierra Nevada has declined by approximately half from 1900 to 1990. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model at a 3km resolution to understand the critical temperature window at which both snow and rain fall for the Central Sierra Nevada during the 2002 water year. Results suggest that temperature and snow fraction [snowfall / (snowfall + rainfall)] share a logistic relationship with the snow fraction being 1 until approximately 272 K, then the snow fraction decreases by approximately 22%/K leveling at 0 snow fraction at 276.5 K. We further examine the spatial patterns of temperatures, precipitation amounts, and precipitation types in the Sierra Nevada to determine the areas of greatest potential snow to rain transition under a future warmer climate. Preliminary results suggest that the high risk areas are at the low to mid elevations. This research provides evidence that even a minor increase in temperature (+0.5 K) will yield changes in spring and summer hydrographs for the region. The spatial variability of IPCC temperature regime change for 2050 and 2100 will be downscaled for a higher resolution prediction of precipitation. It is currently under investigation how the proposed IPCC (A1 and B2) predictions of climate change for the region by 2050 (+2.7 K; +1.6 K ) and 2100 (+4.4 K; +2.7 K) will alter the corresponding annual river hydrographs. Given the complex topography of the Sierra Nevada, several spatial interpolations using GIS and statistical algorithms will be executed to render this high resolution (3km) output. Other future work with collaborators intends to model the agricultural risk associated with our predicted changes. This plot demonstrates the

  20. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  1. Impact of Summer Cattle Grazing on the Sierra Nevada Watershed: Aquatic Algae and Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Derlet, Robert W.; Richards, John R.; Tanaka, Lidia L.; Curtis Hayden; K. Ali Ger; Goldman, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated periphytic algal and microbial communities to assess the influence of human and cattle impact on Sierra water quality. Methods. 64 sites (lakes and streams from Lake Tahoe to Sequoia National Park, California) were sampled for suspended indicator bacteria and algae following standardized procedures. The potential for nonpoint pollution was divided into three categories: cattle-grazing areas (C), recreation use areas (R), or remote wildlife areas (W). Results. Periph...

  2. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  3. Alteraciones caoliniticas sobre rocas Plutonicas en Sierra Morena Occidental (Sierra de Aracena, Huelva)

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Granados, M. A.; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando; Recio Espejo, José Manuel

    1998-01-01

    This work makes a morphological description and a physical and quimical analysis of two paleosols over plutonic rocks in the Sierra de Aracena (Huelva province). Note their kaolinitic characteristic and the high levels of clay fraction in the paleohorizons

  4. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  5. Active deformation in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil, Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gustavo; Alvarado, Patricia; Fosdick, Julie C.; Perucca, Laura; Saez, Mauro; Venerdini, Agostina

    2015-12-01

    The Western Sierras Pampeanas region in the San Juan Province is characterized by thick-skinned deformation with approximately N-S trending ranges of average heights of 2500 m and a high frequency occurrence of seismic activity. Its location to the east of the mainly thin-skinned tectonics of the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt suggests that at 30°S, deformation is concentrated in a narrow zone involving these two morphostructural units. In this paper, we present new apatite (U-Th)/He results (AHe) across the northern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil (around 30°S) and analyze them in a framework of thermochronologic available datasets. We found Pliocene AHe results for Carboniferous and Triassic strata in the northern Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with the hypothesis of recent cooling and inferred erosional denudation concentrated along the northern end of this mountain range. Our analysis shows that this northern region may have evolved under different conditions than the central part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil. Previous studies have observed AHe ages consistent with Permian through Cretaceous cooling, indicating the middle part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil remained near surface before the Pampean slab subduction flattening process. Those studies also obtained ˜5 My cooling ages in the southern part of the Sierra de Valle Fértil, which are similar to our results in the northern end of the range. Taken together, these results suggest a pattern of young deformation in the northern and southern low elevation ends of the Sierra de Valle Fértil consistent with regions of high seismic activity, and Quaternary active faulting along the western-bounding thrust fault of the Sierra de Valle Fértil.

  6. Aircraft measurements of the impacts of pollution aerosols on clouds and precipitation over the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Woodley, William L.; Axisa, Duncan; Freud, Eyal; Hudson, James G.; Givati, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Recent publications suggest that anthropogenic aerosols suppress orographic precipitation in California and elsewhere. A field campaign (SUPRECIP: Suppression of Precipitation) was conducted to investigate this hypothesized aerosol effect. The campaign consisted of in situ aircraft measurements of the polluting aerosols, the composition of the clouds ingesting them, and the way the precipitation-forming processes are affected. SUPRECIP was conducted during February and March of 2005 and February and March of 2006. The flights documented the aerosols and orographic clouds flowing into the central Sierra Nevada from the upwind densely populated industrialized/urbanized areas and contrasted them with the aerosols and clouds downwind of the sparsely populated areas in the northern Sierra Nevada. SUPRECIP found that the aerosols transported from the coastal regions are augmented greatly by local sources in the Central Valley resulting in high concentrations of aerosols in the eastern parts of the Central Valley and the Sierra foothills. This pattern is consistent with the detected patterns of suppressed orographic precipitation, occurring primarily in the southern and central Sierra Nevada, but not in the north. The precipitation suppression occurs mainly in the orographic clouds that are triggered from the boundary layer over the foothills and propagate over the mountains. The elevated orographic clouds that form at the crest are minimally affected. The clouds are affected mainly during the second half of the day and the subsequent evening, when solar heating mixes the boundary layer up to cloud bases. Local, yet unidentified nonurban sources are suspected to play a major role.

  7. The Eocene to Oligocene Landscape of the Northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, E. J.; Graham, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    results suggest that the northern Sierra Nevada stood as an area of high topography in the early Oligocene, similar to the modern range. This relatively steep topographic gradient is consistent with the landscape reflected in the stratigraphic sequence: steep high-energy fluvial channels emptying into structurally-controlled broad braided stream valleys.

  8. El megadeslizamiento del cerro Uritorco, ladera occidental de la Sierra chica de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Carignano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo norte de la Sierra Chica de Córdoba, sobre el flanco oeste del cerro Uritorco (1.949 m s.n.m., se ha identificado un megadeslizamiento (30°49'55,46"S y 64°29'50,31"O. Los materiales movilizados del frente del escarpe de la falla Sierra Chica, han cubierto parcialmente el granito de Capilla del Monte y los abanicos aluviales pleistocenos del piedemonte. El lóbulo y bloques rotados del deslizamiento conforman un alto topográfico que oficia de límite entre los valles de Punilla (al sur y de Charbonier (al noroeste. Mediante técnicas de procesamiento e interpretación de imágenes satelitales multiespectrales de media (Landsat-ETM y muy alta resolución (GeoEye-1, análisis digital del terreno a partir de modelos de elevación (SRTM y Aster-GDEM y el correspondiente control de campo, se ha delimitado y caracterizado esta megageoforma nunca antes advertida. Dada la elevada sismicidad actual e histórica de la zona y los indicios morfotectónicos que señalan como activas a las fallas Sierra Chica y Pajarillo-Copacabana-Masa, se estima que este deslizamiento posiblemente fue gatillado por un evento sísmico, acontecido en alguna de esas estructuras. Tanto el depósito del deslizamiento como su cicatriz de despegue presentan un significativo grado de erosión hídrica. Por análisis comparativos con otros deslizamientos ya datados y de características similares, situados en el escarpe occidental de las Sierras de San Luis, se le asigna una edad pleistocena medio-tardía. Por su volumen y características (2,1 x109 m³ se estableció que se trata de un megadeslizamiento único en las Sierras de Córdoba y constituye uno de los deslizamientos de mayor tamaño entre los registrados hasta el presente en Argentina.

  9. Nuevas observaciones en el Alpujárride del sector centro-occidental de la sierra de Carrascoy (Murcia. Consecuencias paleogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado, F.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Romero and Carrascoy units defined by Kampschuur (1972 have common stratigraphic series, with several changes in its facies and thickness, although these changes are not situated in the hypothetic contact between both units. Similarly, from a tectonic point of view it is not possible to maintain the differentiation between these units, because usually they pass each other stratigraphically with no faults involved. For this reason we discard, at least in this area the differentiation between the Almagride Complex (Romero D. and the Alpujarride (Carrascoy D. and we thus suggest that they all belong to the Alpujarride Complex. The structure of this area is complex, not only by the thrustings, but specially by the opposed vergences observed in the E-W folds, southwards in the northern area and progressively northwards in the southern area of the Sierra. Moreover, N-S folds verging to the W, are also observed.Las unidades de Romero y de Carrascoy definidas por Kampschuur (1972 tienen una serie estratigráfica común, con algunos cambios de facies y potencias, aunque éstos no se localizan en el hipotético contacto entre ambas. Igualmente, desde el punto de vista tectónico no se puede mantener su diferenciación, pues generalmente el paso de los afloramientos atribuidos a una de estas unidades a los de la otra es estratigráfico. Por ello, descartamos la diferenciación previamente existente en este sector entre complejo Almágride (D. de Romero y Alpujárride (D. de Carrascoy, siendo el conjunto de los materiales atribuible al Alpujárride. La estructura del sector estudiado es bastante compleja, no sólo por los cabalgamientos existentes, sino sobre todo por las vergencias opuestas que presentan los pliegues E-O; hacia el sur los situados en la parte N de la Sierra y progresivamente hacia el norte conforme se va al S de la misma. Existen además pliegues de dirección N-S con vergencias al O.

  10. Cryoseston in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1-2 (2012), s. 163-173. ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cryoseston * Sierra Nevada Mountains * Spain Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2012

  11. The Cora: People of the Sierra Madre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sarah; And Others

    This text explores an isolated and indigenous people who live in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. Isolation has allowed the Cora Indians to maintain their traditional customs to a much greater extent than many other groups of Native Americans. The historical and geographical contexts of the Cora are presented in this curriculum resource.…

  12. Particularizing Universal Education in Postcolonial Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Grace

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a vertical case study of the history of universalizing education in postcolonial Sierra Leone from the early 1950s to 1990 to highlight how there has never been a universal conception of universal education. In order to unite a nation behind a universal ideal of schooling, education needed to be adapted to different…

  13. Sierra Leone is the 98th member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sierra Leone has become the 98th member State of the Agency. The application for membership of this country was approved by the General Conference in September last year, and on 19 June it was announced that the instrument of acceptance of the Statute had been deposited with the Government of the United States. (author)

  14. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Jan van der Ploeg; Merlijn van Weerd; Andres B Masipiqueña; Persoon, Gerard A.

    2011-01-01

    Illegal logging is a threat to biodiversity and rural livelihoods in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the largest protected area in the Philippines. Every year between 20,000 and 35,000 cu. m wood is extracted from the park. The forestry service and municipal governments tolerate illegal logging in the protected area; government officials argue that banning an important livelihood activity of households along the forest frontier will aggravate rural poverty. However this reasoning unde...

  15. Summary of the geology of the northern part of the Sierra Cuchillo, Socorroand Sierra Counties, southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The northern part of the Sierra Cuchillo is located within the northeastern part of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field west of the Rio Grande rift in the Basin and Range Province, approximately 50 km northwest of Truth or Consequences in south-central New Mexico. The Sierra Cuchillo is a north-south, elongated horst block composed of Tertiary volcanic and intrusive rocks, sparse outcrops of Lower Permian and Upper Cretaceous rocks, and sediments of the Tertiary-Quaternary Santa Fe Group. The horst is composed mainly of a basal volcanic rock sequence of andesite-latite lava flows and mud-flow breccias with a 40Ar/39Ar isotopic age of about 38 Ma. The sequence is locally intruded by numerous dikes and plugs that range in composition from basaltic andesite through rhyolite and granite. The andesite-latite sequence is overlain by ash-flow tuffs and a complex of rhyolitic lava flows and domes. Some of these units are locally derived and some are outflow sheets derived from calderas in the San Mateo Mountains, northeast of the study area. These locally derived units and outflow sheets range in age from 28 to 24 Ma.

  16. Sierra Nevada Rock Glaciers: Biodiversity Refugia in a Warming World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Rock glaciers and related periglacial rock-ice features (RIFs) are common landforms in high, dry mountain ranges, and widely distributed throughout canyons of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA (Millar & Westfall, in press). Due to insulating rock carapaces, active rock glaciers (ice-cored) have been documented to maintain ice longer, and thus contribute to more enduring hydrologic output, under past warming climates than typical ice glaciers. This function has been suggested for the coming century. We propose a broader hydrologic and ecologic role for RIFs as temperatures rise in the future. For the Sierra Nevada, we suggest that canyons with either active or relict RIFs (Holocene and Pleistocene) maintain water longer and distribute water more broadly than canyons that were scoured by ice glaciers and are defined by primary river and lake systems. RIFs provide persistent, distributed water for extensive wetland habitat, rare in these otherwise barren, high, and dry locations. We mapped and assessed the area of wetlands surrounding active and relict RIFs from the central eastern Sierra Nevada; from these we delineated wetland vegetation community types and recorded plant species found in RIF-supported wetlands. Mid-elevation RIFs, likely inactive or with transient ice, develop soil patches on their rock matrix. At the Barney Rock Glacier (Duck Pass, Mammoth Crest), we inventoried plant species on all soil patches, and measured cover for each species per patch and total plant cover for the rock glacier. RIF landforms also appear to support high-elevation mammals. We show that American beaver (Castor canadensis) is associated with canyons dominated by active or relict RIFs and propose that the articulating, persistent, and distributed nature of streams makes dam-building easier than other canyons. Beavers further contribute to maintaining water and creating wetland habitat in upper watersheds by engineering ponds and marshes, and contributing to riparian extent. We

  17. Mapeo de ingeniería geológica en parte sur del área metropolitana de San Salvador Engineering geology mapping in the southern part of the metropolitan area of San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de mapas geológicos clásicos que agrupan los estratos por edad u origen, dificulta la interpretación y uso para diseños de ingeniería civil o planificación urbana, para las personas sin conocimientos profundos en geología. Debido a esto se ha llevado a cabo mapeo de ingeniería geológica en sector sur del Área Metropolitana de San Salvador, haciendo uso de la metodología de bandas. El objetivo de la metodología es que la información geológica, peligrosidad geológica y recomendaciones geotécnicas puedan representarse y agruparse dependiendo de las características intrínsecas de cada zona. Esta información puede ser fácilmente interpretada por los planificadores urbanos, constructores privados y agencias gubernamentales. La debilidad en la recopilación e investigación de información geológica y geotécnica en El Salvador, son unas de las razones de la problemática que experimenta la región, indicando la importancia de mejorar el manejo del riesgo, así como la mecánica de suelos y de rocasThe use of classic geologic maps, where geological layers are grouped according to their age or origin, makes difficult the interpretation and use for civil engineer design or urban planning to people without deep knowledge in geology. Due to this reason engineering geological mapping has been carried out in the southern part of the Metro- politan Area of San Salvador using the stripe method. The objective of the methodology is that geological information, geological hazards and geotechnical recommendations as well, can be represented and grouped depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each zone. This information can be easily interpreted for urban planners, private builders and government agencies. The weakness in the compilation and research of geological and geotechnical information in El Salvador, are some of the reasons for the current problems that experiment the region, indicating the importance of improving risk

  18. Estructura del Alpujárride y del Maláguide al NW de Sierra Nevada (Cordillera Bética)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Delgado, F.; López-Garrido, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    [EN] A review of the area situated between the Sierra Arana and Sierra Nevada (NE of Granada) permits to redefine the local Alpujarride units. In the southern sector, from bottom to top, the Padules, Blanquizares and La Plata units can be distinguished. The La Mora Unit, appearing in tectonic windows, occupies the same tectonic position as that of Padules and has comparable Middle and Late Triassic stratigraphic sequences. This attribution of the La Mora Unit to the Alpujarride im...

  19. 塞拉利昂应对埃博拉出血热疫情的西区大会战行动及其实施效果评估%Western area surge for controlling Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Sierra Leone and evaluation of its effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 吴丹; 张文义; 陈泽良; 常国辉; 田曙光; 杨瑞馥; 刘超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Western Area Surge (WAS) program in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone, and to analyze its implementing effect. Methods The subject of this study was 3 813 laboratory confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) cases reported in Sierra Leone from November 19, 2014 through January 27, 2015, a period before and after the implementation of the WAS program. To analyze and make conclusions according to the working experience of China Mobile Laboratory Reponses Team in the fight of Ebola outbreak, using WHO published EHF case definition to make diagnosis and compare the number of bed numbers, confirmed EHF cases, samples tested, and positive rates before and after implementation of WAS program. Results From the implementation of WAS program on 17th December 2014 to half a month later, the total numbers of Ebola holding and treatment centers increased from 640 to 960, six additional laboratories were established. On January, 2015, another two laboratories from America and The Netherlands were established. The numbers of samples tested one month before and after WAS program were 7 891 and 9 783, respectively, with an increase of 24.0 percent, while the positive rate of Ebola virus decreased from 22.2%(1 752/7 891) to 11.0%(1 077/9 783). The positive rate of blood samples decreased from 39.6%(248/626) in the month before WAS program to 27.4%(131/478) (χ2=17.93,P<0.001) in the mother after WAS program, the positive rate of blood samples 22.7% (103/454) to 10%(62/609)(χ2=31.03,P<0.001), accordingly. After 3 weeks of WAS program, in addition to Western Area, another four hotspots in Sierra Leone had also reported a significant decrease of the numbers of confirmed EVD cases. Forty-two days after implementation of WAS program, the daily number of laboratory confirmed EHF cases decreased from 63 to 10. Conclusion WAS program played a vital role in controlling the EHF outbreak rapidly in Sierra Leone. It could also provide guidance for the control

  20. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  1. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  2. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  3. Sierra Sur : una experiencia innovadora para el diseño y desarrollo de material multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabero Almenara, Julio; Márquez Fernández, Dominga; Ballesteros Regaña, Cristóbal; Barroso Osuna, Julio Manuel; Fernández Batanero, José María; Román Graván, Pedro; López Meneses, Eloy; Duarte Hueros, Ana María

    2001-01-01

    En el presente estudio se describe el desarrollo de una experiencia universitaria en la que se diseñó y desarrolló de forma colaborativa un material multimedia entre estudiantes de diferentes facultades de la Universidad de Sevilla. En él presentamos la planificación y desarrollo seguido a lo largo de sus diferentes etapas, además de detallar los objetivos, participantes, diseño metodológico, aplicación de instrumentos para la recogida de datos, plan de formación, y medios técnico...

  4. Maternal health care in Masanga, Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Fugmann, Laura; Nielsen, Sofie Hede; Madsen, Nina Maria

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Leone has the statistic world record of being the country with the highest average child and maternal mortality. The Danish community based organization Masanga, has initiated a hospital in the village of Masanga, in order to contribute to rebuild the health sector after the civil war, to help prevent disease and death and promote health locally. By interviewing three Danish volunteers from the Masanga Organization who all have been at the hospital, and by examining relevant artic...

  5. Ebola response in Sierra Leone: The impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Awonuga, Waheed; Shah, Tejshri; Youkee, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest ever seen, with over 28,000 cases and 11,300 deaths since early 2014. The magnitude of the outbreak has tested fragile governmental health systems and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to their limit. Here we discuss the outbreak in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, the shape of the local response and the impact the response had on caring for children suspected of having contracted EVD. Challenges encountered in providing clinical care to children whilst working in the "Red Zone" where risk of EVD is considered to be highest, wearing full personal protective equipment are detailed. Suggestions and recommendations both for further research and for operational improvement in the future are made, with particular reference as to how a response could be more child-focused. PMID:27177732

  6. Aero radiometric relay of the areas including in the photo map: Sierra de los Rios (C 15), Fraile Muerto (Page E-16) and Cerro de Las Cuentas (Page E- 17) Cerro Largo district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work constitutes the second part of the report realised on the aerorradimetric relief of the Long Hill Department. 1,325 km of in detail regular prospection were arrived at end on the photo-plans Died Frayle, Hill of Cuentas and Mountain range of the Rivers. This constitutes a 59% of the total of the areas released in all the campaign. A series took place in addition to aircraft reconnaissances on the photo-plans Step Pereira, Cordobes and Cerrezuelo covering 480 km, on the departments of Long Hill and bordering areas of the department of Peach tree. These works took place between days 8 of November to the 8 of December of 1970 being developed in this period, the making a flight, elaboration of the cintilometricos registries and interpretation of the same. The work area includes/understands the flights inclusively number 16 to the 26 and 30 and 31 flights in agreement can be seen in the advance plane. Scale 1:100.000

  7. Exploring the decision-­making processes during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Treacy, Laura Claire

    2014-01-01

    High rates of maternal mortality remain a persistent problem in Sierra Leone. Efforts to reduce these high rates have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of free health care for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how an...

  8. Post-orogenic evolution of the Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes and links to the evolution of the eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin constrained by low temperature thermochronometry and 2D thermokinematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Rossello, Eduardo A.

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low-temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The first data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and

  9. Composición del aceite esencial de Tagetes lacera, planta endémica de Baja California Sur, México Composition of essential oil of Tagetes lacera, endemic plant from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Díaz-Cedillo; Miguel A. Serrato-Cruz; Mario Arce-Montoya; José L León-de la Luz

    2012-01-01

    Es escasa la información sobre la biología y química de Tagetes lacera Brand. (Asteraceae), especie endémica de Baja California Sur (BCS), México, que por su porte alto y presencia de aroma es una fuente de aceites esenciales útil para el control de plagas y enfermedades de cultivos agrícolas. A partir de partes aéreas de plantas en floración de T. lacera recolectadas en la sierra de la Laguna, BCS se obtuvo aceite esencial mediante hidrodestilación. Por medio del procedimiento de análisis CG...

  10. CCALBATC - bathymetric contours for the central California region between Point Arena and Point Sur.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — CCALBATC consists of bathymetric contours at 10-m and 50-m intervals for the area offshore of central California between Point Arena to the north and Point Sur to...

  11. Indigenous Knowledge and Library Work in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge is vital information that is sadly diminishing at an alarming rate in Sierra Leone. There is, therefore, an urgent need to collect it before much of it is completely lost. This article explores the concept of indigenous knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems with a particular focus on Sierra Leone. Definitions and…

  12. Sierra Leone Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies which affect young children in Sierra Leone. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the SABER-ECD framework. The country report includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and interventions in Sierra Leone, ...

  13. El Paleozoico inferior de la sierra del Campo, provincia de Tucumán: Nuevos datos sobre la prolongación austral de la cuenca eopaleozoica del noroeste argentino The lower Paleozoic in the Sierra del Campo, province of Tucumán: New data on the southern extension of the Eopaleozoic basin in northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Mángano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de afloramientos del Paleozoico inferior de la sierra del Campo, provincia de Tucumán, proporciona información sobre el borde sur de la cuenca eopaleozoica del noroeste argentino. El análisis de facies indica que estos depósitos registran sedimentación en un complejo de barras arenosas submareales en un ambiente marino dominado por mareas. Una comparación con otros afloramientos de la cuenca sugiere una correlación regional con el Grupo Mesón.Study of Lower Paleozoic outcrops from the Sierra del Campo, Tucumán province, provides information on the southern margin of the Early Paleozoic basin of northwest Argentina. Facies analysis indicates that these deposits record sedimentation in a subtidal sandbar complex of a tide-dominated shallow sea. Comparison with other outcrops in the basin suggests a regional correlation with the Mesón Group.

  14. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián N. Lescano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  15. La prolongación austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en la provincia de La Pampa: Evidencias geológicas y geofísicas The southern extension of the Sierras Pampeanas in La Pampa province: geological and geophysical evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delpino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En las márgenes de la salina Valle Daza se reconocieron granoblastitas derivadas de gabros y granitos leucocráticos con diferenciados aplíticos y pegmatíticos, que evidencian dos eventos metamórficos caracterizados por: a deformación dúctil en facies de anfibolitas alta o superior que generó la foliación dominante NNE y transformó a las granoblastitas en anfibolitas y a las rocas granítico-pegmatíticas en protomilonitas y milonitas y, b deformación frágil-dúctil de baja temperatura, con retrogradación parcial de las fases de grado alto a paragénesis de facies de esquistos verdes media a alta. En el mismo sector, notorias anomalías gravimétricas (30 km de diámetro y amplitud de +15 mGal y magnetométricas (10 km de ancho y máximos de 250 nT reflejan la presencia de volúmenes importantes de rocas máficas de alta densidad. Se determinaron significativas similitudes petrológicas y estructurales entre las rocas máficas y graníticas de Valle Daza y las aflorantes en el sector occidental de la sierra de Lonco Vaca, situada en la extensión norte de una línea de anomalías gravimagnetométricas de rumbo concordante con la foliación NNE con máximos en las localidades Estancia El Coya, Valle Daza, El Durazno y Victorica. De norte a sur, los afloramientos de granoblastitas clinopiroxénicas y anfibolitas de Lonco Vaca, salina de Valle Daza y Estancia Santa María, se corresponden con las respectivas anomalías gravimagnetométricas. Los estudios realizados indican que los eventos tectono-metamórficos observados en el centro de la provincia de La Pampa pueden ser correlacionados con los eventos F3 (S3-M3 y F4 (M4 reconocidos en el bloque central de la sierra de San Luis. Son también características en un todo comparables en ambas regiones, el diseño discontínuo y la alineación NNE de las anomalías gravimagnetométricas, en concordancia con fajas de deformación dúctil de extensión regional buzantes al ESE y con

  16. Actualización en el límite entre sierras Pampeanas occidentales y Precordillera Oriental, en la provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal J. Zambrano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el sistema de fallamiento existente en la depresión tectónica de Tulum, ubicada en la parte este y sur de la provincia de San Juan, en el oeste árido de Argentina. El límite entre los dos sistemas morfoestructurales, uno la Precordillera Oriental y el otro el Sistema Pampeano Occidental ha sido establecido en trabajos anteriores, a lo largo del sistema de fallamiento de Tulum, que cruza a la depresión diagonalmente en dirección NNE. No obstante la disponibilidad de nueva información de sondeos eléctricos verticales y de algunas perforaciones para búsqueda de agua subterránea, efectuados al sur y al oeste del cerro Valdivia, permite señalar que hacia el suroeste de este núcleo de basamento metamórfico limitado en ambos flancos por fallas, el límite Sistema Pampeano y Precordillera se aproxima al cordón montañoso de sierra Chica de Zonda, continuando al sur en el cerro Salinas. De allí al SSO existen, en superficie, indicaciones de que el sistema de fallamiento continúa hasta el Montecito, donde el sistema pampeano de fallas queda interrumpido por la gran falla con actividad cuaternaria que sirve de límite oriental a la sierra de Las Peñas. El contacto entre ambos sistemas forma el extremo sur de la Precordillera Oriental en subsuelo. Este conocimiento estructural permite no solo ser aplicado a la prospección de agua sino también a la de hidrocarburos en la región.

  17. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra. The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit. This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones (with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed.Sierra Blanca, situada al SW de Málaga, forma parte de la unidad de Blanca que pertenece al complejo Alpujárride de la Cordillera Bética. Su secuencia litológica está compuesta por un conjunto inferior de migmatitas, gneises y esquistos, y por una formación superior de mármoles, blancos dolomíticos en la base y mármoles calizos azules hacia la parte superior, entre los que existe un tránsito gradual. La estructura de Sierra Blanca está formada por pliegues, generalmente isoclinales, con flancos invertidos que muestran

  18. Chinese military medical teams in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yinying; Rong, G; Yu, S P; Sun, Z; Duan, X; Dong, Z; Xia, H; Zhan, N; Jin, C; Ji, J; Duan, H

    2016-06-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in history. The three most affected countries, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, have faced enormous challenges in controlling transmission and providing clinical care for patients with EVD. The Chinese government, in response to the requests of the WHO and the governments of the affected countries, responded rapidly by deploying Chinese military medical teams (CMMTs) to the areas struck by the deadly epidemic. A total of three CMMTs, comprising 115 military medical professionals, were rotationally deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone to assist with infection prevention and control, clinical care and health promotion and training. Between 1 October 2014 and 22 March 2015, the CMMTs in Sierra Leone admitted and treated a total of 773 suspected and 285 confirmed EVD cases. Among the 285 confirmed cases, 146 (51.2%) patients survived after treatment. In addition, the CMMTs maintained the record of zero infections among healthcare workers and zero cross-infections between quarantined patients. In this manuscript, we aim to give an overview of the mission, and share our best practices experience on predeployment preparedness, EVD holding and treatment centre building and EVD case management. PMID:26744190

  19. The vulnerability of agricultural and livestock systems to climate variability: using dynamic system models in the Rancheria upper basin (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta). eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 7 No. 2 7 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Páez, Carlos Andres; RUIZ-AGUDELO, CESAR AUGUSTO; Bonilla-Uribe, Oscar David

    2015-01-01

    When you are defining the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems it is vital to identify production systems that may collapse because of climate change or land degradation. This study explores these challenges by analysing the effect of a range of external pressures on the vulnerability of agricultural systems in the upper basin of the Rancheria River (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Biosphere Reserve [BR], Colombia). Models of dynamic system approaches were made to understand how communities beca...

  20. The Children's War: Towards Peace in Sierra Leone. A Field Report Assessing the Protection and Assistance Needs of Sierra Leonean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marc

    Based on a 3-week field visit to Sierra Leone and Guinea, this report investigates why children (ages 0-17) have become key figures in Sierra Leone's civil war, and explores the problems that war has caused them. The report describes significant new effects of violence on three groups of Sierra Leonean children, very few of whom have received any…

  1. Implementing a Web-Based Decision Support System to Spatially and Statistically Analyze Ecological Conditions of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; Mueller, C.; Brooks, A. N.; Kislik, E. A.; Baney, O. N.; Ramirez, C.; Schmidt, C.; Torres-Perez, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada is experiencing changes in hydrologic regimes, such as decreases in snowmelt and peak runoff, which affect forest health and the availability of water resources. Currently, the USDA Forest Service Region 5 is undergoing Forest Plan revisions to include climate change impacts into mitigation and adaptation strategies. However, there are few processes in place to conduct quantitative assessments of forest conditions in relation to mountain hydrology, while easily and effectively delivering that information to forest managers. To assist the USDA Forest Service, this study is the final phase of a three-term project to create a Decision Support System (DSS) to allow ease of access to historical and forecasted hydrologic, climatic, and terrestrial conditions for the entire Sierra Nevada. This data is featured within three components of the DSS: the Mapping Viewer, Statistical Analysis Portal, and Geospatial Data Gateway. Utilizing ArcGIS Online, the Sierra DSS Mapping Viewer enables users to visually analyze and locate areas of interest. Once the areas of interest are targeted, the Statistical Analysis Portal provides subbasin level statistics for each variable over time by utilizing a recently developed web-based data analysis and visualization tool called Plotly. This tool allows users to generate graphs and conduct statistical analyses for the Sierra Nevada without the need to download the dataset of interest. For more comprehensive analysis, users are also able to download datasets via the Geospatial Data Gateway. The third phase of this project focused on Python-based data processing, the adaptation of the multiple capabilities of ArcGIS Online and Plotly, and the integration of the three Sierra DSS components within a website designed specifically for the USDA Forest Service.

  2. Response to the Ebola crisis in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Beauty Chiedza; Bowley, Douglas; Roper, Katrina

    2015-02-27

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014 marked the first time that an epidemic of this viral haemorrhagic fever had occurred in West Africa. From its origin in Guinea, the outbreak rapidly increased to become a humanitarian crisis affecting all aspects of life in the three countries worst affected: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Improving understanding of Ebola virus disease among the general population and instigating the behavioural changes required to help break the epidemic were central to the public health response. This article explores some of the misconceptions about Ebola as it spread into Sierra Leonean communities, and the social mobilisation response of the government of Sierra Leone. It is a reflective account of conversations with Sierra Leonean nationals during a military deployment at the International Security Advisory Team headquarters medical treatment facility in Freetown. PMID:25711592

  3. Initiatives for Sustainable Community Development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, John M.; Kargbo, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, two church-sponsored programs are focused on sustainable development. The Wesleyan Development Education and Awareness Programme trains people to initiate community projects. Women's Loan Scheme encourages development of small-scale enterprises. (SK)

  4. VI. Los Matusalenes de la Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Ordinaire, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    *** Vi en Jauja algunos compatriotas que habían venido de Lima, o incluso de París, para curarse en ese valle de enfermedades del pecho; y debo decir que si bien no alabaron los atractivos del lugar, fueron unánimes en proclamar los efectos saludables de éste. En una palabra, preferían morir de aburrimiento en Jauja que de una tisis galopante en otra parte. Se cita al Perú como el país donde, en relación a la cifra de su población, hay más centenarios; y es en los valles altos de la Sierra do...

  5. Geomagnetic Polarity Epochs: Sierra Nevada II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A; Doell, R R; Dalrymple, G B

    1963-10-18

    Ten new determinations on volcanic extrusions in the Sierra Nevada with potassium-argon ages of 3.1 million years or less indicate that the remanent magnetizations fall into two groups, a normal group in which the remanent magnetization is directed downward and to the north, and a reversed group magnetized up and to the south. Thermomagnetic experiments and mineralogic studies fail to provide an explanation of the opposing polarities in terms of mineralogic control, but rather suggest that the remanent magnetization reflects reversals of the main dipole field of the earth. All available radiometric ages are consistent with this field-reversal hypothesis and indicate that the present normal polarity epoch (N1) as well as the previous reversed epoch (R1) are 0.9 to 1.0 million years long, whereas the previous normal epoch (N2) was at least 25 percent longer. PMID:17799480

  6. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Foday R.; Massaquoi, Thomas A.; Idriss, Baimba R.; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G.

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8–70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (pEbola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain. PMID:26983037

  7. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III (.,; )

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  8. Functional Requirements for SIERRA Version 1.0 Beta; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the SIERRA framework is to provide a common software infrastructure for massively parallel computational mechanics applications. The SIERRA framework consolidates the mechanics-independent computational services required by a diverse set of mechanics applications into a shared framework. Consolidation of these computational services eliminates their redundant development and maintenance efforts and streamlines the coupling of independently developed computational mechanics capabilities into integrated multi-mechanics applications

  9. International Marketing Strategy of Transformations LTD in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mohammed Touqeer

    2011-01-01

    The central idea of the report is to formulate an international marketing strategy for Transformations Ltd, a learning and development company based in UK for its entry in Sierra Leone market. The company wants to provide accredited British Leadership and Management qualification in Sierra Leone. The report uses theoretical framework for marketing analyses including internationalization models, entry mode, market segmentation, targeting, positioning and generic strategy. The report adopte...

  10. Echocardiographic analysis of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve

    OpenAIRE

    Tri, Terry B.; Gregoratos, Gabriel

    1981-01-01

    Although the Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis was removed from the market nearly a decade ago, a number of patients still have this valve in place. We recently studied the echocardiographic features of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis. Abnormalities that suggested improper functioning of the prosthesis included a markedly delayed poppet opening and an early diastolic hump believed to represent motion of the mitral annulus. Previously described echocardiographic indi...

  11. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  12. Transecta Andina: Estudios de interregionalidad y verticalidad en los Andes del sur del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Reindel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Las poblaciones prehispánicas del sur del Perú desarrollaron sistemas socioeconómicos sofisticados que les permitieron adaptarse a la enorme diversidad ecológica de los Andes. Entre la sierra de los Andes y la costa desértica del Pacífico se formó una regionalización muy marcada. Los sistemas económicos correspondientes se reflejan en los restos de los asentamientos prehispánicos de cada región, que hoy en día se pueden detectar con métodos arqueológicos. El proyecto “Transecta Andina” del I...

  13. Geología y geocronología Rb-Sr de granitoides de Sierra Grande, provincia de Río Negro Geology and Rb-Sr geochronology of granitoids of Sierra Grande, province of Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Varela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Al este de Sierra Grande la unidad más antigua es la Ectinita El Jagüelito, metagrauvacas y pizarras, cortadas por granitoides ordovícicos (Rb-Sr en roca total 467 ± 16 Ma; U-Pb en circón 476 ± 4 Ma. Ectinitas y granitoides son cubiertos discordantemente por sedimentitas clásticas fosilíferas silúricas de la Formación Sierra Grande y el total de unidades deformado por pliegues y fallas. Al sur de Sierra Grande, Mina Hiparsa, afloran la Ectinita El Jagüelito, la Formación Sierra Grande y granitoides, en un contexto de fuerte deformación tectónica. Desde mitad de siglo pasado se discute si los granitoides constituyen el basamento de la Formación Sierra Grande o si son intrusivos en la misma. La Formación Sierra Grande está afectada por metamorfismo térmico. Datos radimétricos previos de granitoides son discordantes (Rb-Sr en roca total 252 ± 5 Ma; 363 ± 57 Ma; 318 ± 28 Ma; U-Pb SHRIMP en circón 476 ± 6 Ma. Se efectuaron nuevos análisis Rb-Sr en roca total y minerales y se propone la existencia de dos unidades graníticas. En granitoides del noroeste de la mina, Granito Mina Hiparsa, se obtuvieron dos isocronas (262 ± 6 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr inicial = 0,7162 ± 0,0003 y 263 ± 9 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr inicial = 0,7149 ± 0,0009. En los granitoides al oeste de la Mina Hiparsa, Granodiorita Laguna Medina, se efectuó una isocrona (260 ± 3 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr Inicial = 0,7078 ± 0,0012. Las rocas estudiadas son el producto de plutonismo ordovícico temprano y pérmico tardío-temprano. Las tres isocronas roca total-minerales son pérmicas, pero dos por metamorfismo y reseteo de rocas ordovícicas (87Sr/86Sr inicial ~ 0,7150 y una por cristalización (87Sr/86Sr inicial ~ 0,7080.To the east of Sierra Grande, the oldest unit is the El Jagüelito Ectinite mainly composed of meta-greywackes and slates, and cut by Ordovician granitoids (Rb-Sr whole rock 467 ± 16 Ma; U-Pb zircon 476 ± 4 Ma. Ectinites and granitoids are covered in unconformity by

  14. La piraterie sur le web

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Les échanges de toutes sortes sont facilités à l'extrême par le web: des forums, des vidéoconférences, le commerce à distance, ou tout simplement la célérité des courriers électroniques ou la convivialité des chats, tout cela participe de la société de communication. Une certaine partie du monde découvre le nouvel horizon des échanges quasi instantanés, mais... les transactions sur le web sont-elles vraiment s res?

  15. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  16. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  17. Unidades tectónicas y estructura del sector meridional de Sierra Espuña (Cordillera Bética, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estévez, A.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available There are five tectonic units in the south part of Sierra Espuña; the upper one belongs to the Malaguide Complex, below there are three units of an intermediate character between the Malaguide and Alpujarride complexes, and in the lowest position exists one Alpujarride unit. Several thrust sheets, formely distinguished in previous papers, affecting the Malaguide unit do not exist, merely corresponding to stratigraphic features. The tectonic transport of the units, as indicate the minor structures, show two directions, towards the SSE and the E, according the present coordinates. These units has been affected by reverse faults and folds facing to the S, SE and E, forming an arc convex to the S, feature than can be formed later, caused for the movement of a left strike-slip and normal fault, affecting the SE border of Sierra Espuña. This sierra has undergo an important uplift, at least of 825 m in sorne points, from the Late Miocene to the presento The existence of intermediate units between the Malaguide and Alpujarride complexes, show that the paleogeographic passage between both complexes was not sharp, but gradual.En la parte sur de Sierra Espuña existen cinco unidades tectónicas, la superior del complejo Maláguide, debajo tres de carácter intermedio y en posición inferior una unidad alpujárride. Varias escamas tectónicas descritas en anteriores trabajos dentro de la unidad maláguide no existen sino que corresponden alternancias puramente estratigráficas. El desplazamiento tectónico de las unidades, de acuerdo con las vergencias de las estructuras menores se produjo hacia el SSE y hacia el E, según las coordenadas actuales. Los grandes pliegues y las fallas presentan vergencias hacia el S, SE y E, formando un arco convexo hacia el S, debido al arrastre producido por la falla de desgarre sinistrorsa y normal del borde SE de Sierra Espuña. Esta sierra ha sufrido un notable levantamiento, de 825 m al menos en algunos puntos, desde

  18. Geología y geocronología Rb-Sr de granitoides de Sierra Grande, provincia de Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Varela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Al este de Sierra Grande la unidad más antigua es la Ectinita El Jagüelito, metagrauvacas y pizarras, cortadas por granitoides ordovícicos (Rb-Sr en roca total 467 ± 16 Ma; U-Pb en circón 476 ± 4 Ma. Ectinitas y granitoides son cubiertos discordantemente por sedimentitas clásticas fosilíferas silúricas de la Formación Sierra Grande y el total de unidades deformado por pliegues y fallas. Al sur de Sierra Grande, Mina Hiparsa, afloran la Ectinita El Jagüelito, la Formación Sierra Grande y granitoides, en un contexto de fuerte deformación tectónica. Desde mitad de siglo pasado se discute si los granitoides constituyen el basamento de la Formación Sierra Grande o si son intrusivos en la misma. La Formación Sierra Grande está afectada por metamorfismo térmico. Datos radimétricos previos de granitoides son discordantes (Rb-Sr en roca total 252 ± 5 Ma; 363 ± 57 Ma; 318 ± 28 Ma; U-Pb SHRIMP en circón 476 ± 6 Ma. Se efectuaron nuevos análisis Rb-Sr en roca total y minerales y se propone la existencia de dos unidades graníticas. En granitoides del noroeste de la mina, Granito Mina Hiparsa, se obtuvieron dos isocronas (262 ± 6 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr inicial = 0,7162 ± 0,0003 y 263 ± 9 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr inicial = 0,7149 ± 0,0009. En los granitoides al oeste de la Mina Hiparsa, Granodiorita Laguna Medina, se efectuó una isocrona (260 ± 3 Ma, 87Sr/86Sr Inicial = 0,7078 ± 0,0012. Las rocas estudiadas son el producto de plutonismo ordovícico temprano y pérmico tardío-temprano. Las tres isocronas roca total-minerales son pérmicas, pero dos por metamorfismo y reseteo de rocas ordovícicas (87Sr/86Sr inicial ~ 0,7150 y una por cristalización (87Sr/86Sr inicial ~ 0,7080.

  19. Current Status Of the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Eastern Sierra Morena, Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moral; José Bueno; Rafael Cadenas; Miguel Angel Simón; José María Gil-Sánchez; Javier Rodríguez-Siles

    2010-01-01

    The distribution range of the largest Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) population of Eastern Sierra Morena was assessed between 1999 and 2006. The past distribution was evaluated using field interviews, the present range was determined by sign searching (scats) in 5x5 km and 1x1 km UTM quadrats, and the annual population size was estimated by camera-trapping. Our results indicate that lynx distribution has been limited to granite areas, and since the middle of the 20th century lynx occupation was...

  20. Superficial deposits in northeast flank of Sierras Australes (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleistocene and Holocene superficial deposits, which have been recognized in an area of 1500 km2 in the northeast flank of Sierras Australes, are characterized. In divide they are underlain by silts and siltstone which are called Sediments Pampeanas. There, a lower sequence, consisting mainly of aeolian sediments (loess) with scarce fluvial deposits and diamictons, was recognized. In some places an upper sequence that is product of aeolian and anthropogenic activity, was also recognized. In the valley sequences, the loess deposits can not only be underlain by fluvial sediments but can also overlain them. The more recent fluvial deposits which have eroded loess sequences are of the post conquest age

  1. Evidencias del ciclo Pampeano en el basamento del sector noroccidental de la sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Vujovich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una edad preliminar U-Pb sobre circones de un gneis biotítico feldespático perteneciente al Complejo Nogolí aflorante en las cercanías de San Francisco del Monte de Oro, sierra de San Luis. Los resultados indican una edad de cristalización para el mismo de 554 ± 4,8 Ma, representando un interesante hallazgo del ciclo Pampeano en el marco geológico considerado. Se postula además la existencia de un proceso de pérdida episódica de Pb durante el Cretácico inferior (112 ± 23 Ma, reflejado en la intersección inferior de la recta de discordia. Esta edad inferior podría asociarse con gradientes térmicos anómalos relacionados con los procesos distensivos generalizados que afectaron al Gondwana durante la apertura del océano Atlántico Sur.

  2. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  3. The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic : Short and Medium Term Estimates for Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa has taken a horrible human toll. Although the outbreak originated in rural Guinea, it has hit hardest in Liberia and Sierra Leone, in part because it has reached urban areas in these two countries, a factor that distinguishes this outbreak from previous episodes elsewhere. As of September 10, 2014, there had been 2,281 recorded de...

  4. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bangura James J; Robinson James E; Schieffellin John S; Henderson Lee A; Muncy Ivana J; Moses Lina M; Grove Jessica N; Andersen Kristian G; Boisen Matt L; Branco Luis M; Grant Donald S; Raabe Vanessa N; Fonnie Mbalu; Sabeti Pardis C; Garry Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and rea...

  5. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    McBain, Ryan K.; Carmel Salhi; Katrina Hann; Jim Kellie; Alimamy Kamara; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kim, Jane J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention - a cognitive-behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems - in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15-24 years ...

  6. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    McBain, Ryan K.; Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kim, Jane J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Methods: Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention – a cognitive–behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems – in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15–24 years ...

  7. U/Pb zircon, strontium, and oxygen isotopic and geochronological study of the southernmost Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    OpenAIRE

    Saleeby, Jason B.; Sams, David B.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    The southernmost Sierra Nevada offers a view into the deep levels of the Mesozoic batholithic belt which constitutes much of the range to the north, and represents one of the major tectonic features of western North America. The main crystalline rocks of the study area are (1) the intrusive suite of Bear Valley, a middle Cretaceous tonalite batholith complex with coeval gabbroic intrusives, and (2) the gneiss complex of the Tehachapi Mountains, which consists of Early Cretaceous orthogneiss a...

  8. Occurrence patterns of Black-backed Woodpeckers in green forest of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA.

    OpenAIRE

    Alissa M. Fogg; L. Jay. Roberts; Burnett, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a rare habitat specialist typically found in moderate and high severity burned forest throughout its range. It also inhabits green forest but little is known about occurrence and habitat use patterns outside of burned areas, especially in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. We used point count and playback surveys to detect Black-backed Woodpeckers during 2011 - 2013 on 460 transects on 10 national forest units. We defined green forest as are...

  9. Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, J.M.; Rojas-Tomé, J.A.; Casillas-Orona, F.M.; Otto, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a mountain range in NW Mexico, have recently been recognized as an area of high endemism and biodiversity. Selective logging threatens three bird species endemic to this habitat, who depend on standing dead trees (snags). This report is based on a

  10. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  11. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janet T; Sesay, Foday R; Massaquoi, Thomas A; Idriss, Baimba R; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8-70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (p<0.03). This complete survivor cohort from 1 ETU enables analysis of the proportion of symptoms of post-Ebola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain. PMID:26983037

  12. Ozone distribution in remote ecologically vulnerable terrain of the southern Sierra Nevada, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone concentration spatial patterns remain largely uncharacterized across the extensive wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada, CA, despite being downwind of major pollution sources. These natural areas, including four national parks and four national forests, contain forest species that are susceptible to ozone injury. Forests stressed by ozone are also more vulnerable to other agents of mortality, including insects, pathogens, climate change, and ultimately fire. Here we analyze three years of passive ozone monitor data from the southern Sierra Nevada and interpolate landscape-scale spatial and temporal patterns during the summer-through-fall high ozone concentration period. Segmentation analysis revealed three types of ozone exposure sub-regions: high, low, and variable. Consistently high ozone exposure regions are expected to be most vulnerable to forest mortality. One high exposure sub-region has been documented elsewhere as being further vulnerable to increased drought and fire potential. Identifying such hot-spots of forest vulnerability has utility for prioritizing management. -- Highlights: •Three years of passive ozone sampler data over 49,000 km2 were analyzed spatially. •Spatial and temporal ozone patterns were mapped across the Sierra Nevada, CA. •Sub-regions of consistently high, low and variable ozone exposure were identified. •The 1700–2400 m elevation band delineated a distinct break in ozone concentration. •This approach has utility for prioritizing management across vulnerable landscapes. -- A passive ozone sampler network in combination with spatial analysis techniques was used to characterize landscape-scale ozone patterns and dynamics, identifying regions of consistently high and low ozone exposure for forest management prioritization

  13. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  14. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  15. High genetic diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafae Foday

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among tuberculosis (TB high incidence regions, Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly affected with approx. 1.6 million new cases every year. Besides this dramatic situation, data on the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains causing this epidemic in this area are only sparsely available. Here we analyzed the population structure of strains from Sierra Leone with a special focus on the prevalence of M. africanum. Results A total of 97 strains isolated from smear positive cases registered for re-treatment in the Western Area and Kenema districts in years 2003/2004 were investigated by susceptibility testing (first line drugs and molecular typing (IS6110 fingerprinting, spoligotyping, and MIRU-VNTR typing. Among the strains analyzed, 32 were resistant to isoniazid, and 11 were multidrug resistant (at least resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. The population diversity was high with two previously described M. africanum lineages (West African-1, n = 6; West African-2, n = 17 and seven M. tuberculosis lineages (Haarlem, n = 14; LAM, n = 15; EAI, n = 4; Beijing, n = 4; S-type, n = 4, X-type, n = 1; Cameroon, n = 4. Furthermore, two new M. tuberculosis genotypes Sierra Leone-1 (n = 7 and -2 (n = 10 were found. Strain classification according to a 7 bp deletion in pks1/15 revealed that the majority of M. tuberculosis strains belonged to the Euro American lineage (66 out of 74. Conclusion Resistance rates in Sierra Leone have reached an alarming level. The population structure of MTBC strains shows an intriguing diversity raising the question of possible consequences for TB epidemic and for the introduction of new diagnostic tests or treatment strategies in West Africa.

  16. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gomez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucia - Aigua - Merin tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend No.20 felsic lavas correspondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  17. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  18. La estructura del Grupo Sierras Bayas en el sector norte de las sierras homónimas, noroeste de las Sierras Septentrionales de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Massabie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo Sierras Bayas, de edad precámbrica tardía, se halla integrado por las formaciones sedimentarias Villa Mónica, Cerro Largo y Loma Negra, y forman parte de la porción noroccidental de las Sierras Septentrionales de Buenos Aires. Los afloramientos principales, relativamente aislados en serranías bajas, se ubican en los alrededores de Olavarría, particularmente en las Sierras Bayas, y con menor extensión en cercanías a la localidad de Barker. La morfoestructura de conjunto de estas sedimentitas en el sector norte de las Sierras Bayas corresponde a una cubeta asimétrica levemente basculada hacia el sudsudoeste. En el Grupo Sierras Bayas, se han identificado y relevado sistemáticamente dos sistemas de plegamiento suave F1 (NE y F2 (NO que se interfieren y generan diseños de tipo 1 en domos y cubetas. Los plegamientos reconocidos, F1 y F2, de planos axiales subverticales y ejes B subhorizontales se interfieren con ángulos que varían entre 70º y 90º. Desarrollan tres órdenes de plegamiento que controlan en las escalas adoptadas para el mapeo, la posición de los afloramientos y exposiciones artificiales de las formaciones integrantes del Grupo Sierras Bayas. El fallamiento local relevado ejerce un control muy limitado sobre la disposición de las sedimentitas precámbricas plegadas, y las observaciones de campo avalan su actividad inicial con posterioridad al episodio tectónico que desarrolló los sistemas de plegamiento del Grupo Sierras Bayas. La deformación dúctil de la cubierta sedimentaria, como ha sido observado localmente, se considera que ha estado asociada con una reactivación tectónica del basamento, Complejo Buenos Aires, favorecida por las anisotropías penetrativas principales preexistentes en el macizo rocoso de granititas milonitizadas. La similitud en el diseño de los plegamientos F1 y F2, la morfoestructura general en cubeta y la falta de una secuencia definida en las relaciones de interferencia permitir

  19. Diferencias entre la estructura de la comunidad de aves de alta montaña y comportamiento de los grupos tróficos en las vertientes oriental y occidental de la sierra nevada de el cocuy, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Sanabria, Nubia Lizeth

    2014-01-01

    Evalué las diferencias en la composición, abundancia y comportamiento de la comunidad de aves de alta montaña en un intervalo altitudinal de los 3700 a los 4100 m entre las vertientes oriental y occidental de la región sur en la Sierra Nevada de El Cocuy, mediante nueve transectos lineales. También registré estructura y fenología de la vegetación para evidenciar cómo la flora influye en la composición de la comunidad de aves. Con los datos obtenidos del trabajo de campo de las dos vertientes,...

  20. Biodiversité et viabilité de l'agriculture paysanne dans la Réserve de Biosphère Sierra de Manantlán, Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Jardel Peláez, Enrique J.; Graf Montero, Sergio H.; Santana C., Eduardo; Ávila Palafox, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    La biodiversité est une propriété fondamentale de la vie et une composante essentielle des processus éco-systémiques de régulation des conditions environnementales et d'approvisionnement des ressources naturelles dont dépendent la subsistance humaine et, particulièrement, la production agro-alimentaire. La conservation d'une partie importante de la biodiversité repose sur la pérennité des systèmes agricoles traditionnels. Le cas de la Réserve de Biosphère de la Sierra de Manantlán (RBSM) – ré...

  1. Illegal logging in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Ploeg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal logging is a threat to biodiversity and rural livelihoods in the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, the largest protected area in the Philippines. Every year between 20,000 and 35,000 cu. m wood is extracted from the park. The forestry service and municipal governments tolerate illegal logging in the protected area; government officials argue that banning an important livelihood activity of households along the forest frontier will aggravate rural poverty. However this reasoning underestimates the scale of timber extraction, and masks resource capture and collusive corruption. Illegal logging in fact forms an obstacle for sustainable rural development in and around the protected area by destroying ecosystems, distorting markets, and subverting the rule of law. Strengthening law enforcement and controlling corruption are prerequisites for sustainable forest management in and around protected areas in insular southeast Asia.

  2. Foxes, people and hens: human dimensions of a conflict in a rural area of southern Chile Zorros, gente y gallinas: dimensión humana de un conflicto en un área rural del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO A SILVA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict has been recognized as one of the main threats to carnivore conservation. When small livestock or poultry are available, small carnivores will likely prey upon them. Centinela -a rural área located in Southern Chile where chillas (Lycalopex griseus Gray and small farmers coexist- was chosen as a study site. To understand potential conflicts we conducted interviews to assess local knowledge, experiences, and attitudes toward this fox and small stock management. Almost a third of the interviewed people reported the loss of poultry during the last year due to chillas, which was confirmed by dietary analysis in a parallel study. Consequently, most research participants (67.4 % had negative attitudes toward the chilla. Management appeared to be related to poultry losses, since no losses were reported when poultry was confined in henhouses, suggesting that continuous confinement was an effective measure to prevent the conflict. The negative attitudes are further reflected in that most people reported to have killed at least one chilla.Los conflictos entre humanos y carnívoros han sido reconocidos como una de las mayores amenazas para la conservación de carnívoros. Cuando existe ganado menor o aves domésticas disponibles, es esperable que pequeños carnívoros depreden sobre estas. Centinela -un área rural localizada en el sur de Chile y donde coexisten zorros chilla {Lycalopex griseus Gray y pequeños agricultores- fue escogida como área de estudio. Para entender los posibles conflictos entre agricultores y zorros, evaluamos los conocimientos locales, experiencias, y actitudes hacia este zorro, así como el manejo de los animales domésticos usando una encuesta. Casi un tercio de los encuestados reportaron la pérdida de aves domésticas en el último año como consecuencia de la depredación por parte de chillas. Estudios simultáneos de la dieta de chillas mostraron resultados coincidentes con esas denuncias. La mayor

  3. SIERRA - A 3-D device simulator for reliability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jue-Hsien; Arledge, Lawrence A., Jr.; Yang, Ping; Maeda, John T.

    1989-05-01

    SIERRA is a three-dimensional general-purpose semiconductor-device simulation program which serves as a foundation for investigating integrated-circuit (IC) device and reliability issues. This program solves the Poisson and continuity equations in silicon under dc, transient, and small-signal conditions. Executing on a vector/parallel minisupercomputer, SIERRA utilizes a matrix solver which uses an incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioned conjugate gradient square (CGS, BCG) method. The ILU-CGS method provides a good compromise between memory size and convergence rate. The authors have observed a 5x to 7x speedup over standard direct methods in simulations of transient problems containing highly coupled Poisson and continuity equations such as those found in reliability-oriented simulations. The application of SIERRA to parasitic CMOS latchup and dynamic random-access memory single-event-upset studies is described.

  4. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  5. Structure of the Sierra de Lujar (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra de Lujar constitutes one of the best examples of fold superposition of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (S Spain. In this paper, the members of its Triassic carbonate series have been used for the first time to obtain the cartography of the Sierra de Lujar, providing knowledge of the two folding systems, the older trending E-W and the younger (far better represented, NNE-SSW. The most important fold is a large reverse syncline with a convex axis towards the SE, forming part of the S and E edges of this sierra; contrarily, the vergence is towards the N in the southern sector and towards the W in the eastern sector. The interior of the Sierra de Lujar bears a succession of NNE-SSO anticlinal and synclinal folds, some with reverse limbs. The vergences fluctuate, even within the same fold. Folds of an E-W system crop out only in the SW sector of the Sierra de Lujar and verge to the S. The unit of the Sierra de Lujar (Lujar-Gádor unit is overthrust by the Escalate unit (which is a duplication of the Lujar unit and by other upper units, formed here by schists. The W edge of the Sierra de Lujar is affected by a large normal fault that sinks the Escalate unit there. The E-W folds were coetaneous with the thrusting of the units, while those in the NNE-SSW direction formed at the onset of the westward shift of the Internal Betic-Rif Zone.La Sierra de Lújar constituye uno de los mejores ejemplos de superposición de pliegues de la Zona Interna Bética. Su estructura se ha determinado a partir del primer mapa en el que se han distinguido los diferentes tramos de su serie triásica carbonatada. Los pliegues NNE-SSO son los más abundantes y se superponen a otros de dirección E-O. Los bordes S y E de esta sierra corresponden en parte a un gran sinclinal invertido vergente hacia su interior y que continúa en la Sierra de La Joya pero con distinta vergencia. En el interior de la sierra hay numerosos anticlinales y sinclinales de direcci

  6. Structure of the Sierra de Lujar (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordillera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López Garrido, Angel Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Sierra de Lujar constitutes one of the best examples of fold superposition of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (S Spain). In this paper, the members of its Triassic carbonate series have been used for the first time to obtain the cartography of the Sierra de Lujar, providing knowledge of the two folding systems, the older trending E-W and the younger (far better represented), NNE-SSW. The most important fold is a large reverse syncline with a convex axis towards the SE, formi...

  7. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  8. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers.Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just 'business as normal'. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  9. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    OpenAIRE

    James Padgett; Jonathan Hooper

    2015-01-01

    Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™) Integrated Library System (ILS) brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA) - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In thi...

  10. Experiments with the SUR 100 training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a compilation of various experiments using the SUR - 100 reactor for training purposes, which have been widly proved in practical work at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  11. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  12. Conceptualization of groundwater flow of a coastal arid aquifer using isotopic and chemical tools: La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez-Melendez, Carol; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater from the La Paz coastal aquifer in Baja California Sur, Mexico, is the main source of drinking water for the local population. Due to its proximity to the coast, sea water intrusion is the main factor of salinization of groundwater. Other geochemical processes also affect the quality of the aquifer threating its vulnerability. Forty-seven samples were analyzed for ion chemistry and isotopes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed for a better interpretation resulting in three main groups and proved for geographical correspondence. Deuterium and d18O ranged from -82 to -52.1 and from -11.6 to -7 permil, respectively, showing that the main recharge originates in the Sierra el Novillo, flowing toward SE-NW direction and in accordance to deuterium excess (d) high evaporation effects (d>10‰) are mostly in the middle portion of the study area and in El Centenario due to high kinetic isotope fractioning related to elevated temperatures. Hydrogeochemistry analyses demonstrated salinization mainly due to sea water intrusion and in second instance due water-rock interaction, where enrichment of Na+ (ranges from 35.7 to 1089 mg/L-1) was present in some samples probably due to weathering of silicates and/or cation exchange in soils with Ca2+ (27.7 to 658 mg/L-1) at clay-surfaces. High concentrations of NO3-2 (ranges from 1.4 to 48.8 mg/L-1), Cl- (ranges from 54.4 to 2960 mg/L-1) and Na+ show that anthropogenic input is mainly coming from an agricultural area (El Centenario-Chametla) where heavy groundwater extractions are made for irrigational purposes, lowering the groundwater table up to 10 m and consequently promoting upconing and salinity concentrations (NaCl). Carbon-13 and radiocarbon ranged from -12.3 to -9.1‰ and from 29.5 to 100.4 pmC, respectively. Distribution of ages (up to ~5000 years) indicates two flow trends (E-W and SE-NW).

  13. Social indicators of dental caries among Sierra Leonean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörmark, S

    1993-06-01

    Most of the caries of African child populations is found in limited fractions of that population. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the caries situation of Sierra Leonean schoolchildren in relation to demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables, in order to develop an appropriate index for prediction of caries. A total of 610 students from primary class 1 (mean age: 7 yr) and secondary form 1 (mean age 15 yr) were dentally examined by three examiners and interviewed by their teachers. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibilities were 82 and 70%, and interinterviewer reliability was 67-100% for the individual questions. Urban students had more caries than rural. In class 1, dmfs+DMFS was 4.1 and 1.8, respectively; in form 1, DMFS was 5.3 and 3.5. Two tribes (the Fulas and the Madingos) had higher caries means than the rest, especially in class 1, where dmfs+DMFS was 6.5 and 2.4, respectively. Form 1 students with literate parents had a higher caries mean, and class 1 pupils with defective school uniforms a lower mean. The apparently high-risk groups did not consume more sweet snacks or clean their teeth less frequently. There was clearly more caries among the quartiles of children with most visible plaque on molars, but all social and demographic subgroups had similar amounts of plaque. Multivariate analyses of class 1 children showed that pupils living in urban areas, Fulas and Madingos, and children wearing complete school uniforms had caries significantly more frequently, other factors being equal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8322004

  14. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  15. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  16. Parameters of deep melts in the Sierra-Leone region, Central Atlantic (data on melt inclusions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, V. A.; Glazyrin, Yu. E.; Kovyazin, S. V.

    2003-04-01

    Samples, collected during 22 cruise of R/V "Academician Nikolaj Strakhov" in the Sierra Leone F.Z. Region, Central Atlantic (Peyve et al., 2000) were investigated. The features of geology and volcanism of this region were reviewed in the last publications (Peyve et al., 2003; Skolotnev et al., 2003). In the present report the results of melt inclusions study in olivines and in plagioclases from basalts are given. The experiments with inclusions were carried out according published procedure (Simonov, 1993; Sobolev, Danyushevsky, 1994). The compositions of inclusions were established using a "Camebax-micro" electron microprobe. Contents of trace, rare earth elements and water in inclusions were determined on ionic microprobe IMS-4f on procedure published in the work (Sobolev, 1996). The analysis of melt inclusions in olivines from basalts has shown, that the magmas of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) Rift Zone in the Sierra-Leone Region have sufficiently high temperatures of crystallization -- 1275--1340^oC. Comparison of homogenization temperatures with liquidus temperatures calculated according PETROLOG (Danyushevsky, 2001) show, that the most of data agree with limits of used thermometers. The presence of such temperature characteristics testifies that the inclusions characterize parameters of deep melts. Primary magmas in this region, according estimation on procedure (Schilling et al., 1995), were formed at parameters of mantle melting near 1340--1370^oC and 50--60 km (Simonov et al., 2001). Comparison with data on trace and rare earth elements in melt inclusions in olivines from rocks 9^o N MAR (Sobolev, 1997) demonstrates, that on an interrelation La/Sm--Zr/Y inclusions in olivines from Sierra-Leone Region are close to data on normal melts formed during melting of mantle with formation about 5% of melt. On a character of distribution of trace and rare earth elements melts in the Sierra-Leone Region are closer to magmas from north segments of MAR (8^o N), than

  17. Evidencias del ciclo Pampeano en el basamento del sector noroccidental de la sierra de San Luis Evidence of the Pampean cycle in the basament of the north-western sector of Sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Vujovich

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una edad preliminar U-Pb sobre circones de un gneis biotítico feldespático perteneciente al Complejo Nogolí aflorante en las cercanías de San Francisco del Monte de Oro, sierra de San Luis. Los resultados indican una edad de cristalización para el mismo de 554 ± 4,8 Ma, representando un interesante hallazgo del ciclo Pampeano en el marco geológico considerado. Se postula además la existencia de un proceso de pérdida episódica de Pb durante el Cretácico inferior (112 ± 23 Ma, reflejado en la intersección inferior de la recta de discordia. Esta edad inferior podría asociarse con gradientes térmicos anómalos relacionados con los procesos distensivos generalizados que afectaron al Gondwana durante la apertura del océano Atlántico Sur.A preliminary zircon U-Pb age is presented for a feldspar-biotite gneiss from the Nogoli Metamorphic Complex, Sierra de San Luis, at San Francisco del Monte de Oro. The data show a cristallization age of 554 ± 4,8 Ma, which represents one of the first evidences of the Pampean Cycle in this geological setting. An episodic lead loss for Cretaceous times (112 ± 23 Ma is postulated, based on the lower intercept of the discordia line. This age could be associated with anomalous thermal gradients due the extensional and rifting processes which affected Gondwana during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Escaping Stigma and Neglect : People with Disabilities in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Ovadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this policy note on people with disabilities in Sierra Leone is to: (i) provide a diagnosis on the scale and nature of the problem; (ii) analyze current public policies in support of people with disabilities; (iii) review public and private programs; and (iv) propose some policy options to policy makers and development partners. This note contains five chapters, the first ...

  19. Reemergence of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Leski, Tomasz A; Covington, Andrea L; Bangura, Umaru; Hodges, Mary H; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Alfred S; Lamin, Joseph M; Bockarie, Moses J; Stenger, David A

    2013-07-01

    We diagnosed 400 possible IgM-positive cases of chikungunya virus in Bo, Sierra Leone, during July 2012-January 2013 by using lateral flow immunoassays. Cases detected likely represent only a small fraction of total cases. Further laboratory testing is required to confirm this outbreak and characterize the virus. PMID:23764023

  20. Relative Contributions of Phosphorus in High Elevation Sierra Nevada Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. K.; McIntyre, B. M.; Lyons, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    High elevation lakes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range show signs of eutrophication due to increased phosphorus loading. Phosphorus is a major contributing factor to freshwater lake eutrophication when in excess. Three previously researched sources of phosphorus to high-elevation montane lakes include atmospheric deposition, internal loading from sediments, and excretions from non-native stocked fish. The goal of this research was to isolate the estimated phosphorus contributions from residential shoreline developments and stocked non-native fish. A steady-state phosphorus loading rate model was created to quantify relative phosphorus loading into two lakes in the Eastern Sierra Nevada: Convict and Silver Lake. A conglomerate control lake was created from Eastern Brook Lake in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, Pear Lake in the Southern Sierra Nevada, and Snowflake Lake in Canada. Both Convict and Silver Lakes contain stocked non-native trout species and Silver Lake also has ~25 vacation homes on its eastern shore. Seasonal steady-state total phosphorus concentrations were determined using EPA Method 365.2. Loading rate constants were calculated using loading rates from literature and corresponding concentrations. It was determined that as much as 42% of phosphorous to Silver Lake came from shoreline housing developments, and 24% came from stocked fish depending on the season. Previous studies showed much lower contributions from non-native fish.

  1. Power in Practice: Trade Union Education in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, John

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the development of a trade union education program in Sierra Leone in the geo-historical context of British colonialism. It places the argument in relation to the contradictory trends of trade unionism more generally and alongside their antagonistic cooperation with capitalism. It discusses the limits and…

  2. Library Education and the Practitioner: The Sierra Leone Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargbo, John Abdul

    1999-01-01

    Examines the past and current educational trends of librarianship in Sierra Leone. Discuses courses offered in the current library school; economic and political issues affecting higher education; the need for full-time faculty; general versus specialized practitioner needs; attitudes of faculty toward working librarians; and professional…

  3. Life in Sierra Leone, West Africa. A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Richard A.

    This unit is designed for students in grades 6-12. The unit provides an introduction to Sierra Leone and the continent of Africa through basic concepts and a conceptual framework for learning. The unit is divided into 17 activities. Activities include: (1) "Stereotypes and Myths about African and Africans"; (2) "The Manding Name Game"; (3) "Common…

  4. The Science Curriculum and the Secondary Student in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyerr, Ebun S.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the new primary and secondary-level science curriculum in Sierra Leone as well as new teacher roles and instructional approaches. Indicates that curricular changes in this country should address needs related to job opportunities, the environment, and citizenship. Results of 1972-80 secondary-level biology, chemistry, and physics…

  5. School-Based Peace Building in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Diane; Weston, Jane; Zbar, Vic

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of a peace education project, including the Peace Education Kit, in schools in Sierra Leone. The program, initiated by the World Bank, has involved working partnerships between local and international agencies and provides a case study of how schools can work with the community to contribute to a national…

  6. Land Lab Experiences in Sierra Leone and Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Burton E.; Tucker, Sonny W.

    1978-01-01

    The agricultural education curriculum at Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone, is stressing practical farm experience programs on school land for students preparing to teach agriculture. In Illinois also the "land laboratories" concept appears to be effective in providing practical agricultural training. (MF)

  7. A New Agenda for Adult Education in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelt, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    After years of conflict, Sierra Leone has critical educational development needs including trauma healing and conflict resolution, rebuilding of the educational infrastructure, and citizenship and capacity building. Citizenship education in this context must be redefined as developing individual agency and encouraging active participation. (SK)

  8. Establishing services in post-conflict Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie-Tejan Kellah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During Sierra Leone’s 11-year civil war – which ended in 2001 – there was a high incidence of sexual assault against women and young girls.1 Return of peace has not meant that women and girls are safe from sexual assault.

  9. Tone Gestures and Constraint Interaction in Sierra Juarez Zapotec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines floating tones and tone gesture deactivation in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (SJZ), and provides an Optimality Theoretic account of tonal spreading and placement using insights from Articulatory Phonology. While the data portion of the dissertation is drawn from SJZ, the approach has broader implications for theories of tonal…

  10. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  11. Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra (Department of the Vaupes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra, it was carried out to give to know the forests that exist there, since there were not preliminary studies on this ecosystem, and to enlarge the knowledge on the forests of the Colombian Guayana. For the composition study and it structures of the vegetation, three parcels of study of 0.05 hectares settled down, 10m x 50m each one; two in high Catinga and one in the Arbustiva; likewise they were traveled by different places of the Sierra to collect vegetable material. According to the floristic composition, to the covering analysis, and to the Sorensen index (Cordoba, 1995) they were defined three communities, the first of them in Catinga arbustiva, Clusia spathulaefolia - Retiniphyllum truncatum that is characterized to reach heights until of 10 meters, on sandy soils with inferior slope to 7%. In the high Catinga they were two communities, Micrandra sprucei - amazon Poecilanthe and Micrandra sprucei - Tovomita clarkii, which are characterized to present a superior stratum that reaches the 20 meters high. The Taraira Sierra, makes part of the high-priority of conservation areas due to its wealth of species as much animals as vegetables, to its high endemism that is developed on poor and fragile soils of the Guianese shield and to that this ecosystem is in risk, due to the mining exploitation

  12. Faja Intrusiva La Majada, sierra de Ancasti, Catamarca: Caracterización petrológica-estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Cisterna

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La Faja Intrusiva La Majada se extiende con rumbo NNO-SSE a lo largo de 40 km aproximadamente, en el sector centro - sur de la sierra de Ancasti, SE de la provincia de Catamarca. Está constituida por un basamento metamórfico compuesto por esquistos y gneises bandeados cuyas paragénesis minerales corresponden a un metamorfismo de mediano a alto grado. Están deformados según dos episodios D1 y D2. En este tramo de la sierra, donde la deformación D2 es más intensa, se produce un importante magmatismo, representado por la intrusión de una secuencia ígnea sintectónica cuya composición varía de gabros y dioritas, tonalitas, granodioritas y monzogranitos. Su emplazamiento se produjo en el pico del metamorfismo M2, junto con el desarrollo de procesos de fusión del cual resultaron distintos tipos de migmatitas. También se reconoce la intrusión de granitos, leucogranitos y pegmatitas, que se emplazan en una etapa sin a tardío tectónica. El estrecho vínculo entre mayor deformación y metamorfismo, con desarrollo de migmatitas y mayores volúmenes de emplazamientos de plutonitas sugiere que el magmatismo, metamorfismo y deformación estarían estrechamente vinculados temporalmente y ligados a una zona de cizalla profunda de edad paleozoica inferior.

  13. Implicaciones del funcionamiento de un acuífero carbonatado fisurado complejo (Sierra de Lujar, Granada en la variabilidad hidroquímica de su descarga natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanroma, A.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available A hydrochemical study was carried out in a triassic carbonate aquifer located in a coastal mountain chain in the southern part of the Granada province (Sierra de Lújar, Alpujárride Complex, Betic Cordillera. This aquifer is made up of limestones and dolomites with marly and/or pelitic intercalations and sorne gypsum scattered or interbedded. Though the area is semid-arid, recharge by precipitation -rain or snow melt- is relatively high (over 600 mm/year because of its mountainous nature up to near 1.900 m. The recharge of the aquifer also comes from the Guadalfeo river which crosses the permeable outcrops losing part of its stream flow. The carbonate rocks present dense microfissuration; the ground water regime is predominantly diffuse. The karstic forms are, in general, poorly developed either in the surface or at the level of speleological networks in the carbonate material. These characteristics influence the ground water chemistry, so the variability of physical-chemical parameters of water is very low, with single shaped histograms of these parameters. Although, in sorne points a larger variability was found related to mixing with streamwaters from the Guadalfeo river.Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio hidroquímico en un acuífero carbonatado triásico localizado en una cadena montañosa costera en el Sur de la provincia de Granada (Sierra de Lújar, Complejo Alpujárride, Cordillera Bética. Este acuífero está constituido por calizas y dolomías con intercalaciones margosas y/o pelíticas y yeso diseminado. Aunque el área es semiárida, la recarga por la precipitación (bien por la lluvia o por el agua de fusión niva! es relativamente elevada (superior a 600 mm/año debido a su naturaleza montañosa, cercana a los 1.900 m s.n.m. Además, el río Guadalfeo recarga al acuífero al perder parte de su caudal cuando atraviesa los afloramientos permeables. Las rocas carbonatadas presentan una densa microfisuración; el régimen de flujo es

  14. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern Sierra Leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Boisen, Matt L; Andersen, Kristian G; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Muncy, Ivana J; Henderson, Lee A; Schieffellin, John S; Robinson, James E; Bangura, James J; Grant, Donald S; Raabe, Vanessa N; Fonnie, Mbalu; Zaitsev, Eleina M; Sabeti, Pardis C; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution

  15. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution

  16. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  17. Diamanti e sviluppo Un’analisi critica degli stereotipi sui minatori della Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  18. Age of formation deposition Tunes, Sierra de la Ventana Foldbelt, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sierra de la Ventana, located in east-central Argentina, is the most important recharge area within the South American Plate, an extensive Paleozoic basin, which evolved from a passive margin basin to basin - ante country. The basin developed on the southwestern edge of the supercontinent Gondwana, where magmatic activity occurred in large areal and temporal scale during the Paleozoic, particularly during the Permian . Tufáceos horizons that occur in the Sierra de la Ventana and the Cape Foldbelt Basins and San Rafael, Paraná, Sauce Grande and Karoo can be correlated with this period of intense magmatic activity . Five igneous zircons in an interleaved tufácea layer with sandstones and mudstones of the Tunas Formation, through the U / Pb method were dated using LA - MC - ICP - MS . Yielded an age of 274.3 ± 4.8 Concord Ma for tuffs of the Tunas Formation . Inherited zircons with ages between 623 and 374 Ma, indicate provenance of Patagonian region. Analysis of x -ray diffraction allowed the identification of quartz, plagioclase, smectite and illite mineral constituents of the tufts . The presence of abundant quartz and plagioclase suggests a dacitic volcanism nature to volcanism of southwestern Gondwanan margin and smectite is interpreted as a product of alteration of volcanic material deposited in an aqueous environment

  19. Geological evolution of a Pleistocene rhyolitic center: Sierra La Primavera, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahood, G.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Sierra La Primavera volcanic complex consists of late Pleistocene comenditic lava flows and domes, ash-flow tuff, air-fall pumice, and caldera-lake sediments. The earliest lavas were erupted about 120,000 years ago, and were followed approximately 95,000 years ago by the eruption of about 20 km/sup 3/ of magma as ash flows that form the compositionally-zoned Tala Tuff. Collapse of the roof zone of the magma chamber led to the formation of a shallow 11-km-diameter caldera. It soon filled with water, forming a caldera lake in which sediment began to collect. The four major fault systems in the Sierra La Primavera are related to caldera collapse or to uplife caused by the insurgence of the southern arc magma. Steam vents and large-discharge 65/sup 0/C hot springs are associated with the faulting. Calculated equilibrium temperatures of the geothermal fluids are approx. 170/sup 0/C, but temperatures in excess of 240/sup 0/C have been encountered in an exploratory drill hole. A seismic survey showed attenuation of both S and P waves within the caldera, P waves attenuated more severely than S waves. The greatest attenuation is associated with an area of steam vents, and the rapid lateral variations in attenuation suggest that they are produced by a shallow geothermal system rather than by underlying magma.

  20. Diamanti e sviluppo Un’analisi critica degli stereotipi sui minatori della Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  1. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain

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    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems in two periods: 1988–1990 and 2009–2013. A total of 11002 records of occurrences belonging to 19 orders, 28 families 52 genera were collected. 73 taxa were recorded with 29 threatened taxa. We also included data of cover-abundance and phenology attributes for the records. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV, a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  2. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Santigie Sesay; Moore, Marnijina G.; Rashid Ansumana; Narh, Charles A.; Karsor Kollie; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G; Koroma, Joseph B; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced ...

  3. Composición del aceite esencial de Tagetes lacera, planta endémica de Baja California Sur, México Composition of essential oil of Tagetes lacera, endemic plant from Baja California Sur, Mexico

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    Francisco Díaz-Cedillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Es escasa la información sobre la biología y química de Tagetes lacera Brand. (Asteraceae, especie endémica de Baja California Sur (BCS, México, que por su porte alto y presencia de aroma es una fuente de aceites esenciales útil para el control de plagas y enfermedades de cultivos agrícolas. A partir de partes aéreas de plantas en floración de T. lacera recolectadas en la sierra de la Laguna, BCS se obtuvo aceite esencial mediante hidrodestilación. Por medio del procedimiento de análisis CG-EM, se identificaron 6 compuestos principales: E-tagetona (26.2%, crisantenona (24.8%, verbenona (22.1%, α-thujeno (20.5%, β-pineno (3.1% y α-pineno (1.9%.It is scarce the background on the biology and chemistry of Tagetes lacera Brand. (Asteraceae, an endemic species from Baja California Sur (BCS, Mexico that considering its plant high and odor is an essential oil source to obtain biopesticides. From aerial parts of plants fully flowered of T. lacera picked in Sierra de la Laguna, BCS, essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Using GC-MS analysis, 6 major compounds were identified: E-tagetone (26.2%, chrysanthenone (24.8%, verbenone (22.1%, α-thujene (20.5%, β-pinene (3.1%, α-pinene (1.9%.

  4. Updated paleomagnetic pole from Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California: Tectonic displacement of the Sierra Nevada block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Gromme, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38??N-39.5??N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf-Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5??N, 188.2??E, A95 = 2.6?? (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 ??C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0?? to 3?? down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1?? ?? 3.0?? (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0?? ?? 4.7??. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3?? on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2?? counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged. ?? 2011 Geological Society of

  5. Eventos de avalanchas y represamientos reiterados de ocurrencia prehistórica en la cuenca del río Villavil, sierra de Aconquija, Andalgalá, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Luis Banchig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la existencia de un cuerpo sedimentario cuyos mecanismos depositacionales involucran procesos gravitacionales de gran envergadura, identificado como una avalancha de rocas (2,69 x10(9 m³, de carácter prehistórico con reactivaciones sucesivas, generado en la ladera oriental del cerro Zapallar (3.100 m s.n.m., en el extremo sur de la sierra del Aconquija (Sierras Pampeanas. Las múltiples reactivaciones de este depósito han generado reiterados represamientos en el río Villavil. La zona de estudio se emplaza en afloramientos de rocas ígneas graníticas del basamento y en proximidades de la intersección de dos grandes fallamientos regionales que, al parecer, han influido en la generación de estos eventos. Evidencias de actividad cuaternaria de los fallamientos regionales permiten deducir una posible sismogénesis asociada a estas estructuras, aunque esto no se correlaciona con la sismicidad histórica. La ocurrencia de colapsos sucesivos asociados a la oclusión reiterada del río Villavil, representa un riesgo potencial al desarrollo de la localidad de Villavil ubicada en la misma quebrada.

  6. Interpretación de una sección gravimagnetométrica sobre Pampa de las Invernadas, Sierra Grande de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Kostadinoff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un perfil gravimétrico y magnetométrico realizado en el sector noroeste de la Sierra Grande de San Luis mostró máximos relativos de gravedad en una zona donde se hallan afloramientos de rocas máficas-ultramáficas incluidas en cuerpos graníticos ordovícicos. Asimismo se pudo comparar las anomalías gravimétricas de Bouguer con las del campo magnético terrestre. Los modelos geofísicos fueron elaborados en base a las densidades determinadas para las rocas aflorantes en esta región (granitoides, gneises, máficas y ultramáficas y el valor teórico para la corteza superior. Como resultado se sugiere que las inclusiones de rocas máficas-ultramáficas en los cuerpos graníticos representan el 40 % del volumen de estas últimas. Por ello se considera que el área de pampa de las Invernadas es potencialmente interesante desde el punto de vista económico debido a que las anomalías gravimagnetométricas indican la posibilidad de hallar en profundidad rocas máficas-ultramáficas mineralizadas dado que los parámetros geofísicos medidos son similares a los obtenidos en el área de Río de Las Águilas, en el sector sur de estas sierras.

  7. New constraints on the origin of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) from sediment provenance and apatite thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, C.; Brichau, S.; Carter, A.

    2012-12-01

    The timing and source of deformation responsible for formation of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (south Mexico) are unclear. To address this, apatite fission track and U-Th-He thermochronometry, combined with zircon U-Pb dating, were performed on bedrock and sedimentary samples of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to discern timing of exhumation and identify sediment source areas. The U-Pb results show that Paleocene-Eocene terrigenous units outcropping at the northern section of the Sierra were mostly derived from Grenville (˜1 Ga) basement whereas the internal sections of the chain yield mainly Permian to Triassic ages (circa 270-230 Ma) typical of the Chiapas massif complex. Grenville-sourced sediments are most probably sourced by the Oaxacan block or the Guichicovi complex and were deposited to the north of the Sierra in a foreland setting related to a Laramide deformation front. Other possibly source areas may be related to metasedimentary units widely documented at the south Maya block such as the Baldi unit. The apatite fission track and U-Th-He data combined with previously published results record three main stages in exhumation history: (1) slow exhumation between 35 and 25 Ma affecting mainly the Chiapas massif complex; (2) fast exhumation between 16 and 9 Ma related to the onset of major strike-slip deformation affecting both the Chiapas massif complex and Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt; and (3) a 6 to 5 Ma period of rapid cooling that affected the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt, coincident with the landward migration of the Caribbean-North America plate boundaries. These data suggest that most of the topographic growth of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas took place in the middle to late Miocene. The new thermochronological evidence combined with stratigraphic and kinematic information suggests that the left-lateral strike-slip faults bounding the Chiapas fold-and-thrust belt to the west may have accommodated most of the displacement between the North American and

  8. Effects of edaphic factors on the tree stand diversity in a tropical forest of Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmeier, S.; Wiedemann, T.; Biber, P.; Schad, P.; Krasilnikov, P. V.

    2012-08-01

    Two sites with similar environmental parameters, except for the edaphic factor, were selected in the mountainous tropical forest of southern Mexico. Site 1 was established on an Alisol; site 2, on a Phaeozem. Representative soil profiles were examined on each of the sites, and topsoil was sampled on a regular grid pattern. The soil of site 2 was richer in organic matter and major nutrients and had a less acid reaction than the soil of site 1. The species diversity of the trees at site 2 (30 species) was higher than that at site 1 (17 species). The species compositions of the trees were different on the two soils: there were only six species in common for both sites. The coefficients of species similarity on the sites were low. We concluded that the presence of different soils within the same type of forest ecosystem increases its β-diversity. The examination of edaphic preferences of the species showed that Alstonia longifolia and Thouinidium decandrum preferred rich soils, Inga punctata and Ocotea sinuata preferred poor soils, and Cupania dentata and Hamelia patens did not display preferences in the studied range of soil properties. Thus, the spatial variability of the soil properties affect the spatial pattern of tree species in the studied tropical forest ecosystems.

  9. La deformación famatiniana del Granito La Escalerilla, sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morosini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan las estructuras post-magmáticas del Granito La Escalerilla y se propone una interpretación sobre los mecanismos regionales de esfuerzos correspondientes al ciclo famatiniano en el sector suroccidental de la sierra de San Luis. Se considera que el plutón La Escalerilla condicionó el estilo de deformación de las unidades litológicas en su periferia. Ésta deformación estuvo ligada al contraste reológico producido entre el intrusivo y las metamorfitas de la roca de caja. La estructura del plutón está caracterizada por la presencia de: a una foliación interna de orientación meridiana particularmente marcada en los sectores de borde, así como al norte y sur del cuerpo, b una faja milonítica de rumbo NNE, en el contacto oriental, c cizallas dúctiles conjugadas de tipo Riedel (NNO y anti-Riedel (NE, estructuras interpretadas como parte de una tectónica de escape bajo un régimen transpresivo sinestral, y d fracturas tensionales de orientación ONO. Todas estas estructuras se considera que responden a esfuerzos compresivos de dirección ONO, que generan una componente real de esfuerzo tangencial sinestral,de módulo variable, como consecuencia de la oblicuidad general del plutón, respecto al eje de máximo esfuerzo (σ1. Sin embargo en algunos sectores esta componente tangencial es mínima debido a las diferentes orientaciones de los límites del cuerpo respecto al vector de máximo esfuerzo (σ1.

  10. Le Subdray - Saint-Florent-sur-Cher

    OpenAIRE

    Ranger, Olivier; Multiple,

    2014-01-01

    Code INSEE commune : 18255 Lien Atlas (MCC) : http://atlas.patrimoines.culture.fr/atlas/trunk/index.php?ap_theme=DOM_2.01.02&ap_bbox=2.268;46.986;2.340;47.051 L'opération d'évaluation archéologique localisée sur les communes de Saint-Florent-sur-Cher et du Subdray (Cher) précède les travaux de mise à 4 voies de la route nationale 151 entre Bourges et Saint-Florent-sur-Cher par la Direction Départementale de l’Equipement du Cher. Le tracé totalise 3,5 km, ce qui porte la surface à évaluer à 6,...

  11. Granitoides peraluminosos de mina San Antonio (Tungsteno, sierra de Vinquis norte, sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E Lazarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los granitoides aflorantes en los alrededores de Mina San Antonio (tungsteno, en el extremo norte de la sierra de Vinquis, departamento de Belén, Catamarca. Se caracterizan tres unidades de granitos s.s., peraluminosos. El Granito Piedra Overa es un sienogranito de dos micas, con altos contenidos de P2O5 y Th, y bajos de Sr, tierras raras pesadas e Y. El Granito Vinquis Norte es un sienogranito biotítico, con contenidos de Y levemente altos y bajos de Sr y elementos de tierras raras. El Granito Mina San Antonio es un sienogranito muscovítico, con alto contenido de P2O5, y levemente alto de Y, y bajos contenidos de Ba, Sr y elementos de tierras raras. Ninguno de los cuerpos presenta altos valores de elementos de mena. Los cuerpos de Vinquis Norte y Mina San Antonio presentan rasgos de consanguinidad. El P habría jugado un papel importante en la fertilidad metalogenética del conjunto, evidente por la presencia de las vetas, la queda expresada en los parámetros de la anomalía de Eu y el perfil de elementos de tierras raras. normalizado.

  12. Discriminación de rocas ultramáficas y su encajonante metamórfico, mediante el procesamiento de imágenes satelitales Landsat 7 ETM+, Sierra Chica, Córdoba Ultramafic rocks discrimination from country rocks, using Landsat 7 ETM+ image data processing, in the Sierra Chica, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Anzil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación sobre la identificación y cartografía de rocas ultramáficas en la sierra Chica de Córdoba, se evalúan técnicas y estrategias de análisis y caracterización espectral de imágenes satelitales como recursos para detectar y delimitar estos cuerpos. Se utilizan además datos de campo y la ubicación de afloramientos ya reconocidos en campaña para cotejar los resultados que se obtienen del análisis de las imágenes. Se emplean imágenes satelitales Landsat-7 ETM+, recurriéndose a estrategias de procesamiento digital tales como la combinación de bandas, los cocientes de bandas y las clasificaciones espectrales, lográndose avanzar en el propósito planteado, a pesar de la cobertura vegetal y la escasa superficie de tales afloramientos. El área de estudio se ubica en las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba, entre la sierra Grande y sierra Chica, lugar donde afloran cuerpos ultramáficos, correspondientes a la faja ultramáfica oriental, intercalados en metamorfitas de grado medio a alto. De los procesos aplicados para el tratamiento digital, las clasificaciones con máxima probabilidad y paralelepípedos, son los que aportan los mejores resultados. Estos son consistentes con cuerpos ya reconocidos por otros medios.Techniques and strategies were developed in image analysis and spectral characterization in a reasearch to identify and map the ultramafic rocks and to detect and outline these bodies at Sierra Chica of Córdoba. Field data and specific location of these bodies were used to check the results obtained from the digital treatment. Landsat- 7 ETM+ image data are employed in digital processing, including band combination, band rationing and spectral classification to reach the purpose of this work, in spite of vegetal cover and reduced exposed area of these rocks. Ultramafic rocks, part of the "Eastern Belt", intercalates with intermediate to high grade metamorphic rocks, located in the Sierras Pampeanas of

  13. La deformación famatiniana del Granito La Escalerilla, sierra de San Luis The Famatinian deformation of La Escalerilla Granite, Sierra de San Luis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morosini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan las estructuras post-magmáticas del Granito La Escalerilla y se propone una interpretación sobre los mecanismos regionales de esfuerzos correspondientes al ciclo famatiniano en el sector suroccidental de la sierra de San Luis. Se considera que el plutón La Escalerilla condicionó el estilo de deformación de las unidades litológicas en su periferia. Ésta deformación estuvo ligada al contraste reológico producido entre el intrusivo y las metamorfitas de la roca de caja. La estructura del plutón está caracterizada por la presencia de: a una foliación interna de orientación meridiana particularmente marcada en los sectores de borde, así como al norte y sur del cuerpo, b una faja milonítica de rumbo NNE, en el contacto oriental, c cizallas dúctiles conjugadas de tipo Riedel (NNO y anti-Riedel (NE, estructuras interpretadas como parte de una tectónica de escape bajo un régimen transpresivo sinestral, y d fracturas tensionales de orientación ONO. Todas estas estructuras se considera que responden a esfuerzos compresivos de dirección ONO, que generan una componente real de esfuerzo tangencial sinestral,de módulo variable, como consecuencia de la oblicuidad general del plutón, respecto al eje de máximo esfuerzo (σ1. Sin embargo en algunos sectores esta componente tangencial es mínima debido a las diferentes orientaciones de los límites del cuerpo respecto al vector de máximo esfuerzo (σ1.In this paper post-magmatic structures of La Escalerilla Granite are analyzed and an interpretation of regional deformation mechanisms is proposed for cycle Famatinian of the Southwestern sector of the Sierra de San Luis. It is thought that La Escalerilla pluton has conditioned the style of deformation of the lithologic units at its periphery. This deformation was linked to the rheological contrast which occurred between the intrusive and metamorphic country rocks. The structure of the pluton is characterized

  14. De l’impact du TGV sur deux quartiers de gare : Nancy Grand Coeur et Metz Amphithéâtre The impact of the East European TGV on two station areas : Nancy Grand Coeur and Metz Amphithéâtre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’arrivée du TGV Est-Européen au coeur de Metz et de Nancy a offert aux deux cités rivales lorraines l’opportunité de requalifier leurs entrées de ville et de réhabiliter des friches ferroviaires d’arrière-gare. En dépit de situations originelles très différentes, l’évolution des deux projets les amène à une forte convergence. Un point les distingue néanmoins : alors que l’une cherche à fondre ce nouveau quartier dans le centre-ville, l’autre tend à la réalisation d’un nouveau coeur d’agglomération, au risque de dévitaliser le centre traditionnel. A miser sur l’effet structurant du TGV, toutes deux risquent néanmoins que le surdimensionnement de leurs projets ne conduise à un semi-échec.The arrival of the East European TGV in the heart of Metz and Nancy provided the two rival cities of Lorraine with an opportunity to reshape their landscape and to requalify the railway station areas. In spite of very different situations, the evolution of both projects leads them to a strong convergence. Still, they differ on one point: while one of them tries to merge the new city quarter into the city centre, the other focuses on realizing a new heart for the agglomeration, and thus risks devitalizing the old centre. By betting on the structuring effect of the TGV, both could lead to a semi-failure due to overambitious developments.

  15. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  16. CAPACITY OF RURAL WOMEN IN THE SIERRA NEVADA OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ramírez-Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The types of skills developed by rural women in the Sierra Nevada of Puebla since their participation in the Development Partnership Link for Sierra Nevada, AC. and the effects it had on personal, family and community levels are analyzed. The research methodology used was quantitative-qualitative: questionnaire, depth interviews and participant observation. The results indicate that they acquired skills from a gender perspective, technical-productive, eco-environmental and organizational-political, in the psychomotor, cognitive and affective dimensions; they managed to transform gender relations, contribute to the food security of their families, health care basics and promote environmental stewardship. The integral development of the capacities of rural women, contributes to their formation as social actors and political life of their communities, actively focusing on local development, integrating social networking and participating in the local economy.

  17. Age, geochemical composition, and distribution of Oligocene ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for landscape morphology, elevation, and drainage divide geography of the Nevadaplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, E.J.; Calvert, A.T.; Graham, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the topographic and landscape evolution of the Cenozoic Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, we combine geochemical and isotopic age correlations with palaeoaltimetry data from widely distributed ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. A sequence of Oligocene rhyolitic ignimbrites is preserved across the modern crest of the range and into the western foothills. Using trace and rare earth element geochemical analyses of volcanic glass, these deposits have been correlated to ignimbrites described and isotopically dated in the Walker Lane fault zone and in central Nevada (Henry et al., 2004, Geologic map of the Dogskin mountain quadrangle; Washoe County, Nevada; Faulds et al., 2005, Geology, v. 33, p. 505-508). Ignimbrite deposits were sampled within the northern Sierra Nevada and western Nevada, and four distinct geochemical compositions were identified. The majority of samples from within the northern Sierra Nevada have compositions similar to the tuffs of Axehandle Canyon or Rattlesnake Canyon, both likely sourced from the same caldera complex in either the Clan Alpine Mountains or the Stillwater Range, or to the tuff of Campbell Creek, sourced from the Desatoya Mountains caldera. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from these samples of 31.2, 30.9, and 28.7Ma, respectively, support these correlations. Based on an Oligocene palinspastic reconstruction of the region, our results show that ignimbrites travelled over 200km from their source calderas across what is now the crest of the Sierra Nevada, and that during that time, no drainage divide existed between the ignimbrite source calderas in central Nevada and sample locations 200km to the west. Palaeoaltimetry data from Sierra Nevada ignimbrites, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydration water in glass, reflect the effect of a steep western slope on precipitation and indicate that the area had elevations similar to the present-day range. These combined

  18. Securitizing Borderless Diseases: The case of Ebola in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Sofie; Jakshøj, Christoffer; Nielsen, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates how the Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak was securitised, and in turn how this securitization affected the sovereignty and development of Sierra Leone. Drawing on the Copenhagen School theory on securitization combined with Elbe’s notions of Medicalized Insecurity the chapter examines the process of securitising the Ebola outbreak. Hereafter the concept of Medicalised Nativism is applied to provide insight into the everyday effects of the outbreak on locals and to provid...

  19. Celebrity, Violence, and the Mystic Arts in Postwar Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Samuel Mark

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation tracks the operations of Hassan Jalloh, once a commander in Sierra Leone's devastating civil war, now self-proclaimed "King of West Africa Mystical Power and Culture." Jalloh served in the Civil Defense Forces, a pro-government militia that mobilized the imagery and practices of village hunter traditions in pursuit of local legitimacy and esoteric defense maneuvers including disappearance, metamorphosis, and bullet-proofing. Faced with disarmament and doubtful reintegration ...

  20. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process. PMID:15286370

  1. Evapotranspiration along an elevation gradient in California's Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Goulden, M. L.; R. G. Anderson; R. C. Bales; Kelly, A. E.; Meadows, M.; Winston, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    We combined observations from four eddy covariance towers with remote sensing to better understand the altitudinal patterns of climate, plant phenology, Gross Ecosystem CO2Uptake, and Evapotranspiration (ET) around the Upper Kings River basin in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Precipitation (P) increased with elevation to ∼500 m, and more gradually at higher elevations, while vegetation graded from savanna at 405 m to evergreen oak and pine forest to mid-montane forest to subalpine fore...

  2. Impact of the civil war in Sierra Leone on deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Minářová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The process of deforestation in Sierra Leone already started before the civil war, but it is generally assumed that the conflict exacerbated it. The present study investigated the impact of the civil war on deforestation, fallow periods and commercial logging, in the region around the Gola Rainforests National Park. Forest covers were affected by the civil war in two ways: directly through farm abandonment (i) and indirectly through defined channels (ii), such as preferences towards natural r...

  3. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.)

  4. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Sierra Leone Police Reform: the role of the UK government

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Baker

    2010-01-01

    Sierra Leone's civil war left development urgently needing security and security urgently needing reform. The initial UK response was un-coordinated until the Poverty Reduction Strategy 2004 which highlighted the importance of security. The SSR review, in response, made the security-development link explicit and all state security providers together with the judiciary, oversight mechanisms and relevant NGOs were brought together under the Justice Sector Development Programme. This review of p...

  6. Polymictic pool behavior in a montane meadow, Sierra Nevada, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Ryan Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    We observed polymictic behavior in stream pools in a low gradient montane meadow in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Thermal stratification in stream pools has been observed in various environments; stratification generally persists where the buoyancy forces created by a variation in water density, as a function of water temperature, are able to overcome turbulent forces resulting from stream flow. Because the density gradient creates a relatively weak buoyancy force, low f...

  7. Sierra Leone: Krio and the Quest for National Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Oyètádé, B. Akíntúndé; Fashole-Luke, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Republic of Sierra Leone is a smaller country in size, population and the number of its languages than many other countries on the West African coast such as Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria. A particularly interesting phenomenon is however present in the configuration of the languages present and used in the country, and how language links up the general population. Though there are two proportionately large indigenous languages spoken in the country, Temne and Mende, it is found that th...

  8. Promoting Mobile Financial Transactions : A Case Study Zain Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Atuyota-Ejughemre, Kesiena

    2009-01-01

    Title – Promoting Mobile Financial Transactions: A Case study of Zain Sierra Leone Author – Kesiena Atuyota-Ejughemre Supervisor - Anders Hederstierna Department: School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology Course: Master’s thesis in business administration, 15 credits (ECTS). Background and Problem Discussion: There are challenges associated with overly cash based societies. The use of mobile financial systems could address some of these challenges. Understanding the factors that ...

  9. Contamination of soil by heavy metals in the mining Sierra of Cartegena La Union and its environment (Southeast Spain); Contaminacion de suelos por metales pesados en la sierra minera de Cartagena La Union y su entorno (Sureste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte Serrato, F.; Rojo Lopez, S.; Romero Diaz, A.; Moreno Brotons, J.; Alonso Sarria, F.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the metal pollution in natural, agricultural and mineral-industrial soils in the Sierra of Cartagena La Union and its adjacent area. The analysis was conducted on 52 soil samples randomly selected and 23 samples form the bed of the channels draining to the Mar Menor and the Mediterranean sea. The results indicate high concentrations of metals that exceed, in many cases, the maximum allowable by the relevant laws of various countries, including Spain. Of note is the excessive contamination by lead (Pb) and Cinz (Zn) that doubles or even triples the maximum of the most permissive laws. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  11. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  12. The NASA SIERRA UAV: A new unmanned aircraft for earth science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, M. M.; Berthold, R.; Monforton, L.; Kolyer, R.; Lobitz, B.; Sumich, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Science Instrumentation Evaluation Remote Research Aircraft (SIERRA) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) makes use of a medium class, medium duration system designed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to test new instruments and support NASA airborne science experiments. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Science Program (ASP), within the Science Missions Directorate, directed the NASA Ames Research Center to test a prototype to evaluate the utility to earth science experiments. This paper describes the aircraft system architecture, capabilities, and provides an overview of existing payloads and mission concepts that support earth science investigations in the areas of carbon cycling, boundary layer studies, and air/sea interaction in support of NASA satellite missions.

  13. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  14. Comparative Bacteriological Study of Two Wild Boar Populations in Sierra Morena (Ja�n, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio NOTARIO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various bacterial species in the wild boar populations of Lugar Nuevo and Selladores-Contadero woodlands from Sierra Morena (Spain. Bacteriological analyses were carried out on a total of 229 wild boar individuals hunted in the period 2000-2003 in eleven experimental plots which are representative for the different biotopes of the area. The following species were detected: Brucella ovis, Clostridium sp., Corynebacterium sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydophila psittaci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus sp. and the bacterial prevalence was estimated for each of them. The results provide useful indications of the health status of wild boar in both locations and highlight the potential of the wild boar populations to act as biological reservoirs of certain microorganisms that can be passed onto other vertebrate wild animals and humans.

  15. Impact des incendies sur l'environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Vennetier, M.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation aimed at presenting all potential impacts of wild fires on the environment, as an introduction to this seminar. / Cette présentation était destinée à présenter en introduction du séminaire l'ensemble des impacts des incendies sur l'environnement.

  16. Lipid profile and dietary habits in an elderly rural population in the southern Spain: the Sierra de Huelva study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicario, Isabel M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have assessed serum lipids, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure in a healthy, free living population over 70 years old residing for more than 20 years in a rural area located in the southern Spain, the Sierra de Huelva. 401 elderly, 229 women (F and 179 men (M mean age 79.36 ± 6.9 were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a Modification of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDDS, which comprised 11 components. A total score ranging from 0-44 was calculated. Mean concentration for lipids were: Total cholesterol (TC 193.8 ± 23.1, M 195.2 ± 25.7 and F 192.7 ± 20.8 (p = 0.29; HDLc 60.3 ± 7.6 mg/dl, M 60.0 ± 8.0 and F 60.5 ± 7.2 (p = 0.49; TC/HDLc 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl, M 3.4 ± 1.2 and F 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl (p Hemos evaluado los lípidos séricos, la presión sistólica (SBP y diastólica (DBP en un grupo de ancianos no institucionalizados de más de 70 años que residen en una zona rural localizada en el sur de España, la Sierra de Huelva. 401 ancianos, 229 mujeres (F and 179 hombres (M con una edad media de 79,36 ± 6,9 años, se incluyeron en este estudio observacional transversal. Los hábitos alimentarios fueron evaluados mediante una modificación del Mediterranean Diet Score MMDS que incluyó a 11 grupos de alimentos. Se obtuvo una puntuación total que oscilaba entre 0-44. La concentración media de lípidos fue: colesterol total (TC 193,8 ± 23,1, M 195,2 ± 25,7 y F 192,7 ± 20,8 (p = 0,29; HDLc 60,3 ± 7,6 mg/dl, M 58,0 ± 8,0 y F 60,5 ± 7,2 (p = 0,49; TC/HDLc 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl, M 3,4 ± 1,2 and F 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl (p < 0,35; LDLc 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl, M 129,0 ± 32.9 F 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl (p < 0,33; TG 137,7 ± 18,8, M 138,8 ± 19,4 y F 136,0 ± 17,4 (p < 0,30. La prevalencia total de hipercolesterolemia (TC 200 mg/dl fue de 8,7%, F 7,9% y M 9,9%; 10,7% de la población presentó niveles de LDLc≥160 mg/dl. La edad se correlacionó negativamente (p < 0,05 con TC, LDLc, TG

  17. Essays on willingness and ability to pay for health insurance among informal sector workers in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Kamara, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Access to health care is a serious problem in Sierra Leone, more so in rural areas where living standards are low and there is absence of health care facilities. Health insurance, it is argued, will play an important role in giving access to medical care and reducing the high out of pocket (OOP) health expenditure, thus preventing unnecessary deaths and increasing well-being. It is however difficult to know the exact value households place on health and health care as they are not generally e...

  18. New agricultural frontiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone? Exploring institutional challenges for wetland management in the Eastern Province

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Maconachie

    2008-01-01

    Sierra Leone has recently emerged from a long period of political instability and civil war, and is ranked among the world’s poorest countries. Thousands of displaced people are in the process of returning to their villages to rebuild their mainly farming-based livelihoods, and many are growing food crops for the first time in a decade. With pressure on food production increasing in rural areas, the inland valley swamps have been identified by the government as a vital resource for sustaining...

  19. Revisión de las unidades alpujárrides de las Sierras de Tejeda, Almijara y Guájares (sector central de la Zona Interna Bética, provincias de Granada y Malaga)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    [EN] The meaning, the previous correlations and the limits among different units distinguished in the Tejeda, Almijara, Guájares and Albuñuelas sierras in the Granada and Málaga provinces (with an area of about 1500 km2) are discussed, particularly the so called Herradura and Salobreña Units, within de Alpujarride Complex. Some previous supossed tectonic thrust contacts within the carbonates of the Almijara and Guajares-Guindalera sierras do not exist. The comclusion is that sever...

  20. Regional polyphase deformation of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Argentina Andean foreland): strengths and weaknesses of paleostress inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Zampieri, Dario; Massironi, Matteo; Viola, Giulio; Alvarado, Patricia; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of central Argentina are composed of a series of basement-cored ranges, located in the Andean foreland c. 600 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Although uplift of the ranges is partly attributed to the regional Neogene evolution (Ramos et al. 2002), many questions remain as to the timing and style of deformation. In fact, the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas show compelling evidence of a long lasting brittle history (spanning the Early Carboniferous to Present time), characterised by several deformation events reflecting different tectonic regimes. Each deformation phase resulted in further strain increments accommodated by reactivation of inherited structures and rheological anisotropies (Martino 2003). In the framework of such a polyphase brittle tectonic evolution affecting highly anisotropic basement rocks, the application of paleostress inversion methods, though powerful, suffers from some shortcomings, such as the likely heterogeneous character of fault slip datasets and the possible reactivation of even highly misoriented structures, and thus requires careful analysis. The challenge is to gather sufficient fault-slip data, to develop a proper understanding of the regional evolution. This is done by the identification of internally consistent fault and fracture subsets (associated to distinct stress states on the basis of their geometric and kinematic compatibility) in order to generate a chronologically-constrained evolutionary conceptual model. Based on large fault-slip datasets collected in the Sierras de Cordoba (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), reduced stress tensors have been generated and interpreted as part of an evolutionary model by considering the obtained results against: (i) existing K-Ar illite ages of fault gouges in the study area (Bense et al. 2013), (ii) the nature and orientation of pre-existing anisotropies and (iii) the present-day stress field due to the convergence of the Nazca and South America plates (main shortening

  1. La actividad neotectónica en la sierra Baja de San Marcos - Cruz del Eje, flanco occidental de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales

    OpenAIRE

    A Massabie; Sanguinetti, A; G Lo Forte; Cegarra, M.

    2003-01-01

    El área pedemontana de San Marcos Sierra-Cruz del Eje constituye, en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, una comarca clave para el análisis neotectónico en las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. En esta región se han realizado estudios centrados en la unidad morfoestructural sierra Baja de San Marcos donde, aplicando un control múltiple de datos estructurales, geomorfológicos, sedimentológicos, paleontológicos y radimétricos, se ha determinado temporal y espacialmente la evolución de la actividad ...

  2. Prioridades de conservación aplicando información filogenética y endemicidad: un ejemplo basado en Carabidae (Coleoptera de América del Sur austral Conservation priorities using phylogenetic information and endemicity: an example based on Carabid beetles from Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de la información distribucional de las especies de Carabidae (Coleoptera de América del Sur austral, se reconocieron 17 áreas de endemismo. Para cada una de ellas se estimó la diversidad gamma, el porcentaje de endemismo, el valor filogenético y la complementariedad, exceptuando Juan Fernández del cual no se pudo obtener ningún valor filogenético. El cálculo del valor filogenético se realizó a través del uso de cuatro índices, el valor filogenético sin ninguna modificación (W, considerando la endemicidad (We, y sus respectivas estandarizaciones (Ws y Wes. Los resultados muestran que la estandarización del valor filogenético (Ws produce un sesgo cuando los cladogramas difieren en tamaño y que el complemento entre áreas es una herramienta secundaria de gran utilidad. Sin embargo, los resultados muestran que para determinar la importancia de las áreas, el complemento debe ser usado en conjunto con la diversidad específica y la endemicidad. Las comparaciones de los resultados obtenidos usando W, We y análisis de complementariedad estrictos y modificados muestran que el valor filogenético que admite endemicidad (We puede ser aplicado como único valor para determinar la importancia de cada área. Aplicando We, las seis primeras áreas seleccionadas acumulan el 72 % del valor filogenético y el 74 % de la diversidad gamma de los carábidos de América del Sur austral, mientras que ninguno de los otros parámetros usados acumula el 70 % de las especies antes de sumar la séptima área. Las seis áreas seleccionadas son la Selva valdiviana, las Sierras pampeanas, Coquimbo, Patagonia occidental, Chile central y La Araucanía. Es de hacer notar que las Sierras pampeanas y la Patagonia occidental son ambientes de pastizales, Coquimbo y Chile central son ambientes áridos y semiáridos, y solo la Selva valdiviana y Araucanía son típicos bosques australesBased on information of the Southern South American carabid

  3. Coherent Cloudiness Variability from Sierra Nevada to the Sea in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, E.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud variability serves as the principal modulator of incoming solar radiation. These cloud effects are particularly important in mountain settings such as the Sierra Nevada in California, because the solar irradiance is a primary input to the snowpack energy balance. An important, unanswered question is whether the mountain clouds over the Sierra Nevada are only one part of a larger-scale system or whether they vary distinctly from cloud patterns upstream over the Central Valley and coastal areas. To address this question we investigate cloud variability over California using 19 years (1996-2014) of GOES visible albedo product with 4-km spatial and 30-minute temporal resolutions. Two domains are considered: high elevations in which only higher (>800m) elevations are included, thus excluding the coast and valley clouds, and all elevations which includes all elevations from the offshore North Pacific to Nevada. Our focus is on the spring and early summer period, which is crucial because it includes much of the snowmelt runoff from the Sierra Nevada. Inter-annual variation of cloudiness, represented by the coefficient of variation of cloud albedo, reveals the highest relative variability from California coasts and lowlands in the winter and spring to highlands and mountains in the summer and autumn. This pattern also occurs across shorter to longer time-scales, with coefficient of variation ranging from 30-180% on daily scale to 5-40% on seasonal scale. Considering the spatial structure of anomalous cloudiness, rotated EOF (REOF) analyses of de-seasonalized daily cloud albedo in the high elevation domain yields patterns and temporal variations that are well correlated with those from the all elevation domain. This indicates that, to a large degree, the mountain clouds co-vary with those over the Central Valley and the California coast, even though the valley and coastal clouds include low stratus clouds. The monthly standard deviations of the amplitudes of the time

  4. Effect of Tree-to-Shrub Type Conversion in Lower Montane Forests of the Sierra Nevada (USA) on Streamflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Ryan R; Tague, Christina L; Moritz, Max A

    2016-01-01

    Higher global temperatures and increased levels of disturbance are contributing to greater tree mortality in many forest ecosystems. These same drivers can also limit forest regeneration, leading to vegetation type conversion. For the Sierra Nevada of California, little is known about how type conversion may affect streamflow, a critical source of water supply for urban, agriculture and environmental purposes. In this paper, we examined the effects of tree-to-shrub type conversion, in combination with climate change, on streamflow in two lower montane forest watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. A spatially distributed ecohydrologic model was used to simulate changes in streamflow, evaporation, and transpiration following type conversion, with an explicit focus on the role of vegetation size and aspect. Model results indicated that streamflow may show negligible change or small decreases following type conversion when the difference between tree and shrub leaf areas is small, partly due to the higher stomatal conductivity and the deep rooting depth of shrubs. In contrast, streamflow may increase when post-conversion shrubs have a small leaf area relative to trees. Model estimates also suggested that vegetation change could have a greater impact on streamflow magnitude than the direct hydrologic impacts of increased temperatures. Temperature increases, however, may have a greater impact on streamflow timing. Tree-to-shrub type conversion increased streamflow only marginally during dry years (annual precipitation change observed during wetter years. These modeling results underscore the importance of accounting for changes in vegetation communities to accurately characterize future hydrologic regimes for the Sierra Nevada. PMID:27575592

  5. Holocene vegetation and climate change recorded in alpine bog sediments from the Borreguiles de la Virgen, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pollen and magnetic susceptibility (MS) analyses have been carried out on a sediment core taken from a high-elevation alpine bog area located in Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. The earliest part of the record, from 8200 to about 7000 cal yr BP, is characterized by the highest abundance of arboreal pollen and Pediastrum, indicating the warmest and wettest conditions in the area at that time. The pollen record shows a progressive aridification since 7000 cal yr BP that occurred in two steps, first shown by a decrease in Pinus, replaced by Poaceae from 7000 to 4600 cal yr BP and then by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Amaranthaceae from 4600 to 1200 cal yr BP. Pediastrum also decreased progressively and totally disappeared at ca. 3000 yr ago. The progressive aridification is punctuated by periodically enhanced drought at ca. 6500, 5200 and 4000 cal yr BP that coincide in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the Mediterranean and other areas. Since 1200 cal yr BP, several changes are observed in the vegetation that probably indicate the high-impact of humans in the Sierra Nevada, with pasturing leading to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of the bog, Pinus reforestation and Olea cultivation at lower elevations.

  6. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  7. Non-Governmental Organizations in Africa: The Leonenet Street Children Project in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide snapshots of observations, interventions, and processes in the day to day working of a child charity in Sierra Leone. There were 114 local and 49 overseas funded Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Sierra Leone in 2002. The Leonenet Street Children Project was founded in 1996 by the membership of the…

  8. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  9. Sierra Leone - Mining Sector Reform : A Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    The Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) of the mining sector in Sierra Leone was undertaken in response to the Government of Sierra Leone's (GOSL) request for assistance in developing its minerals policy. The SESA will help meet long-term country development by integrating environmental and social considerations in mining sector reforms. The crucial aspect of the SESA proc...

  10. en un área natural protegida en Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Olmos-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se aborda el concepto de pobreza, enmarcado en el contexto de un área natural protegida (ANP, con la metodología propuesta por la Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL, cuya política pública maneja tres categorías para medirla: pobreza alimentaria, pobreza de capacidades y pobreza de patrimonio. El estudio de caso se efectuó en el ejido San Jorge (ESJ, ubicado dentro de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra La Laguna (REBISLA, en Baja California Sur. El análisis está basado en datos recolectados en entrevistas a los pobladores del lugar; se consideró el ingreso real diario per cápita, el cual indica si la persona es capaz de satisfacer las necesidades comprendidas en cada categoría, con un ingreso mínimo indispensable. Los resultados indican que la pobreza en la zona, de 2000 a 2004, no varió significativamente. Se concluyó que los habitantes del ESJ son pobres, según los propios parámetros de SEDESOL, y que su condición no ha mejorado, aunque viven en un ANP. Se analizan algunas alternativas que podrían ayudar a amortiguar este rezago.

  11. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  12. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  13. Enquêtes sur les soucoupes volantes

    OpenAIRE

    Lagrange, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    La dispute autour du mot « preuve » se réduit à une question : Qu'est-ce qui constitue une preuve ? Faut-il qu'un ovni atterrisse à l'entrée du Pentagone, près des bureaux des chefs d'État-Major ? Ou bien est-ce une preuve quand une station de radar au sol détecte un ovni, envoie un jet l'intercepter, que le pilote du jet le voit et le suit sur son radar pour finir par le voir disparaître à une vitesse phénoménale ? Ou est-ce une preuve quand un pilote tire sur un ovni et maintient son histoi...

  14. Mise en oeuvre du krigeage sur arbre.

    OpenAIRE

    Polus, Edwige; de Fouquet, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Un modèle de fonctions aléatoires définies sur une topologie d'arbre (de Fouquet & Bernard-Michel, 2006) a été développé pour l'estimation de concentrations le long d'un réseau hydrographique. Le principe consiste à décomposer le réseau en filets élémentaires joignant chaque " source " à " l'exutoire ". La concentration Z au point x s'exprime comme une combinaison linéaire Z(x)=$\\Sum$ wiYi(x) de variables aléatoires élémentaires Yi définies sur ces filets, dont les coefficients wi dépendent d...

  15. Structural and lithological conditioning of the large karst systems of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba; Condicionantes estructurales y litologicas de los grandes sistemas karsticos de la Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Guanche, C.; Ramirez Hernandez, R.; Farfan Gonzalez, H.; Estevez Cruz, E.; Ordaz Hernandez, A.; Aldana Vilas, C.

    2016-07-01

    he karst, a complex phenomenon, is governed by a number of variables which dictate its genesis and evolution. Among these variables tectonic settings and lithology play the main role. In Cuba, approximately 65% of the territory is occupied by karst. The Sierra de los Organos, part of Cordillera de Guaniguanico, has some of the largest karstic systems in the country. With the aim of demonstrating the relationship between the spatial and morphological development of the underground karstic systems and the geological structure and lithology of the area, several structural and morphological measurements and field observations have been made. These measurements and observations allowing us to conclude that the karstic processes take place mainly in massive, relatively homogeneous and very thick limestone in the Sierra de los Organos. Moreover, these rocks are characterized by both low porosity and a high degree of fracturing. These karstic forms are also conditioned by the existence of various fracturing systems with general NE-SW and NW-SE orientations. Interception of these fracturing systems provides, as expected, areas with the largest volumes of karstic cavities. (Author)

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, SE Cuba, during Tertiary times: From arc-continent collision to transform motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Handler, R.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.

    2008-09-01

    A structural study was carried out along the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. This was aimed to monitor the effects of Paleogene island arc formation and collision due to convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates and subsequent Neogene disruption of the arc by initiation of the North Caribbean Transform Fault. In the Sierra Maestra two different and unrelated volcanic arcs are exposed, one of Cretaceous age (pre-Maastrichtian) and the other of Paleogene age, the latter forming the main expression of the mountain range. The volcanic arcs are overlain by Middle-Upper Eocene siliciclastic, carbonate and terrigenous rocks. Six distinct phases of deformation were recognized in this area (D1-D6). The first phase (D1) is related to the intrusion of a set of extensive subparallel, N-trending subvertical basalt-andesite dikes which record mainly E-W extension and N-S shortening during the Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene. The final stage of collision of eastern Cuba (Caribbean plate) with the Bahamas Platform (North American plate) began in the Middle Eocene and coincided with cessation of magmatism in the Sierra Maestra. Following uplift in the Sierra Maestra, coarse clastic sediments were deposited along the northern edge with clast provenance from the uplifted, southerly located, areas. Between Late Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene, rocks of the Sierra Maestra were deformed by nearly east-west trending folds and north-vergent thrust faults (D2) in an overall antiformal structure. This deformation was linked to a shift in the stress regime of the Caribbean plate from mainly N-S to NE-SW compression. Subsequent shifting in plate motion caused the abandonment of the Nipe-Guacanayabo fault system in the Early Oligocene and initiation of a deformation front to the south where the Oriente fault is now located. Shortening structures within the Sierra Maestra were overprinted in the Oligocene to Early Miocene by widespread extensional structures (D3

  17. Fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone: a view from the frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Stephen; Leyland, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The largest and most complex Ebola epidemic in history is believed to have started with the infection of a 2-year-old boy in South-eastern Guinea in late 2013. Within a year, thousands of children and their families had contracted the virus, many had died and many more were orphaned. We reflect on our experiences of volunteering at the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre in Sierra Leone between January and February 2015, where we were deployed to care for just a few of these children as part of the Save The Children team. PMID:26507816

  18. Three-dimensional Q for Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Galapagos Islands volcanoes are some of the most rapidly deforming volcanoes on Earth, yet the magma storage chambers and migration pathways are poorly imaged. Three-dimensional tomographic inversion for seismic attenuation, 1/Q, is used to image variations in subsurface structure and heterogeneity associated with magma storage and volcanic construction at Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos Islands. P-wave power spectra were used to estimate t* (attenuation weighted, integrated slowness) in the frequency domain for local earthquakes recorded on the 15 station, broadband SIGNET array. The SIGNET network was deployed around Sierra Negra caldera and the southern part of Isabela Island between August 2009 and January 2011. A subset of 451 earthquakes was selected for attenuation analysis based on event location within the array and station coverage. The modelled spectra were used to calculate path attenuation and earthquake source parameters. The earthquake source parameters corresponding to amplitude at zero frequency (Ω0) and corner frequency (fc) relate to earthquake size and are therefore set constant across stations. Accordingly, we derive a single Ω0 and fc for each event and fix them while allowing only t* to vary. Values of t* range between 8.89 x 10-15 and 0.0525. Preliminary results show an increase in attenuation beneath the caldera starting at 1 km depth. The zone of high attenuation is more pronounced at 2 km depth and extends laterally to the east and southeast beyond the extent of the 10 km-wide caldera. Gravity anomaly and InSAR data has been used previously to model the magma chamber at Sierra Negra. Deformation modelling requires a flat-topped sill at 2 km depth (Geist et. al., 2007; Jonsson, S., 2009; Yun et. al., 2006). Our shallow, high attenuation zone matches these results, but also indicates that the attenuating bodies extend beyond the limits of the caldera beneath the SE flank of Sierra Negra. Elongate zones of higher attenuation correlate with

  19. GuMNet - A high altitude monitoring network in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2016-04-01

    The Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere and the ground in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of10 stations ranging from low altitude (900 m a.s.l.) to high mountain climate (2400 m a.s.l.). The atmospheric instrumentation includes sensors for air temperature, air humidity, 4-component net radiation, precipitation, snow height and wind speed and direction. The surface and subsurface infrastructure includes temperature and humidity sensors distributed in 9 trenches up to a maximum of 1 m depth and additionally temperature sensors in 15 PVC cased boreholes down to 20 m and 2 m with a higher vertical resolution close to the surface. All stations are located in exposed open areas except for one site that is in a forested area for measuring air-ground fluxes under forest conditions. High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. One of the low altitude sites is equipped with a 10 m high tower with 3D sonic anemometers and a CO2/H2O analyzer that will allow the sampling of wind profiles and H2O and CO2 eddy covariance fluxes, important for estimation of CO2 and energy exchanges over complex vegetated surfaces. The network is connected via general packet radio service to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure. The data provided by GuMNet will help to improve the characterization of atmospheric variability from turbulent scales to meteorology and climate at high mountain areas, as well as land-atmosphere interactions. The network information aims at meeting the needs of accuracy to be used for biological, agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and climatic investigations in this area with relevance for ecosystem oriented studies. This setup will complement the broader network

  20. Notes from the Field: Ebola Virus Disease Response Activities During a Mass Displacement Event After Flooding - Freetown, Sierra Leone, September-November, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Jeffrey; Ivy, Wade; Purfield, Anne; Bangura, James; Omoko, Anthony; Boateng, Isaac; Duffy, Nadia; Sims, George; Beamer, Bryan; Pi-Sunyer, Teresa; Kamara, Sarian; Conteh, Sulaiman; Redd, John

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa, Sierra Leone has reported 8,706 confirmed Ebola cases and 3,956 deaths (1). During September 15-16, 2015, heavy rains flooded the capital, Freetown, resulting in eight deaths, home and property destruction, and thousands of persons in need of assistance (2). By September 27, approximately 13,000 flood-affected persons registered for flood relief services from the government (3). On September 17, two stadiums in Freetown were opened to provide shelter and assistance to flood-affected residents; a total of approximately 3,000 persons stayed overnight in both stadiums (Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, personal communication, September 2015). On the same day the stadiums were opened to flood-affected persons, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) and Western Area Ebola Response Center (WAERC) staff members from CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the African Union evaluated the layout, logistics, and services at both stadiums and identified an immediate need to establish Ebola response activities. The patient in the last Ebola case in the Western Area, which includes Freetown, had died 37 days earlier, on August 11; however, transmission elsewhere in Sierra Leone was ongoing, and movement of persons throughout the country was common (4,5). PMID:26914633

  1. Influence of climate change predictions on snow in Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; María Perales, José; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow is a basic component in Earth's surface energy balance. Its importance is greater in mountainous areas and therefore, its study is crucial to obtain conclusion about water resources over these areas. Moreover these regions are more vulnerable to climate variations. Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain), with altitudes range from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is part of the global climate change observatories network and a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. This work estimates the impact of climate change on snow dynamics and its influence on mountain hydrology in this area. Precipitation and temperature datasets from three different scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) proposed by the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological sequences to simulate selected snow variables (snow water equivalent, daily snow cover area, annual number of days with snow and annual snowmelt and evaporation volumes). The associated results were compared for each scenario, and the snow behavior and evolution over the 2046-2100 periods were assessed. The results point to a higher decrease on snow cover extension, than those estimated for other snow variables. As expected, this variation is greater from the worst of the scenarios analyzed (A2). Furthermore, the comparison of the driving meteorological datasets throughout the reference period (1960-2000) with the real observations has allowed the introduction of another term of uncertainty in the estimations, not considered in a simple scenario analysis.

  2. Structural and lithological conditioning of the large karst systems of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he karst, a complex phenomenon, is governed by a number of variables which dictate its genesis and evolution. Among these variables tectonic settings and lithology play the main role. In Cuba, approximately 65% of the territory is occupied by karst. The Sierra de los Organos, part of Cordillera de Guaniguanico, has some of the largest karstic systems in the country. With the aim of demonstrating the relationship between the spatial and morphological development of the underground karstic systems and the geological structure and lithology of the area, several structural and morphological measurements and field observations have been made. These measurements and observations allowing us to conclude that the karstic processes take place mainly in massive, relatively homogeneous and very thick limestone in the Sierra de los Organos. Moreover, these rocks are characterized by both low porosity and a high degree of fracturing. These karstic forms are also conditioned by the existence of various fracturing systems with general NE-SW and NW-SE orientations. Interception of these fracturing systems provides, as expected, areas with the largest volumes of karstic cavities. (Author)

  3. A geologic and geophysic study of the Sierra de Pena Blanca, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the sistematic aerial exploration program realized by the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, an aeroradiometric study was carried out in the zone which includes Sierra de Pena Blanca. This study took into consideration the former and present geological investigations and compromised the sierra together with the bordering valleys. The main objective consists in the localization of areas presenting favorable conditions for the existence of uranium isotopes minerlization, in order to determine a mineralized body or ore deposit. For that purpose the area was explored with an airplane to which a differential gamma rays spectrometer was adapted, this spectrometer will show us clearly the integration of the number of radiations which fall into the detectors obtaining this way a valuable information about the radiometric anomalous sites of the studied zone and also about the existence of bismuth, thallium and the abundant potassium of the igneous rocks. These anomalies are under the stage of ground verification, this stage includes a superficial study and the study of the underlying rocks through drilling, radiometric logs and chemical analysis of the samples. In fact, through this method we can obtain very truthful data. (author)

  4. Petrografía y geoquímica de las anfibolitas del cerro La Cocha, Sierra Chica, Córdoba Petrography and geochemistry of the anphibolites from La Cocha Hill, Sierra Chica, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Anzil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Sierra Chica de Córdoba, a dos kilómetros al sur del Observatorio Astronómico de Bosque Alegre, se encuentran dos variedades litológicas de anfibolitas asociadas al cuerpo ultramáfico de La Cocha. Estas variedades incluyen anfibolitas sin piroxeno, compuestas por hornblenda, plagioclasa, titanita y minerales opacos, emplazadas en el núcleo de la estructura plegada del cuerpo ultramáfico. El segundo grupo son anfibolitas con dos piroxenos, compuestas por hornblenda, plagioclasa, ortopiroxeno (En, clinopiroxeno (Di y como accesorios minerales opacos, apatita, escasa titanita y circón. Estas anfibolitas se encuentran en el encajonante del cuerpo ultramáfico de La Cocha, asociadas a gneises granatíferos sillimaníticos. Con el objetivo de determinar el protolito, que por metamorfismo dieron origen a las anfibolitas, se realizó un estudio geoquímico de roca total. Las anfibolitas con dos piroxenos se clasifican dentro de la serie toleítica y, en base al diagrama de tierras raras se las podría asociar a un ambiente tectónico de generación de tipo N-MORB. Las anfibolitas sin piroxeno, también corresponderían a un ambiente asimilable a N-MORB, con mayor depresión en las tierras raras livianas, sugiriendo probablemente un ambiente de generación del fundido en un manto empobrecido.In the Sierra Chica of Córdoba (Argentina, two lithological varieties of amphibolites associated with the La Cocha ultramafic body, crops out two kilometer south of the Bosque Alegre Astronomical Observatory. These varieties include non-pyroxene amphibolite composed of hornblende, plagioclase, titanite and opaque minerals, situated in the core of the ultramafic body folded structure. The second group is pyroxene amphibolites comprising hornblende, plagioclase, orthopyroxene (En, clino-pyroxene (Di and accessories including opaque minerals, apatite, more rarely titanite and zircon. This group appears in the ultramafic country rock represented by garnet

  5. Roles des contraintes sur les signaux de transition de phase

    CERN Document Server

    Regnard, V

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier presente la notion de signal de transition de phase pour un systeme de taille finie. Il se concentre sur le role des contraintes physiques sur ces signaux et la robustesse quant au changement d'ensemble statistique. Des resultats obtenus avec un modele de gaz sur reseau sont presentes en analogie avec les observations effectuees en collisions d'ions lourds aux energies intermediaires.

  6. REEXAMINATION OF DYNAMIC BETAINTERNATIONAL CAPM: A SUR WITH GARCH APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kusdhianto SETIAWAN

    2012-01-01

    Considering the heteroscedasticity and cross-correlation in the error terms of international stock market returns, International Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is reinvestigated under Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) and SUR with GARCH (SUR-GARCH) framework.We modified Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) estimator to take into account multivariate GARCH error structure in estimating the model. World market portfolio was constructed to ensure that the market portfolio is mean-vari...

  7. El (los Sur buscando al Sur. Una construcción entre estereotipos y realidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Franzone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Todas las lecturas que podamos hacer del Sur, de sus propias representaciones, de aquellas vehiculizadas por el Norte, de sus creaciones, de sus reacciones, de su búsqueda constante de identidad, son lecturas de múltiples situaciones, que llaman a cruces insoslayables entre pueblos, entre distintas etnias, entre disciplinas, entre sentimientos que van desde el rechazo hasta la atracción casi magnética entre los dos hemisferios. Nuestra intención primera era la de reunir de manera aproximativa las problemáticas actuales de los Sur, ligadas a lo imaginario.

  8. Remesas Sur-Sur: Importancia del Corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio, procura brindar un poco de luz en el campo del impacto de los flujos de remesas en América Latina, al estudiar la importancia relativa del corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua (sur-sur) mediante el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta estadísticamente representativa a una muestra de hogares nicaragüenses receptores de remesas desde Costa Rica, comisionada por los autores durante el primer semestre del año 2009, así como contrastar estos resultados con aquellos de la litera...

  9. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  10. On the formations of the Pampas inthe footsteps of Darwin: south of the Salado Sobre las formaciones de las Pampasen los pasos de Darwin: al sur del Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zárate

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In1833 during his journey across the Buenos Aires Pampas, Charles Darwin madeobservations that reflected his thoughts on two major landscape units, Pampa interserrana and Pampa deprimida, later identified byother authors. Darwin grouped the Pampean sediments into a single unit, the PampeanFormation, based upon the lithological homogeneity and the large extensionof the deposits; the unit was thought to be of estuarine-marine origin andattributed to the Recent Epoch considering the paleontological content(vertebrates and mollusks. At present, the Pampean sedimentary succession,which accumulated approximately during the last 11-12 Ma, is interpreted as a pedosedimentarysequence due to the ubiquity of pedogenetic features throughout the deposits.Four main subcycles of sedimentation are identified related to reactivations ofthe Pampean landscape. At a regional scale, the outcrop distribution of Pampeansediments of different ages suggests the dominance of more stable conditionssince the late Miocene-Pliocene in a vast area of Pampa interserrana, documented by theformation of calcretes. However, sedimentation during the latePliocene-Pleistocene was active within the domain of the Salado tectonic basin andSierras de Tandil. The regional disparity shown by the Pampean stratigraphicrecord reveals the major morphostructural differences of its basement.Durante su viaje por la Pampa bonaerense en 1833 CharlesDarwin efectuó observaciones que reflejaban las dos grandes unidades de paisajeposteriormente reconocidas en la región, la Pampa interserrana y la Pampadeprimida. La homogeneidad litológica y la vasta extensión de los depósitosfueron los criterios básicos empleados para agruparlos en una única unidad, la FormaciónPampeano; basado en criterios paleontológicos le atribuyó origenestuárico-marino y la asignó a la época Reciente. Si bien han existido otraspropuestas estratigráficas, Formación Pampeano o simplemente Pampeano, sondenominaciones

  11. Active tectonics in the Argentine Precordillera and Western Sierras Pampeanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Siame

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere. This region is characterized by high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology were integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this seismotectonic model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina can be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this seismotectonic model, the Sierra Pie de Palo appears to be a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations.

  12. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

  13. TRADITIONAL USE OF A PROTECTED SPECIES (Litsea glaucescens Kunth IN THE “SIERRA DEL LAUREL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Martín Medina-Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a natural area is proposed to be a protected area, the information that supports the proposal is usually based on the physical environmental, rather than on the social environment and on the management of natural resource. This study was conducted from May 2004 to June 2005 whit the objective to analyze the process of exploitation of Mexican Bay Leaf (Litsea glaucescens Kunth in rural communities of Sierra del Laurel, a priority area in the state of Aguascalientes, México. Thirteen semi-structured interview were applied for local collectors and seven more were applied to inhabitants of the region to understand the trends in the use of resource. Three interviews were also applied to environmental officials from federal and local institutions to know about their position regarding the use of the Mexican Bay Leaf. A participative workshop with producers and collectors was conducted to document their opinion on the status of the population of this specie. Trend in utilization of the Mexican Bay Leaf have led it to be in danger of extinction: there is not organization nor legal utilization schemes among collectors that allow regeneration; the lack of institutional coordination, along whit inefficient implementation of laws and other legal instruments to regulate the management of natural resources, has contributed so that users have not adequate risk management procedures.

  14. Impact of Summer Cattle Grazing on the Sierra Nevada Watershed: Aquatic Algae and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Derlet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated periphytic algal and microbial communities to assess the influence of human and cattle impact on Sierra water quality. Methods. 64 sites (lakes and streams from Lake Tahoe to Sequoia National Park, California were sampled for suspended indicator bacteria and algae following standardized procedures. The potential for nonpoint pollution was divided into three categories: cattle-grazing areas (C, recreation use areas (R, or remote wildlife areas (W. Results. Periphyton was found at 100% of C sites, 89% of R sites, but only 25% of W sites. Eleven species of periphytic algae were identified, including Zygnema, Ulothrix, Chlorella, Spirogyra, mixed Diatoms, and Cladophoria. Mean benthic algae coverage was 66% at C sites compared to 2% at W sites (100 CFU/100 mL: C = 91%, R = 8%, W = 0 (<0.05. Conclusion. Higher periphytic algal biomass and uniform presence of periphyton-attached E. coli corresponded to watersheds exposed to summer cattle grazing. These differences suggest cattle grazing compromises water quality.

  15. Simulating 3-D radiative transfer effects over the Sierra Nevada mountains using WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra Nevada in the Western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to −50 to +50 W m−2 deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 °C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shade side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8–10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3–5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to −40 g m−2 are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between −12~12 W m−2. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the

  16. Simulating 3-D radiative transfer effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra-Nevada in the western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to −50 to + 50 W m−2 deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 °C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shaded side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8–10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3–5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to −40 g m−2 are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between −12~12 W m−2. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the

  17. Occurrence patterns of Black-backed Woodpeckers in green forest of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa M. Fogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are a rare habitat specialist typically found in moderate and high severity burned forest throughout its range. It also inhabits green forest but little is known about occurrence and habitat use patterns outside of burned areas, especially in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. We used point count and playback surveys to detect Black-backed Woodpeckers during 2011 - 2013 on 460 transects on 10 national forest units. We defined green forest as areas that had not burned at moderate or high severity since 1991 and were more than 2 km from areas burned at moderate or high severity within the previous eight years (n = 386 transects. We used occupancy models to examine green forest habitat associations and found positive relationships with elevation, latitude, northern aspects, number of snags, tree diameter, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forest, and a negative relationship with slope. Estimated occupancy in green forest was higher than previously understood (0.21. In addition site colonization and extinction probability in green forest were low (0.05 and 0.19, respectively and suggest that many of the individuals detected in green forest were not just actively dispersing across the landscape in search of burned areas, but were occupying relatively stable home ranges. The association with high elevation and lodgepole pine forest may increase their exposure to climate change as these elevation forest types are predicted to decrease in extent over the next century. Although density is high in burned forest, green forest covers significantly more area in the Sierra Nevada and should be considered in efforts to conserve this rare species.

  18. New fission-track ages of mio-pliocene tuffs in the Sierras Pampeanas and Precordillera of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-track dates were determined for 18 volcanic tuff horizons located in nine Neogene foreland basin sequences distributed throughout the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas of Northwestern Argentina, an area of nearly horizontal subduction. These and other data indicate that a lower age limit for the sedimentary sequences studied is approximately 17 Ma. Therefore these fission-track dates constrain both the history of volcanic activity and the time of deposition in several foreland basins from the middle Miocene to Recent. Although the dates range from 3.6±0.8 Ma to 17.0±1.9 Ma, there is a marked increase in the number of ashes younger than 9 Ma. This implies that two distinct episodes of volcanic activity affected the region. The source of some of these tuffs is unknown but they are probably limited to the 'flat-slab' region between 27 deg and 32 deg S. Tuffs at Rio Blanco and Santa Florentina that are spatially associated with the Mogotes dacite domes of the Famatina Range represented magmatism bracketed from about 7 to 4 Ma in the region underlain by the flat-subducted plate. The stratigraphic relations in the basins show that the faulting that uplifted Sierra de Famatina was contemporaneous with the volcanism which reached the surface along the bounding faults. (Author)

  19. Structural Evolution of the East Sierra Valley System (Owens Valley and Vicinity, California: A Geologic and Geophysical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Blakely

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tectonically active East Sierra Valley System (ESVS, which comprises the westernmost part of the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone, marks the boundary between the highly extended Basin and Range Province and the largely coherent Sierra Nevada-Great Valley microplate (SN-GVm, which is moving relatively NW. The recent history of the ESVS is characterized by oblique extension partitioned between NNW-striking normal and strike-slip faults oriented at an angle to the more northwesterly relative motion of the SN-GVm. Spatially variable extension and right-lateral shear have resulted in a longitudinally segmented valley system composed of diverse geomorphic and structural elements, including a discontinuous series of deep basins detected through analysis of isostatic gravity anomalies. Extension in the ESVS probably began in the middle Miocene in response to initial westward movement of the SN-GVm relative to the Colorado Plateau. At ca. 3–3.5 Ma, the SN-GVm became structurally separated from blocks directly to the east, resulting in significant basin-forming deformation in the ESVS. We propose a structural model that links high-angle normal faulting in the ESVS with coeval low-angle detachment faulting in adjacent areas to the east.

  20. Altered precipitation patterns with a shift from snow to rain in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T. M.; Sobolowski, S.; Kapnick, S. B.; Barnes, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation patterns in mountain environments affect global water resources and major hazards such as floods and landslides. In mid-latitude mountain ranges such as the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, much of the precipitation falls as snow, which accumulates and acts as a natural reservoir. As in many snowfall-dependent regions, California water infrastructure has been designed to capture warm season snowmelt runoff and transport it to otherwise dry areas where it is needed. Recent studies suggest that anthropogenic climate change is likely to result in a substantial shift from snow to rain in the Sierra Nevada during the 21st century. One mechanism for changing spatial patterns in precipitation that has not received substantial attention arises directly from a phase change associated with winter temperatures rising above freezing with greater frequency. Because the fall speed of rain is greater than snow, it is not advected as far as snow by the prevailing winds. We hypothesize that an extreme change from snow to rain will result in a substantial westward shift in annual precipitation under a warming climate. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two climate simulations over the central Sierra Nevada using the WRF regional climate model version 3.1.1 for the period October 2001 to September 2002. Both simulations used nested domains with grid spacings of 27 km, 9 km, and 3 km. The first simulation is a control run, while the second run is an idealized simulation in which fall speeds for snow and graupel are set to be identical to those of raindrops. Comparison of the two runs suggests that a change from snow to rain would yield substantial changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation. However, these patterns are fully realized only in the 3 km domain. In the 9 km and especially the 27 km domain these patterns are substantially attenuated, likely due to less detailed orographic forcing. In the 3 km domain, precipitation increases substantially on

  1. COMPTABILITÉ BASÉE SUR LA CONNAISSANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Tugui, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    International audience Dans la future société basée sur la connaissance, les connaissances constitueront des pièces de travails habituées qui seront manipulées très facilement. La comptabilité ne fait pas exception à cette pratique et aboutira à cet état suite à la standardisation des procédures, des pratiques et des méthodes comptables, au traitement intégré des données de l'entreprise, du niveau de plus en plus performant des technologies de communication, des réalisations du domaine de ...

  2. Stercula setigera Del. : effet sur les cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, Charles; Samba Arona Ndiaye Samba,; Ndour, Babou

    2001-01-01

    En zone soudano-sahélienne plusieurs espèces ligneuses sont maintenues dans les champs pour diverses raisons. Leur effet sur les cultures demeure cependant inconnu pour la plupart d'entre elles. Une étude menée au Sénégal a montré que la densité des cultures (arachide, mil et sorgho) augmente avec la distance au tronc de Sterculia setigera. La hauteur du sorgho, l'étalement de l'arachide, sa biomasse en gousses ainsi que les biomasses en épis et en tiges de mil et de sorgho augmentent égaleme...

  3. Lithiase géante sur enterocystoplastie

    OpenAIRE

    Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante sur néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pou...

  4. Epithermal mineralization controlled by synextensional magmatism in the Guazapares Mining District of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    2015-03-01

    We show here that epithermal mineralization in the Guazapares Mining District is closely related to extensional deformation and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico. Three Late Oligocene-Early Miocene synextensional formations are identified by detailed volcanic lithofacies mapping in the study area: (1) ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, composed of silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets; (2) ca. 27-24.5 Ma Témoris formation, consisting primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate composition lavas and interbedded fluvial and debris flow deposits; (3) ca. 24.5-23 Ma Sierra Guazapares formation, composed of silicic vent to proximal ignimbrites, lavas, subvolcanic intrusions, and volcaniclastic deposits. Epithermal low-to intermediate-sulfidation, gold-silver-lead-zinc vein and breccia mineralization appears to be associated with emplacement of Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite plugs and is favored where pre-to-synvolcanic extensional structures are in close association with these hypabyssal intrusions. Several resource areas in the Guazapares Mining District are located along the easternmost strands of the Guazapares Fault Zone, a NNW-trending normal fault system that hosts most of the epithermal mineralization in the mining district. This study describes the geology that underlies three of these areas, which are, from north to south: (1) The Monte Cristo resource area, which is underlain primarily by Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite dome collapse breccia, lapilli-tuffs, and fluvially reworked tuffs that interfinger with lacustrine sedimentary rocks in a synvolcanic half-graben bounded by the Sangre de Cristo Fault. Deposition in the hanging wall of this half-graben was concurrent with the development of a rhyolite lava dome-hypabyssal intrusion complex in the footwall; mineralization is concentrated in the high-silica rhyolite intrusions in the footwall and along the

  5. Sur8 mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Kug Hwa; Park, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-01-01

    Sur8, a scaffold protein of the Ras pathway, interacts with Ras and Raf and modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that Sur8 is overexpressed in established human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and CRC patient tissues. Moreover, Sur8 expression is increased during liver metastasis in CRC patients. Sur8 knockdown decreases ERK and Akt activities in CRC cell lines, regardless of their K-Ras, B-Raf or PI3K mutation status. Overexpression or knockdown of Sur8 increases or decreases, respectively, the proliferation or transformation of CRC cell lines. Sur8 knockdown attenuates the migration and invasion of HCT116 CRC cells. Subcutaneous or orthotopic injection of HCT116 cells harboring a doxycycline (Dox)-mediated Sur8 knockdown system in nude mice resulted in decreased tumorigenic potential and inhibited the liver metastatic potential of HCT116 cells. Taken together, our data support the role of Sur8 as a promoter of tumorigenesis and liver metastasis in CRC through its modulation of the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27469030

  6. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M de Araújo Lobo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g. present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50 screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector.

  7. Distribution of aquatic animals relative to naturally acidic waters in the Sierra Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, D.F.; Cooper, S.D.; Brown, A.D.; Mahood, G.

    1994-01-01

    Lakes in the Bench Lake/Mount Pinchot area of Kings Canyon National Park were surveyed in summer 1992 and found to range in pH from 5.0 to 9.3. Ten lakes were acidic (pH < 6.0). Thirty three lakes were chosen for detailed analyses of their chemical and biological characteristics, including eight acidic lakes. Unlike typical Ca-Na-HCO3-dominated Sierra lakes, SO4 concentrations are high enough to classify 19 of these lakes with SO4 as the dominant anion. The source of acidity and SO4 is sulfuric acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite found in metamorphic and granitic rocks in the area. Faunal surveys revealed that yellow-legged frog tadpoles (Rana muscosa), limnephilid caddis larvae (Hesperophylax), and large microcrustaceans (Daphnia, Diaptomus) were rare or absent in acidic lakes and common in lakes with a pH > 6.0. Four species of trout were collected, and their presence appeared to be related to historical stocking patterns. Trout appeared to have large effects on the distributions and abundances of larval amphibians and large, mobile invertebrate taxa that were rare or absent in trout lakes, but common in lakes lacking trout.

  8. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Mores, Christopher N; Bausch, Daniel G; Christofferson, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g.) present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50) screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO) at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector. PMID:27116605

  9. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M.; Mores, Christopher N.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g.) present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50) screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO) at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector. PMID:27116605

  10. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  11. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District......

  12. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), and South Coast Air...

  13. Indigenousness without ethnicity in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA GUADALUPE MENDOZA ZUANY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between ethnic, indigenous and community-based identities in the communities of Ixtlan and Guelatao in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico. Local identities and sense of belonging to the communities prevail over ethnic identification amongst the inhabitants of these communities. The strengthening of local (community-based identity has been achieved through an internal social organisation and categorisation of the inhabitants based on their origin as a mechanism of integration, particularly in diverse communities with large numbers of outsiders. Parallel to this, new ways of defining indigenousness, without ethnic claims, are emerging through making reference to the practice of comunaliddadand attachment to localities/communities.

  14. Element Verification and Comparison in Sierra/Solid Mechanics Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Roth, William

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to study the effects of element selection on the Sierra/SM solutions to five common solid mechanics problems. A total of nine element formulations were used for each problem. The models were run multiple times with varying spatial and temporal discretization in order to ensure convergence. The first four problems have been compared to analytical solutions, and all numerical results were found to be sufficiently accurate. The penetration problem was found to have a high mesh dependence in terms of element type, mesh discretization, and meshing scheme. Also, the time to solution is shown for each problem in order to facilitate element selection when computer resources are limited.

  15. Uranium mining in Sierra Pintada: knowledge, epistemic communities and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the conflict triggered by the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) proposing to re-open the Mining Complex of Sierra Pintada, in San Rafael, Province of Mendoza. Since 2004 when the Commission submitted the first report to the Ministry of Public Works and Environment of Mendoza to obtain the necessary permission to restart the works in the mine, several protests have taken place and many legal measures were taken in order to stop any resuming attempts. This study argues that, although CNEA has been an epistemic community capable of applying their policy proposals in the nuclear field, their technical knowledge is currently not sufficient to design a policy, and moreover, to hold that they are working for local and sustainable development. Only 'puzzling' 'with actors' paradigms and knowledge is possible to fit together their demands and achieve a public policy, or solution, for this problem. (author)

  16. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  17. Cretaceous stratigraphy of sierra de Beauvoir, Fuegian Andes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Martinioni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous stratigraphy north of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, was poorly known until the last decade of the twentieth century. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontological observations in sierra de Beauvoir and surroundings enabled the recognition of two main packages of dominant marine mudstone. 1 A more than 450 m thick package of slate, shale and mudstone, constituted by the revised Lower Cretaceous Beauvoir Formation. A type locality in the core of sierra de Beauvoir, with diagnostic Aptian-Albian fossils including inoceramids of the Inoceramus neocomiensis group and Aucellina sp., is proposed for this unit. 2 A more than 1,500 m thick, mudstone-dominated, but sandier upward, package consisting of at least three Upper Cretaceous units. Arroyo Castorera Formation (nom. nov. bears Turonian inoceramids of the I. hobetsensis group and I. cf. lamarcki. Río Rodríguez Formation (nom. nov. has Coniacian inoceramids, cf. Cremnoceramus sp. Policarpo Formation bears poorly preserved ammonites (Grossouvrites sp., Maorites sp., and Diplomoceras sp., together with diagnostic Maastrichtian dinocysts (Manumiella spp. complex, Operculodinium cf. azcaratei, some specimens of Fibrocysta-Exochosphaeridium complex, and Palaeocystodinium granulatum. Both packages were deposited in deep-marine environments and show, as a whole, a coarsening upward trend in the succession of Cretaceous rocks. Beauvoir Formation is part of the back-arc basin-fill of the former Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Arroyo Castorera Formation appears as a transition to the initiating Late Cretaceous Austral foreland basin evolution, clearly represented by turbiditic deposits of Río Rodríguez and Policarpo formations that were progressively accumulated in front of the rising Fuegian Andes.

  18. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  19. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  20. Impact of rural poverty reduction strategies: The case of smallholders in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    SAMMETH Frank; Lakoh, Alpha; Michel, Baudouin; Hites, Gisele; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The present analysis, which exploits one of the first empirical data collected from smallholders in Sierra Leone since the end of the civil war, compares the impact of two poverty reduction strategies targeting smallholders in Sierra Leone: support to rice production is compared with support to coffee and cocoa production in terms of sustainable income generation and contributing to macroeconomic stability and growth. Supporting rice production is intended to help the country regain self-suff...

  1. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz,Lola; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and ani...

  2. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz,Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transec...

  3. Sinfonevada: Dataset of Floristic diversity in Sierra Nevada forests (SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Francisco Javier Bonet; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Rut Aspizua; Juan Lorite; Regino Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sinfonevada database is a forest inventory that contains information on the forest ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). The Sinfonevada dataset contains more than 7,500 occurrence records belonging to 270 taxa (24 of these threatened) from floristic inventories of the Sinfonevada Forest inventory. Expert field workers collected the information. The whole dataset underwent a quality control by botanists with broad expertise in Sierra Nevada flora. This floristic in...

  4. Contested Jurisdictions: Legitimacy and Governance at the Special Court for Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The Special Court for Sierra Leone, established in 2002 to adjudicate crimes committed during a decade-long conflict, represents a new form of tribunal. Its "hybrid" structure was designed to address the domestic populace more directly than at previous international criminal tribunals. The Special Court's architects claimed that the Court's physical location in Sierra Leone and its inclusion of domestic law would generate greater awareness of and participation in its transitional justice ob...

  5. Structure of Sierra Blanca (Alpujarride Complex, west of the Betic Cordillera)

    OpenAIRE

    Andreo, B.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    1995-01-01

    Sierra Blanca, situated in the SW of Málaga, forms part of the Blanca unit, belonging to the Alpujarride Complex of the Betic Cordillera. Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles (white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top), linked with a transitional contact. The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpo...

  6. SierraDNA – Demonstrating the Usefulness of Direct ILS Database Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Padgett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovative Interface’s Sierra(™ Integrated Library System (ILS brings with it a Database Navigator Application (SierraDNA - in layman's terms SierraDNA gives Sierra sites read access to their ILS database. Unlike the closed use cases produced by vendor supplied APIs, which restrict Libraries to limited development opportunities, SierraDNA enables sites to publish their own APIs and scripts based upon custom SQL code to meet their own needs and those of their users and processes. In this article we give examples showing how SierraDNA can be utilized to improve Library services. We highlight three example use cases which have benefited our users, enhanced online security and improved our back office processes. In the first use case we employ user access data from our electronic resources proxy server (WAM to detect hacked user accounts. Three scripts are used in conjunction to flag user accounts which are being hijacked to systematically steal content from our electronic resource provider’s websites. In the second we utilize the reading histories of our users to augment our search experience with an Amazon style “People who borrowed this book also borrowed…these books” feature. Two scripts are used together to determine which other items were borrowed by borrowers of the item currently of interest. And lastly, we use item holds data to improve our acquisitions workflow through an automated demand based ordering process. Our explanation and SQL code should be of direct use for adoption or as examples for other Sierra customers willing to exploit their ILS data in similar ways, but the principles may also be useful to non-Sierra sites that also wish to enhancement security, user services or improve back office processes.

  7. Learning from the challenges of Ebola Virus Disease contact tracers in Sierra Leone, February, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sierra Leone was in the process of strengthening tracing of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) contact with training of contact tracers, continuous mentoring and monitoring, supervision and continuous support. This was through various national and international organizations. This study aimed at identifying the challenges of contact tracers with a view of improving contact tracing activities in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone. Methods In-depth interview was conducted among contact tracer...

  8. Clinical Illness and Outcomes in Patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Schieffelin, John S.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M.; Brown, Bethany L.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Winnicki, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background;Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. Methods;We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014...

  9. Geology, age and tectonic evolution of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, southeastern Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bojar, A.V.; García-Delgado, D.E.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Hejl, E.; Handler, R.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the available geological information on the Sierra Maestra Mountains in southeastern Cuba and report new zircon fission track and biotite Ar-Ar ages for this region. Two different and genetically unrelated volcanic arc sequences occur in the Sierra Maestra, one Cretaceous in age (pre-Maastrichtian) and restricted to a few outcrops on the southern coast, and the other Palaeogene in age, forming the main expression of the mountain range. These two sequences are overlain by middle t...

  10. Automation on computer of the partial area method in the analysis of resonances induced by 'S' neutrons 2. with an interference term and extension of the method to the treatment of multi resonances (1963); Automatisation sur ordinateur de la methode des aires partielles dans l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons ''S''. 2, avec terme d'interference et extension de la methode au traitement des multiresonances (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G.; Corge, C.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report deals with the numerical analysis on an I.B.M. 7090 computer of transmission resonances induced by 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments. The analysis method used is the partial area one. In this second part the interference term is taken into account. Modifications have been made in the programs and subroutines described in the first part, to determine the resonant transmissions from experimental raw data, and the relating partial areas. Also programs and subroutines are thoroughly described, which estimate the resonance parameters. The field of the partial area method has been extended to cover the case where several resonances have to be treated simultaneously, provided they do not interfere. (authors) [French] Le pretent rapport a pour objet l'analyse numerique sur ordinateur I.B.M. 7090 des resonances dues aux neutrons ''s'' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, la methode d'analyse utilisee etant la methode dea aires partielles. Dans cette deuxieme partie il a ete tenu compte du terme d'interference. On y trouvera une description des amenagements apportes aux programmes et sous-programmes decrits dans la premiere partie pour determiner les transmissions interfero-resonnantes a partir des donnees experimentales brutes et les aires partielles afferentes. Sont egalement decrits les programmes et sous-programmes necessaires au calcul des parametres caracteristiques des resonances. Le domaine d'application de la methode a ete etendu au traitement simultane de plusieurs resonances groupees n'interferant pas entre elles. (auteurs)

  11. Faunistic patterns of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) within elevational and temporal gradients in Sierra de San Carlos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M; Jones, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m(2) where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and particular

  12. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas The basement of Sierra de San Luis: New magnetic evidence and tectonic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Chernicoff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca la secuencia supracortical, en parte correspondiente a la Formación San Luis, que permite reconstruir en varios sectores de la región, en algunos casos subaflorante, una importante sucesión de rocas metasedimentarias de hasta 3 km de espesor, que es interpretada como perteneciente a depósitos de una cuenca de antepaís formada con posterioridad a la orogenia pampeana, alrededor de los 530 Ma. Se caracterizan las distintas unidades metamórficas e ígneas a partir de su señal magnética, y sobre esta base se presenta una sección estructural profunda, que sirve de base para proponer la evolución tectónica del basamento de este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas. Éste registra a partir de la orogenia pampeana la instalación de un arco magmático con su respectiva cuenca de trasarco durante el Cámbrico tardío y el Ordovícico temprano, los que son cerrados y deformados durante la colisión del terreno de Cuyania en el Ordovícico medio.The available aeromagnetic maps of the Sierras de San Luis and Comechingones in the south-eastern sector of the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, show the geologic and structural characteristics of the metamorphic and intrusive units of the basement of the region. Through the upward continuation filter applied to the magnetic data, it is possible to view the depth to the different units. Among them it stands out the supracrustal sequence partly equivalent to the San Luis Formation, interpreted as foreland basin

  13. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  14. SR-71A - in Flight over Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71A, tail number 844, banks away over the Sierra Nevada mountains after air refueling from a USAF tanker during a 1997 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet

  15. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Briones-Salas; María D. Luna-Krauletz; Ariadna Marín-Sánchez; Jorge Servín

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte) in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus) and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis). Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1) in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamífero...

  16. Anomalías del campo gravitatorio y magnético terrestre en la sierra de Socoscora, provincia de San Luis Earth gravity and magnetic field anomalies in the Sierra of Socoscora, San Luis province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kostadinoff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La sierra de Socoscora se ubica en forma meridiana y se manifiesta como un escalón al noroeste de la Sierra Grande de San Luis. En la sierra de Socoscora las rocas del basamento están representadas por metamorfitas de alto grado con escasos afloramientos de metabasitas. Las mediciones del campo gravitatorio y magnético indican la presencia de un volumen mayor de estas rocas en su subsuelo. Los excesos de masa en esta sierra se hallan definidas por anomalías gravimétricas de Bouguer (residuales positivas similares a las encontradas en la Sierra Grande de San Luis. La magnetometría indica, a partir de las respuestas positivas, la existencia de rocas máficas con concentraciones anómalas de minerales magnéticos.The Sierra de Socoscora is a north - south trending mountain range, located nortwest of the Sierra Grande of San Luis. The basament is constituted by high grade metamorphic rocks with few associated metabasites. Earth gravity and magnetic field measurements are indicative of the presence of bigger volumes of mafic rocks below the surface, which carry anomalous concentrations of ferromagnetic and/or paramagnetic minerals (magnetite and/or sulfides. An excess of mass below this Sierra is shown by Bouguer gravimetric anomalies with magnitudes similar to those measured in the Sierra Grande de San Luis. Positive magnetic anomalies are indicative of the presence of mafic rocks with anomalous concentrations of magnetic minerals.

  17. Snowmelt sensitivity to warmer temperatures: a field-validated model analysis, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Molotch, N. P.; Margulis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present model simulations of climate change impacts on snowmelt processes over a 1600 km2 area in the southern Sierra Nevada, including western Sequoia National Park. The domain spans a 3600 m elevation gradient and ecosystems ranging from semi-arid grasslands to giant sequoia groves to alpine tundra. Three reference years were evaluated: a moderately dry snow season (23% below average SWE), an average snow season (7% above average SWE), and a moderately wet snow season (54% above average SWE). The Alpine3D model was run for the reference years and results were evaluated against data from a multi-scale measurement campaign that included repeated manual snow courses and basin-scale snow surveys, dozens of automated snow depth sensors, and automated SWE stations. Compared to automated measurements, the model represented the date of snow disappearance within two days. Compared to manual measurements, model SWE RMSE values for the average and wet snow seasons were highly correlated (R2=0.89 and R2=0.73) with the distance of SWE measurements from the nearest precipitation gauge used to force the model; no significant correlation was found with elevation. The results suggest that Alpine3D is highly accurate during the melt season and that precipitation uncertainty may critically limit snow model accuracy. The air temperature measured at 19 regional stations for the three reference years was modified by +1°C to +6°C to simulate the impact of warmer temperatures on snowmelt dynamics over the 3600 m elevation gradient. For all years, progressively warmer temperatures caused the seasonal SWE centroid to shift earlier and higher in elevation. At forested middle elevations, 70 - 80% of the present-day snowpack volume is lost in a +2°C scenario; 30 - 40% of that change is a result of precipitation phase shift and the remainder is due to enhanced melt. At all elevations, spring and fall snowpack was most sensitive to warmer temperatures; mid-winter sensitivity was least

  18. Spatial interpolation of precipitation indexes in Sierra Nevada (Spain): comparing the performance of some interpolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Misiune, Ieva

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of several precipitation indexes in Sierra Nevada, Spain: mean annual number of wet days (R ≥ 1 mm), mean annual number of heavy rainy days (R ≥ 10 mm) and mean annual number of very heavy precipitation days (R ≥ 20 mm) and test the performance of several interpolation methods using these variables. In total, 17 univariate and multivariate methods were tested. A set of 36 metereological stations distributed in Sierra Nevada and neighbouring areas was analysed in this study. The original data did not followed the normal distribution; thus, a logarithm was applied to data meet normality purposes. Interpolator's performance was assessed using the root mean square error generated from cross-validation. The results showed that the mean annual R ≥ 10 mm and R ≥ 20 mm have a higher variability than R ≥ 1 mm. While the elevation and longitude did not show a significant correlation with the studied indexes, the latitude (i.e. distance to the sea) showed a significant negative correlation. The regressions carried out confirmed that elevation was the covariate with higher capacity to explain the variability of the indexes. The incorporation of elevation and longitude slightly increased the explanation capacity of the models. The data of LogR ≥ 1 mm, LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm displayed a clustered pattern, especially the last two indexes that also showed a strong spatial dependency attributed to the effects of local topography, slope, aspect and valley orientation. The best fitted variogram model to LogR ≥ 1 mm was the linear one while for the LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm, the Gaussian was the most appropriate. The best interpolator for LogR ≥ 1 mm was the local polinomyal with the power of 1, whereas for LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm, regression kriging (ROK) using as auxiliary variables the elevation, latitude and longitude was the most accurate. ROK methods significantly

  19. Spatial Patterns between Regolith Thickness and Forest Productivity in the Southern Sierra CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, R. M.; Ferrell, D. F.; Hartsough, P. C.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil in conjunction with underlying weathered bedrock make up what is referred to as regolith, which can be thought of as the substrate that actively contributes water and nutrients to above ground biomass. As a result, regolith thickness is an important regulating factor of forest health and drought tolerance in the Sierra Nevada. Our project examined the relationships between landscape position, regolith thickness, and tree productivity within a sub watershed of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. We hypothesized that tree productivity will increase with increasing regolith thickness. Data was collected in the summer of 2015 at sixty-five sites within a 522-ha watershed averaging 1180m in elevation with a MAP of 80cm and a MAT of 11C. Sites were randomly selected from a grid and then stratified in the field to capture representative samples from different landscape positions. Regolith was sampled using a hand auger with attachable extensions. At each site we augered to hard bedrock or a maximum depth of 7.56 m, which ever was shallower. Biomass measurements were made for all conifer species (DBH>20cm) within a 10m radius of the primary auger hole. Tree age was measured from a representative tree for all species in the plots. Preliminary findings suggest that there is a weak correlation between landscape position/slope and regolith thickness, likely due to differences in lithology. It also appears that terrain shape can result in conflicting outcomes: 1. It can focus water to promote physical and chemical weathering and thick regolith; or, 2. water focusing can result in landscape scouring, removing soil and weathered bedrock to create shallow regolith. Productivity appears to be a function of regolith thickness, effective precipitation and landscape position. Water collecting areas in the lower watershed are shallow to bedrock, but typically receive high amounts of effective precipitation resulting in greater tree productivity. Moreover, thick regolith

  20. Timber harvest effect on soil moisture in the southern Sierra Nevada: Is there a measurable impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, M. W.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Goulden, M.; Hartsough, P. C.; Hopmans, J. W.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Lucas, R. G.; Malazian, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    We monitored soil-moisture storage, evapotranspiration and streamflow in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest for three post-snowmelt spring/summer seasons during water years 2010-2013. We measured volumetric water content using a COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing Systems (COSMOS) to estimate shallow soil-moisture storage and an eddy-covariance flux tower to measure evapotranspiration, covering an area of about 20 ha. Soil-moisture sensors were also strategically placed at depths of 10, 30, 60 and 90 cm at 30 locations in and around the COSMOS and tower footprints. Timber harvest occurred during the summer of 2012, involving uneven-age thinning limited to trees less than 76.2 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Timber harvest intensity varied by tree size class: approximately 39% of the trees 0 to 25.5 cm DBH, 21% of the trees 25.5 to 50.8 cm DBH, and 4% of trees 50.8-76.2 cm DBH. Merchantable timber removed from the site was about 81-100 cubic m per ha. Annual evapotranspiration was similar for all four years, averaging about 80 cm each year, despite large variability in annual precipitation amounts. Annual evapotranspiration was about 10% lower following harvest. However, 2012 and 2013 were both dry years. Water year 2011 was one of the wettest years on record - approximately 200 cm of precipitation - while 2012 was one of the driest with 70 cm of precipitation. Each year soil desiccation immediately followed snow-cover depletion, dropping from field capacity by about 20% volumetric water content over a 3-month period. The rate of soil-water loss was about the same for all years. In 2012 and 2013 the dates of snow disappearance were 2-3 months earlier than in 2011. About half of the annual total evapotranspiration for 2010-2012 occurred during the 3-month period following snowmelt. Each year, total summer precipitation was only 4-6 cm. Thus soil-water storage derived from snowmelt and rainfall provides much of the moisture for evapotranspiration in the mixed

  1. Recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Abitbol

    2008-01-01

    Le Centre de recherche sur les Juifs du Maroc (CRJM) a été créé, en mai 1994, à Paris à l’initiative de Monsieur Robert Assaraf, après de longs mois de concertations, de discussions et d’études préalables. Il s’agit d’une institution internationale, à vocation universitaire et scientifique qui s’est fixé pour but essentiel de développer, par tous les moyens, la connaissance et l’étude de l’histoire des Juifs du Maroc. Une histoire trois fois millénaire qui remonte à la destruction du premier ...

  2. Retour sur l'Etat local

    OpenAIRE

    REIGNER, H; Epstein, R.

    2011-01-01

    L'Etat local, dont l'étude a été à l'origine de travaux fondateurs sur le système politico-administratif, ne figure plus parmi les objets privilégiés de la science politique française. Ce constat renvoie moins à un désintérêt des politistes qu'à la fragmentation de leurs approches et à la dilution de l'objet qui en découle. L'hypothèse de cette Section Thématique est que l'Etat local demeure un objet fécond pour la recherche, permettant en particulier d'alimenter et d'articuler deux controver...

  3. Lithiase géante sur enterocystoplastie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante sur néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. PMID:25932070

  4. Enquête LMD sur le web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Cauvin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available En relation avec la mise en place des LMD, une enquête sur le web a été entreprise en janvier 2003 afin de connaître les orientations et les choix des diverses universités délivrant des diplômes de géographie ou d’une discipline similaire. Grâce à R. Schlumberger (laboratoire Image et Ville de nombreux sites ont été consultés et analysés. Qu’elle en soit remerciée.   Cependant, la lecture des informations a été plus malaisée que prévue en raison, en particulier, de la multiplicité des langue...

  5. Structural and functional insights into the stationary-phase survival protein SurE, an important virulence factor of Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, K F; Abdul Rehman, S A; Devi, S; Tomar, Priya; Gourinath, S

    2016-05-01

    The stationary-phase survival protein SurE from Brucella abortus (BaSurE) is a metal-dependent phosphatase that is essential for the survival of this bacterium in the stationary phase of its life cycle. Here, BaSurE has been biochemically characterized and its crystal structure has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 Å. BaSurE was found to be a robust enzyme, showing activity over wide ranges of temperature and pH and with various phosphoester substrates. The active biomolecule is a tetramer and each monomer was found to consist of two domains: an N-terminal domain, which forms an approximate α + β fold, and a C-terminal domain that belongs to the α/β class. The active site lies at the junction of these two domains and was identified by the presence of conserved negatively charged residues and a bound Mg(2+) ion. Comparisons of BaSurE with its homologues have revealed both common features and differences in this class of enzymes. The number and arrangement of some of the equivalent secondary structures, which are seen to differ between BaSurE and its homologues, are responsible for a difference in the size of the active-site area and the overall oligomeric state of this enzyme in other organisms. As it is absent in mammals, it has the potential to be a drug target. PMID:27139831

  6. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns. PMID:21516657

  7. CDC's Response to the 2014-2016 Ebola Epidemic - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Benjamin A; Kinzer, Michael H; Raghunathan, Pratima L; Christie, Athalia; De Cock, Kevin M; Mahoney, Frank; Bennett, Sarah D; Hersey, Sara; Morgan, Oliver W

    2016-01-01

    CDC's response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in the agency's history and occurred in a geographic area where CDC had little operational presence. Approximately 1,450 CDC responders were deployed to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone since the start of the response in July 2014 to the end of the response at the end of March 2016, including 455 persons with repeat deployments. The responses undertaken in each country shared some similarities but also required unique strategies specific to individual country needs. The size and duration of the response challenged CDC in several ways, particularly with regard to staffing. The lessons learned from this epidemic will strengthen CDC's ability to respond to future public health emergencies. These lessons include the importance of ongoing partnerships with ministries of health in resource-limited countries and regions, a cadre of trained CDC staff who are ready to be deployed, and development of ongoing working relationships with U.S. government agencies and other multilateral and nongovernment organizations that deploy for international public health emergencies. CDC's establishment of a Global Rapid Response Team in June 2015 is anticipated to meet some of these challenges. The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27388930

  8. New Rb-Sr age determinations on the Archaean basement of eastern Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Archaean basement of Sierra Leone is a typical example of granite-greenstone terrains found in ancient continental nuclei. Reconnaissance field mapping showed that the area can be subdivided into old gneiss, which predates the greenstone belts, and young granite which is later than the greenstone belts. New Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on two suites of old tonalitic gneiss yield ages of 2786 +- 49 Ma and 2770 +- 137 Ma, which either reflect the time of formation of the original tonalites or their metamorphism. Three new Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on young granites yield ages of 2786 +- 143 Ma, 2780 +- 79 Ma and 2770 +- 50 Ma, which are interpreted as the time of emplacement. The widespread occurrence of similar young granites, throughout the Archaean of West Africa, suggests that these results date a major event in the evolution of this segment of the crust. A published Pb-Pb age of the old gneiss and the new ages of the young granite bracket the age of the greenstone belts to 3000-2770 Ma. However, if the Rb-Sr ages of the old gneiss reported in this paper reflect the time of their formation, the age of the greenstone belts is tightly bracketed to ca. 2770 Ma. There is no isotopic evidence for rocks substantially older than 3000 Ma in the West African Archaean. (Auth.)

  9. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Social pathways for Ebola virus disease in rural Sierra Leone, and some implications for containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richards

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Upper West Africa is the largest ever recorded. Molecular evidence suggests spread has been almost exclusively through human-to-human contact. Social factors are thus clearly important to understand the epidemic and ways in which it might be stopped, but these factors have so far been little analyzed. The present paper focuses on Sierra Leone, and provides cross sectional data on the least understood part of the epidemic-the largely undocumented spread of Ebola in rural areas. Various forms of social networking in rural communities and their relevance for understanding pathways of transmission are described. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between marriage, funerals and land tenure. Funerals are known to be a high-risk factor for infection. It is suggested that more than a shift in awareness of risks will be needed to change local patterns of behavior, especially in regard to funerals, since these are central to the consolidation of community ties. A concluding discussion relates the information presented to plans for halting the disease. Local consultation and access are seen as major challenges to be addressed.

  11. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  12. A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine Plant Monitoring For Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Murrell, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a target region, which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas target regions have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), three target regions were completed by September 2004, one in the Sierra Nevada, California, one in the White Mountains, California, and one in Glacier National Park, Montana. The SIERRA NEVADA (GLORIA code: SND) target region lies along the Sierra Nevada crest in the Yosemite National Park/Mono Lake region. The four summits well represent the GLORIA design standards, being little visited by climbers, outside domestic grazing allotments, relatively rounded in shape, situated within one climate region, related substrate types (metamorphic), and extending from treeline to the highest elevation zones in the area. The four summits include the subordinate peak of Mt Dunderberg (3744m), two lesser peaks of Mt Dunderberg (3570m and 3322m) and a summit along the Yosemite National Park boundary region south of Mt Conness (3425m). Preliminary data indicate that numbers of vascular plant species, from lowest to highest summit, were 40, 36, 12, 22 (total for SN, 67). Only 1 species (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) occurred on all four summits; 8 species occurred on three summits; no exotic species was detected. The most distant summit, also most distinct in substrate, had the largest number of unique

  13. Epistemologías del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho irreversible que el logos eurocéntrico ha implosionado en sus propias fuentes de desarrollo político y económico. El peligro de esta crisis es total porque abarca su hegemonía y a la humanidad y a la naturaleza. ¿De qué alternativas disponemos para superar este fin de milenio y su hecatombe? Es evidente que estamos viviendo los "tiempos póstumos" o de "filosofía finisecular" de una Modernidad que luce, por otra parte, rebasable desde otra episteme histórico-cultural que reconozca la relación ecosistema del hombre en el conjunto de la diversidad existencial de los seres vivos que pueblan este planeta. Esta otra epistemología que tiene su génesis en la Teoría Crítica y se recrea enAmérica Latina, desde el Sur, se asume desde la praxis de un logos emancipador que fractura los límites hegemónicos del "capitalismo sin fin" y del "colonialismo sin fin", ya que hace posible recuperar desde la "sociología de las emergencias", la presencia de los pueblos milenarios que han logrado la recreación de su habitat a través de una relación simbiótica directa, con los ciclos o procesos de génesis y muerte de la Madre Tierra (Pachamama. La sabiduría ancestral que porta el pensamiento de estos pueblos originarios, expresados por sus tradiciones, ritos, magias, hasta sus representaciones antropomórficas de la realidad, son síntomas de que el ocaso de la civilización, nomuere con Occidente, sino que renace desde el Sur con el "Sumak Kawsay".

  14. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  15. Mutli-temporal Imaging Spectroscopy Analysis for the Identification of Coniferous Forest Mortality Related to Drought Stress in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tane, Z.; Roberts, D. A.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.; Roth, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has had a significant impact on the vegetation communities of California. As a result of the drought, there has been a notable increase in forest mortality throughout the state. In this presentation Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery acquired for the HyspIRI Preparatory Mission over the western Sierra Nevada Range in 2013 and 2014 was used to quantify the mortality of conifers in 2014. Data products provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab (NASA-JPL) were re-sampled to a common 15meter pixel resolution, co-registered, and geo-referenced. Ecological cover type was first assessed using the random forest machine learning technique with training data produced from AVIRIS summer 2013 imagery and comparison with high-spatial resolution World View-2 imagery. Then, in areas identified as being primarily composed of needle-leaf tree cover, the change in fractional change in green vegetation cover was assessed using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) in fall 2013 and fall 2014 AVIRIS images. The source spectral library for the MESMA endmembers was created from AVIRIS-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) images taken over Sierra National Forest in 2014. False positives were further reduced using a spatio-temporal filtering approach. Final accuracy of the modeled areas of conifer mortality were assessed by comparison with 2015 WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 imagery over the study area, as well as with recently acquired field data within the southern Sierra Nevada. Early results support the need for increased fidelity data for providing timely information on ecosystem dynamics to land management agencies.

  16. Metal mobilization from base-metal smelting slag dumps in Sierra Almagrera (Almería, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Flores, Andrés Francisco; Cardellach, Esteve; Mendoza, José L.; Corbella Cordomí, Mercé; Domènech Rubio, Luis Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Smelting slags associated with base-metal vein deposits of the Sierra Almagrera area (SE Spain) show high concentrations of Ag (2.0 mg/L), Fe (0.22–9.8 mg/L), Mn (0.85–40.2 mg/L), Ni (0.092–2.7 mg/L), Pb (>2.0 mg/L) and Zn (>2.5 mg/L), and mobilization of Ag (0.2–31 lg/L), As (5.2–31 lg/L), Cd (1.3–36.8 lg/L) and Hg (0.2–7 lg/L). The leachates were modeled using the numerical code PHREEQC. The results suggested the dissolution of fayalite, ferrihydrite, jarosite, pyrrhotite, goethite...

  17. Deformation and stress-change modeling at Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos, from ENVISAT INSAR and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sigurjon; Chadwick, W.W.; Poland, M.; Geist, D.

    2008-01-01

    We use radar interferograms and GPS observations to constrain models of magma accumulation and faulting at Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, during the years before its 2005 eruption. The data have shown ~5 m of pre-eruption uplift and multiple trapdoor faulting events on an intra-caldera fault system. We find the pattern of uplift to be consistent with an inflating sill at 2.2 km depth under the caldera. Our deformation modeling and stress-change calculations suggest that the inflating sill triggered faulting on an inward- dipping thrust fault and that the faulting in turn relieved the pressure within the sill. This sill-fault interaction tends to thicken the sill and limit its lateral extent within the area bounded by the fault.

  18. The Current Outbreak of Ebola virus is still Continue in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone: A Fact Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of the Ebola virus occurred in the West Africa and it is the largest and more lethal outbreak in the history of Ebola virus. Thousands of peoples were infected along with thousands of death. The first case of current outbreak of Ebola virus was reported from Guine and acute;e Forestie` re (Forested Guinea, eastern area of Guinea in December 2013 (Ahmad, 2014; Baize et al., 2014; Gatherer, 2014. But in March 2014 the diseases spread so much fast and infected the surrounding countries Liberia and Sierra Leone. While in August 2014 the Ebola virus were reported from the Nigeria (Ahmad, 2014. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(1.000: 193-195

  19. Sierra Elvira limestone: petrophysical characteristics of an Andalusian heritage stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, I.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “Sierra Elvira stone” is one of the ornamental building stones most widely used in the historical monuments of eastern Andalusia. A Liassic age limestone, it appears in the central section of the Baetic Mountains and more specifically in the Middle Subbaetic domain. While the most common variety is a crinoid limestone, a micritic limestone of the same age has also been quarried, albeit in much smaller quantities. These stones form very thick beds, up to nearly 5 m deep, that run in consistently parallel lines and have a dip angle that facilitates quarrying.With petrographic, physical and mechanical properties that ensure stone strength and durability, it is a high quality building material suitable for both structural and ornamental purposes. These properties can be attributed to the minimal open porosity and concomitant excellent water resistance that characterize the stone, as well as to its high mechanical strength and low textural anisotropy, both elastic and mechanical. With such attributes, the stone can be successfully used for any number of purposes, including decorative stonework (portals, fountains, plinths, structural members (column shafts and bases or urban curbing and paving. Intervention on Sierra de Elvira limestone structures should be limited to cleaning or repair, for consolidating or protective materials are scantly effective.La “Piedra de Sierra Elvira” constituye una de las piedras ornamentales más significativas del Patrimonio Arquitectónico de Andalucía Oriental. Es una roca caliza del Lias que aflora en el Subbético Medio del sector central de las Cordilleras Béticas. El litotipo más explotado es una caliza con crinoides, en bastante menor importancia se ha extraído también otra caliza micrítica de la misma edad. Los bancos son muy potentes, en algunos casos de más de 5 m, con un paralelismo constante y un buzamiento que favorece su explotación en los frentes de cantera.Sus caracter

  20. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina: understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Chiapella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3% have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8% included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  1. El alimento y su dimensión socio-ecológica. En torno al tomate «rosao» de la Sierra de Aracena

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Pedro A; Ruiz-Ballesteros, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    «Rosao» tomato’s revival in «Sierra de Aracena» (Huelva, Spain) is not a unique case, but rather an illustration of parallel processes in other areas. The study of this tomato variety and its socioecological significance allows us to shed light on key concepts promoting rural development policies: heritage, development and everyday life-experiences. Hence, we have worked on their production, distribution and consumption means, as well as on the symbolism and conviviality that accompanies it. ...

  2. Notes from the Field: Development of a Contact Tracing System for Ebola Virus Disease - Kambia District, Sierra Leone, January-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebecca; Ghiselli, Margherita; Conteh, Agnes; Turay, Bobson; Kemoh, Andrew; Sesay, Foday; Kamara, Alfred; Gaeta, Aldo; Davis, Clinton; Hersey, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Kambia District is located in northwestern Sierra Leone along the international border with Guinea. The district is dominated by forest and swamp habitat and has a population of approximately 270,000 persons (approximately 5% of the nation's population) who live in rural villages and predominantly subsist on farming and trading. During 2014-2015, the remoteness of the area, a highly porous border with Guinea, and strong traditional beliefs about health care and sickness led to unique challenges in controlling the Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) outbreak within the district. PMID:27100119

  3. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  4. Monitoring lichens diversity and climatic change in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Calzado, M.ª R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are common organisms in high mountain zones, where they play an important role in ecosystem balance. In recent years, the increasing interest in understanding more about their interactions with abiotic factors has prompted several investigations, some of which have proved their value as bioindicators of climatic conditions. In this context, focusing on climatic change effects on high mountain vascular plants and supported by the Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments project (GLORIA, we have monitored for the first time the lichens biodiversity in Sierra Nevada with the intention of studying the alterations caused by the process of climatic change. The aim of this paper is to explain the monitoring experience developed on the massif and contribute to the first results from the biodiversity and statistical analysis of the sampling data.Los líquenes son organismos comunes en las zonas de alta montaña donde juegan un importante papel en el equilibrio de los ecosistemas. En los últimos años, el creciente interés por entender más acerca de sus interacciones con los factores abióticos ha motivado diversas investigaciones, algunas de las cuales han demostrado su valor como bioindicadores de las condiciones climáticas. En este contexto, centrándonos en los efectos del cambio climático en plantas vasculares de alta montaña y respaldados por el proyecto “Iniciativa para la investigación y el seguimiento global de los ambientes alpinos (GLORIA”, se ha monitorizado por primera vez la diversidad de líquenes en Sierra Nevada con la intención de estudiar las posibles alteraciones que esta pueda sufrir causadas por el proceso de cambio climático. El objetivo de este artículo es el de dar a conocer la experiencia de seguimiento en el macizo y aportar los primeros resultados procedentes del análisis, tanto de la biodiversidad como estadístico, de los datos de muestreo.

  5. Petrografía y geoquímica de las anfibolitas del cerro La Cocha, Sierra Chica, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Anzil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Sierra Chica de Córdoba, a dos kilómetros al sur del Observatorio Astronómico de Bosque Alegre, se encuentran dos variedades litológicas de anfibolitas asociadas al cuerpo ultramáfico de La Cocha. Estas variedades incluyen anfibolitas sin piroxeno, compuestas por hornblenda, plagioclasa, titanita y minerales opacos, emplazadas en el núcleo de la estructura plegada del cuerpo ultramáfico. El segundo grupo son anfibolitas con dos piroxenos, compuestas por hornblenda, plagioclasa, ortopiroxeno (En, clinopiroxeno (Di y como accesorios minerales opacos, apatita, escasa titanita y circón. Estas anfibolitas se encuentran en el encajonante del cuerpo ultramáfico de La Cocha, asociadas a gneises granatíferos sillimaníticos. Con el objetivo de determinar el protolito, que por metamorfismo dieron origen a las anfibolitas, se realizó un estudio geoquímico de roca total. Las anfibolitas con dos piroxenos se clasifican dentro de la serie toleítica y, en base al diagrama de tierras raras se las podría asociar a un ambiente tectónico de generación de tipo N-MORB. Las anfibolitas sin piroxeno, también corresponderían a un ambiente asimilable a N-MORB, con mayor depresión en las tierras raras livianas, sugiriendo probablemente un ambiente de generación del fundido en un manto empobrecido.

  6. Wind power potential of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramilli, O.A.; Saldana, R.; Miranda, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Energias No Convencionales, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-10-01

    This work is an analysis of wind characteristics of Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico, during the period from February 1997 to February 1998. Fifteen wind stations located in the eastern coastal area recorded the wind speed and wind direction for this region. The wind resources of BCS were recorded and the annual average wind speed, power density, and annual energy density at 10 m above ground level are presented here. We considered the wind data from El Cardon, BCS, as a case study. This location can be considered to be representative of the 15 wind stations that were installed in BCS. Using the Weibull probability density function, we estimated the wind energy output and the capacity factor for two different wind turbines during the year. The capacity factors for both wind turbines were estimated at close to 25%. Considering the wind energy output and the capacity factor, we estimated the levelized production costs for both wind turbines. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, we developed data for the levelized production cost of both wind turbines. (Author)

  7. Correlation and analysis of Miocene paleochannels in the central Sierra Nevada, California, as displayed by the Stanislaus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.; Deino, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The proposed Neogene uplift of the Sierra Nevada has been debated for several decades. Although multiple lines of evidence indicate substantial uplift of the Sierran crest over the last ten million years, recent isotopic and paleobotanical methods have called the validity of these calculations into question. Our study focuses on the discontinuous units of the Miocene Stanislaus Group: Table Mountain Formation lavas, Dardenelles Formation lavas, and Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) lava and tuffs. These units are significant because they have been used as a tilt indicator to calculate the uplift of the Sierra Nevada crest since their emplacement, 9.0-10.2 million years ago. Our research increased the quantity of primary data, which will be used to develop and verify a digitally-derived model of the paleodrainage systems of the ancient Sierra Nevada. The localities, Dorrington, Pikes Peak, Rancheria Mountain, Three Chimneys, and Sonora Pass are significant because they may represent the few remaining Table Mountain Formation (trachyandesite) outcrops of previously unmapped paleodrainage channels. To test this hypothesis, geochemical and paleomagnetic data were used to correlate the localities and thereby reconstruct the paleochannels. Outcrops near Dorrington, California contain biotite, display eutaxitic textures and are characterized by a reverse polarity indistinguishable from the Tollhouse Flat Member of the EVT. Previously mapped as Table Mountain Latite, we reclassify these units as Tollhouse Flat Member and eliminate the hypothesis that the units were once part of a potentially lava-back-flooded tributary of the paleo-Stanislaus River. The high potassium, columnar jointed lava at Pikes Peak, exhibits normal polarity; it is plausibly part of the Stanislaus Group and may be correlated to flows along the main 'cataract channel' of the Stanislaus Group. Results from Rancheria Mountain verify the presence of Stanislaus Group lavas and the EVT, previously mapped by Huber et

  8. Low referral completion of rapid diagnostic test-negative patients in community-based treatment of malaria in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Tony

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is hyper-endemic and a major public health problem in Sierra Leone. To provide malaria treatment closer to the community, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF launched a community-based project where Community Malaria Volunteers (CMVs tested and treated febrile children and pregnant women for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. RDT-negative patients and severely ill patients were referred to health facilities. This study sought to determine the referral rate and compliance of patients referred by the CMVs. Methods In MSF's operational area in Bo and Pujehun districts, Sierra Leone, a retrospective analysis of referral records was carried out for a period of three months. All referral records from CMVs and referral health structures were reviewed, compared and matched for personal data. The eligible study population included febrile children between three and 59 months and pregnant women in their second or third trimester with fever who were noted as having received a referral advice in the CMV recording form. Results The study results showed a total referral rate of almost 15%. During the study period 36 out of 2,459 (1.5% referred patients completed their referral. There was a significant difference in referral compliance between patients with fever but a negative RDT and patients with signs of severe malaria. Less than 1% (21/2,442 of the RDT-negative patients with fever completed their referral compared to 88.2% (15/17 of the patients with severe malaria (RR = 0.010 95% CI 0.006 - 0.015. Conclusions In this community-based malaria programme, RDT-negative patients with fever were referred to a health structure for further diagnosis and care with a disappointingly low rate of referral completion. This raises concerns whether use of CMVs, with referral as backup in RDT-negative cases, provides adequate care for febrile children and pregnant women. To improve the referral completion in MSF's community-based malaria

  9. Efectos de la implantación del modelo agroambiental y productivista en la Sierra Morena onubense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda Rivera, Juan Francisco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity —environmental, geographic and historic— sets the differientiated feature of Sierra Morena Huelva. This paper looks into the whole process of institutionalization of Environmental Matters as well as the adoption of postproductivism in this area. Given the individual characteristics of this country, the pattern that it would fit into —following recent C.A.P. policies— is that of environmental agriculture and scenary-related activities. Still, new flashes of economic diversity dynamism are being witnessed — spurred by the diversity of territorial structure and previous productive dynamism—; there are factors which have been ignored by Mainstream Greeen Enviromental perspective.

    [es] La diversidad -natural, geográfica e histórica- constituye el elemento distintivo de la Sierra Morena de Huelva. En este artículo se analiza e interpreta el proceso de institucionalización del ambientalismo y de implantación del posproductivismo en dicha comarca que —por sus peculiares características— quedaría encuadrada en el modelo de agricultura ambiental y paisajística propugnada por la más reciente P.A.C. No obstante, se observan allí importantes destellos de dinamismo económico —relacionados con la diversidad de su estructura territorial y con su vivacidad productiva previa— que no han sido suficientemente captados ni valorados por el ambientalismo clorofílico. [fr] La diversité —naturelle, géografique et historique—, constitue l'élément distinctif de la Sierra Morena de Huelva. Dans cet article on va analyser et interpréter le procès d'institutionnalisation de l'environnement et l'implantation de l'activité postproductive dans cette région qui, grâce a ses caractéristiques particulières, on peut la situer dans un modèle d'agriculture écologique et paysagistique propulsé par la plus récente P.A.C. Malgré tout, on peut trouver là des importants signes de dynamisme économique —par rapport

  10. Catálogo de la flora del Parque Natural de la Sierra de Mariola (Alicante-Valencia [Checklist of the Natural Park of Sierra de Mariola (Alicante-Valencia, Spain vascular flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume X. SOLER SIGNES

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista actualizada de flora vascular presente en el Parque Natural de la Sierra de Mariola (Alicante-Valencia.SUMMARY. The checklist of the vascular flora of the Natural Park of Sierra de Mariola is here presented.

  11. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author)

  12. Reading between the lines: Societal norms in Sierra Leonean readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brams, Patricia

    1980-12-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. Compared to the 1964 readers, the first indigenous readers developed circa 1977 contained markedly greater emphasis on traditional norms, though modernity norms continued to dominate, and substantially less emphasis on Efficacy (a central aspect of modernity) and on Non-parochial Affiliation. This closely corresponded with the intent of the National Plan to continue on a modernizing course employing the traditional norms of Manual Labor and Social Cohesion in a grassroots effort to develop the agricultural sector, with nationalism in a less important role. Apart from lesser emphasis on Efficacy and underemphasis on the Value of Education which were discordant with national goals, the 1977 readers seem to provide children and teachers with a fairly accurate image of the national ethos. This may help to account for the generally positive relationship that has been found between schooling and economic development.

  13. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  14. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.22 user's guide : addendum for shock capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.22 User's Guide to document additional capabilities that are available for use in the Presto{_}ITAR code that are not available for use in the standard version of Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM). Presto{_}ITAR is an enhanced version of Sierra/SM that provides capabilities that make it regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. This code is part of the Vivace product, and is only distributed to entities that comply with ITAR regulations. The enhancements primarily focus on material models that include an energy-dependent pressure response, appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SolidMechanics User's Guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use. This addendum documents material models and element features that support energy-dependent material models.

  15. Environmental changes in Sierra Nevada during the last 6 ky BP inferred from solifluction lobes and lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Gómez Ortiz, A.; Schulte, L.

    2009-04-01

    scarcer vegetation cover and activating solifluction. Depending on temperature and moisture conditions, this pattern could also favour the existence of small glaciers in the highest northern cirques; the enhanced periglacial activity made also more efficient gelifraction which provided further material to be mobilized to valley floors by solifluction when snow cover melted. On the other hand, warmer periods tend to slow mass wasting and induce soil formation: during arid phases poor developed soils prevailed (regosols) and in those periods with wetter conditions highly organic soils formed (histosols). Solifluction records also indicate that the LIA has been the wettest and coldest period during the Mid-Late Holocene, with the most rigorous climate conditions from 1590 to 1650 (Rodrigo et al., 1999). This climate variability has shifted vertically the periglacial belt in the massif. During cold and wet periods, our study area was located in the nival ecotone where the scarce vegetation cover enhances erosion and mineral mobilization. By contrast, during warm periods, the nival ecotone moved upwards and our study area was affected by typical processes of the subnival ecotone: soil development was favoured in gentle topographical places with high water availability and the previous sparse vegetation cover became denser, reducing mass wasting effectiveness. Lake sediments point out a clear arid trend initiated around 6 ky BP in Sierra Nevada parallel to the same pattern observed in northern Africa and southeastern Spain since the HWP (Gasse, 2000; Burjachs et al., 2007). Until the Late Holocene, conditions were more suitable to more vegetated headwaters in the southern cirques, which in turns make more difficult solifluction movements. In effect, according to our studied archives, solifluction activity in Rio Seco started during the last 1500-2000 years BP: we have no signs of previous solifluction during the Holocene. The existence of a paleosoil dated 12.973 ± 112 years

  16. Reductions in inpatient mortality following interventions to improve emergency hospital care in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for high quality hospital care for children in low resource countries is not being met. This paper describes a number of strategies to improve emergency care at a children's hospital and evaluates the impact of these on inpatient mortality. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of improving emergency care is estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A team of local and international staff developed a plan to improve emergency care for children arriving at The Ola During Children's Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Following focus group discussions, five priority areas were identified to improve emergency care; staff training, hospital layout, staff allocation, medical equipment, and medical record keeping. A team of international volunteers worked with local staff for six months to design and implement improvements in these five priority areas. The improvements were evaluated collectively rather than individually. Before the intervention, the inpatient mortality rate was 12.4%. After the intervention this improved to 5.9%. The relative risk of dying was 47% (95% CI 0.369-0.607 lower after the intervention. The estimated number of lives saved in the first two months after the intervention was 103. The total cost of the intervention was USD 29 714, the estimated cost per death averted was USD 148. There are two main limitation of the study. Firstly, the brevity of the study and secondly, the assumed homogeneity of the clinical cases that presented to the hospital before and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstarted a signficant reductuion in inpatient mortality rate after an intervention to improve emergency hospital care If the findings of this paper could be reproduced in a larger more rigorous study, improving the quality of care in hospitals would be a very cost effective strategy to save children's lives in low resource settings.

  17. [Impact of traditionally managed forest units on the landscape connectivity of Sierra de Los Tuxtlas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Vásquez, Yunin; Aliphat Fernández, Mario Manuel; Caso Barrera, Laura; Del Amo Rodríguez, Silvia; Sánchez Gómez, Maria De Lourdes; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The ever-increasing establishment of landscape mosaics is expressed as a surrounding matrix of agricultural activities, which frames patches or remnants of the original vegetation cover. Conservation actions should be aimed to establish or to increase those interactive systems, which help to maintain the land- scape flow through linkages. Spaces occupied by traditional management systems retain and support this func- tion. In this paper, we used Geographic Information Systems to evaluate the importance of traditionally managed forest units ('acahuales'-coffee plantations) and to assess landscape connectivity in the indigenous Popoluca area of Sierra de los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The cartographic material used to establish the types of vegetation and their coverture included the period 1991-2008. At landscape level, four indices were used to assess the general situation of the habitat network, and to identify the patches of high priority. Individually, indices evaluated if patches were important for their area, their potential flow or their connecting function. Results showed that the landscape is functioning as a single system, but having low connectivity. Values improved when traditionally managed forest patches were considered as viable habitat. We detected 367 patches of very high priority, 80% belonging to forests managed traditionally. Patches were important for their potential flow (size and topologi- cal relationships). Only 70 patches were significant for their function as biological corridors between largest forests located at the top of the volcanoes, and are mostly managed forest (75%). We concluded that the units of traditionally managed forest play a significant role in landscape connectivity maintenance. PMID:25412538

  18. The urban system in the migration process: an evaluation of step-wise migration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, J B; Harvey, M E

    1972-07-01

    Based upon empirical evidence and indirect inference and observation, and upon a solid theoretical basis founded on concepts of sociocultural distance and the difficulty of the rural-urban transition, stepwise movement seems to be an important aspect of migration to urban centers in tropical Africa. People move for many reasons and to many different types of destinations, the city being 1 of these. In turn, stepwise migration is an important subcomponent of the urbanward drift of people. In investigating the complex migration process in Sierra Leone and the role of the urban system within it, 2 approaches were used. The 1st technique is very general and is derived from the Nystuen and Dacey graph theory analysis of nodal regions. Instead of the maximum outflows of cities, the dominant relations among the chiefdoms of Sierra Leone were investigated in terms of the pattern of population moves. Thus, rural-rural, rural-urban, and urban-urban flows were considered simultaneously. The urban hierarchy is defined simply as a 3 tiered system comprising the capital city of Freetown as the highest level, the 12 district headquarter towns as the middle tier, and the rural areas as the lowest. If the migration pattern of Sierra Leone were simply a process of movement through an urban system, a very regular pattern of "largest flow links" would occur focusing upon the major towns and cities. When this pattern is compared with that resulting from a reduction of the actual flow matrix, it can be seen that there would appear to be some reason to support the contentions of the model in certain, specific parts of the country, but not in others. The 2 maps are quite dissimilar, and not even the inclusion of the 2nd largest flow for each chiefdom assists in a replication of the "expected" pattern. A correlation of the coincidence of vectors on the 2 maps indicates that there is no significant relationship between the actual and expected pattersn. Hence, one would tend to reject the

  19. Molecular Characterization of the First Ebola Virus Isolated in Italy, from a Health Care Worker Repatriated from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilletti, Concetta; Carletti, Fabrizio; Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Quartu, Serena; Meschi, Silvia; Lapa, Daniele; Colavita, Francesca; Chiappini, Roberta; Mazzarelli, Antonio; Marsella, Patrizia; Petrosillo, Nicola; Nicastri, Emanuele; Chillemi, Giovanni; Valentini, Alessio; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an Ebola virus (EBOV) isolated from a health worker repatriated from Sierra Leone to Italy in November 2014. The sequence, clustering in clade 3 of the Sierra Leone sequences, was analyzed with respect to mutations possibly affecting diagnostic and therapeutic targets as well as virulence. PMID:26089420

  20. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for...

  1. La fracturación del borde sur de la depresión de Granada. (Discusión acerca del escenario del terremoto del 25-XII-1884

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available The southern edge of the Granada basin is delimited by faults trending in an E-W to N 100-120 E direction and others trending in the general direction of NNW-SSE and N 15-40 E. All of these faults have been active since the Upper-Miocene and strongly infiuenced the deposits of the Neogene and Quaternary materials. Later they were responsible for the enclosing and compartmentation of the basin. The formation of the Sierra Tejeda and Sierra Almijara reliefs are also due to these faults.
    Apart from vertical displacements the E-W faults also show strike-slip movements and these latter must have been active since the end of the Lower-Miocene, through the Middle-Miocene and perhaps up to and including the Terminal-Scrravallian. Since then , to the north of the sierras Tejeda and Almijara, there has been a continual process of subsidence along an axis. Within this zone the lignites of Arenas del Rey were formed. This axis of fracturing and subsidence would appear to have been responsible for the earthquake on 25th December 1884. The compression directions during the Upper-Quaternary have been N 20 W and almost E-W and were accompanied by significant vertical displacements.

    El borde sur de la depresión de Granada está limitado por fallas de dirección este-oeste a N 100-120 E Y por otras de dirección general N 130 E, NNW-SSE Y N 15-40 E. Todas ellas han actuado desde el Mioceno superior y condicionaron el depósito de los materiales neógenos y cuaternarios. Posteriormente produjeron el encajamiento y la compartimentación de la cuenca. Además son las responsables de la formación de los relieves de Sierra Tejeda y Almijara.
    Las fallas este-oeste además de los movimientos verticales presentan otros de desgarre y como tales debieron actuar desde finales del Mioceno inferior, durante el medio y quizás hasta la etapa fini-Serravalliense incluida. Posteriormente, al norte de las sierras Tejada y Almijara han mantenido un eje de

  2. Inferring ecological relationships from occupancy patterns for California Black Rails in the Sierra Nevada foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Orien Manu Wright

    Rails inhabiting a network of freshwater marshes in the northern Sierra Nevada foothills of California. As marsh birds are difficult to detect, we collected repeated presence/absence data via call playback surveys and used the "random changes in occupancy" parameterization of a multi-season occupancy model to examine relationships between occupancy and covariates, while accounting for detection probability. Wetland vegetation cover was significantly lower at winter-grazed sites than at ungrazed sites during the grazing season in 2007 but not in 2008. Winter grazing had little effect on Black Rail occupancy at irrigated marshes. However, at non-irrigated marshes fed by natural springs and streams, winter-grazed sites had lower occupancy than ungrazed sites, especially at larger marsh sizes (>0.5 ha). Black Rail occupancy was positively associated with marsh area, irrigation as a water source and summer cover, and negatively associated with isolation. We evaluate the performance of nine topographic features (aspect, downslope flow distance to streams, elevation, horizontal distance to sinks, horizontal distance to streams, plan curvature, profile curvature, slope and topographic wetness index) on freshwater wetland classification accuracy in the Sierra foothills of California. To evaluate object-based classification accuracy we test both within-image and between-image predictions using six different classification schemes (naive Bayes, the C4.5 decision tree classifier, k-nearest neighbors, boosted logistic regression, random forest, and a support vector machine classifier) in the classification software package Weka 3.6.2. Adding topographic features had mostly positive effects on classification accuracy for within-image tests, but mostly negative effects on accuracy for between-image tests. The topographic wetness index was the most beneficial topographic feature in both the within-image and between-image tests for distinguishing wetland objects from other "green

  3. de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido 2001-2003 en un suelo Yermosol Háplico en barbecho prolongado, se condujo una investigación con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes sistemas de manejo sobre el estado físico del suelo. El empleo de técnicas convencionales (Arado de disco monocultivo y fertilización Mineral generó cambios en las propiedades físicas mediante dos tipos de manejo (Compactación, humedad, Da entre otras, sin embargo el empleo de alternativas (Manejo Ecológico con la aplicación de abono verde en 50 t ha-1, unido a técnicas de prepararon del suelo sin inversión del prisma, mostraron recuperación de los indicadores afectados por el manejo convencional. Se concluye que el manejo ecológico es una alternativa para la recuperación de los suelos degradados para una zona árida de Baja California Sur, México.

  4. Réflexions sur la science contemporaine

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    L'auteur y brosse à grands traits un tableau de la science contemporaine : réductionnisme, déterminisme, abstraction, méthodes, mécanismes de validation et interactions entre observation et théorie... ainsi qu'un portrait de ses artisans et une critique des stéréotypes les plus courants (philistin, iconoclaste, apprenti sorcier...) L'accent est mis sur le fait que la science, dont une des missions consiste à dénoncer les illusions du sens commun, ne poursuit pas une quête de vérité absolue mais se contente aujourd'hui d'une vérité simplement meilleure que celle d'hier. La circularité de la science lui interdit de répondre à des questions essentielles comme «Pourquoi ce monde plutôt que rien ?» Pour tenter d'y répondre, le physicien Pierre Darriulat entreprend, avec candeur et bienveillance, un voyage chez les philosophes. Comment la métaphysique s'évade-t-elle du cercle ? Quelle connaissance autre que scientifique nous propose-t-elle ? La circularité condamnant la science au silence...

  5. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  6. The use of the swept area method for assessing the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 biomass and removal rates based on artisanal fishery-derived data in southern Brazil: using depletion models to reduce uncertainty El uso del método de area de barrido para la evaluación de la biomasa y tasas de remoción del camarón Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 a partir de datos de la pesca artesanal en el sur de Brasil: la utilización de modelos de reducción de stock para disminuir incertidumbres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Pezzuto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri represents an important fishing resource for artisanal fishermen in coastal areas of southern Brazil. Stock assessments of this species ha ve generally relied on biomass dynamics models as applied to CPUE time-series, which (a are only available for a small offshore fraction of the exploited population and (b does not comprise patterns of the shallowest artisanal fishing grounds. This work explores the use of extensive catch and effort data derived from a small-scale trawl fishery to obtain swept-area estimates of abundance and removal rates in a limited coastal area of southern Brazil (Tijucas Bay, Santa Catarina State, 27°15'S-48°33'W. Data were obtained from 7,198 fishing trips monitored at the fishing communities between June 2004 and August 2005. Because three parameters of the swept-area equation (i.e. trawl velocity, catch efficiency and wing spread were unknown, they were defined through a stochastic procedure and calibrated by estimates produced by a Leslie depletion model applied to concurrent catches obtained in one fishing ground. A 21.7% removal rate was estimated for the period June 2004-January 2005; this increased to nearly 34% between February and July 2005. This removal scenario predicted that a five-month fishery would suffice to remo ve 90% of the biomass available in the Tijucas Bay, nearing the 87% CPUE reduction observed in the same period. Whereas abundance and harvest rate estimates were likely affected by inadequate knowledge of the swept-area equation parameters, the similarity of these estimates with relative abundance indexes supports the convenience of the proposed method and justifies future efforts to improve its accuracy.El camarón (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri representa un importante recurso para pescadores artesanales en areas costeras del sur de Brasil. Evaluaciones de stock de esta especie generalmente resultan de modelos de dinámica de biomasa aplicados a series

  7. La actividad neotectónica en la sierra Baja de San Marcos - Cruz del Eje, flanco occidental de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Massabie

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El área pedemontana de San Marcos Sierra-Cruz del Eje constituye, en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, una comarca clave para el análisis neotectónico en las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. En esta región se han realizado estudios centrados en la unidad morfoestructural sierra Baja de San Marcos donde, aplicando un control múltiple de datos estructurales, geomorfológicos, sedimentológicos, paleontológicos y radimétricos, se ha determinado temporal y espacialmente la evolución de la actividad neotectónica del fallamiento andino. Se presentan evidencias sobre la reactivación cuaternaria tardía de la Falla Sierra Baja de San Marcos, conspicua falla inversa de vergencia occidental con componentes de desplazamiento de rumbo y de inclinación, enlazando los episodios tectónicos con las modificaciones del paisaje. Estas modificaciones son expresadas por los depósitos de endicamiento del río Quilpo, por los niveles aterrazados, vinculados a los cauces actuales de los ríos de la Costa (San Marcos y Quilpo, y por los cambios en su desarrollo de la red de avenamiento principal de la región. La edad 14C corregida de 2.560±120 aap, obtenida para los sedimentos del endicamiento permite acotar un primer episodio de actividad, Holoceno tardío, de la Falla Sierra Baja de San Marcos. Las observaciones efectuadas sobre la misma estructura, en una trinchera excavada para su investigación, confirman su extensión hacia el noroeste, dan evidencias sobre una segunda etapa de movimientos en el Holoceno tardío y determinan sus características estructurales comunes a otras fallas con actividad neotectónica estudiadas en las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales, las cuales responden a una mecánica transpresiva.

  8. Snow algae of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, and High Atlas mountains of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B; Duval, E; Hoham, R W

    1999-03-01

    Snow algae (Chlorophyta) are reported from the Sierra Nevada mountains in southern Spain and the High Atlas mountains of Morocco. Populations of the snow algae Chlamydomonas sp., coloring the snow orange-red, were collected from Pico de Veleta, Spain, while snow samples from Mt. Neltner in the High Atlas mountains, contained resting spores of an orange-green colored Chloromonas sp. Other microbes observed in snow samples include bacteria, fungi, heterotrophic euglenids, diatoms, nematodes, and heterotrophic mastigotes (flagellated protists). This is the first report of snow algae from the Sierra Nevada mountains of Spain and from the Afro-alpine environment. PMID:10943390

  9. La dinámica demográfica reciente en la Sierra Morena Cordobesa

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Manuel Luque Revuelto

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN: La Sierra de Córdoba constituye un ámbito espacial diferenciado en la provincia y en el conjunto de Andalucía. Los habitantes de los espacios mariánicos son el elemento básico en la ocupación de ese territorio, caracterizado por un marcado carácter rural. El estudio de la dinámica demográfica reciente de los espacios mariánicos y las diferencias regionales que presenta constituye el objetivo principal del presente trabajo. ABSTRACT: The Sierra de Cordoba is a distinct spatial are...

  10. Señales del cambio global en el sitio LTER-Sierra Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Pérez-Luque; F.J. Bonet; Zamora, R.; J.M. Barea-Azcón; R. Aspizua; F.J. Sánchez-Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    La investigación ecológica a largo plazo proporciona información útil para comprender las complejas dinámicas de los sistemas naturales. Esto se hace especialmente importante en las regiones de montaña como Sierra Nevada, que presenta un fuerte gradiente de condiciones ambientales en una escala espacial pequeña. En el sitio LTER-Sierra Nevada se ha implementado un programa de seguimiento a largo plazo que, junto con la integración de información ecológica sobre los ecosistemas nevadenses, est...

  11. Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bau

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting.

    The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between state...

  12. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  13. Ecofeminismo, mujeres y desarrollo sustentable: el caso de la Sierra de Santa Rosa en Guanajuato

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Saldaña Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    en este artículo se explora la participación de las mujeres en el Programa de Desarrollo Sustentable Sierra de Santa Rosa, en Guanajuato, de 2001 a 2011. Se expone la aportación del ecofeminismo para la noción de desarrollo sustentable, y para entender el vínculo entre la naturaleza y las mujeres. Se argumenta que la historia de la región, en específico el auge de la industria minera durante la Colonia, es un buen punto de partida para entender los problemas ambientales de la sierra y para vi...

  14. Análisis comparativo de la endemoflora de la Sierra de Gádor

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Mercado, Francisco; Giménez Luque, Esther

    1998-01-01

    En este trabajo nos proponemos analizar el origen de la flora de la Sierra de Gádor, su grado de aislamiento y relaciones con los macizos de su entorno, así como destacar la importancia corológica de algunos táxones y estimar su grado de amenaza. Para ello utilizamos los elementos del Catálogo General de las Especies de Recomendada Protección en Andalucía presentes en Gádor que comparte esta sierra con las unidades corológicas circundantes, elaborando con los datos de presencia/ ausencia un d...

  15. The helminth community of Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae) in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, M. V.; Sáez, S.; Trelis, M.; Muñoz-Antoli, C.; Esteban, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Comunidad helmintiana de Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae) en la Sierra de Gredos (España).— Como parte de los estudios helmintofaunísiticos que sobre pequeños mamíferos se están llevando a cabo en la península ibérica, la sierra española de Gredos fue estudiada. La comunidad helmintiana del ratón de campo, Apdoemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae), fue analizada. Cualitativamente, 13 especies de helmintos fueron detectadas: Plagiorchis sp. I y Plagiorchis sp. II (Trematoda...

  16. Origen y decadencia del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra Crespo, Hernán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical path of gamonalismo in Ecuadorian highlands. Although it could be alike to Mexican caciquismo and Brazilian coronelismo, gamonalismo had its specific forms. In Ecuador it is possible to reconstruct its meaning in political terms, as a form of traditional domination. The use of this particular term is analyzed in different historical moments between the 18th and 20th century; focusing on the origin and decline of this local power. The aim is to build an interpretative frame in order to understand agrarian sources of Ecuadorian state development and ethnic domination.

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria histórica del gamonalismo en la sierra ecuatoriana. Aunque homologado con el caciquismo mexicano y el coronelismo brasileño, tiene rasgos específicos. En el Ecuador es posible reconstruir el significado del gamonalismo en el lenguaje político y como modalidad de dominación tradicional. Por una parte, se realiza un rastreo y análisis del uso del término en distintos momentos históricos entre los siglos XVIII y XX. Por otra parte, se efectúa un abordaje del origen y declinación de esta forma de poder. Se aspira a construir un marco interpretativo que aporte a la comprensión de los fundamentos agrarios de la constitución del Estado ecuatoriano y las formas de dominación étnica.

  17. El aprovechamiento tradicional de la dehesa boyal en un área de montaña del centro de España. Puebla de la Sierra (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Jiménez, Eva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of an open wood for the feeding of ploughing cattle (dehesa boyal, located in a mountain area of Central Spain, was studied. The study area is situated in Puebla de la Sierra (Madrid. The dehesa has 336 ha and is strategically situated between the communal lands of the higher slopes and the village. The main tree species is melojo oak (Quercus pyrenaica with other less frequent species interesting from a conservation point of view like sessile oak (Quercus petraea. The management rules in the dehesa originated in medieval times, with two main types of wood management: the coppice and the open wood pasture (monte hueco. The dehesa of La Puebla was mostly used as an open wood pasture until the 20th century. Characteristics of the traditional management of the dehesa have been recreated through interviews to the old inhabitants of the village. The seasonal grazing by cows, sheep and goats is described for different parts of the dehesa. Lopping for the different tree species and the rules that regulated them are described. Also are discussed the effects of traditional management on the structure and composition of the dehesa wood. Finally, the importance of the woodland traditional management for nature conservation is analysed. The utility of the management rules studied, which does not change a large quantity of the forest characteristics (large trees, diversity, heterogeneity, etc., is pointed out. Also is highlighted to integrate the traditional management for local people, scientific support for the improvement of the nature conservation methods and the cultural and educational programs in the planning of this highly interesting nature reserve.

    [es] Se ha estudiado la gestión tradicional de una dehesa boyal localizada en un área montañosa del centro de España, en el municipio madrileño de Puebla de la Sierra, y sus efectos sobres las caracter

  18. Relaciones isotópicas Sm/Nd en rocas graníticas y miloníticas de Sierras Pampeanas del noroeste Argentino

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    Kawashita, K.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The Velasco, Copacabana and Paimán Ranges in Sierras Pampeanas, are constituted mainly by paleozoic plutonic bodies of the Famatinian cycle (Huaco, Antinaco and Paimán and for mylonitic rocks (TIPA Shear Zone, originated as a consequence of dynamic events happening during the Upper Ordovician-Devonian. The last magmatic event of the area would probably have of devonian age (Granite San Blas. Model-ages of two stages were calculated based on 147Sm/144Nd relationships; the obtained values are closely grouped at around 1594 Ma. and the more plausible interpretation seems to be a reworking of an Early Proterozoic protolith.Las sierras de Velasco, Copacabana y Paimán, en el ambiente de Sierras Pampeanas, están constituidas principalmente por cuerpos plutónicos del Paleozoico inferior, relacionados con el ciclo Famatiniano (Granitos Huaco, Antinaco y Paimán y por rocas miloníticas (Faja Milonítica TiPA, originadas a partir de estos protolitos como consecuencia de eventos dinámicos acaecidos durante el Ordovícico superior-Devónico. El último evento magmático del área es de edad probablemente devónica (Granito San Blas. Se calcularon edades modelos de «dos estadios» en base a relaciones 147Sm/144Nd; los valores obtenidos se presentan estrechamente agrupadas en torno a 1594 Ma. y se interpretan a este basamento como un protolito del Proterozoico medio retrabajado.

  19. Yew matriarchies of the Sierra de Francia. Dynamics and ecology of recently identified Yew populations in the Central Iberian Mountain Range (Sistema Central

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    Prudencio Fernández-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our study design presents two main objectives: 1 to create a census that details the number of yew individuals and their geographic distribution, and 2 to attempt to unravel possible reproductive relationships and their connection between true population nuclei and meta-population models.Area of study: Recently identified yew populations (Taxus baccata L. were studied in the western sector of the Sistema Central mountain range of theIberian Peninsula, known as the Sierra de Francia. The study was carried out in five watersheds within Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park.Material and Methods: All yew specimens were counted and assigned to age groups. The notable differences observed in regeneration aof these communities propitiates population analysis aimed at explaining the landscape connectivity relationships between the different population nuclei and the possibility of defining the meta-population set. Ecological niche models were also created to define the main ecological characteristics of the different subpopulations studied, and to compare them.Main results: Yew in the Sierra de Francia live in an array of different Mediterranean forests, indicative of species dynamics in theIberian Peninsula. 2,450 specimens were recorded and classified into the three types of yew forest population dynamics: regressional-, naturally regenerating-, and incipient- (i.e.  colonizing new territories.Research highlights: The essential role of connectivity between populations was recognized and confirmed in this study, specifically among the large female trees located at the headwaters. Based on the role of these female trees, we have created a model called “yew matriarchies”, which serves to express the relevance of large female yew trees in population dynamics.Keywords: Taxus baccata; census; connectivity; seed dispersal.

  20. The Impact of Ecoregional Mobilization on Mountain Policies in the Swiss Alps and California’s Sierra Nevada

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    Jörg Balsiger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions have occupied a significant role in the political evolution, economic history, and sociocultural imaginary of Switzerland and California, yet the emergence of the modern state and the global economy have meant their increasing marginalization. During the last four decades, both polities have devised targeted strategies, policies, and programs for mountain regions. This article suggests that ecoregional mobilization has played a significant role in shaping the nature and evolution of these policies. Expanding and specifying arguments found in the policy networks literature, it argues that changes in the nature of dynamics of ‘organizational landscapes’ (the assemblage of state and non-state actors sharing a common concern for a policy issue or set of issues precipitate transformations in ‘policy architectures (the structure and substantive orientation of public policy goals and instruments. Applying this framework to developments in the Swiss Alps and California’s Sierra Nevada during the last forty years, the article explains how ecoregional mobilization shaped opposite trends in the mountain areas, namely a shift form infrastructure development to nature conservation in the Alps, and a shift from nature conservation to local economic development in the Sierra Nevada.Les régions de montagne ont joué un rôle important dans l’évolution politique, l’histoire économique et l’imaginaire socioculturel, en Suisse comme en Californie. Cependant, l’émergence de l’État moderne et la mondialisation de l’économie ont conduit à une marginalisation croissante de ces régions. Au cours des quarante dernières années, les régimes politiques de part et d’autre ont mis au point des stratégies, des politiques et des programmes ciblés en faveur des régions de montagne. Le présent article suggère que la mobilisation écorégionale a joué un rôle important dans l’élaboration de ces politiques, aussi bien au

  1. La fauna del pleistoceno inferior de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia

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    Szyndlar, Z.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary karstic site of Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia, Spain has provided a wide faunistic list with 53 species distributed among gastropods, myriapods, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Especially interesting among the gastropods is Palaeoglandina that became extinct in Europe during the Pliocene. It remains as a relict genus in the Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Two of the birds, Gypaetus barbatus and Geronticus eremita, and a snake, Elaphe cf. E. sealaris, are scarcely represented in the fossil record. For several birds, it is the first record in the Lower Pleistocene of the Iberian Peninsula. Among the mammals, the presence of the Cercopithecine Macaca sylvanus is especially relevant one. The assemblage of the taxa Arvicola deucalion, Castillomys rivas rivas, Eliomys intermedius, Equus altidens and Capra sp. aff. C. alba allows the correlation with Plines 1, Orce 3 and Venta Micena, among other sites. Therefore Quibas can be dated before the end of Lower Pleistocene, between 1.3 and 1 Ma. A dry paleoclimatic regime, very similar to the current climate in the geographical area, though perhaps slightly wetter and warmer, can be inferred from the faunistic assemblage. The environment of the karstic cavity was a rocky place with open brushwood areas, but in the proximities there were wetlands and woodlands, as can be inferred from the presence of birds and micromammals characteristic of these habitats.El yacimiento kárstico cuaternario de la Sierra de Quibas (Abanilla, Murcia ha proporcionado una amplia lista faunística constituida por 53 especies repartidas entre gasterópodos, miriápodos, anfibios, reptiles, aves y mamíferos. En el conjunto de los gasterópodos destaca Palaeoglandina, un género que se extingue en el resto de Europa durante el Plioceno y que se mantiene como relicto en el Pleistoceno de la Península Ibérica. Dos de las especies de aves determinadas, Gypaetus barbatus y Gerontieus eremita, y una

  2. Seasonal and inter-annual snowmelt patterns in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Molotch, N. P.; Margulis, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada, seasonal snow represents a critical component of California's water resource infrastructure in that it affords reliable water during otherwise arid summers. Complex spatial, seasonal and inter-annual snowmelt patterns determine when and where that meltwater is available. Our knowledge of snowmelt dynamics is typically limited to what we can infer from sparse, point-scale snow measurement stations. Limitations such as these motivate the use of numerical snowmelt models. We evaluate the ability of the Alpine3D model system to represent three years of snow dynamics over an 1800 km2 area of Sequoia National Park. The domain spans a 3600 m elevation gradient and ecosystems ranging from semi-arid grasslands to massive sequoia stands to alpine tundra. The model results were evaluated against data from a multi-scale measurement campaign that included airborne LiDAR, clusters of snow depth sensors, repeated manual snow surveys, and automated SWE stations. Compared to these measurements, Alpine3D consistently performed well in middle elevation conifer forests; compared to LiDAR data, the mean snow depth error in forested regions was 0.80, p 6 mm day-1). Middle elevations remained continuously snow covered throughout the winter and early spring, were prone to frequent but intermittent melt, and provided the most sustained period of seasonal mean snowmelt (~ 5 mm day-1). The melt dynamics (e.g. timing and melt rate) unique to these middle elevations may be critical to the local forest ecosystem. Furthermore, the three years evaluated in this study indicate a marked sensitivity of this elevation range to seasonal meteorology, suggesting that it could be highly sensitive to future changes in climate.

  3. Provenance and tectonic setting of the protoliths of the Metamorphic Complexes of Sierra de San Luis

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    MG López de Luchi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A major and trace element based characterization of the metasedimentary protoliths of three metamorphic units of Sierra de San Luis (Pringles Metamorphic Complex, San Luis Formation and Conlara Metamorphic Complex is presented. Geochemistry indicates a dominance of shales in the protoliths of San Luis Formation, whereas greywackes and shales made up the Conlara Metamorphic complex and mainly greywackes, the Pringles Metamorphic Complex. Both major element data and trace element ratios (i.e. Th/Sc, Th/U, indicate a source with an average upper crustal composition for the protoliths of the Pringles Metamorphic Complex, the San Luis Formation and the shales of the Conlara Metamorphic complex. A component with less evolved signature may be inferred for the metagreywackes of the Conlara metamorphic Complex. Mixed sourced detritus are indicated for the three units with clastic material resulting mainly from both andesitic and acidic/recycled detritus. The overall data consistently suggest a continental island arc and/or active margin setting as the more probable geodynamic scenario for the deposition of the sedimentary precursors of the studied units. In this context, a back-arc setting can account for the mixed nature of the inferred source areas with uplifted old basement and arc-related detritus as the end members of the mixtures. The inferred back-arc basin would have evolved through the Cambrian receiving the sediments derived from the Pampean Orogen to the east combined with probably some old crust exposures and to the west the source might have been controlled by the active continental margin.

  4. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca (Chontal of the Oaxacan Mountain Area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Chontal, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in the mountains of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Noteworthy records of two species of mammals in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, Mexico Registros notables de dos especies de mamíferos de la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, México

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    Miguel Briones-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted mammal surveys in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte in Oaxaca, Mexico, and recorded the occurrence of two conspicuous mammal species: the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus and the coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. Spider monkeys has not been previously recorded in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, and coyotes have not been previously observed in Mexico at elevations as high as the present one (3 200 mas1 in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca.Se efectuaron colectas de mamíferos en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca (Sierra Norte en Oaxaca, México, y se registró la notoria presencia de dos mamíferos: el mono araña (Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus y el coyote (Canis latrans cagottis. El mono araña no se había registrado previamente en la Sierra Madre de Oaxaca, en tanto que el coyote, no había sido registrado en México a tan gran altitud (3 200 m como la de la localidad de captura.

  9. Methods for determining the uncertainty of population estimates derived from satellite imagery and limited survey data: a case study of Bo city, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Malanoski, Anthony P; Stenger, David A

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of bootstrap methods to estimate the total population of urban and periurban areas using satellite imagery and limited survey data. We conducted complete household surveys in 20 neighborhoods in the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, which collectively were home to 25,954 persons living in 1,979 residential structures. For five of those twenty sections, we quantized the rooftop areas of structures extracted from satellite images. We used bootstrap statistical methods to estimate the total population of the pooled sections, including the associated uncertainty intervals, as a function of sample size. Evaluations based either on rooftop area per person or on the mean number of occupants per residence both converged on the true population size. We demonstrate with this simulation that demographic surveys of a relatively small proportion of residences can provide a foundation for accurately estimating the total population in conjunction with aerial photographs. PMID:25398101

  10. Methods for determining the uncertainty of population estimates derived from satellite imagery and limited survey data: a case study of Bo city, Sierra Leone.

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    Roger Hillson

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the use of bootstrap methods to estimate the total population of urban and periurban areas using satellite imagery and limited survey data. We conducted complete household surveys in 20 neighborhoods in the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, which collectively were home to 25,954 persons living in 1,979 residential structures. For five of those twenty sections, we quantized the rooftop areas of structures extracted from satellite images. We used bootstrap statistical methods to estimate the total population of the pooled sections, including the associated uncertainty intervals, as a function of sample size. Evaluations based either on rooftop area per person or on the mean number of occupants per residence both converged on the true population size. We demonstrate with this simulation that demographic surveys of a relatively small proportion of residences can provide a foundation for accurately estimating the total population in conjunction with aerial photographs.

  11. Estructura y organización de los ensambles de roedores de un bosque de la Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, México Structure and organization of rodent assembles of a forest of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico

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    ELIZABETH E ARAGÓN

    2009-12-01

    . Las especies pertenecieron a gremios tróficos diferentes, como lo muestran sus preferencias alimentarias, que estuvieron compuestas por hasta dos especies dominantes por sitio. En conclusión el ensamble de mamíferos pequeños de estos bosques de la Madre Sierra es distintivo y diverso, no está estructurado al azar y la vegetación puede ser uno de los factores ecológicos que han jugado un papel evolutivo importante en su formación.Biodiversity of temperate forests in the mountain region called "Sierra Madre", at western Mexico, is rich. This zone lies in the Transition Zone, a biogeographical important área of North America characterized by a remarkable local environmental heterogeneity. However, little is known about the taxonomic composition, and organization of the assemblage of native small mammal, and the influence of local ecological factors, particularly from different vegetation types. Therefore, we were interested in documenting the species composition and structure of the small mammal assemblages of this sierra and provide insights into the nesting level of the community and deviations from a random organization. The study area was a place named "El Durangueño" ranch, Durango, Mexico. Three different vegetation types (grassland, and oak-pine and pine-oak forests were sampled there during every season of 2005 to 2006. During three consecutive nights rodents of each site were captured, recaptured, and taxonomically identified. Results produced 520 individuals (386 captures, 134 recaptures of 18 small mammal species (14 mice, four squirrels of different body sizes that represent neartic, neotropical, or shared affinity; endemicity of taxa was found as well as taxa in some extinction risk category. Species richness and eveness were high and the diversity and population levels were moderate, although high density of small mammals highlights oak-pine forest whereas dominance of some species occurs in pine-oak forest perhaps due to disturbance. Spatial

  12. Hallazgo de granitoides fuertemente peraluminosos en la sierra de Famatina, orógeno famatiniano Discovery of strongly peraluminous granitoids in the Sierra de Famatina, Famatinian orogeny

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    J.A. Dahlquist

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La unidad fuertemente peraluminosa Cerro Toro, formada por rocas graníticas con cordierita y granate, constituye uno de los afloramientos más occidentales de la sierra de Famatina. Estudios combinados de petrología, geoquímica de roca total y química mineral indican que el magma primordial de esta unidad fue derivada a partir de la fusión parcial de metasedimentos en condiciones de alta temperatura (762°C y presión media (4,1 Kb. Las elevadas relaciones de Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba y las bajas relaciones de CaO/NaO2 (The strongly peraluminous Cerro Toro unit is formed of cordierite- and garnet-bearing granitic rocks and constitutes one of the most western outcrops of the Sierra de Famatina. Combined petrology, chemistry/mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry studies indicate that the parental magma of this igneous unit was derived from the partial melting of metasediments under high temperature (762°C and moderate pressure (4,1 Kb conditions. The higher Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and lower CaO/NaO2 ratios (< 0.34 suggest that the parental magma was derived from a metasedimentary source of psamopelitic plagioclase-rich composition (metagreywacke, suggesting anatexis of metasediments from an immature continental platform. This paper presents the first report of strongly peraluminous granitic rocks in the Sierra de Famatina. These granitic rocks are very similar to those of the Tuaní Granite peraluminous unit of the Sierra de Chepes, formed of typical Famatinian granitoids, suggesting that similar petrogenetic processes occurred in both regions of the magmatic arc during the Famatinian orogeny.

  13. Retour sur la logique de l’usage

    OpenAIRE

    Perriault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Publié il y a vingt-cinq ans, l’ouvrage « La logique de l’usage » a connu un succès important dans les recherches portant sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication. Néanmoins, ce succès s’est souvent traduit par une assimilation à la sociologie des usages, dont l’ouvrage se distingue pourtant fortement. L’entretien, reposant sur le travail de retour sur les textes majeurs des SIC s’étant intéressés à la technique entrepris dans le séminaire Usages des Dispositifs Sociotechn...

  14. Sur les Ecrits de Jean Carbonnier (1908-2003

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    Robert Pageard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette centaine de textes divers, présentés et commentés par une équipe de juristes, d’historiens, de sociologues ou d’anthropologues, donne une très vivante vision de la personnalité et des activités d’un penseur qui joua un rôle important dans l’enseignement et l’ évolution de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle.Tout est dit dans cet ouvrage sur l’exceptionnelle érudition de Jean Carbonnier en maints domaines, sur l’élégance et la finesse de sa langue, sur la clarté de son expression. Cette clar...

  15. Evolución tectonotermal ordovícica del borde occidental del arco magmático Famatiniano: metamorfismo de las rocas máficas y ultramáficas de la Sierra de la Huerta de Las Imanas (Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina Tectonothermal ordovician evolution of the western margin of the Famatinian magmatic arc: metamorphism of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of Sierra de la Huerta -Las Imanas (Pampean Ranges, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Murra

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En el basamento pre Andino de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, se registra una importante actividad magmática y tectonometamórfica comprendida entre el Ordovícico inferior y medio, vinculada al desarrollo y cierre de un arco magmático continental, que tuvo lugar durante la Orogenia Famatiniana como consecuencia de la aproximación de un supuesto terreno exótico (el Terreno Precordillera, que terminó anexándose al margen sur occidental del Gondwana (coordenadas actuales. En las sierras de La Huerta y Las Imanas, ubicadas en el límite occidental de este orógeno, afloran unidades ultramáficas (metaperidotitas con Ol-Opx-Cpx-Am-Spl y metapiroxenitas coroníticas con Opx-Cpx-Spl-Am-Pl, máficas (metacuarzo-noritas con Opx-Pl-Am-Qtz-Bt±Grt, e intermedias (metadioritas con Pl-Am-QtzBt-Ep, que son vinculadas al magmatismo del arco Famatiniano. Se reconocen además, rocas metasedimentarias (mármoles, gneises y migmatitas con Sil+Kfs+Grt metamorfizadas en el Ordovícico medio. Las rocas metaígneas máficas registran un primer metamorfismo (M1 de grado alto (730ºC y 8,4±0,5 kbar, que es seguido de un segundo evento metamórfico de menor presión (M2, 720ºC y 4,5 kbar, registrado en la paragénesis Cum+Hbl+Mag dispuesta en coronas de reacción. Las rocas metaígneas ultramáficas preservan también la evidencia de dos etapas metamórficas (M1 y M2, pero solamente fue posible calcular las condiciones termobáricas del segundo evento, caracterizado por la formación de porfiroblastos de anfíboles. A la latitud de 32º30'S, el arco magmático Famatiniano evidencia una zonación composicional transversal (en dirección este-oste, y que estaría relacionada con los actuales niveles de exposición. En este contexto, las unidades máficas y ultramáficas de las sierras de La Huerta y de Las Imanas representan los niveles más profundos del arco, lo cual es consistente con la mayor tasa de alzamiento y erosión propia de los bordes orog

  16. Sur: uma minoria cosmopolita na periferia ocidental Sur: a cosmopolitan minority on the western periphery

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    Maria Teresa Gramuglio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora as condições e as disposições que tornaram possível o surgimento da revista Sur e a formação do grupo cultural de mesmo nome. Propõe critérios para uma periodização que leve em conta, junto com os indícios materiais, as circunstâncias históricas e culturais cambiantes pelas quais a publicação passou durante sua longa vida (1931-1991. Assinala alguns dos principias temas ideológicos e estéticos que foram abordados em suas páginas. Caracteriza o projeto inicial e as transformações imprimidas pela vontade de sua diretora, Victoria Ocampo, e as mudanças nas relações e problemáticas do campo intelectual.This article explores the conditions and dispositions that enabled the emergence of the magazine Sur and the formation of the cultural group of the same name. It sets out the criteria for a periodization that takes into account, along with material factors, the shifting historical and cultural circumstances experienced by the publication over its 60-year life-span (1931-1991. The text highlights some of the main ideological and aesthetic themes to have filled the magazine's pages. It describes the original project and the transformations introduced by its chief editor, Victoria Ocampo, as well as the changes in the relations and problematics of the intellectual field.

  17. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

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    Kamalini Lokuge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas.Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not, time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC, work-related exposures (health worker or not and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response, and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved. A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected.There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per

  18. A Miocene to Pleistocene climate and elevation record of the Sierra Nevada (California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulch, A; Sarna-Wojcicki, A M; Perkins, M E; Chamberlain, C P

    2008-05-13

    Orographic precipitation of Pacific-sourced moisture creates a rain shadow across the central part of the Sierra Nevada (California) that contrasts with the southern part of the range, where seasonal monsoonal precipitation sourced to the south obscures this rain shadow effect. Orographic rainout systematically lowers the hydrogen isotope composition of precipitation (deltaD(ppt)) and therefore deltaD(ppt) reflects a measure of the magnitude of the rain shadow. Hydrogen isotope compositions of volcanic glass (deltaD(glass)) hydrated at the earth's surface provide a unique opportunity to track the elevation and precipitation history of the Sierra Nevada and adjacent Basin and Range Province. Analysis of 67 well dated volcanic glass samples from widespread volcanic ash-fall deposits located from the Pacific coast to the Basin and Range Province demonstrates that between 0.6 and 12.1 Ma the hydrogen isotope compositions of meteoric water displayed a large (>40 per thousand) decrease from the windward to the leeward side of the central Sierra Nevada, consistent with the existence of a rain shadow of modern magnitude over that time. Evidence for a Miocene-to-recent rain shadow of constant magnitude and systematic changes in the longitudinal climate and precipitation patterns strongly suggest that the modern first-order topographic elements of the Sierra Nevada characterized the landscape over at least the last 12 million years. PMID:18441101

  19. Assessment of the severity of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone in 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y; Zhang, W; Kargbo, D; Haque, U; Hu, W; Wu, P; Kamara, A; Chen, Y; Kargbo, B; Glass, G E; Yang, R; Cowling, B J; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in scale, and Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country. The case fatality risk (CFR) and hospitalization fatality risk (HFR) were used to characterize the severity of infections in confirmed and probable EVD cases in Sierra Leone. Proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate factors associated with the risk of death in EVD cases. In total, there were 17 318 EVD cases reported in Sierra Leone from 23 May 2014 to 31 January 2015. Of the probable and confirmed EVD cases with a reported final outcome, a total of 2536 deaths and 886 recoveries were reported. CFR and HFR estimates were 74·2% [95% credibility interval (CrI) 72·6-75·5] and 68·9% (95% CrI 66·2-71·6), respectively. Risks of death were higher in the youngest (0-4 years) and oldest (⩾60 years) age groups, and in the calendar month of October 2014. Sex and occupational status did not significantly affect the mortality of EVD. The CFR and HFR estimates of EVD were very high in Sierra Leone. PMID:27029911

  20. Who cares for former child soldiers? Mental health systems of care in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Song; H. van den Brink; J. de Jong

    2013-01-01

    While numerous studies on former child soldiers (FCS) have shown mental health needs, adequate services are a challenge. This study aimed to identify priorities, barriers and facilitators of mental health care for Sierra Leonean FCS. Thematic analysis was done on 24 qualitative interviews with parti

  1. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  2. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  3. Time constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Steenken, A; Martino, R D;

    2010-01-01

    cycle in the neighbouring Sierra de San Luis and has not affected the titanite ages. The PTt evolution can be correlated with the plate tectonic processes responsible for the formation of the Pampean orogene, i.e., the accretion of the Pampean basement to the Río de La Plata craton (M2) and the later...

  4. Improved Present Day Euler Vector for the Sierra Nevada Block Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, K. O.; Dixon, T. H.; Schmalzle, G.; McQuarrie, N.; McCaffery, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new surface velocity field for California and Nevada (UM-CANVAS) and use it to solve for a new angular velocity for the rigid Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block. We use all publicly available GPS data for this region, from both continuous (CGPS) and episodic campaign (EGPS) sites. All data were re-processed to create a consistent velocity field. Site velocities are referenced to both stable North America and the central Basin and Range. The Sierra Nevada block is a relatively long, narrow block, bounded on the west by the San Andreas Fault, on the east by a complex fault system comprising the Eastern California Shear Zone and the Walker Lane Belt, and on the south by the Garlock fault. The northern extent of the block is not well defined. The new data along with a strain accumulation algorithm may help to define this boundary. Published estimates for the motion of Sierra Nevada block include clockwise, counter-clockwise, and no rotation relative to stable North America; the new velocity data may also help to resolve this discrepancy. To better understand the motion of the Sierra Nevada block over time, we compare our model of present day motion to a geologic model of block motion over the last 2-3 Ma (McQuarrie and Wernicke, 2005). McQuarrie, N. and B. Wernicke, An Animated tectonic reconstruction of southwestern North America since 36 Ma. Geosphere, V.1; no.3; 147-172; 2005.

  5. Coming back from the bush : gender, youth and reintegration in northern Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gog, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the postwar reintegration strategies of young women who had forcibly become affiliated with one of the fighting factions during the ten years of civil war in Sierra Leone. Instead of conceptualizing reintegration as the result of policies, the author defines it as the dynamic pr

  6. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively…

  7. Multinationals and employment in a West African sub-region: Liberia and Sierra Leone.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyanda O

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on the impact of multinational enterprises on employment in West Africa, comprising a case study of Liberia and Sierra Leone - discusses direct foreign investment trends (1970-1981), sectoral distribution, investment policies relating to agricultural sector and mining as well as manufacturing; the impact on employment creation, productivity, wages, training, public finance, etc., (incl. Linkage effects). References.

  8. Illiteracy, Colonial Legacy and Education: The Case of Modern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Kingsley

    1993-01-01

    As a legacy of British colonial rule, Sierra Leone's education system gives half of its budget to higher education, heavily benefits the upper and middle classes and serves the poor and rural populations badly. The illiteracy rate is 85%. Policy recommendations are outlined for resource allocation and major restructuring of the education system.…

  9. Adult Learning Principles for the Improvement of Agricultural Extension in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebun-Cole, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic adult education principles should be applied in the change agent-farmer relationship in extension education in Sierra Leone. They include active learners, lifelong learning, teacher knowledge as nonabsolute, and the farming community as the center of problem generation. (SK)

  10. The Development of Education in Sierra Leone 1974/75-1975/76. Report (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education (Sierra Leone).

    The report on educational development in Sierra Leone describes plans and policies set by the Ministry of Education to quicken the pace of social and economic development. In line with its objectives of eliminating illiteracy and providing primary education to every child of school age, the government has allocated a high proportion of the…

  11. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  12. Rediscovering how Rural People Learn: An Initiative at the University of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farhana

    1987-01-01

    Reports on an on-going study of traditional education in Sierra Leone using examples of traditional crafts. Notes that traditional education is not cut off from life; involves the whole family; is practical and situational, interdisciplinary and multi-methodological; and is geared to the student's interests, talents, and learning patterns. (DHP)

  13. Quality in an Integrated Rural Development Program: The Sierra Leone Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Kingsley

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the quality of teaching in a rural development project in Sierra Leone, based on teacher knowledge of subject matter and beliefs about teaching and classroom management. Focus was on the preservice training of teachers and the attitudes they brought to teaching, rather than on classroom dynamics. Subjects were 100 teacher…

  14. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  15. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  16. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  17. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  18. A Health Care Worker with Ebola Virus Disease and Adverse Prognostic Factors Treated in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Clay, Katherine A; Craig, Darren G; Moore, Alastair J; Lewis, Stephen; Espina, Melanie; Praught, Jeff; Horne, Simon; Kao, Raymond; Johnston, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    We describe the management of a Sierra Leonean health care worker with severe Ebola virus disease complicated by diarrhea, significant electrolyte disturbances, and falciparum malaria coinfection. With additional resources and staffing, high quality care can be provided to patients with Ebola infection and adverse prognostic factors in west Africa. PMID:26903609

  19. Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace (YRTEP) Program: Sierra Leone, 2000-2001. Impact Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Gloria; Daniels, Bonnie

    Management Systems International (MSI), with funding from United States Agency for International Development Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID/OTI) and in coordination with other partners, is implementing a program in Sierra Leone entitled "Youth Reintegration Training and Education for Peace" (YRTEP). The object is to provide non-formal…

  20. Towards An Improved Curriculum for Agricultural Education at the Secondary School Level in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh, Kaimasa M.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural education is a recent addition to secondary curriculum in Sierra Leone. The author lists (1) justification for teaching it, (2) the Government's educational goals, (3) program planning steps needed, (4) tentative curriculum objectives, (5) central concepts to be transmitted to students, (6) guidelines on content organization, (7)…

  1. Bender-Gestalt Performance of Sierra Leone, West African Children from Four Sub-Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Sharon K.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of the Bender-Gestalt performance of normal class-six children in four Sierra Leone subcultures with varying degrees of modernization showed the quality of the reproductions of the most modern subcultures to be significantly higher. The interaction of gender and the parallel to adult divisions of labor are discussed. (Author/CM)

  2. Biogeochemistry of a soil catena in the eastern Sierra Nevada Range, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized five pedons at Little Valley, NV, at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. Developed largely from granite, the catena encompassed five pedons, which from high to low elev...

  3. Señales del cambio global en el sitio LTER-Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Pérez-Luque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación ecológica a largo plazo proporciona información útil para comprender las complejas dinámicas de los sistemas naturales. Esto se hace especialmente importante en las regiones de montaña como Sierra Nevada, que presenta un fuerte gradiente de condiciones ambientales en una escala espacial pequeña. En el sitio LTER-Sierra Nevada se ha implementado un programa de seguimiento a largo plazo que, junto con la integración de información ecológica sobre los ecosistemas nevadenses, está permitiendo evaluar los efectos del cambio global en esta región de montaña. En este trabajo presentamos algunos resultados de los impactos del cambio global sobre los ecosistemas nevadenses, obtenidos tras varios años de implantación del Observatorio del Cambio Global de Sierra Nevada. Además de una evaluación temporal de los principales motores de cambio global (clima y usos del suelo, presentamos varios casos de estudio del impacto del cambio global sobre la componente biótica y socioeconómica de los ecosistemas de Sierra Nevada.

  4. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... dbh snags, adequate quantities of coarse woody debris, and by promoting health and vigor of oaks and encouraging growth of larger dbh trees. These are essential habitat components in the Sierra Nevada that are... and leaving trees >16''dbh, and recruitment of CWD through prescribed burning activities that...

  5. Hacia una Estrategia de Desarrollo para la Sierra Rural en el Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Valdivia, L.

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar un documento que establezca los lineamientos de una política de desarrollo para la Sierra rural en el Perú e identificar los requerimientos institucionales y de investigación complementaria que se requerirían para la construcción de programas específicos que

  6. Chain work: notes on the informal drug economy in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Suckling, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This poster summarises preliminary research findings from a year of PhD field research in Sierra Leone. Using participant observation and interviews I investigated how the cannabis sativa market was organized and regulated outside of the regulatory framework of the state. The poster highlights some initial findings from preliminary analysis notes and suggests directions for further information.

  7. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  8. "Farming Miners" or "Mining Farmers"?: Diamond Mining and Rural Development in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Roy; Binns, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Sierra Leone is currently emerging from a brutal civil war that lasted most of the 1990s, and now has the dubious distinction of being ranked among the world's poorest countries. As thousands of displaced people move back to their villages, a large proportion of the predominantly farm-based rural population are growing food crops for the first…

  9. Holocene glaciation of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Nicole D.; Clark, Douglas H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from two bedrock-dammed lakes in North Fork Big Pine Creek, Sierra Nevada, California, preserve the most detailed and complete record of Holocene glaciation yet recovered in the region. The lakes are fed by outwash from the Palisade Glacier, the largest (˜1.3 km 2) and presumably longest-lived glacier in the range, and capture essentially all of the rock flour it produces. Distinct late-Holocene (Matthes) and late-Pleistocene (Recess Peak) moraines lie between the modern glacier and the lakes. The lakes have therefore received continuous sedimentation from the basin since the retreat of the Tioga glacier (Last Glacial Maximum) and capture rock flour related to all post-LGM advances. A total of eight long cores (up to 5.5 m sediment depth) and one short surface sediment short core preserve a coherent record of fluctuating rock flour flux to the lakes through the Holocene. Age constraints on rock flour spikes in First and Second lakes based on 31 14C-dated macrofossils indicate Holocene glaciation began ˜3200 cal yr B P, followed by a possible glacier maximum at ˜2800 cal yr B P and four distinct glacier maxima at ˜2200, ˜1600, ˜700 and ˜250-170 cal yr. B.P., the most recent maximum being the largest. Reconstruction of the equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) associated with each distinct advance recorded in the moraines (Recess Peak, Matthes, and modern) indicates ELA depressions (relative to modern) of ˜250 m and 90 m for Recess Peak and Matthes advances, respectively. These differences represent decreases in summer temperatures of 1.7-2.8 °C (Recess Peak) and 0.2-2° (Matthes), and increases in winter precipitation of 22-34 cm snow water equivalent (s.w.e.) (Recess Peak) and 3-26 cm s.w.e. (Matthes) compared to modern conditions. Although small, these changes are significant and similar to those noted in the Cascade Range to the north, and represent a significant departure from historical climate trends in the region.

  10. The effects of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Desta B; Tomek, Michal; Lisk, Durodami R

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of false beliefs and social stigma in the setting of Sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the impacts of epilepsy on child education in Sierra Leone (SL), we carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study examining its effects on school attendance, participation in physical activities, and social acceptance among classmates. We also assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding epilepsy of both the children's caregivers and teachers. The data were collected at various epilepsy clinics and schools in Freetown, SL. A total of 50 patients were interviewed and questionnaires administered to their caregivers and teachers, making a total of 150 respondents. Fifty-one percent of the children were absent from school for >5 days per month. Ninety percent did not participate in games and sports, with the commonest reason being fear of occurrence of seizures. Thirty-six percent claimed having experienced negative attitude from their classmates. Regarding the caregivers, 48% believed that epilepsy was a medical illness, while 34% considered it a demonic manifestation. Forty-eight percent were apprehensive about sending their children to school, with 83% of these caregivers stating fear of seizures and potential injuries. Only 8% of the caregivers did not prevent their children from taking part in any physical activity at school. Regarding the teachers, 16% believed that epilepsy was a demonic manifestation, and 10% thought that it was contagious. Fourteen percent did not think that children with epilepsy should go to school, and 80% would prevent children with epilepsy from participating in games and sports. When faced with a child having a seizure, 48% would hold the child down, 12% would place a hard object in the child's mouth, and 12% would avoid any physical contact. In total, 20% of the children ceased attending school permanently; daily occurrence of seizures (pattitude of classmates (pcaregiver (pchild education

  11. Sur le concept d’engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Le terme « engagement » connaît un succès grandissant dans les débats sociologiques. Dans ce texte, l’auteur examine les utilisations du concept d'engagement afin de comprendre les raisons de sa popularité grandissante, il signale la nature d'un des mécanismes sociaux auquel le terme se réfère implicitement, et développe une théorie embryonnaire des conditions et des processus sociaux impliqués dans le fonctionnement de ce mécanisme. Étant donné la variété sémantique du terme, il s'avère infructueux de spéculer sur son « véritable » sens. Une des images évoquées par « l'engagement » a été retenue pour en préciser la signification.On the Concept of CommitmentThe term "commitment" is experiencing a growing success in sociological debates. In this article, the author examines the uses of the concept of commitment in order to understand the reasons for its growing popularity. He also points out the nature of one of the social mechanisms to which the term implicitly refers, and he develops a preliminary theory of the social conditions and processes implied in the functioning of this mechanism. Given the semantic variety of the term, it proves useless to speculate on its “true” meaning. In order to clarify the meaning of the term, the author adopts one of the images evoked by “commitment”.Sobre el concepto de compromisoEl término “compromiso” goza de un éxito creciente en los debates sociológicos. En este texto el autor analiza las utilizaciones de este concepto con el fin de comprender las razones de esta creciente popularidad e indica la naturaleza de uno de los mecanismos sociales indicados por ese término, desarrollando seguidamente una teoría embrionaria de las condiciones y de los procesos sociales inherentes a este mecanismo. Teniendo en cuenta la variedad semántica del término es inútil especular acerca de su “verdadero” significado. Con el fin de precisar su significado, el autor

  12. Hacia una Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    German Rozas

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer algunos caminos hacia un ámbito que hemos llamado simbólicamente una “Psicología Social Comunitaria del Sur”, es decir una disciplina que deje atrás los planteamientos venidos desde los países desarrollados, dado que alojan principalmente una mirada eurocéntrica. La referencia del Sur, es una propuesta metafórica, que no tiene un asidero geográfico, sino que apela a un otro, los del Sur, que significan la relación entre países de una manera diferente...

  13. La fachada sur en clima mediterráneo

    OpenAIRE

    Soro Espín, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesina investiga la fachada Sur del clima mediterráneo y los elementos constructivos flexibles que hacen que esta fachada tenga un correcto funcionamiento térmico durante los diferentes periodos climáticos del año. Concretamente, la tesina ha centrado la investigación en la fachada Sur de edificios residenciales plurifamiliares del clima Mediterráneo. Se ha definido la función térmica de la fachada, sus requerimientos térmicos en diferentes periodos del clima Mediterráneo ...

  14. Bibliographie sur la bonne foi en droit international public

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Note. Cette bibliographie ne comprend que les études sur la bonne foi en droit international public et quelques ouvrages marquants sur la bonne foi en général. Les ouvrages et articles consacrés à ses divers aspects particuliers sont cités dans la bibliographie spéciale qui suit. OUVRAGES Buza, L., Bona fides és joggal való visszaéles a nemzetközi jogban (Bona fides et abus de droit en droit international), Szeged, 1940. Cavaré, L., La notion de bonne foi et quelques-unes de ses applications ...

  15. The Mono Arch, eastern Sierra region, California: Dynamic topography associated with upper-mantle upwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A broad, topographic flexure localized east of and over the central and southern Sierra Nevada, herein named the Mono Arch, apparently represents crustal response to lithospheric and/or upper-mantle processes, probably dominated by mantle upwelling within the continental interior associated Pacific-North American plate-boundary deformation. This zone of flexure is identified through comparison between the topographic characteristics of the active Cascade volcanic arc and backarc regions with the analogous former arc and backarc in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sierra Nevada. Serial topographic profiles measured normal to the modern Cascade backarc reveal an accordance of topographic lows defined by valley floors with an average minimum elevation of ???1400-1500m for over 175km to the southeast. Although the accordance drops in elevation slightly to the south, the modern Cascade backarc region is remarkably level, and is characterized by relief up to ???750m above this baseline elevation. By contrast, serial topographic profiles over the former arc and backarc transitions of the eastern Sierra region exhibit a regional anticlinal warping defined by accordant valley floors and by a late Miocene-early Pliocene erosion surface and associated deposits. The amplitude of this flexure above regionally flat baseline elevations to the east varies spatially along the length of the former Sierran arc, with a maximum of ???1000m centred over the Bridgeport Basin. The total zone of flexure is approximately 350km long N-S and 100km wide E-W, and extends from Indian Wells Valley in the south to the Sonora Pass region in the north. Previous geophysical, petrologic, and geodetic studies suggest that the Mono Arch overlies a zone of active mantle upwelling. This region also represents a zone crustal weakness formerly exploited by the middle-to-late Miocene arc and is presently the locus of seismic and volcanic activities. This seismic zone, which lies east of the Sierra Nevada block

  16. Sierra cooperative ozone impact assessment study: Year 4. Volume 2, Part B. 1994 hourly data tabulations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.J.; Dixon, A.J.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the Sierra Cooperative Ozone Impact Assessment Study (SCOIAS) was to characterize ozone concentration and meteorological conditions in mixed conifer forests on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. The report summarizes the data collected in 1994. The major tasks were to continue aerometric monitoring at six stations in five national forests, and to measure leaf water potential as a factor influencing ozone uptake by pine trees growing near the monitoring stations. The six stations were located at Mountain Home in the Sequoia, Shaver Lake and Jerseydale in the Sierra, Five-Mile in the Stanislaus, Sly Park in the El Dorado, and White Cloud in the Tahoe National Forests.

  17. Power-law Distribution of Normal Fault Displacement and Length and Estimation of Extensional Strain due to Normal Faults:A Case Study of the Sierra de San Miguelito,Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shunshan; A. F. NIETO-SAMANIEGO; S. A. ALANIZ-(A)LVAREZ

    2005-01-01

    The Sierra de San Miguelito is a relatively uplifted area and is constituted by a large amount of silicic volcanic rocks with ages from middle to late Cenozoic. The normal faults of the Sierra de San Miguelito are Domino-style and nearly parallel. The cumulative length and displacement of the faults obey power-law distribution. The fractal dimension of the fault traces is -1.49. Using the multi-line one-dimensional sampling, the calculated exponent of cumulative fault displacements is -0.66. A cumulative curve combining measurements of all four sections yielded a slope of -0.63. The displacement-length plot shows a non-linear relationship and large dispersion of data. The large dispersion in the plot is mainly due to the fault linkage during faulting. An estimation of extensional strain due to the normal faults is ca. 0.1830.The bed extension strain is always less than or equal to the horizontal extension strain. The deformation in the Sierra de San Miguelito occurred near the surface, producing pervasive faults and many faults are too small to appear in maps and sections at common scales. The stretching produced by small faults reach ca. 33% of the total horizontal elongation.

  18. Two-phase westward encroachment of Basin and Range extension into thenorthern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surpless, Benjamin E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Dumitru, TrevorA.; Miller, Elizabeth L.

    2002-01-01

    Structural, geophysical, and thermochronologicaldata from the transition zone between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin andRange province at latitude ~39°N suggest ~100 km westward encroachmentof Basin and Range extensional deformation since the middle Miocene. Extension,accommodated primarily by east dipping normal faults that bound west tilted,range-forming fault blocks, varies in magnitude from 150% in the Wassuk and Singatse Rangesto the east. Geological and apatite fission track data from exhumed uppercrustal sections in the Wassuk and Singatse Ranges point to rapid footwallcooling related to large magnitude extension starting at ~14-15Ma. Farther to the west, geological and thermochronological data indicatea younger period of extension in the previously unextended Pine Nut Mountains,the Carson Range, and the Tahoe-Truckee depression initiated between 10 Maand 3 Ma, and incipient post-0.5 Ma faulting to the west of the Tahoe-Truckeearea. These data imply the presence of an extensional breakaway zone betweenthe Singatse Range and the Pine Nut Mountains at ~14-15 Ma, formingthe boundary between the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range at that time. Inaddition, fission track data imply a Miocene preextensional geothermal gradientof 27 +/- 5°C km-1 in the central Wassuk Rangeand 20 +/- 5°C km-1 in the Singatse Range,much higher than the estimated early Tertiary gradient of 10 +/- 5°Ckm-1 for the Sierra Nevada batholith. This might pointto a significant increase in geothermal gradients coupled with a likely decreasein crustal strength enabling the initiation of extensional faulting. Apatitefission track, geophysical, and geological constraints across the Sierra Nevada-Basinand Range transition zone indicate a two-stage, coupled structural and thermalwestward encroachment of the Basin and Range province into the Sierra Nevadasince the middle Miocene.

  19. Temporal Slip Variation of the Sierra Nevada Frontal Fault System and Effects on Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, C. D.; Wakabayashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal variability of vertical separation- and slip-rates determined by new geochronologic and geomorphic studies provides data to better understand the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. The Quincy and Lake Almanor region of the northern Sierra Nevada hosts ideal field relations to examine both long- and short-term slip- and vertical-separation rates of the Eastern Sierra Frontal Fault system (Frontal Fault system) and their relation to landscape evolution. We report initial results of the study. Geochronology provides key data to determine 1) the rate of uplift-related stream incision 2) the rate of vertical separation of the Frontal Fault system 3) the northern Sierra Nevada landscape response to temporal rate variations. Forty-one Late Cenozoic volcanic deposits yield K-Ar conventional and Ar-Ar incremental heating ages between .15 Ma and 3.3 Ma; another ten Ar-Ar ages of rocks from the Mehrten and Yana Formations are pending and the expected age range for these samples is ~2.8 Ma to ~5 Ma respectively. The present northern Sierra Nevada landscape is characterized by high plateau-like ridges capped by Yana or Mehrten volcanics above deeply incised canyons. Field and geomorphic relations reveal a reverse stratigraphic sequence of terrace-like remnants of basaltic or andesitic composition in the North Fork Feather River canyon. Ar-Ar ages of the inset volcanics indicate rapid incision since 2.8 Ma with rates of incision increasing into the present. Similarly, field and geomorphic relations of older rocks reveal incipience and evolution of relief generation. Rocks of the ~5 Ma Mehrten Formation are occasionally underlain by Eocene to Miocene "auriferous" gravels deposited by trans-Sierran paleochannels; field relations of the Mehrten Fm. and gravels indicate low-relief paleotopography at Miocene-Pliocene time. Likewise, the Yana Fm. indicates similar paleotopography at 2.8 Ma thus constraining timing of relief production to post

  20. Sr and Nd isotopic evidence for petrogenesis of mid-Tertiary felsic volcanism in the mineral district of Zacatecas, Zac. (Sierra Madre Occidental), Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve samples of mid-Tertiary felsic volcanic rocks from Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi (both belonging to the Sierra Madre Occidental) and one sample of Lower Tertiary porphyritic andesite from Zacatecas are analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr, K, Rb, and Sr. Eight selected samples are also analyzed for 143Nd/144Nd. A linear regression of the present-day 87Sr/86Sr and 87Rb/86Sr of the felsic volcanic rocks in Zacatecas gives an approximate date of 30 +- 8 Ma. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are high and widely distributed (from 0.705 to 0.712 or higher) whereas the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios are somewhat low and show a narrow range (0.5125-0.5127). The available isotopic and trace-element data are best explained in terms of a binary mixing model in which the magmas derived from a slightly depleted-mantle fractionate and mix with varying proportions of the overlying middle/upper continental crust and undergo further shallow-level fractional crystallization before eruption. This model is also compatible with the trace-element and Sr isotopic data published from other areas of the Sierra Madre Occidental for which a purely mantle origin has been proposed. (orig.)

  1. Timing, Duration, and Effects of Droughts in the Southern Sierra Nevada and San Joaquin Valley, CA Over the Last 2000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K. D.; Negrini, R. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Cook, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most prolific agricultural areas in the U.S., providing about 25 % of the nation's food. This system is reliant on winter snows in the Sierra Nevada that gradually melt through the spring, but over the last 4 years California has been in the grip of its worst drought of the last 150 years. The question remains, however, how unusual is this drought when compared to previous events over longer time scales? We used moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies from the Living Blended Drought Atlas of Cook et al. (2010) to reconstruct annual discharges over the last 2000 years for the Kings, Kaweah, Tule, and Kern rivers in the southern Sierra and routed this discharge into a Tulare Lake water balance model to simulate lake-level fluctuations over this same time period. Although the current drought represents the driest consecutive four year period over the past 2000 years, in terms of discharge volumes, there are multiple periods of more severe, longer term drought represented by extended periods of low lake levels. Significant low-lake periods (32 yrs, primarily prior to 1300. While the 2-8 yr periodicity may reflect ENSO cycles, the causes of the longer periods in the lake-level record remain unknown.

  2. Origen de arcillas alumínicas en horizontes de alteración de materiales graníticos del borde sur de la sierra de Guadarrama

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Patino, M. T.; Guijarro, J.; Casas, J; Martín de Vidales, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Three weathering profiles of granitic rocks and two arkoses in the NW of Madrid Province have been studied. Rocks are granodiorites and adamellites with albites showing variable degrees of sericitization, and no-weathered potassic feldspars. Clay fraction in the weathered horizons from these rocks displays high content in beidellite, and minor amounts of illite and 7 Ǻ-halloysite. On the other hand, beidellite, illite and well crystallized kaolinite are clay minerals in the arkosic...

  3. Traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of Sierra Madre Del Sur, Oaxaca. Does it represent a base for plant resources management and conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-José Azucena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional classification systems represent cognitive processes of human cultures in the world. It synthesizes specific conceptions of nature, as well as cumulative learning, beliefs and customs that are part of a particular human community or society. Traditional knowledge has been analyzed from different viewpoints, one of which corresponds to the analysis of ethnoclassifications. In this work, a brief analysis of the botanical traditional knowledge among Zapotecs of the municipality of San Agustin Loxicha, Oaxaca was conducted. The purposes of this study were: a to analyze the traditional ecological knowledge of local plant resources through the folk classification of both landscapes and plants and b to determine the role that this knowledge has played in plant resource management and conservation. The study was developed in five communities of San Agustín Loxicha. From field trips, plant specimens were collected and showed to local people in order to get the Spanish or Zapotec names; through interviews with local people, we obtained names and identified classification categories of plants, vegetation units, and soil types. We found a logic structure in Zapotec plant names, based on linguistic terms, as well as morphological and ecological caracteristics. We followed the classification principles proposed by Berlin [6] in order to build a hierarchical structure of life forms, names and other characteristics mentioned by people. We recorded 757 plant names. Most of them (67% have an equivalent Zapotec name and the remaining 33% had mixed names with Zapotec and Spanish terms. Plants were categorized as native plants, plants introduced in pre-Hispanic times, or plants introduced later. All of them are grouped in a hierarchical classification, which include life form, generic, specific, and varietal categories. Monotypic and polytypic names are used to further classify plants. This holistic classification system plays an important role for local people in many aspects: it helps to organize and make sense of the diversity, to understand the interrelation among plants–soil–vegetation and to classify their physical space since they relate plants with a particular vegetation unit and a kind of soil. The locals also make a rational use of these elements, because they know which crops can grow in any vegetation unit, or which places are indicated to recollect plants. These aspects are interconnected and could be fundamental for a rational use and management of plant resources.

  4. Strategies and efforts to restore small ruminants populations in Sierra Leone: A case study of south eastern Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred (200) small ruminants, goats (180 doe and 20 buck), were restocked in forty-eight villages within three years. A twenty minute Rapid Rural Appraisal was conducted in each operational village for two weeks to know the communities and animals reared before and after the war. Participatory Rural Appraisal followed immediately. Beneficiaries used this opportunity to decide how they wanted the restocking to be done. During PRA, animal rearing communities comprising 12 men and 8 women were selected by the entire communities in each village, with no interference from thieves. Each group was headed by a Chairman, who organized the entire village to formulate animal rearing by-laws. Criteria were developed for selection of villages, group members and construction sites. During the first year, 20 villages were selected. Each village was restocked with 10 goats (9 doe and 1 buck).At the end of first year, each restocked village repay 5 doe and 1 buck. 120 goats were collected at the end of first year and redistributed to 12 villages. At the end of second year, 72 goats were recollected from 12 villages and the project contributed 8, which were later redistributed to 8 villages. At the end of the third year, the 8 villages repay the same number of goats and this same quantity was redistributed to the remaining 8 villages (5 doe and 1 buck). Remaining goats in each village was shared to either family household or compound. Town thieves receive two female goats on behalf of the village and animal rearing groups are compensated at the end of redistribution. Small ruminants are the most expensive items in rural Sierra Leone when compared with other items weight by weight. Small ruminant restocking helped built damaged and burnt down houses, restart life, pay school fees and above all bring unity among scattered families or community. Adopting the above methods will increase small ruminant population within a short period in war torn countries. Constant attention

  5. Extreme values of snow-related variables in Mediterranean regions: trends and long-term forecasting in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palazón, M. J.; Pimentel, R.; Herrero, J.; Aguilar, C.; Perales, J. M.; Polo, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Mountain areas in Mediterranean regions constitute key monitoring points for climate variability and its impacts, but long time datasets are not always available due to the difficult access to high areas, relevant for capturing temperature and precipitation regimes, and the predominance of cloudy remote sensing images during the snow season. Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain), with altitudes higher than 3500 m a.s.l., is part of the Global Change in Mountain Regions network. Snow occurrence just 40 km from the seaside determines a wide range of biodiversity, a snowmelt fluvial regime, and the associated ecosystem services. This work presents the local trend analysis of weather variables at this area together with additional snow-related variables. For this, long term point and distributed observations from weather stations and remote sensing sources were studied and used as input and calibration datasets of a physically based snow model to derive long term series of mean and maximum daily fraction of snow covered area, annual number of days with snow, annual number of days with precipitation, mean and maximum mean daily snow water equivalent, and snowmelt and evaporation volumes. The joint analysis of weather and snow variables showed a decrease trend in the persistence and extent of the snow cover area. The precipitation regime, rather than the temperature trend, seems to be the most relevant driver on the snow regime forcing in Mediterranean areas. This poses a constraint for rigorous scenario analysis in these regions, since the precipitation pattern is poorly approximated by climatic models in these regions.

  6. Paleoambientes y estratigrafía secuencial de depósitos marinos marginales del Ordovícico de la sierra de Zapla (sierras Subandinas, noroeste argentino y su relación con la Cuenca Andina Central Paleoenvironments and sequential stratigraphy of Ordovician marginal marine deposits of Sierra de Zapla (Sierras Subandinas, northwestern Argentina and their relation with the Central Andean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Astini

    2006-07-01

    part of the Sierra de Zapla along the Capillas River (Subandean Ranges, Jujuy Province. The dominantly marginal marine setting explains the scarcity of invertebrates throughout the section. Palynomorphs are the main tool in stratigraphic studies of the area and trace fossils are important aids in paleoenvironmental analysis. Based on a detailed facies analysis, geometry and paleocurrent analysis, and recognition of key surfaces, four depositional sequences (S1-S4 with different internal arrangements and compatible with 3rd order cycles were identified. The Zanjón Formation (upper part of Global Stage 2 and Global Stage 3 with unexposed base, initiates the stratigraphic section and it is characterized by a heterolithic facies association with subordinate storm layers, thin-bedded phosphate-rich micro-conglomerates and inarticulate-rich shell beds. Common subaerial exposure features like truncated ripple tops and mud cracks suggest tidal flat environments. This interval yields a mixed Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies. Towards the top, an increase in mottling and a gradual change into dominant purplish-red colors (Laja Morada Member of the Labrado Formation indicate a protracted subaerial emergence during a Darriwilian (Global Stage 4 relative sea-level drop, and a fluctuating water table in interfluves. This unit is covered in sharp erosive boundary by the Lagunilla Member of the Labrado Formation, suggesting development of composite fluvial incisions. Sandy fluvial to tide-dominated estuarine fills and thoroughly-bioturbated subtidal hetherolithic beds overlie the sequence boundary representing a typical transgressive systems tract. Development of surfaces with dominant Skolithos forms are interpreted as representing Glossifungites ichnofacies typically indicating by-pass erosion and firm-ground development previous to reworking of interfluves by advancing ravinement surface. The Capillas Formation (upper Darriwilian and lower part of Global Stage 5, sharply levels the

  7. The role of international organizations in aid: A case study of a teacher education programme in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Kingsley

    1988-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the Sierra Leone government realized that the educational system was not meeting the developmental needs of the country. In an attempt to reverse the increasing trend of migration to urban areas, to improve rural productivity and the quality of rural life, and to counteract other deleterious effects of this system, in 1974 the government collaborated with Unesco, UNDP and the African Development Bank in launching the Bunumbu project to train primary school teachers for rural areas. This linked a training college with 20 pilot schools and the local community. This paper critically examines the role played by each of the international organizations in executing the project. It gives examples of resources wasted in supplying inappropriate equipment and expensive building materials, and argues strongly for more consideration of local conditions, and for the involvement of local training agencies and local labour, in any similar future plans. The paper concludes with a discussion of who really benefits from international aid and resolves that both recipients and donors should abandon grandiose schemes.

  8. Slope Instability on Pyroclastic Deposits: Landslide Distribution and Risk Mapping in Zacapoaxtla,Sierra Norte De Puebla, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In October 1999, rainfall induced landslides devastated different communities of the Sierra Norte, Puebla, causing more than 250 victims and economic losses greater than $ 450 million. The town of Zacapoaxtla was one of the sectors most affected by slope instability due to the existing geological features and geomorphic characters determined by material properties, landforms and processes. Extensive areas formed by pyroclastic piedmonts developed on the Quaternary volcanic ignimbrite deposits highly dissected by marginal gully erosion combined with an extreme rainfall event played a significant role as an ideal scenario for the occurrence of landsliding. Distribution of landslides triggered by rainfall within the main sector of the Zacapoaxtla municipality was analyzed by using IKONOS images in terms of exploring the likely relationship between mass movement incidence and levels of vegetation density. The later was undertaken by means of producing an NDVI and applying a fragmentation algorithm. Finally, a map of potential areas of mass movements risk was produced based on the combination of a socio-economic vulnerability index, geologic and geomorphological maps and the spatial landslide distribution.

  9. Critical zone weathering in the southern Sierra Nevada and Laramie Mountains imaged by seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. L.; Holbrook, W. S.; Riebe, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Near-surface variations in seismic velocity reflect differences in physical properties such as density and porosity, which in turn reflect differences in alteration of parent material by exposure to water and biologic activity. Here we present tomographic analysis of the extent of weathering from seismic refraction experiments at two areas underlain by granite: the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO) in the fall of 2010 & 2011 and the Laramie Mountains in the spring of 2010. A 48-channel geophone array and hammer source was deployed in both surveys. In both areas seismic velocities suggest that weathering has progressed to depths of 10 m or more. When coupled with geochemical measurements of the degree of regolith weathering, these depths imply that the potential for subsurface water storage in regolith may be a larger component of the water budget than previously thought at the SSCZO. The velocity of granite bedrock was determined independently in both studies to be ~4 km/s by seismic experiments directly on outcropping granite. Two other ranges of seismic velocities seem consistent between the studies: a saprolite layer of chemically altered but still intact rock (2-4 km/s) and a regolith layer more altered than the underlying saprolite layer (<2 km/s). Using these parameters we tested hypotheses in two different granite-weathering environments. In the SSCZO a velocity-depth profile that crosses a water-saturated meadow and an adjoining forest reveal relatively low gradients in the first ten meters beneath the forest (0.75 km/s per 10 m) and higher gradients beneath the meadow (3 km/s per 10 m). From these observations, we hypothesize that the saturated meadow may provide a reducing environment that inhibits chemical weathering relative to better-drained, more oxidizing conditions in the forest. In the 1.4 Ga Sherman batholith of the Laramie Mountains we observe isolated outcrops of Lincoln Granite within the Sherman Granite. Two 0.5 km profiles

  10. Conférence sur l'efficacité

    CERN Document Server

    Jullien, François

    2005-01-01

    Philosophe et sinologue, François Jullien présente ici une conférence qu'il a prononcée auprès de chefs d'entreprise et dans le milieu du management. D'un côté, la conception européenne de l'efficacité est liée à la modélisation comme à la finalité et revendique l'action jusqu'à l'héroïsme ; de l'autre, la pensée chinoise de l'efficience, indirecte et discrète, s'appuie sur le potentiel de situation et induit des " transformations silencieuses ", sans éclat ni même événement. Par-delà cet écart, il s'agira d'interroger la nature de l'effectivité ; ou comment l'intervention humaine réussit à se brancher sur la propension des choses et s'y laisse intégrer. Ce propos se garde donc de séparer tant soit peu l'art d'opérer sur des situations et l'exercice de la philosophie ; en résultent des effets de lecture portant sur l'histoire du XXe siècle ainsi que la géopolitique - et géoéthique - à venir.

  11. La prolongación austral de las Sierras Pampeanas en la provincia de La Pampa: Evidencias geológicas y geofísicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delpino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En las márgenes de la salina Valle Daza se reconocieron granoblastitas derivadas de gabros y granitos leucocráticos con diferenciados aplíticos y pegmatíticos, que evidencian dos eventos metamórficos caracterizados por: a deformación dúctil en facies de anfibolitas alta o superior que generó la foliación dominante NNE y transformó a las granoblastitas en anfibolitas y a las rocas granítico-pegmatíticas en protomilonitas y milonitas y, b deformación frágil-dúctil de baja temperatura, con retrogradación parcial de las fases de grado alto a paragénesis de facies de esquistos verdes media a alta. En el mismo sector, notorias anomalías gravimétricas (30 km de diámetro y amplitud de +15 mGal y magnetométricas (10 km de ancho y máximos de 250 nT reflejan la presencia de volúmenes importantes de rocas máficas de alta densidad. Se determinaron significativas similitudes petrológicas y estructurales entre las rocas máficas y graníticas de Valle Daza y las aflorantes en el sector occidental de la sierra de Lonco Vaca, situada en la extensión norte de una línea de anomalías gravimagnetométricas de rumbo concordante con la foliación NNE con máximos en las localidades Estancia El Coya, Valle Daza, El Durazno y Victorica. De norte a sur, los afloramientos de granoblastitas clinopiroxénicas y anfibolitas de Lonco Vaca, salina de Valle Daza y Estancia Santa María, se corresponden con las respectivas anomalías gravimagnetométricas. Los estudios realizados indican que los eventos tectono-metamórficos observados en el centro de la provincia de La Pampa pueden ser correlacionados con los eventos F3 (S3-M3 y F4 (M4 reconocidos en el bloque central de la sierra de San Luis. Son también características en un todo comparables en ambas regiones, el diseño discontínuo y la alineación NNE de las anomalías gravimagnetométricas, en concordancia con fajas de deformación dúctil de extensión regional buzantes al ESE y con

  12. Commentary (Introduction of Fresh Evidence by the Prosecution During Cross-Examination in the Special Court for Sierra Leone)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses a number of important evidentiary issues that arose during cross-examination of Charles Taylor, the former President of Liberia, who who stood trial and was convicted of crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during Sierra Leone’s brutal civil war before the UN......-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). At the core of cross-examination was the Prosecution’s strategy to challenge Taylor’s self-portrayal as a peacemaker and to demonstrate a pattern of conduct of the accused in Liberia similar to the one pursued by war-mongering leaders of various rebel groups in...... Sierra Leone. The Prosecution also attempted to demonstrate close links between the accused and the leadership of the notorious Revolutionary United Front (RUF), which he allegedly used to commit crimes in order to gain access to Sierra Leone’s boundless mineral resources, including diamond deposits. A...

  13. Order of 13 December 1985 on the transfer to ENRESA of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order provides for the transfer of the Radioactive Waste Management Facility at Sierra Albarrana from the Junta de Energia Nuclear to ENRESA, the National Enterprise for Radioactive Waste; it also organises all stages of the transfer. (NEA)

  14. Las superficies de erosión en las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba: algunas consideraciones sobre su génesis The erosional surfaces in the Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba: some considerations on their genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Beltramone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba constituyen parte de la unidad morfoestructural Sierras Pampeanas Orientales. Se considera la existencia de una sola superficie de erosión, preservada en diferentes posiciones topográficas. Escarpas de fallas limitan las superficies de erosión reconocidas. No fueron reconocidos signos que evidencien el proceso de pedimentación en su base, ni profundos perfiles de meteorización (saprolito. Se consideran a esta superficie como una peneplanicie formada durante el Paleozoico y posteriormente desmembrada por los movimientos tectónicos que dieron lugar a la formación de las sierras de Córdoba.The Sierras Pampeanas of Cordoba (Argentina constitute part of the morphostructural eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The planation surface is preserved at different elevations of the mountain. Fault escarpments that displace the surface are recognized. There is no evidence of pediplanation at the base of the profound weathering profile (saprolite. A planation surface (peneplain formed during the Paleozoic, shows evidence of tectonic movements that affected the Sierras at the Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene.

  15. Topographic and vegetation effects on snow accumulation in the southern Sierra Nevada: a statistical summary from lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Kirchner, P. B.; Bales, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) measurements carried out in the southern Sierra Nevada in 2010 in the snow-free and peak-snow-accumulation periods were analyzed for topographic and vegetation effects on snow accumulation. Point-cloud data were processed from four primarily mixed-conifer forest sites covering the main snow-accumulation zone, with a total surveyed area of over 106 km2. The percentage of pixels with at least one snow-depth measurement was observed to increase from 65-90 to 99 % as the sampling resolution of the lidar point cloud was increased from 1 to 5 m. However, a coarser resolution risks undersampling the under-canopy snow relative to snow in open areas and was estimated to result in at least a 10 cm overestimate of snow depth over the main snow-accumulation region between 2000 and 3000 m, where 28 % of the area had no measurements. Analysis of the 1 m gridded data showed consistent patterns across the four sites, dominated by orographic effects on precipitation. Elevation explained 43 % of snow-depth variability, with slope, aspect and canopy penetration fraction explaining another 14 % over the elevation range of 1500-3300 m. The relative importance of the four variables varied with elevation and canopy cover, but all were statistically significant over the area studied. The difference between mean snow depth in open versus under-canopy areas increased with elevation in the rain-snow transition zone (1500-1800 m) and was about 35 ± 10 cm above 1800 m. Lidar has the potential to transform estimation of snow depth across mountain basins, and including local canopy effects is both feasible and important for accurate assessments.

  16. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Owolabi Bjälkander; Donald S Grant; Vanja Berggren; Heli Bathija; Lars Almroth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM), assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital...

  17. Patrimonio, Minería y Rutas en el Valle de Alcudia y Sierra Madrona (Ciudad Real)

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares Ruiz, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to analyze the territorial heritage linked with mining activities through the preparation of a specific route in the Valley of Alcudia-Sierra Madrona territory. To this end, the information provided by the Association for the Sustainable Development of the Valley of Alcudia and Sierra Madrona has been very helpful, along with a review of bibliographical sources and fieldwork. Results are summarized in the characterization of the mining heritage of the region, t...

  18. Composition of modern sand from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA: Implications for actualistic petrofacies of continental-margin magmatic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Ingersoll, Raymond V.; Eastmond, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada of California represents the roots of a long-lived magmatic arc (primarily Cretaceous) that is presently being dissected as the range is uplifted, beginning in the south and progressing northward. This dissection is occurring concurrently with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, south of which magmatic-arc activity is absent, and north of which magmatic-arc activity continues. A north-to-south transect along the Sierra Nevada represents transitions of activ...

  19. "Saber de SIDA" y cuidado sexual en mujeres jóvenes de sectores populares del cordón sur de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Apuntes para la definición de políticas de prevención "Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Grimberg

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es parte de la Línea Género y Prevención de un Programa de Investigación sobre Construcción Social del VIH-SIDA. Sintetizamos en este artículo resultados del estudio etnográfico en mujeres de 15 a 35 años de sectores populares, residentes en el cordón sur de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, área de mayor incremento de casos de VIH-SIDA, mayor pobreza, degradación y violencia urbana. Los resultados destacan que entre "saber" y "actuar" median complejos procesos que entrelazan representaciones estigmatizantes y generizadas del VIH-SIDA como "problema de otros" y modalidades de relación social y sexual, atravezadas por estereotipos y roles de género. Desde ahí sostenemos que las propuestas de prevención deben: partir del conjunto de la práctica social y, especificamente, de las relaciones de género; articular estrategias relacionales entre mujeres y varones; y promover en ellos la reflexión crítica en torno de núcleos clave de su vida cotidiana y su participación activa en la construcción de relaciones y prácticas sociales de reciprocidad y equidad. Más aún cuando la creciente precarización de la vida social intensifica la histórica vulnerabilidad de las mujeres de sectores populares, a la vez que supone crecientes contextos de interacción social que apelan y dependen del papel socioeconómico y simbólico de las mismas.This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual

  20. Estructura del extremo sur del sistema subandino (provincias de Salta, Santiago del Estero y Tucumán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El segmento más austral del Sistema Subandino que se extiende a lo largo de 100 km en el antepaís andino, representa un anticlinorium con vergencia hacia el este, donde cada sierra coincide con una culminación axial de este pliegue mayor. Los arqueamientos que exhibe la estructura en planta están relacionados a fallas de rumbo NE con desplazamiento derecho, las que a su vez coinciden con fallas normales reactivadas. Una de ellas situada en el extremo sur del cerro Colorado marca el borde austral del Cretácico. De manera que este cinturón montañoso muestra dos tramos: el septentrional con espesas secuencias cretácicas y el austral, donde no hay capas cretácicas y el Terciario yace directamente sobre rocas paleozoicas. La evolución de esta parte del Sistema de Santa Bárbara empezó en el Eoceno medio coincidiendo con un pilar tectónico que ya estaba elevado en esta época. La sedimentación cretácica sin-rift fue controlada por fallas de rumbo NE y la extensión NO-SE fue más significativa que la extensión E-O, reconocida en otras partes de la cuenca. El acortamiento andino en los últimos 5 Ma provocó una falla de rumbo NE generando desplazamientos dextrales que a su vez originaron estructuras complejas.