WorldWideScience

Sample records for areas environment sabaku

  1. Feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment; Sabaku chiiki wo riyoshita taiyoko hatsuden chokyori yuso gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A workshop was held at Tokyo in March, 1997 on the research and development and feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic (PV) power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment. Two speakers from the USA, one from Italy, and two from China were invited, and four speakers in Japan presented papers. A total of 48 persons participated. In the technical sessions, `World energy demand and PV system potential` by Prof. Kurokawa, `Long distance transmission of PV power` by Mr. A. Invenizzi, `Case studies of large scale PV systems distributed throughout desert areas of the world` by Mr. Hirasawa, `Linking renewable energy resources around the world` by Mr. P. Meisen, `Properties of large scale PV plant in the USA` by Mr. J. Benner, `Future prospect of PV electrification in China` by Mr. Kong Li, `Application of large-scale PV systems in deserts in China` by Mr. Isomura, and `Effects of large-scale PV power plant in a climatic desert areas` by Prof. Ihara were presented. 38 refs., 62 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Groundwater exploration and development in desert area. ; Yemen. Sabaku chiiki deno chikasui kaihatsu to chosa. ; Yemen no rei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, S.; Tokuda, K. (Japan Water Well Drilling Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces examples of groundwater exploration in the desert area of Yemen. Are described groundwater exploration for cement plants, water source survey for the city water project in Sanaa City, and groundwater development in local areas. In order to secure water for the Amran cement plant (700m[sup 3]/day), the developing depth was decided to be 200m based on the results of electrical exploration, and five wells were dug down. It was found that the groundwater level goes down by 5.55m per annum averagely through the pumping. On the other hand, for the groundwater exploration in the Mafraq cement plant, an aquifer was confirmed along the subsoil water at the distance 9km northeast from the plant. For water source survey for the city water project in Sanaa City, feasibility study for deep well (1,500m) development has been conducted. Based on the results of seismic exploration performed for oil exploration, trial boring is to be done. Furthemore, for the groundwater development in local areas, a total of 36 deep wells have been dug at 28 sites. The degree of success was 72%. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  4. Example of reforestation on arid-land. Sabaku ryokuka no jitsurei (Arab shuchokoku renpo wo rei to shite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaubari, Y. (Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces afforestation examples for desert reforestation in the United Arab Emirates. The afforestation in this country was initiated for the erosion control of arterial road in Abu Dhabi. Up to 1992, total afforestation area was expanded to 29,200ha. In the initial stage, kinds of trees were mainly introduced species, such as Eucalyptus, Acasias, Casurinas, and Prosopis. Afterward, they were changed to the local variety with high drought resistance, high salt water resistance, and low water demand, such as Atriplex, Haloxylon, Zygophyllum, and Cyperus. While, in the region with a high salt concentration of irrigation water, Salvadora with a strong salt water resistance is afforested. Water used for afforestation projects is all supplied from wells. Irrigation water is supplied by the drip systems. Furthermore, are introduced the afforestation test using Prosopis without irrigation, irrigation system utilizing municipal wastewater, and reforestation of mangrove in Umm Al-Qaiwain. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  6. Designing areas and elements in traffic environment for disabled people

    OpenAIRE

    Markovič, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Traffic environment is one of the most dangerous areas in human's everyday because of interweaving between pedestrian's paths and traffic. Disabled people are even more undangered in this kind of areas. Graduation thesis describes elements and measures for designing traffic environment according to different types of human disability and their requirements with intention to build transitional and safe environment for everyone. It describes tehnical elements of designing areas and different ki...

  7. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  8. Operational Reconnaissance for the Anti-Access /Area Denial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    computational power equivalent to two supercomputers.20 This impressive analytical capacity gives the pilot a coherent, real -time understanding of...performing Operational Reconnaissance in Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) environments. Contested battlespace is radically different from the permissive...AD environment. After gaining access to this airspace, fighters can use a variety of sensors to provide commanders with a real -time understanding of

  9. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  10. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  11. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  12. Perception Analysis Of Living Environment At Taman Melati Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL AZEEZ Kadar Hamsa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid physical development in a residential area will deteriorate living environment of the residents especially if it takes place haphazardly without applying adequate planning guidelines. It will, eventually, exert more pressure on physical infrastructure of the area. As a result, residents of the area will be subjected to dissatisfaction on the present supporting infrastructure as the demand exceeds the supply. Evidently, it may lead to poor living conditions of the area, which ultimately slow the progressiveness of the society to achieve the quality of living standards. This paper investigates residents' perceptions on present living environmental setting at Taman Melati residential area in Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaire survey was administered to determine the perceptions of the residents on physical environmental parameters such as air, noise, streetlight illuminance, and traffic volume. The level of satisfaction of the residents on the living environment had showed nearly 64% of the respondents expressed 'satisfied strongly' or 'satisfied'. The level of willingness of the residents to stay further continuously at Taman Melati indicates about 56% of the respondents expressed 'strongly willing' or 'willing'. It is also seen that the overall satisfaction level of the residents on the living environment was high albeit satisfaction level on individual physical environmental parameters was low.

  13. SETTING BOUNDARIES OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN THE ENVIRONS OF AIRFIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhorukova Irina Anatol'evna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, various methods of assessment of acceptable aviation noise in the environs of airfields are considered. Noise maps of Voronezh-B airfield have been compiled on the basis of the research presented in the article. The results of our research have made it possible to adjust the method of analysis underlying the acceptable setting of boundaries of residential areas impacted by the aviation noise. As a result of the research, solutions to environmental problems typical for the environs of airfields were developed and presented in the article. The results of the research were incorporated into the Infrastructure Research Project.

  14. Multi-scale atmospheric environment modelling for urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baklanov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern supercomputers allow realising multi-scale systems for assessment and forecasting of urban meteorology, air pollution and emergency preparedness and considering nesting with obstacle-resolved models. A multi-scale modelling system with downscaling from regional to city-scale with the Environment – HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM and to micro-scale with the obstacle-resolved Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment (M2UE is suggested and demonstrated. The M2UE validation results versus the Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST experiment indicate satisfactory quality of the model. Necessary conditions for the choice of nested models, building descriptions, areas and resolutions of nested models are analysed. Two-way nesting (up- and down-scaling, when scale effects both directions (from the meso-scale on the micro-scale and from the micro-scale on the meso-scale, is also discussed.

  15. On coordinated development of oasis and environment in arid area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the formation and evolution of oasis and the factors restricting the coordinated development of oasis economy and environment, this paper presents a goal of the development in coordination. It suggests that the sustainable survival and development of oasis could be ensured only if the oasis-desert and water source ecology are managed in a combined way to form a macro system. In light with the above mentioned, the approach to the development of economy and environment of oasis in arid area should depend upon the establishment of an oasis ecological and economic system, which suits the arid environment and promotes the efficiency of resource configuration, stabilizes economic increment and benefits ecological development.

  16. Integrated controlling technique of ecological environment in Shendong Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-sheng; LIU Yu-de; WANG An; WANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    To enclose the interactive relation between the underground mining with suitable protection for surface ecological environments and surface prevention of ecological environments adapting to mining disturbing was researched and developed core of this technique. There are three aspects of controlling ecological environments, to dispose and renew before exploitation, to protect surface ecological environments in the exploitative process and to repair and build up after exploitation. Based on the moving law of overburden strata in shallow seam, the surface subsidence law and the growth law of vegetation in subsidence mine area, the integrated controlling technique has been developed synthetically by methods of theoretic analysis, laboratory simulation, numerical calculation,commercial test etc.. It includes the key techniques of aquifer-protective mining, filtering and purging of mine water through goaf, preventing and extinguishing fire in shallow seam,no-rock roadway layout and waste disposal in underground, frame-building ecological functional sphere before exploitation, frame-building the ecological cycle using system after mining and so on.

  17. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  18. Impact of landscape on wind environment in residential area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宁; 马杰; 林波荣; 朱颖心

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation has positive effects on improving wind environment in residential areas which is important to the residents’ pedestrian comfort. In order to reflect the impact of landscape on wind environment,a wind experiment was carried out in a typical residential area in Tsinghua University. Meanwhile,numerical simulation with reasonable plant models under the experimental boundary condition was held. By comparison between the experiment data and results of the simulation,wind direction of points in narrow passage and velocity of points in the first row facing the coming wind are almost accurate in simulation,but other points share big error percentage. The reason lies in the disturbing of wind model and settings of plant model. Moreover,by classifying measurement points according to relations between plants location and directions of coming wind,quantitative effects of vegetation are shown through simulations with plants and without plants. Plants directly facing the coming wind have most obvious function on decreasing the wind velocity,thus providing feasible scheme for vegetation design.

  19. Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimes Gary J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER. The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management.

  20. Investigating food environments in selected areas of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A food environment is a combination of physical, biological, social and psychological factors that affect the eating habits and patterns of people. The food environment is determined by the availability, affordability and access to the food required...

  1. The influence of Chinese Classical Garden Aesthetics on the design of outdoor environment in residential area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石运红

    2016-01-01

    The outdoor environment of residential area is closely related to the life of the residents. This paper analyzes the aesthetic ideas of Chinese classical gardens, and seeks the way of the outdoor environment design of residential areas with perfect function, reasonable layout and beautiful environment.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANAGEMENT IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS WITHIN THE VENEZUELAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roselia Aira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to characterize the management of residential development in a Venezuelan environment. This study is documentary, supported on observation, data collection and analysis; guiding the reflection of reality. The results showed the advisability of implementing a management consider the theory of systems, contingencial view, appropriate to each particular situation management systems, and consider Latin American culture.

  3. Environment and health in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu

    2004-01-01

    Inadequate provision of environmental health facilities for rapidly growing urban populations is a major constraint of socio-economic development in the less developed world. The situation leads to deteriorating urban environment and attendant health threats. The study examines household environmental problems in Accra, and the impacts on the health of identifiable different social classes. As a result of rapid increase in the population of Accra, and inadequate provision of facilities, the m...

  4. Selecting a Local Area Network for an Academic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Mohammed M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the process used to select a local area network (LAN) for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Library and Information Science. The use of computers at the library school by staff, faculty, and students is described, technical aspects of a LAN are explained, and the future of LANs is discussed. (LRW)

  5. Study on the Outdoor Wind Environment Simulation and Design Strategies of Rural Settlements in Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Hong Jin; Xin-Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outdoor environment of rural settlement and reduce the energy consumption of rural houses in winterin cold areas,the seriously bad wind environment should been controlled and considered. This paper applies the method of numerical simulation to simulate the wind environment of some typical arrangement of building and courtyard in winter, and concludes the optimal building and courtyard arrangement types and strategies. It aims to provide some technical supports for improving the wind environment of rural settlements in cold regions.

  6. Local area networking in a radio quiet environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

    2002-11-01

    The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

  7. CHROMATIC-AREA EFFECT ON HOMOGENEOUS COLOR OF A ROOM FLOOR IN NATURAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Chromatic-area effect is a phenomenon by which color appearance of chromatic surface changes when a size (visual angle) of increases without any physical change of the surface. Lightness and saturation of a large chromatic area generally increase compared to a smaller chromatic area. We investigated this chromatic-area effect on homogeneous color of a room floor under light environment in the day (white daylight) and in the night (a fluorescent lamp). Observes performed color matching between...

  8. CHROMATIC-AREA EFFECT ON HOMOGENEOUS COLOR OF A ROOM FLOOR IN NATURAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    篠森, 敬三; 船江, 彰

    2009-01-01

    Chromatic-area effect is a phenomenon by which color appearance of chromatic surface changes when a size (visual angle) of increases without any physical change of the surface. Lightness and saturation of a large chromatic area generally increase compared to a smaller chromatic area. We investigated this chromatic-area effect on homogeneous color of a room floor under light environment in the day (white daylight) and in the night (a fluorescent lamp). Observes performed color matching between...

  9. The soil environment of the intertidal area in the Westerschelde Netherlands Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Steneker, R.; Reynders, J.

    1988-01-01

    hydrodynamic forces and sediment discharges determine the sedimentary environment and surface morphology of the intertidal area in the Westerschelde estuary in the S.W. Netherlands. Sandflats (clay, content < 8%) are found in the central part, mudfla

  10. Quantitative Analysis on the Relationship between Population Distribution and Environment Factors in Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the relationship between population distribution and environment factors in mountain area quantitatively.[Method] Taking the contiguous area of Sichuan,Yunnan and Guizhou Province as study object,population density and residential point density were chosen as the indices of population distribution,and the quantitative relationship between population distribution and environment factors (including altitude,topography relief amplitude,land use,road network and river network)...

  11. Study on the Improvement Strategies of Physical Environment for Square in Severe Cold Regions’ Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinYu Zhang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    To improve the comfortable physical environment for square in severe cold regions’ rural areas. This paper applies the methods of questionnaires, field testing and statistical analysis to compare and analyze two different square cases of Qingyunpu in Liaoning Province, and conclude the main factors which affect the physical environmental comfort. The improvement strategies for physical environment of rural square are put forward from the aspects of site selection, road position, orientation, landscape design, and ground pavement material selection, aiming to provide the design basis for the physical environment of square in severe cold regions’ rural areas.

  12. Qualification of the radiation environment in the TCC2 experimental test area.

    CERN Document Server

    Fynbo, C A

    2000-01-01

    This report qualifies the radiation environment to be found in the area behind the beam dump in the TCC2 experimental hall where tests are being performed on the radiation hardness and sensitivity to Single Event Upsets of electronics to be installed near the LHC machine. A comparison is made with the radiation environment expected for the LHC, and we conclude that the environment found in the test area matches that of LHC such that tests performed here will provide a valid simulation of electronics performance under LHC running conditions.

  13. Fading characterization for context aware body area networks (CABAN) in interactive smart environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heaney, S.F.; Scanlon, W.G.; Garcia-Palacios, E.; Cotton, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Body Area Networks are unique in that the large-scale mobility of users allows the network itself to travel across a diverse range of operating domains. This presents the possibility of creating interactive smart environments where Context Aware Body Area Networks can sense and co-operate with nearb

  14. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  15. [Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties.

  16. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wahlgren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery, as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately.

  17. Impact of indoor environment on path loss in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Sławomir; Januszkiewicz, Łukasz

    2014-10-20

    In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment-room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario) is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest-back and chest-arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  18. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  19. Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Hausman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  20. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  1. Study of Sound Environment Influenced by the Crowd in Waiting Areas in General Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Qin; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the crowd has been investigated and analyzed in waiting areas in large general hospitals in China in order to find the rules the variations of sound environment with the change of crowd. The field investigation, questionnaire, field-testing and computer simulation have been adopted. The results show that:the social/demographic characteristics of staff and patients are not significantly related to the satisfaction evaluation of sound environment;there is a significant correlation between the population density and LAeq of the background noise in waiting areas;when population density is 0, the LAeq of background noise is not 0 in waiting areas; the loudspeaker should be set in the waiting areas. Loudspeaker arrangements should be integrated into the ceiling lamp or construct facilities along the depth direction of the layout, and the two adjacent speakers recommended distance should be controlled at about 4 m. If the population density is controlled in the reasonable range, and sound absorption, noise reduction processing and electronic queuing system are adopted, sound environment of waiting areas will be built with noise interference relatively small in different population densities.

  2. Piglet use of the creep area - Effects of breeding value and farrowing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasdal, Guro; Andersen, Inger Lise; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet use of the creep area, comparing litters of sows with a high vs. low breeding value for piglet survival in the first 5 days postpartum, that were either housed in crates or individual pens during farrowing and lactation. Seventy-five Yorkshire...... × Danish Landrace sows were video recorded for 4 days after farrowing, and the analysis was conducted using instantaneous sampling every 10 min commencing 24 h after the birth of the first piglet for a period of 72 h. Breeding value for piglet survival had no effect on piglet use of the creep area or time spent...... in any location of the farrowing environment. Farrowing environment had significant effects on piglet location; during all days there were significantly more piglets in the creep area in the crates compared to the pens (P 

  3. A new method to determine eroded areas in arid environment using Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Aydda; Ah, Algouti; Ab, Algouti; M, Essemani; Y, Taghya

    2014-06-01

    Erosion (by water or wind) is an increasing problem for many local authorities and government agencies throughout the world. The identification of eroded areas in arid and humid regions can be very useful for environmental planning and can help reduce soil and sediment degradation in these regions. In this work we present a new method to determine eroded areas in arid environment. In this method were explored lithological data to determine eroded areas. These data were collected in the field using GPS (Global Positioning System) checkpoints and geological maps. For that, two lithological maps of the study areas were analysed to determine lithological data change. Those two maps were obtained from the classification algorithm by applying the maximum likelihood on two Landsat satellite images. After images classification and validation a change detection technique was adopted to determine eroded areas. This method was applied in northern part of Atlantic Sahara desert to confirm their potentiality.

  4. Study on Fishery Ecological Environment and Fish Species Diversity in Yantan Water Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoquan; HAN; Anyou; HE; Li; HUANG; Jun; SHI; Dapeng; WANG; Weijun; WU

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis on water quality,planktonic organism,fish resources,and fish species diversity in Yantan water area,this paper evaluated current situation of quality of fishery ecological environment in Yantan water area. The survey recorded all 52365 fishes and 1410. 2kg catches obtained by fishermen in half a year,and more than 98% catches are small fishes. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index of Yantan water area is 0. 162,Wilhm improvement index is 1. 814,DG- Findex is 0. 083,and the index of fish species diversity is far lower than other water areas. The average quantity per unit of phytoplankton is 1. 0134 million ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 1. 1151 mg / L. The average quantity per unit of zooplankton is 459. 6 ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 0. 6422 mg / L. Evaluation results indicate that water quality and planktonic organism in Yantan water area are basically normal,but fish resources are increasingly exhausted,fish resource composition is not reasonable,and fish species diversity is extremely low. From the perspective of biomanipulation,it is required to restore fishery ecological environment of reservoir area through restoring normal composition of aquatic organisms.

  5. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  6. [Inversion results of the atmospheric environment detecting airborne lidar in Qingdao, Bohai and Yellow Sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min-Juan; Zhang, Yin-Chao; Fang, Hai-Tao; Qi, Fu-Di; Shao, Shi-Sheng; Hu, Huan-Ling; Zhou, Jun

    2008-04-01

    Without the hypothesis of atmospheric parameters and auxiliary equipment, it is proven the slope method is capable of deriving extinction coefficients profiles and atmosphere optical depth through the analysis of the atmospheric environment detecting airborne lidar (AEDAL) data collected during November 7 to 11, 2005. The spatial and temporal variations of the planet boundary layer (PBL), aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the PBL and aerosol distribution along flight lines are exhibited from the AEDAL inversion results. Firstly, the sinking of aerosol was found in Yellow Sea area, moreover, the PBL altitude also dropped while the multi-layer aerosol presented after a cold front passage; secondly, the AOD of the PBL is the highest over Qingdao city, the lowest over foothill area and in between them over sea area, Meanwhile, it is relatively stable over sea area but slightly increases nearby upslope. The AOD values of the PBL were determined to be 0.15-0.35 in clear day and 0.3-0.45 in foggy day over the area from Qingdao to Bohai, but they are higher and reach around 0.55 in Yellow Sea area. It is evidenced that the aerosol in the PBL mainly comes from city and also is contributed by salt sea over Qingdao area, and ridge and surface wind play an important role in the aerosol transport while the monsoon affects the aerosol distribution.

  7. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  8. GLOBAL-LOCAL ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION AT FIVE STAR HOTELS IN TOURISM AREA OF NUSA DUA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to examine the various form of environment certification, ideology behind the practice of green tourism (global award and Tri Hita Karana (local award, and the implication of environment practice at five star hotel in Nusa Dua tourism area. The data of the reserach was assessed by postmodern critical theory (theory of discourse regarding power/knowledge, hegemony theory, practice theory, and theory of deep/shallow ecology. The method used in this cultural studies is the qualitative one, where the data collection were obtained through direct observation, in-depth interviews, and related documentation. The sample used 6 five star hotels which practise green award, of 14 established five star hotels (some hotel is not in full operation.  The results showed that (1 there are some variation of environment practice in five star hotel, (2 ideology working behind these practices can be seen from global ideology in the form of sustainable development deriving green tourism, and the local ideology, in the form of Tri Hita Karana (THK used in THK award, (3 implication of global-local invironment practice in tourism area and surrounding.

  9. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Fung Pui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107 of rats, 11.6% (34/292 of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324 of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292 of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324 of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107 of rats, 1.4% (4/292 of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324 of water samples. From this study, 76 Leptospira spp. were isolated. Based on DNA sequencing, the dominant Leptospira spp. circulating in urban areas of Sarawak are pathogenic Leptospira noguchii, intermediate Leptospira wolffii serovar Khorat, and saprophytic Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Overall, this study provided important surveillance data on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. from rats and the environment, with dominant local serovars in urban areas of Sarawak.

  10. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Chai Fung; Bilung, Lesley Maurice; Apun, Kasing; Su'ut, Lela

    2017-01-01

    Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107) of rats, 11.6% (34/292) of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292) of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107) of rats, 1.4% (4/292) of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324) of water samples. From this study, 76 Leptospira spp. were isolated. Based on DNA sequencing, the dominant Leptospira spp. circulating in urban areas of Sarawak are pathogenic Leptospira noguchii, intermediate Leptospira wolffii serovar Khorat, and saprophytic Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Overall, this study provided important surveillance data on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. from rats and the environment, with dominant local serovars in urban areas of Sarawak.

  11. Geomorphic classifiers for flood-prone areas delineation for data-scarce environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in ungauged basins the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary floodplain delineation based on the use of geomorphic classifiers. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from remotely sensed elevation data have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments. Their performances have been measured at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area, allowing to explore the transferability of the calibrated parameters, and to define the minimum extent of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce regions and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracies with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. This index is defined as the logarithm of the ratio between the water depth in the element of the river network closest to the point under exam (estimated using a hydraulic scaling function based on contributing area) and the elevation difference between these two points.

  12. NOTES ABOUT THE EXPLOTATION OF NORTHERN ENVIRONMENT SCOUTING THE AREA, BEGINING OF THE HUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal López Carrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of an ethnohistoric research work about the uses and representations of the deer in the Northeastern México. It talks about the historic uses of this region starting from the original inhabitants, until recent decades. Therefore, this is a review of the quotidian life, facing nature, along the time. In the old times the people from rural area maintained certain balance with the environment because they relayed heavily on the balance with the surrounded ecosystem. The lack of knowledge and vinculation with the environment observed in these days, is caused by the migration of rural people to the big cities and the non-balanced city-country development.

  13. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  14. A Sketch Learning Support Environment that Gives Area-dependent Advice during Drawing the Sketch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masato; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Taki, Hirokazu

    Skill, such as arts, sports and crafts, is regarded as a cycle that consists of the following three steps: recognition of objects, selection of appropriate action series and execution of the action. In arts and crafts, people produce works as a result of this cycle. Skill-learning environment should involve diagnosis-function providing appropriate advice for each step. This paper describes technique that is providing advice in real time when a learner learns recognition of drawing. To assist learners' recognition, we developed the sketch-area-dependent advising system that presents advice with voice for learners' drawing. The effectiveness of advice was confirmed through an experiment evaluating proposed technique.

  15. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; XIAO Xing-tian; HE Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze lan d destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze an d estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan Open Pit was taken as an exa mple to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economi c evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  16. Training Effectiveness of a Wide Area Virtual Environment in Medical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Grady S; Tree, Rebekah; Nusr, Rasha

    2017-02-01

    The success of war fighters and medical personnel handling traumatic injuries largely depends on the quality of training they receive before deployment. The purpose of this study was to gauge the utility of a Wide Area Virtual Environment (WAVE) as a training adjunct by comparing and evaluating student performance, measuring sense of realism, and assessing the impact on student satisfaction with their training exposure in an immersive versus a field environment. This comparative prospective cohort study examined the utility of a three-screen WAVE where subjects were immersed in the training environment with medical simulators. Standard field training commenced for the control group subjects. Medical skills, time to completion, and Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety objective metrics were assessed for each team (n = 94). In addition, self-efficacy questionnaires were collected for each subject (N = 470). Medical teams received poorer overall team scores (F1,186 = 0.756, P = 0.001), took longer to complete the scenario (F1,186 = 25.15, P = 0.001), and scored lower on The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians trauma assessment checklist (F1,186 = 1.13, P = 0.000) in the WAVE versus the field environment. Critical thinking and realism factors within the self-efficacy questionnaires scored higher in the WAVE versus the field [(F1,466 = 8.04, P = 0.005), (F1,465 = 18.57, P = 0.000), and (F1,466 = 53.24, P = 0.000), respectively]. Environmental and emotional stressors may negatively affect critical thinking and clinical skill performance of medical teams. However, by introducing more advanced simulation trainings with added stressors, students may be able to adapt and overcome barriers to performance found in high-stress environments.

  17. Erosion environment in the sediment-rich area on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the investigation and analysis of characteristics of precipitation, natural environment, socio-economic factors and soil erosion, this paper indicates that the precipitation is the main driving force for the soil erosion in the sediment-rich area, its variability determines the characteristics of soil and water loss; the natural conditions such as the drainage systems, geological and topographic features, the composition of soil and land surface materials, vegetation and climate determine the seriousness of soil and water loss; irrational socio-economic activities of human beings usually accelerated soil and water loss; meanwhile, the low preservation rate and inferiority of soil and water conservation measures made it impossible to make rapid progress on soil and water loss control. Furthermore, the characteristics of erosion environment endowed this area with more sediment that is the main reason for the flooding disasters by the Yellow River. Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on the enhancement of soil and water conservation. The soil loss prediction models will provide scientific basis for the planning of soil and water conservation, the designing of soil and water conservation measures and the valuation of effects of soil and water loss control. According to the analysis of the previous studies on soil loss prediction, and the water-sediment variation features, it is thought that study on soil loss prediction under various rainfall conditions and soil-water conservation measures should be carried out.

  18. Investigation of the Interactive, Intimidating Relation Between Urbanization and the Environment in an Arid Area Based on Grey System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Biao; FANG Chuang-lin; BAN Mao-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Hexi Corridor in western China as an example, this paper studies the interactive intimate i relation between urbanization and the environment in arid areas based on the grey system theory. The results show that the grey relational degree between urbanization and the environment is low in the agriculture-oriented cities, modest in the tourism-oriented cities and great in the industry-oriented cities. The changing trend of coupling degree between urbanization and the environment does not entirely agree with that of urbanization or the environment. It showed fluctuating trends, which reflects the compactness and properties of the different stages of the coupling states between urbanization and the environment. In order to achieve a harmonious development with the environment in arid areas, traditional development ideas about urbanization should be revised and more attention should be paid to the effect of restriction of water resources and the ecological environment on the development of the economy and society.

  19. Built environment affecting visitors' walking choice in commercial areas? - A study with GPS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Retail location is one of the most critical factors explaining the success of store operations. Store owners prefer to choose locations with high visibility and convenient transportation, which might be likely reasons for higher pedestrian volume, hence larger chance to capture impulse shoppers, resulting in more profits. While researches have focused on discerning relationship between pedestrian route choice and physical environments via indirect measures such as survey questionnaire and interviews, recent technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) enables collecting direct and precise waking route data. In this study, we investigate the physical environments in which pedestrians prefer to be in commercial district, and further analyze if such locations encompass stores with higher store revenues. The primary method is GPS experiment and travel diary for over hundred visitors of the study site, Hongik University commercial areas in Seoul, South Korea, and statistical analysis, Structural Equation Model (SEM). With SEM, we could assess endogenous latent variables indicating built environments, such as Density, Diversity, Destination Accessibility, Design, and Retail Attraction, and exogenous latent variable, the pedestrian walking choice, based on the observation of pedestrian volume and walking speed. Observed variables include the number of stores, building uses, kind of retail, and pedestrian volume, and walking speed. This research will shed light on planning commercial districts, emphasizing the role of pedestrian walking in the success of retail business, and providing a clue on how to encourage pedestrian visitation by improving physical environment. This work is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (No. 2015R1C1A2A01055615)

  20. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  1. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  2. Water Environment Pollution in Three—Gorge Reservoir Area and Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOGuyuan; XUXiaoyi; 等

    2002-01-01

    After the erecgtion of Three-Gorge Reservoir,The Water Environment in the reservoir area will be turned into water dobies like laker,and the self-clarification ability of water will also be moch slower than ever,Now,the quality of water in most segments in upper reaches of Yangtze River cannot meet the requiremets of I-II class Environment Quality Standard (GHZB1-1999),In Yangtze River,Jialing River and Wujiang River,the mian indexes such as colon bacillus,nonionic ammonia,chemical oxygen demand(COD),petroleum,phenol,total phosphorus(TP),heavy metal,etc.,have exceeded the standard limits.The water bodies of the reservoir area are facing serious risk of eutrophicatioinm.To solve that problem.A countermeasure of multi-spot diverted treatment and separate discharge is recommended,for doing this,lots of smallscale wastemwate treatment facilities employing updated activated sludge treatment technologies are to be set up.Up to now,a number of sewage treatment technologies to control eutrophication of water have been developed,which include processes of sequencing batch activated sludge(SBR),absorbing bio-degradation (AB),oxidation channel,package intermittent aeration system(PIAS),intermittent cylce extended aeration system(ICEAS),UNITANK and so on ,The Efective one to be applied in the reservoir area should convey the requirements of ecological agriculture,forestry and urban planning ,and be accompanied by legal support for appropriate exploitation of natural resources.

  3. MELIORATIVE DEVICES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ECOENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AREAS AGRICULTURAL PODLASKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented the condition of melioration on the agricultural uses of the podlaskie province. Actually, agricultural meliorations step out on the surface approx. 360 thousand .ha in the province, what makes up 30% total surface of agricultural use. The most devices of water meliorations detailed step on grassland and on the arable soils of good classes. The weak condition of meliorative detailed devices results: they do not allow to regulate mo-istening in soils. Bad technical condition meliorative detailed devices results from the lack of the systematic their conservation and inappropriate exploitation, and also relinquishment of use of the soils of arable and grassland. Exploited practically and conserved meliorative ditches and buildings on the meliorated objects allow to the improvement of the quality of the natural environment on country areas.

  4. Mediterranean hurricanes: large-scale environment and convective and precipitating areas from satellite microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Claud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsynoptic scale vortices that have been likened to tropical cyclones or polar lows (medicanes are occasionally observed over the Mediterranean Sea. Generated over the sea, they are usually associated with strong winds and heavy precipitation and thus can be highly destructive in islands and costal areas. Only an accurate forecasting of such systems could mitigate these effects. However, at the moment, the predictability of these systems remains limited.

    Due to the scarcity of conventional observations, use is made of NOAA/MetOp satellite observations, for which advantage can be taken of the time coverage differences between the platforms that carry it, to give a very complete temporal description of the disturbances. A combination of AMSU-B (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B/MHS (Microwave Humidity Sounder observations permit to investigate precipitation associated with these systems while coincident AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A observations give insights into the larger synoptic-scale environment in which they occur.

    Three different cases (in terms of intensity, location, trajectory, duration, and periods of the year – May, September and December, respectively were investigated. Throughout these time periods, AMSU-A observations show that the persisting deep outflow of cold air over the sea together with an upper-level trough upstream constituted a favourable environment for the development of medicanes. AMSU-B/MHS based diagnostics show that convection and precipitation areas are large in the early stage of the low, but significantly reduced afterwards. Convection is maximum just after the upper-level trough, located upstream of cold mid-tropospheric air, reached its maximum intensity and acquired a cyclonic orientation.

  5. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygood, E Owen D; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment's influence on the World Health Organization's recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  6. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Hao, Guozhu; Huang, Liwen; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream.

  7. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA, and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream.

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-12-15

    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  10. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  11. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao Zhidong [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Degang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Tang Xun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Dafang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu Yonghua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yhhu@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 {+-} 0.013 {mu}g/g in soil, 0.017 {mu}g/L {+-} 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 {+-} 0.002 {mu}g/g in rice, and 0.034 {+-} 0.012 {mu}g/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 {+-} 28.35 {mu}g/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 {mu}g/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 {mu}g/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 {mu}g/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 {mu}g/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index ({beta} = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC ({beta} = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure ({beta} = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride ({beta} = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  12. Study on the Countermeasures of Eco-environment Conservation in the Mountainous Areas of Southern Ningxia under New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the implementation of principal functional zoning,further promotion of western development,regional migration,new countryside construction,global warming and so on,the spatial adjustment of regional industry and its structure must be enforced.The spatial adjustment and arrangement of population and economy in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia could create tremendous opportunity for its eco-environment conservation.Based on analysis on the opportunity and challenge of eco-environment conservati...

  13. Social living environment of population in the surveillance area of Rivne nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilipko, V A; Ozerova, Iu Iu; Morozova, M M; Shevchenko, K K

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the key factors of social well-being of the population in surveillance zone Rivne NPP. Materials and methods. Sociological, hygienic and mathematical methods i.e. comparison of generalized performance characteristics such as relative and average values, expression of interactions between factors using a pairwise correlation (r) were used in the paper. A questionnaire was developed for the public opinion polls with independent blocks of issues: the study of living environment/conditions through the assay of adequacy of ten major areas of life, assessment of satisfaction with the quality of life in household sphere and components and cost items of family budget, satisfaction level of medical care, "Integral Index of Social Well-being" Test (IISW). The sample was representative by age and gender for population of the surveillance zone of Rivne NPP (n=220, 6.7% sampling error). Results. According to opinion polls there is a negative impact on social well-being of low sufficiency in issues of socio-political life, social security and social relations. More than a half of population feels no any socio-economic compensation for the risk of Rivne NPP function in their daily lives. The overall satisfaction index in recreational and cultural sphere is close to the national average value, which may indirectly indicate to a positive impact of subventions to the social infrastructure of surveillance zone. However, satisfaction of population in the required medical care is extremely low, as is the case throughout Ukraine, due to several factors, such as lack of specialists, poor providing with essential medicines, and high cost of medicines. Conclusions. The list of benefits and compensations associated with living near the functioning NPP needs improvement and coordination with opinion of local communities. Their implementation at that needs a permanent information support. Some links are established between areas that are

  14. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  15. Creating healing intensive care unit environments: physical and psychological considerations in designing critical care areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Doug; Cardon, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    A number of elements contribute to a healing ICU environment. The layout of a critical care unit helps create an environment that supports caregiving, which helps alleviate a host of work-related stresses. A quieter environment, one that includes family and friends, dotted with windows and natural light, creates a space that makes people feel balanced and reassured. A healing environment responds to the needs of all the people within a critical care unit-those who receive or give care and those who support patients and staff. Critical care units should be designed to focus on healing the body, the mind, and the senses. The design and policies of that department can be created in such a way to provide a sense of calm and balance. The physical environment has an impact on patient outcomes; the psychological environment can, too. A healing ICU environment will balance both. The authors discuss the ways in which architecture, interior design, and behavior contribute to a healing ICU environment.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for special management areas, nature preserves, state/regional parks, and wildlife refuges in New Hampshire. Vector...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for critical habitats, fishery areas, management areas, marine sanctuaries, national forests, national parks, The...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  19. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L. [Washington State Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  20. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  1. The Sound Environment Evaluation of Urban Commercial Space Users in Urban Commercial Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Gang-ting

    2003-01-01

    With the globe getting highly internationalized, commercial activities have transformed from traditional buying and selling functions into more complicated functions. Thus, sounds coming from commercial activities are becoming much more multifarious, at the same time, more annoying. This is because of Taiwan's special residence custom. In Taiwan, most people live in the residence-commercial complex zoning, which means residents expose to the commercial activities noise in daily lives. In order to investigate residence-commercial complex zoning sound environment from user's point of view, there were 800 questionnaires handed round, and 273 questionnaires were replied. There are six evaluation factors in influencing molding commercial space sound environment. According to the users' observation and experience, three factors play important roles in influencing users' evaluation regarding sound environment design, including amenity(pleasant, comfortable or unpleasant, uncomfortable), vitality(active or inactive) , and atmosphere of warmth (warm or cold). In the regression analysis, amenity and volume (Leq)have a negative relationship(r=- 0. 558), which means volume is an important factor in commercial space sound environment molding. In the past, high volume amplifier system was applied extensively in commercial district to attract more crowds. However, amenity is declined under such noisy environment. It is a very important issue to study the trade-off relationship between these two situations and improve noise problem in residence-commercial complex zoning.

  2. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    -specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all...

  3. Plant morphology, environment, and leaf area growth in wheat and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area expansion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants, as contrasting representatives of the Gramineae family, was analysed. Seven variables were identified that together completely determine leaf area expansion of the plant: leaf appearance rate per tiller, specific sit

  4. Monitoring the ecology and environment using remote sensing in the Jinta area/Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Anxin; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Xianzhang

    2003-07-01

    A major monitoring area, a part of the middle reaches of Heihe basin, was selected. The Landsat TM data in summer of 1990 and 2000 were used with interpretation on the computer screen, classification and setting up environmental investigation database (1:100000) combined with DEM, land cover/land use, land type data and etc., according to the environmental classification system. Then towards to the main problems of environment, the spatial statistical analysis and dynamic comparisons were carried out using the database. The dynamic monitoring results of 1999 and 2000 show that the changing percentage with the area of 6 ground objects are as follows: land use and agriculture land use increased by 34.17% and 19.47% respectively, wet land and water-body also increased by 6.29% and 8.03% respectively; unused land increased by 1.73% and the biggest change is natural/semi-natural vegetation area, decreased by 42.78%, the main results above meat with the requirements of precise and practical conditions by the precise exam and spot check. With the combinations of using TM remote sensing data and rich un-remote sensing data, the investigations of ecology and environment and the dynamic monitoring would be carried out efficiently in the arid area. It is a dangerous signal of large area desertification if the area of natural/semi-natural vegetation is reduced continuously and obviously.

  5. Identifying Areas for Field Conservation of Forages in Latin American Disturbed Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial analysis tools DIVA and FloraMap to identify potential areas for the in situ conservation of a set of 10 forage species. We introduce the idea of roadside verges as conservation areas and discuss the risks and opportunities of two potential scenarios for conservation. These are the introduction of mass reservoirs outside of the original areas of collection and conservation inside the area of origin. Four potential areas for in situ conservation in Latin America are identified. Although more detailed studies using remote sensing, soil information, and field reconnaissance will be necessary for a final assessment of the suggested areas as field conservation sites, we discuss the possibilities of establishing low-maintenance communities and the potential dangers of introducing harmful weed species. We do not have final answers with regard to the permanent maintenance of genetic diversity in these areas but suggest that further studies of genetic drift in the populations would not only be scientifically useful but might also lead to identifying useful genotypes for local use.

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, Management Areas, National Forests, National Park Service properties, Parks, and...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of managed properties including: Critical Habitats, Management Areas, Marine Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Conservancy lands,...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for artificial reefs, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Management Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and...

  9. Selection of test and reference areas for the Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.

    of the suction device used for resuspension of sediment. On the basis of morphological analysis and nodule distribution, two areas. Tl and Al, were selected as the best suited pair for the disturbance and monitoring experiment...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  12. Urban Residential Environments and Senior Citizens' Longevity in Megacity Areas: The Importance of Walkable Green Spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Takano; K. Nakamura; M. Watanabe

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: To study the association between greenery filled public areas that are nearby a residence and easy to walk in and the longevity of senior citizens in a densely populated, developed megacity. Design: Cohort study. Methods...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT FEATURE OF BREEDING AREA AND ENDANGERED FACTORS OF RED-CROWNED CRANE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Red-crowned Crane ( Grus japonensis), a kind of endangered large-scale wader, is one of valuable and rare birds in the world. It has been indexed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals (Aves), China Data Book of Major Protection Wild Animals, World Red Data Book of Birds, State Trade Protocol of Endangered Wild Plants and Animals Species. The paper studies the amount, distribution, habit, growth and habitat of Red-crowned Crane in China in detail, systematically analyses the ecological environment feature of Red-crowned Crane breeding area, including the vegetation feature, the vertical distribution law of absolute humidity and temperature, some carnivorous food and herbivo rous food for Red-crowned Crane. At present, the ecological environment of breeding area has been destroyed seriously by human activity. The area of marshland is reduced rapidly. A large area of reeds has been disappeared. The survival of Red-crowned Crane is threatened greatly. So it′s necessary to maintain the biodiversity of breeding area in order to pro tect Red-crowned Crane.

  16. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China.

  17. Design Issues in Small-Area Studies of Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Savitz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Small-area studies are part of the tradition of spatial epidemiology, which is concerned with the analysis of geographic patterns of disease with respect to environmental, demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors. We focus on etiologic research, where the aim is to make inferences about spatially varying environmental factors influencing the risk of disease. Methods and results We illustrate the approach through three exemplars: a) magnetic fields from overhead electric power lines and the occurrence of childhood leukemia, which illustrates the use of geographic information systems to focus on areas with high exposure prevalence; b) drinking-water disinfection by-products and reproductive outcomes, taking advantage of large between- to within-area variability in exposures from the water supply; and c) chronic exposure to air pollutants and cardiorespiratory health, where issues of socioeconomic confounding are particularly important. Discussion The small-area epidemiologic approach assigns exposure estimates to individuals based on location of residence or other geographic variables such as workplace or school. In this way, large populations can be studied, increasing the ability to investigate rare exposures or rare diseases. The approach is most effective when there is well-defined exposure variation across geographic units, limited within-area variation, and good control for potential confounding across areas. Conclusions In conjunction with traditional individual-based approaches, small-area studies offer a valuable addition to the armamentarium of the environmental epidemiologist. Modeling of exposure patterns coupled with collection of individual-level data on subsamples of the population should lead to improved risk estimates (i.e., less potential for bias) and help strengthen etiologic inference. PMID:18709174

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF AIR HUMIDITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF SLATINA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-MARIA OPREA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a thorough analysis of air humidity in the area of Slatina city, in terms of relative humidity, fume tension and saturation deficit for the period 1977 – 2006. The aim of this analysis is to highlight the evolution in time and space of this meteorological element, but especially to observe its contribution to pollution of the urban area. The article sums up the author’s personal conclusions, emphasizing the role of air humidity on pollution, through stimulating chemical reactions (from the atmosphere and favoring wet smog.

  19. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    focus on both the most relevant exposure pathways and on the areas most difficult to decontaminate. The IC/UC may also elect to utilize an...a layer of pavement or cement over 137Cs gamma emanation that may have become fixed in place by sorbing onto the street and sidewalks . This may be

  20. Landscape eco-environment risk assessment of highway in arid area of Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of analyses to landscape ecology in the highway region of the arid area in Xinjiang of China, vegetation type, soil type and land-use type were ascertained as environmental factors of highway landscape ecosystem fragility, and seasonal flood, blown-wind sand and alkali-salinization as disaster factors of highway engineering. All items of these factors constitute an objective hierarchy of evaluating landscape ecosystem risk of the highway region in the arid area. The weighted values of the items were determined according to the number of occupied area or length by them against each unit. The area or length was interpreted with the aids of GIS technology and gained by measuring in the highway reconnaissance. The results of the eco-environmental risk assessment of G315 Yitunbulake-Qiemo section in Xinjiang shows that eight units of landscape ecology can be sorted into four categories according to the differences of the fragility indices (Σxiwi) and the disaster indices (Σyiwj).

  1. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures...residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl incident have demonstrated that direct involvement of inhabitants and local...media (e.g., building surfaces, soil, ground water, surface water, sediment, air, animals or plants). These values typically are derived considering

  2. Between Greenland and America : cross-cultural contacts and the environment in the Baffin Bay area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Vaughan, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Preface Robert Petersen Continuity and discontinuity in the Political Development of Modern Greenland Jørgen Meldgaard The Prehistoric Cultures in Greenland: Discontinuities in a Marginal Area A.G.F. van Holk Continuity and Discontinuity in Lingulstic Change: A semiotic approach to the

  3. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian B. Deall

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil and climate of a broad transect of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area are described. The transect extends from Hazyview (530 m elevation to Mount Anderson (2 280 m elevation. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  4. Climate Variability and Industrial-Suburban Heat Environment in a Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina A. Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomenon prevalently concerns industrialized countries. It consists of a significant increase in temperatures, especially in industrialized and urbanized areas, in particular, during extreme warm periods like summer. This paper explores the climate variability of temperatures in two stations located in Matera city (Southern Italy, evaluating the increase in temperatures from 1988 to 2015. Moreover, the Corine Land Covers (1990–2000–2006–2012 were used in order to investigate the effect of land use on temperatures. The results obtained confirm the prevalence of UHI phenomena for industrialized areas, highlighting the proposal that the spreading of settlements may further drive these effects on the microclimate. In particular, the presence of industrial structures, even in rural areas, shows a clear increase in summer maximum temperatures. This does not occur in the period before 2000, probably due to the absence of the industrial settlement. On the contrary, from 2000 to 2015, changes are not relevant, but the maximum temperatures have always been higher than in the suburban area (station localized in green zone during daylight hours.

  5. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian B. Deall

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil and climate of a broad transect of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area are described. The transect extends from Hazyview (530 m elevation to Mount Anderson (2 280 m elevation. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  6. Foreign tourism in San Jose downtown: volume, areas and resources used and impact on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It presents the results of a study, conducted in 2011 and the first half of 2012, on some of the most important aspects of tourism in San Jose center: defining characteristics of tourists in this geographical space, activities carried out, areas and establishments that used and characteristics of these, major changes in land use in tourist areas and transformations -or inertia- in the landscape, hygiene, roads and transportation, safety and quality of public spaces. The collection of information was made in the field: GPS and “manual” inventories, scheduled observation, surveys and interviews. Mainly, it was concluded that since the late eighties, when tourist hatching occurred in Costa Rica, in small areas of San José downtown the establishments of interest and tourist use proliferated, but all of small dimensions (the relatively large are precedents. Consequently, the impact of tourism on the urban is not significant and is imperceptible in many ways, showing relevant only in a small area. In addition, tourism in San Jose downtown tends to decrease.

  7. A Survey on Wireless Body Area Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, R Simon; Harwin, William; Piechockic, Robert; Soltanpur, Cinna

    2016-06-07

    Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments.

  8. A Survey on Wireless Body Area Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments.

  9. Natural radionuclides in the aquatic environment of a phosphogypsum disposal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, P P; Paul, A C; Desai, M V

    2001-01-01

    Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. Studies on the distribution of U-series nuclides were carried out in the Chitrapuzha River, near Cochin, in the southern part of India. The concentrations of radionuclides, especially 226Ra, in the river waters showed enhancement by an order of magnitude relative to the levels in nearby water bodies. The concentrations were influenced by seasonal changes in the river flows during monsoon and summer periods. Ingestion doses via fish and milk have an upper estimate of 18 microSv for the critical population.

  10. Technology campuses and cities: A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Teresa de Jesús Curvelo Magdaniel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the development of technology campuses as built environments and their role  in stimulating innovation. Technology campuses entail a variety of built environments developed to accommodate technology-driven research activities of multiple organisations. The science park is the most common type of technology campus. Other types include the campuses of universities  of technology and corporate R&D parks.In industrialised countries, the demand for developing  technology  campuses  to  stimulate innovation has been growing in line with the attention given to knowledge in global, national and regional policies. There are over 700 technology campuses worldwide occupying hundred thousands  of hectares in- and around cities. This type of built environments have emerged and developed during critical periods of technological advancements throughout the 20th century, to support technology-based development in industrialised countries. With the adoption of the knowledge- based economy, governments in many countries have encouraged research as an essential activity in their science, technology and innovation policies. The infrastructure that supports research is also gaining momentum. The number of registered science parks is steadily increasing since the late 1990s. The number of programmes supporting research infrastructure is growing in the European policy agenda. Municipalities are formally engaged with other public and private parties in the development of urban areas targeted to stimulate innovation. Governments, universities and R&D companies are investing billions of euros in developing the infrastructure that will not only support their core processes, but will help them to remain competitive by attracting and retaining the best talent. Part of these investments are targeted to develop new buildings or entire areas that often result in campuses as we know them: a concentration of buildings accommodating organisations

  11. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  12. Integrated morphometric analysis in GIS environment applied to active tectonic areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes a methodology for identifying the structural lineaments in active tectonic areas by integrating morphological and morphometrical data derived by DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) processing, with local seismicity data. Moreover, validation of the lineaments extracted from DEM has been carried out by examining literature geological and geomorphological data, aerial photo interpretation and field surveys. The morphometric parameters as the terrain slope, terrain aspect, ...

  13. Biomarkers of ecotoxicological oxidative stress in an urban environment: using evergreen plant in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztetik, Elif

    2015-05-01

    Plants react to air pollution by increased production of reactive oxygene species and oxidative stress, which triggers multiple defense mechanisms. In this study, some parameters that serve as biomarkers for antioxidative defense, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and total soluble protein contents, were investigated on the needles of Cedrus libani (A. Rich.) grown around two industrial areas in Eskisehir. The measurements revealed that metabolism in needles of C. libani trees is largely directed towards defence against ROS, due to effects of air pollution in the sampling areas. We observed significant increases in all parameters, except chlorophyll contents, which were strongly decreased. However, these sharp changes were also prominent not only between sampling sites and control site, but also among the areas investigated, suggesting the quantitative influence of the extent of pollution. Together with total soluble protein contents, the correlation between GST activities and GSH contents suggests that damage due to oxidative stress was most probably reduced due to the increased antioxidant capacity. Therefore, we can suggest C. libani as a good model for biomonitoring atmospheric quality with the oxidative stress parameters providing an effective measure for early environmental assessment due to their sensitivities of even low levels of pollution.

  14. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  15. Technology campuses and cities: A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Teresa de Jesús Curvelo Magdaniel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis examines the development of technology campuses as built environments and their role  in stimulating innovation. Technology campuses entail a variety of built environments developed to accommodate technology-driven research activities of multiple organisations. The science park is the most common type of technology campus. Other types include the campuses of universities  of technology and corporate R&D parks.In industrialised countries, the demand for developing  technology  campuses  to  stimulate innovation has been growing in line with the attention given to knowledge in global, national and regional policies. There are over 700 technology campuses worldwide occupying hundred thousands  of hectares in- and around cities. This type of built environments have emerged and developed during critical periods of technological advancements throughout the 20th century, to support technology-based development in industrialised countries. With the adoption of the knowledge- based economy, governments in many countries have encouraged research as an essential activity in their science, technology and innovation policies. The infrastructure that supports research is also gaining momentum. The number of registered science parks is steadily increasing since the late 1990s. The number of programmes supporting research infrastructure is growing in the European policy agenda. Municipalities are formally engaged with other public and private parties in the development of urban areas targeted to stimulate innovation. Governments, universities and R&D companies are investing billions of euros in developing the infrastructure that will not only support their core processes, but will help them to remain competitive by attracting and retaining the best talent. Part of these investments are targeted to develop new buildings or entire areas that often result in campuses as we know them: a concentration of buildings accommodating organisations

  16. Natural environment in the area of copper smelter plants. Trend of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Strzelec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Findings of air quality are brought forward in the area of copper industry impact with particular attention paid to copper smelter plants located in Legnica and Głogów area covering the period from 1980 to 2010. The paper identifies occurring changes and trends in the course of years. Lowering of dust-gaseous emissions from the most crucial sources in the area of LegnicaGłogów Copper Mining Region improved air quality in this region in the significant way. The fact is also of some importance that emission of pollutants from big sources combusting fuels for energy generation was reduced either by rundown of production or liquidation of some plants. Based on the conducted state environmental monitoring it is concluded that at present emission of pollutants from industrial sources affects air quality to a lesser degree. There are still problems of air protection waiting to be solved which are connected with: – emission of gaseous-dust pollutants from domestic-municipal sector i. e. so called low emission from individual heating of dwellings. The sources are low emitters where often coal is combusted together with various types of waste. Therefore after starting the period of centrally heated dwellings air quality monitoring stations recorded evidently the increase of dust and gaseous pollutants including benzo (a pirene. – pollutants emission from road transport which is the cause of high concentration of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons particularly in the vicinity of roads and streets of big road traffic density. Materials and methods: The base of the study were findings obtained from District Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Legnica in the framework of carried out since 1991 the state environmental monitoring in national, regional and local network. In the period from 1980 till 1990 the studies performed Research Centre of Environmental Control in Legnica.

  17. Occurrences of Uranium and Radon-222 in Groundwaters from Various Geological Environments in the Hoengseong Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Young Cheon; Choi, Hyeon Young; Yang, Jae Ha

    2016-04-01

    Groundwaters in granite, gneiss, and two-mica granite formations, including faults, in the Hoengseong area are examined to determine the relationship between their uranium and radon-222 contents and rock types. The chemical compositions of 38 groundwater samples and four surface water samples collected in the study area were analyzed. Sixteen of the samples showing high uranium and radon-222 contents were repeatedly analyzed. Surface radioactivities were measured at 30 points. The uranium and radon-222 concentrations in the groundwater samples were in the ranges of 0.02-49.3 μg/L and 20-906 Bq/L, respectively. Four samples for uranium and 35 samples for radon had concentrations exceeding the alternative maximum contaminant level of the US EPA. The chemical compositions of groundwaters indicated Ca(Na)-HCO3 and Ca(Na)-NO3(HCO3+Cl) types. The pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.66. High uranium and radon-222 contents in the groundwaters occurred mainly at the boundary between granite and gneiss, and in the granite area. The occurrence of uranium did not show any distinct relationship to that of radon-222. The radon-222, an inert gas, appeared to be dissolved in the groundwater of the aquifer after wide diffusion along rock fractures, having been derived from the decay of uranium in underground rocks. The results in this study indicate that groundwater of neutral or weakly alkaline pH, under oxidizing conditions and with a high bicarbonate content is favorable for the dissolution of uranium and uranium complexes such as uranyl or uranyl-carbonate. Key word: uranium, radon-222, geological boundary, groundwater, chemical characteristics, surface radioactivity

  18. A Portofolio Balance Approach to Euro-Area Money Demand in a Time-Varying Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stephen G.; George Hondroyiannis; P.A.V.B. Swamy; George S. Tavlas

    2007-01-01

    As part of its monetary policy strategy, the European Central Bank has formulated a reference value for M3 growth. A pre-requisite for the use of a reference value for M3 growth is the existence of a stable demand function for that aggregate. However, a large empirical literature has emerged showing that, beginning in 2001, essentially all euro area M3 demand functions have exhibited instability. This paper considers euroarea money demand in the context of the portfolio-balance framework. Our...

  19. A Portfolio Balance Approach to Euro-Area Money Demand in a Time-Varying Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stephen G.; George Hondroyiannis; P.A.V.B. Swamy; George S. Tavlas

    2008-01-01

    As part of its monetary policy strategy, the European Central Bank has formulated a reference value for M3 growth. A pre-requisite for the use of a reference value for M3 growth is the existence of a stable demand function for that aggregate. However, a large empirical literature has emerged showing that, beginning in 2001, essentially all euro area M3 demand functions have exhibited instability. This paper argues that a proper understanding of the determination of money requires a portfolio ...

  20. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  1. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  2. Radioactivity measurements in the environment of the Udhampur area, Jammu and Kashmir Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Yudhvir; Singh, Kawaljit; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Surinder

    LR-115 plastic track detectors have been used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some villages of the Udhampur district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Uranium concentration has also been determined in these soil samples using the fission track registration technique. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 5.46 to 19.17 Bqkg-1, whereas uranium concentration varies from 2.53 to 3.65 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 6.42 to 22.47 mB kg-1 hr-1. The work is undertaken for health risk assessments due to uranium and radium in the study area. A positive correlation has been observed between uranium and radium, as well as uranium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples.

  3. RSSI/LQI-based transmission power control for body area networks in healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Kim, Seokhwan; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol for body area networks. Conventional transmission power control protocols adjust the transmission power on the basis of the received signal strength indication (RSSI). However, in case of the presence of interference, the RSSI is not a correct indicator to determine the link state. We first present the empirical evidence for this and then propose a practical protocol to discriminate between the signal attenuation and interference using the RSSI and link quality indication (LQI). This protocol controls the transmission power and avoids interference based on the link state. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the proposed protocol on Tmote Sky and evaluate the performance in the presence and absence of interference. The experimental results showed that the proposed protocol has high energy-efficiency and reliability, even in the presence of interference.

  4. Bacterial taxa-area and distance-decay relationships in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, L; Boetius, A; Ramette, A

    2014-02-01

    The taxa-area relationship (TAR) and the distance-decay relationship (DDR) both describe spatial turnover of taxa and are central patterns of biodiversity. Here, we compared TAR and DDR of bacterial communities across different marine realms and ecosystems at the global scale. To obtain reliable global estimates for both relationships, we quantified the poorly assessed effects of sequencing depth, rare taxa removal and number of sampling sites. Slope coefficients of bacterial TARs were within the range of those of plants and animals, whereas slope coefficients of bacterial DDR were much lower. Slope coefficients were mostly affected by removing rare taxa and by the number of sampling sites considered in the calculations. TAR and DDR slope coefficients were overestimated at sequencing depth information on macroecological patterns of marine bacteria, as well as methodological and conceptual insights, at a time when biodiversity surveys increasingly make use of high-throughput sequencing technologies.

  5. Fast-Food Environments and Family Fast-Food Intake in Nonmetropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Gibson, Lucinda; Owens, Peter; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of in-town fast-food availability on family-level fast-food intake in nonmetropolitan areas. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the presence of chain fast-food outlets was associated with fast-food intake among adolescents and parents, and to assess whether this relationship was moderated by family access to motor vehicles. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with 1547 adolescent–parent dyads in 32 New Hampshire and Vermont communities between 2007 and 2008. Fast-food intake in the past week was measured through self-report. In-town fast-food outlets were located and enumerated using an onsite audit. Family motor vehicle access was categorized based on the number of vehicles per licensed drivers in the household. Poisson regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results About half (52.1%) of adolescents and 34.7% of parents consumed fast food at least once in the past week. Adolescents and parents who lived in towns with five or more fast-food outlets were about 30% more likely to eat fast food compared to those in towns with no fast-food outlets, even after adjusting for individual, family, and town characteristics (RR=1.29, 95% CI= 1.10, 1.51; RR=1.32, 95% CI=1.07,1.62, respectively). Interaction models demonstrated that the influence of in-town fast-food outlets on fast-food intake was strongest among families with low motor vehicle access. Conclusions In nonmetropolitan areas, household transportation should be considered as an important moderator of the relationship between in-town fast-food outlets and family intake. PMID:22608373

  6. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jetz

    Full Text Available Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  7. Impacts of rainfall events on runoff water quality in an agricultural environment in temperate areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, Ianis; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas.

  8. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm-2 (spring) to 26 Wm-2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm-2 (spring) to 55 Wm-2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  9. Hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of waiting areas: the role of patient characteristics on atmospherics in one academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Pi-hung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines hospital outpatient perceptions of the physical environment of the outpatient waiting areas in one medical center. The relationship of patient characteristics and their perceptions and needs for the outpatient waiting areas are also examined. Method The examined medical center consists of five main buildings which house seventeen primary waiting areas for the outpatient clinics of nine medical specialties: 1 Internal Medicine; 2 Surgery; 3 Ophthalmology; 4 Obstetrics-Gynecology and Pediatrics; 5 Chinese Medicine; 6 Otolaryngology; 7 Orthopedics; 8 Family Medicine; and 9 Dermatology. A 15-item structured questionnaire was developed to rate patient satisfaction covering the four dimensions of the physical environments of the outpatient waiting areas: 1 visual environment; 2 hearing environment; 3 body contact environment; and 4 cleanliness. The survey was conducted between November 28, 2005 and December 8, 2005. A total of 680 outpatients responded. Descriptive, univariate, and multiple regression analyses were applied in this study. Results All of the 15 items were ranked as relatively high with a range from 3.362 to 4.010, with a neutral score of 3. Using a principal component analysis' summated scores of four constructed dimensions of patient satisfaction with the physical environments (i.e. visual environment, hearing environment, body contact environment, and cleanliness, multiple regression analyses revealed that patient satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas was associated with gender, age, visiting frequency, and visiting time. Conclusion Patients' socio-demographics and context backgrounds demonstrated to have effects on their satisfaction with the physical environment of outpatient waiting areas. In addition to noticing the overall rankings for less satisfactory items, what should receive further attention is the consideration of the patients' personal

  10. Impacts of geothermal energy developments on hydrological environment in hot spring areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Water-energy nexus such as geothermal energy developments and its impacts on groundwater, river water, and coastal water is one of the key issues for the sustainable society. This is because the demand of both water and energy resources will be increasing in near future, and the tradeoff between both resources and conflict between stakeholders will be arisen. Geothermal power generation, hot springs heat power generation, and steam power generation, are developing in hot spring areas in Ring of Fire countries including Japan, as renewable and sustainable energy. Impacts of the wasted hot water after using hot springs heat and steam power generation on ecosystem in the rivers have been observed in Beppu, Oita prefecture, Japan. The number of the fish species with wasted hot water in the Hirata river is much less than that without wasted hot water in Hiyakawa river although the dominant species of tilapia was found in the Hirata river with wasted hot water. The water temperature in Hirata rive is increased by wasted hot water by 10 degree C. The impacts of the developments of steam power generations on hot spring water and groundwater in downstream are also evaluated in Beppu. The decreases in temperature and volume of the hot spring water and groundwater after the development are concerning. Stakeholder analysis related to hot spa and power generation business and others in Beppu showed common interests in community development among stakeholders and gaps in prerequisite knowledge and recognition of the geothermal resource in terms of economic/non-economic value and utilization as power generation/hot-spring. We screened stakeholders of four categories (hot spring resorts inhabitants, industries, supporters, environmentalists), and set up three communities consisting of 50 persons of the above categories. One remarkable result regarding the pros and cons of geothermal power in general terms was that the supporter count increased greatly while the neutralities count

  11. Networked remote area dental services: a viable, sustainable approach to oral health care in challenging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Kate; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the cost effectiveness of a model of remote area oral health service. Retrospective financial analysis. Rural and remote primary health services. Clinical activity data and associated cost data relating to the provision of a networked visiting oral health service by the Centre for Rural and Remote Oral Health formed the basis of the study data frameset. The cost-effectiveness of the Centre's model of service provision at five rural and remote sites in Western Australia during the calendar years 2006, 2008 and 2010 was examined in the study. Calculations of the service provision costs and value of care provided were made using data records and the Fee Schedule of Dental Services for Dentists. The ratio of service provision costs to the value of care provided was determined for each site and was benchmarked against the equivalent ratios applicable to large scale government sector models of service provision. The use of networked models have been effective in other disciplines but this study is the first to show a networked hub and spoke approach of five spokes to one hub is cost efficient in remote oral health care. By excluding special cost-saving initiatives introduced by the Centre, the study examines easily translatable direct service provision costs against direct clinical care outcomes in some of Australia's most challenging locations. This study finds that networked hub and spoke models of care can be financially efficient arrangements in remote oral health care. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200mg/L for NH4(+), 100mg/L for Fe, 10-30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1-10mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans.

  13. AGC of a multi-area power system under deregulated environment using redox flow batteries and interline power flow controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulasichandra Sekhar Gorripotu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Proportional Integral Derivative with Filter (PIDF is proposed for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of a multi-area power system in deregulated environment. Initially, a two area four units thermal system without any physical constraints is considered and the gains of the PIDF controller are optimized employing Differential Evolution (DE algorithm using ITAE criterion. The superiority of proposed DE optimized PIDF controller over Fuzzy Logic controller is demonstrated. Then, to further improve the system performance, an Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC is placed in the tie-line and Redox Flow Batteries (RFB is considered in the first area and the controller parameters are tuned. Additionally, to get an accurate insight of the AGC problem, important physical constraints such as Time Delay (TD and Generation Rate Constraints (GRC are considered and the controller parameters are retuned. The performance of proposed controller is evaluated under different operating conditions that take place in a deregulated power market. Further, the proposed approach is extended to a two area six units hydro thermal system. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values.

  14. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S.; Khayer, Y.

    2014-11-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing and GIS can improve land surface characterization to better quantify surface run-off and infiltration. This study presents a method to combine airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data for classifying pervious (e.g. vegetation, gravel, and soil) and impervious (e.g. asphalt and concrete) areas within road allowance areas for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Hyperspectral data was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) at 1 m ground spatial resolution, consisting of 72 spectral bands, and LiDAR data acquired from Leica Airborne LiDAR system at a density of 20 points/m2. A spectral library was established using 10 cm orthophotography and GIS data to identify surface features. In addition to spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation, several spectral indices were developed to discriminate between asphalt, concrete, gravel, vegetation, and shadows respectively. A spectral analysis of selected endmembers was conducted and an initial classification technique was applied using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The classification results (i.e. shadows) were improved by integrating LIDAR data with the hyperspectral data.

  15. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-López, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel [Department of Geodynamics and Palaeontology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200 mg/L for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, 100 mg/L for Fe, 10–30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1–10 mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans. - Highlights: • Acidity and contaminants from phosphogypsum leaching are released to an estuary. • Already-restored zones act as a pollution source just as unrestored zones. • Cl/Br ratios and REE patterns were suitable to assess

  16. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  17. CO(2) partial pressure and calcite saturation in springs - useful data for identifying infiltration areas in mountainous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke; Brandstätter, Jennifer; Glück, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mountainous regions such as the Central European Alps host considerable karstified or fractured groundwater bodies, which meet many of the demands concerning drinking water supply, hydropower or agriculture. Alpine hydrogeologists are required to describe the dynamics in fractured aquifers in order to assess potential impacts of human activities on water budget and quality. Delineation of catchment areas by means of stable isotopes and hydrochemical data is a well established method in alpine hydrogeology. To achieve reliable results, time series of (at least) one year and spatial and temporal close-meshed data are necessary. In reality, test sites in mountainous regions are often inaccessible due to the danger of avalanches in winter. The aim of our work was to assess a method based on the processes within the carbonic acid system to delineate infiltration areas by means of single datasets consisting of the main hydrochemical parameters of each spring. In three geologically different mountainous environments we managed to classify the investigated springs into four groups. (1) High PCO2 combined with slight super-saturation in calcite, indicating relatively low infiltration areas. (2) Low PCO2 near atmospheric conditions in combination with calcite saturation, which is indicative of relatively high infiltration areas and a fractured aquifer which is not covered by topsoil layers. (3) High PCO2 in combination with sub-saturation in calcite, representing a shallow aquifer with a significant influence of the topsoil layer. (4) The fourth group of waters is characterized by low PCO2 and sub-saturation in calcite, which is interpreted as evidence for a shallow aquifer without significant influence of any hard rock aquifer or topsoil layer. This study shows that CO2-partial pressure can be an ideal natural tracer to estimate the elevation of infiltration areas, especially in non-karstified fractured groundwater bodies.

  18. Differences in food environment perceptions and spatial attributes of food shopping between residents of low and high food access areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohi, Inderbir; Bell, Bethany A; Liu, Jihong; Battersby, Sarah E; Liese, Angela D

    2014-01-01

    To explore potential differences in food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions between residents living in areas with low and high food access. A cross-sectional telephone survey to assess food shopping behaviors and perceptions. Data from an 8-county food environment field census used to define the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) healthier food retail tract and US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service food desert measure. A total of 968 residents in 8 South Carolina counties. Residents' food shopping behaviors and healthy food availability perceptions. Linear and logistic regression. Compared with residents in high food access areas, residents in low food access areas traveled farther to their primary food store (US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service: 8.8 vs 7.1 miles, P = .03; CDC: 9.2 vs 6.1 miles, P shopping miles per week (CDC: 28.0 vs 15.4 miles; P shopping access (P < .001). These findings lend support to ongoing community and policy interventions aimed at reducing food access disparities. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  20. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four selected school subjects. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis (ANOVA. The results result revealed a positive and significant relationship between permissive patenting style with academic performance (p0.05. Also, the result from the study identified income, educational background and occupational level as well as permissive parenting style as the main predictive variables influencing students’ academic performance.

  1. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  2. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TSstd formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  4. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  5. The magnetic properties of sediment and sedimentary environment in the Huanghe Delta area after the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jun; LI Ping; CHEN Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of measuring the magnetic parameters of sediment in Core YDZ1, combined with a grain size analysis and Carbon-14 dating, the magnetic properties of sediment and sedimentary environment in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta area after the last glacial maximum have been studied. The results show that the ferrimagnetic minerals of a pseudo single domain and multi domain particles dominate the magnetic properties of sediment in Core YDZ1. The imperfect anti ferrimagnetic minerals have more contribution on sediment in a depth of 24.0–22.1 m, and more stable-single domain and pseudo single domain particles exist. The susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization and the ratio of the susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization show a decrease trend below depth of 24 m, a marked increase trend in a depth of 24.0–13.5 m, and a rapid decrease at depth of 13.5 m, then a fluctuation trend upward. The above two magnetic parameters and the ratio of the susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization to the mass susceptibility can be regarded as the proxy indicators for the content of clay (<4μm) and the fine-grained size (<32μm). The sedimentary environment after the last glacial maximum in the Huanghe Delta area has experienced the fluvial facies, the tidal flat facies, the neritic facies, the pro delta facies, the delta front facies and the floodplain facies. Thickness of the Holocene transgression layer is 10.5 m and the depth of substrate is about 24 m according to the YDZ1 core. The sedimentary dynamic has a variation trend with strong-weak-strong, which has been proved by the Flemming triangular schema.

  6. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  7. Spatial distribution of microbial populations and carbon cycle in the subsurface environment of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Y.; Ise, K.; Terashima, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Amamiya, H.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms are widely distributed in the subsurface environments. However, the distribution, role and rate of metabolisms, and the source of their activity are not well known. In this study, we investigated deep groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks, containing saturated methane and CO2, using boreholes at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), northern Hokkaido, Japan. The hydrochemical conditions of groundwaters, such as in-situ water pressure, temperature, electric conductivity, pH, redox potential, were monitored without degassing at multiple intervals along the borehole. Groundwater samples were taken periodically and chemical composition was analyzed using ICP-MS, etc. Cell counts were in the range of 103 to 105 cells ml-1. Molecular analyses revealed the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the microbial population. Abundant methanogens were detected in the groundwater, and 80% of them were related to either Methanoregula boonei or Methanobacterium flexile that can utilize H2/CO2 by methanogenesis. Phylotypes clustered within the phylum Firmicutes, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and candidate division TM7 were dominant in the groundwater samples. Laboratory experiments using a culture technique showed that humic substances purified from the groundwater at Horonobe area appear to be degraded by microorganisms. Our results suggest that microbial spatial distributions in the subsurface environment were correlated closely with geochemical conditions, such as redox condition and carbon sources. In addition, it is inferred that humic substances are one of the important carbon sources for the subsurface microbial redox processes in the environment. This study was partly funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan.

  8. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  9. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  10. Distributed Cloud Computing Environment Enhanced With Capabilities for Wide-Area Migration and Replication Of Virtual Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chul Shim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When a network application is implemented as a virt ual machine on a cloud and is used by a large numbe r of users, the location of the virtual machine shoul d be selected carefully so that the response time experienced by users is minimized. As the user popu lation moves and/or increases, the virtual machine may need to be migrated to a new location or replicated on many locations over a wide-area network. Virtua l machine migration and replication have been studied extensively but in most cases are limited within a subnetwork to be able to maintain service continuit y. In this paper we introduce a distributed cloud computing environment which facilitates the migrati on and replication of a virtual machine over a wide area network. The mechanism is provided by an overl ay network of smart routers, each of which connects a cooperating data center to the Internet. The propos ed approach is analyzed and compared with related works.

  11. First year undergraduate nursing students and nursing mentors: An evaluation of their experience of specialist areas as their hub practice learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jacqueline; Lamont, David; Kerr, Emma-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specialist environments have traditionally not been considered as practice learning environments for year one nursing students. Through implementation of the hub and spoke model of practice learning this was implemented across one health board and Higher Education Institution in Scotland. Sixty nine students from specialist and 147 from general areas out of a total population of 467 students (46.2%) and thirteen mentors from specialist and 26 from general areas out of a total 577 mentors (6.7%) completed a questionnaire. The findings support this initiative and suggest in some cases student experiences are more positive in specialist environments.

  12. [Coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Li, Jing-yi

    2015-05-01

    It is one of the important strategies in the new period of national poverty alleviation and development to maintain the basic balance between the ecological environment and economic development, and to promote the coordinated sustainable development of economy and ecological environment. Taking six contiguous special poverty-stricken areas as the study areas, a coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. The region' s ecological poverty index system was proposed based on the natural attribute of ecological environment, and the ecological environment quality evaluation method was built up by using AHP weighting method, followed by the design of the coupling coordination evaluation method between the ecological environment indices and the county economic poverty comprehensive indices. The coupling coordination degrees were calculated and their spatial representation differentiations were analyzed respectively at district, province, city, and county scales. Results showed that approximately half of the counties in the study areas achieved the harmoniously coordinated development. However, the ecological environmental quality and the economic development in most counties could not be synchronized, where mountains, rivers and other geographic features existed roughly as a dividing line of the coordinated development types. The phenomena of dislocation between the ecological environment and economic development in state-level poor counties were more serious than those of local poor counties.

  13. Dynamics in cyanobacterial communities from a relatively stable environment in an urbanised area (ambient springs in Central Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    Ambient springs are often cited as an example of an ecosystem with stable environmental conditions. A static biotope fosters the development of constant communities with a stable qualitative and relatively stable quantitative structure. Two years of studying cyanobacteria in different microhabitats of the rheocrenic and limnocrenic ambient springs located in urban areas showed that there is a high degree of cyanobacterial diversity and spatial and seasonal dynamics in communities. Spatial heterogeneity in relation to the type of spring and the type of microhabitat is reflected not only by a change in the quantitative structure (the number of species and their biomass), but also by a change in the composition of species. Seasonal changes depended on the type of spring and the type of microhabitat, where weather conditions influenced the communities by different degrees. Cyanobacterial communities of limnocrenes were more diverse in terms of composition and biomass, but they revealed a low seasonal dynamic in contrast to the communities of rheocrenes. The classification of springs based on their environmental conditions revealed that some springs were similar. The resemblance stemmed from the origin of human impact, which was reflected to a high degree in changes in the natural hydrochemical conditions of the springs. For the purpose of understanding which environmental factors had the greatest influence on cyanobacterial communities, a BIO-ENV procedure was performed. The procedure revealed that of most importance was a group of ions not related to the nature of the spring environment - NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(3-). The presence of these ions in groundwater was a result of direct and indirect human activity in the area of aquifers. The dynamics in communities in the studied springs were accelerated by human impact and weather conditions.

  14. Proteomics analysis of flax grown in Chernobyl area suggests limited effect of contaminated environment on seed proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Miernyk, Ján A; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) on April 26, 1986 is the most serious nuclear disaster in human history. Surprisingly, while the area proximal to the CNPP remains substantially contaminated with long-lived radioisotopes including (90)Sr and (137)Cs, the local ecosystem has been able to adapt. To evaluate plant adaptation, seeds of a local flax (Linum usitatissimum) variety Kyivskyi were sown in radio-contaminated and control fields of the Chernobyl region. A total protein fraction was isolated from mature seeds, and analyzed using 2-dimensional electrophoresis combined with tandem-mass spectrometry. Interestingly, growth of the plants in the radio-contaminated environment had little effect on proteome and only 35 protein spots differed in abundance (p-value of ≤0.05) out of 720 protein spots that were quantified for seeds harvested from both radio-contaminated and control fields. Of the 35 differentially abundant spots, 28 proteins were identified using state-of-the-art MS(E) method. Based on the observed changes, the proteome of seeds from plants grown in radio-contaminated soil display minor adjustments to multiple signaling pathways.

  15. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  16. Waste Disposal and Pollution Management in Urban Areas: A Workable Remedy for the Environment in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Awomeso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both wastes and the crude disposal techniques have created subtle and yet serious environmental pollution havoc in many developing countries. This has lead to the degradation of abiotic and biotic components of these nations’ ecological systems. Poor industrial waste disposal systems as well as the indiscriminate and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habit have been identified and proved to be basic features in rural settlements, semi-urban areas and urban centers of the developing world. These have seriously contributed to environmental pollution and ecological deterioration. The major reasons for these were identified to be inadequate information and insufficient modern waste disposal facilities. Approach: This study highlighted the use of simple, yet efficient waste disposal techniques and recommends the adequate supply and optimal utilization of trashcan and rubbish drums in private and public places; the consistent and wide use of recyclable materials and recycling equipment; information flow and training of all on the use of new techniques and methods and the need for the production and/or introduction of other appropriate technology and policy to enhance the implementation and execution of proper waste management schemes that will contribute to a cleaner and safer environment in developing countries. Results: As a result, sanitary landfills were developed to replace the practice of open dumping and to reduce the reliance on waste incineration. Conclusion: In the light of this review research, I recommend that there should be private participation in managing wastes in the developing nation. Since the largest percentage of wastes in developing countries is mainly organic, composting of wastes should be encouraged.

  17. Associations between the perceived environment and physical activity among adults aged 55-65 years: does urban-rural area of residence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; Sodergren, Marita; Otahal, Petr; Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether associations between the perceived environment and physical activity are moderated by urban-rural status among midolder aged adults. Environmental (safety, aesthetics, physical activity environment) and physical activity (total, leisure, transport) data from 3,888 adults (55 to 65 years) from urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression examined interactions between urban-rural status and environments in associations with physical activity. Significant (P physical activity (e.g., rural adults reporting higher safety were 91% to 118% more likely to have higher activity than rural adults reporting low safety). In contrast, the physical activity environment was positively associated with leisure activity among only urban adults. Findings suggest that some tailoring of physical activity promotion strategies targeting the environment may be required for urban and rural midolder aged adults.

  18. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  19. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of the Microbial Community Structure of Pastoruri Glacier Area (Huascarán National Park, Perú), a Natural Extreme Acidic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, Elena; Santofimia, Esther; Blanco, Yolanda; López-Pamo, Enrique; Gómez, Manuel J; Bobadilla, Miguel; Cruz, Rolando; Palomino, Edwin Julio; Aguilera, Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The exposure of fresh sulfide-rich lithologies by the retracement of the Nevado Pastoruri glacier (Central Andes, Perú) is increasing the presence of heavy metals in the water as well as decreasing the pH, producing an acid rock drainage (ARD) process in the area. We describe the microbial communities of an extreme ARD site in Huascarán National Park as well as their correlation with the water physicochemistry. Microbial biodiversity was analyzed by FLX 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The suggested geomicrobiological model of the area distinguishes three different zones. The proglacial zone is located in the upper part of the valley, where the ARD process is not evident yet. Most of the OTUs detected in this area were related to sequences associated with cold environments (i.e., psychrotolerant species of Cyanobacteria or Bacteroidetes). After the proglacial area, an ARD-influenced zone appeared, characterized by the presence of phylotypes related to acidophiles (Acidiphilium) as well as other species related to acidic and cold environments (i.e., acidophilic species of Chloroflexi, Clostridium and Verrumicrobia). Sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) were also identified. The post-ARD area was characterized by the presence of OTUs related to microorganisms detected in soils, permafrost, high mountain environments, and deglaciation areas (Sphingomonadales, Caulobacter or Comamonadaceae).

  20. An experimental investigation into the influence of user state and environment on fading characteristics in wireless body area networks at 2.45 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotton, S.L.; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Using seven strategically placed, time-synchronized body worn receivers covering the head, upper front and back torso, and the limbs, we have investigated the effect of user state: stationary or mobile and local environment: anechoic chamber, open office area and hallway upon first and second order

  1. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. II. Grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Araus, J.L.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean areas, grain growth of temperate cereals often progresses under the harmful influence of drought and high temperature. Genotypic responses are mediated by the specific occurrence of these constraints, thus causing genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. Field experiments were c

  2. 居住区光环境检测及评价研究%Light Environment Detection in Residential Area and Evaluation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立雄; 苏晓明; 党睿; 刘刚

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the background and research approach of " Eleventh Five-Year Plan" Science-technology Support Project of " Light Environment Detection in Residential Area and Evaluation Study",and summarizes the achievements of this research from 3 aspects of the residential light environment detection study,residential light environment evaluation method study and comprehensive evaluation study on the residential light pollution environment.%本文简要介绍了“十一五”科技支撑计划项目“居住区光环境检测及评价研究”的背景、研究思路.从居住区光环境检测研究、居住区光环境评价方法研究及居住区光污染环境综合评价研究3个方面概述了该项研究的成果.

  3. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai'an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hong-chang; LU Yong-long; LIU Can; MENG Qing-hua; SHI Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  4. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  5. Effect of Grinding Process Parameters on Surface Area Roughness of Glass fibre Reinforced Composite Laminate under Dry and Coolant Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chockalingam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study on dry and wet grinding of chopped strand mat glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using an alumina wheel. Investigations were performed to study the impact of the grinding parameters, namely feed, speed, and depth of cut on grinding force ratio and surface area roughness. Effective grinding parameters were sought in this study to maximize grinding force ratio and minimize surface area roughness. Test results show that coolant helped to decrease surface area roughness, but inevitably reduced the grinding force ratio in some cases. These findings lead to economic machining solution for optimum grinding conditions in grinding composite laminates.

  6. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for aquaculture sites, Designated Critical Habitats, management areas, Nature Conservancy properties, parks, and...

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter III. Part I. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    first time in 50 years. Nevada ranked first in the nation in the production of barite, magnesite, and mercury , and second in gold. Although mining... mercury Lander Copper, gold, barite, silver, lead, zinc Lincoln Stone, sand and gravel, perlite, zinc Magnesite, petroleum, fluorspar, sand and gravel White...Sacred Areas Sites with religious importance are burial grounds, cremation areas, rock art, special caves, springs, and selected physiographic features

  9. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and the Environment on Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E. coli and susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Of samples testing positive for E. coli, resistance to ≥ 1 antimicrobials was detected in 7.4% (77/1044; 95% CI, 5.9-9.1) of raccoon fecal samples, 6.3% (23/365; 95% CI, 4.0-9.3) of paw samples, 9.6% (121/1260; 8.0-11.4) of soil samples, 57.4% (31/54; 95% CI, 43.2-70.8) of manure pit samples, and 13.8% (4/29; 95% CI, 3.9-31.7) of dumpster samples. Using univariable logistic regression, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of resistant E. coli in raccoon feces on conservation areas versus farms; however, E. coli isolates resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobials were significantly less likely to be detected from raccoon paw samples on swine farms than conservation areas and significantly more likely to be detected in soil samples from swine farms than conservation areas. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes that were absent from the swine farm environment were detected in raccoons from conservation areas, suggesting that conservation areas and swine farms may have different exposures to resistant bacteria. However, the similar resistance patterns and genes in E. coli from raccoon fecal and environmental samples from the same location types suggest that resistant bacteria may be exchanged between raccoons and their environment.

  10. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  11. Infection of foxes by Echinococcocus multilocularis in urban and suburban areas of Nancy, France: influence of feeding habits and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robardet E.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of biological and environmental factors on the infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes by Echinococcus multilocularis in an endemic area of north-east France. From January 2004 to April 2006, 127 foxes were examined for E. multilocularis and their stomach contents analysed. The effect of year, season, age, sex and urbanisation level on E. multilocularis presence was estimated using a General Linear Model (GLM with logit link, (i.e. logistic regression. Urbanisation level was the only influencing factor, with a decreasing gradient from rural [54%, CI 95% (40-68] to peri-urban [31%, CI 95% (15-52] and urban area [4%, CI 95% (0.7-15]. The consumption of Arvicola terrestris and Microtus sp., grassland species, the main presumed intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis, was studied by the same approach. The two species were consumed less in the urban area and more in autumn than in spring. Anthropogenic food consumption was linked to urbanisation and to age. The frequency of anthropogenic food consumption decreased in the rural area. A global model explaining the presence of E. multilocularis and including urbanisation level and diet was then elaborated. Independently of urbanisation, there was a suggestion of less E. multilocularis infection with anthropogenic food consumption. Red foxes consuming Microtus sp. and A. terrestris had higher worm burden than those that did not. The results suggest that the decreasing gradient observed from rural to urban area is linked to behaviour and feeding habits.

  12. Determining the most suitable areas for artificial groundwater recharge via an integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in GIS environment (case study: Garabaygan Basin, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hossein; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Sabokbar, Hassan Ali Faraji; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Hamzeh, Mohamad; Rafii, Yusef

    2013-01-01

    Flood spreading is a suitable strategy for controlling and benefiting from floods. Selecting suitable areas for flood spreading and directing the floodwater into permeable formations are amongst the most effective strategies in flood spreading projects. Having combined geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis approaches, the present study sought to locate the most suitable areas for flood spreading operation in the Garabaygan Basin of Iran. To this end, the data layers relating to the eight effective factors were prepared in GIS environment. This stage was followed by elimination of the exclusionary areas for flood spreading while determining the potentially suitable ones. Having closely examined the potentially suitable areas using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, the land suitability map for flood spreading was produced. The PROMETHEE II and AHP were used for ranking all the alternatives and weighting the criteria involved, respectively. The results of the study showed that most suitable areas for the artificial groundwater recharge are located in Quaternary Q(g) and Q(gsc) geologic units and in geomorphological units of pediment and Alluvial fans with slopes not exceeding 3%. Furthermore, significant correspondence between the produced map and the control areas, where the flood spreading projects were successfully performed, provided further evidence for the acceptable efficiency of the integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in locating suitable flood spreading areas.

  13. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 3. Part 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Appropriations. .All or part of five declared underground water basins are present in the project area. Four of these, the Canadian River, Fort Sumner, Penasco ...Little Salt Lake De Baca Pecos (80 mi) Red Lake Alamogordo Res. Rio Penasco (40 mi) Bitter Lakes (7) Rio Hondo (47 mi) Chaves Two Rivers Res. Arroyo del

  15. Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Yuan, Zijiao; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2014-08-01

    Coal mining area is highly subject to lead (Pb) pollution from coal mining activities. Several decades of coal mining and processing practices in dozens of coal mines in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA) have led to the accumulation of massive amounts of coal gangue, which piled in dumps. In order to investigate the impacts of coal gangue dumps on Pb level in the supergene media of the HCMA, a systematic sampling campaign comprising coal gangue, soil, wheat, and earthworm samples was conducted. The average Pb content in the coal mining area soil is 24 mg/kg, which is slightly higher than the associated coal gangues (23 mg/kg) and markedly higher than reference region soil (12.6 mg/kg). Soil in the HCMA present a slight to moderate Pb contamination, which might be related to the weathering and leaching of coal gangue dumps. Lateral distribution of Pb in HCMA soil differed among individual coal mines. The soil profile distribution of Pb depends on both natural and anthropogenic contributions. Average Pb content is higher in roots than in stems, leaves, and wheat husks, while the Pb level in seeds exceeded the maximum Pb allowance for foods (Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods of China, GB 2762-2012). Earthworms in the selected area are significantly enriched in Pb, suggesting higher bio-available Pb level in soil in the HCMA.

  16. Does Physical Activity Mediate the Associations Between Local-Area Descriptive Norms, Built Environment Walkability, and Glycosylated Hemoglobin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Niyonsenga, Theo; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2017-08-23

    Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. Such indirect effects have rarely been tested. This study assessed whether individual-level self-reported physical activity mediated the influence of local-area descriptive norms and objectively expressed walkability on 10-year change in HbA1c. HbA1c was assessed three times for adults in a 10-year population-based biomedical cohort (n = 4056). Local-area norms specific to each participant were calculated, aggregating responses from a separate statewide surveillance survey for 1600 m road-network buffers centered on participant addresses (local prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m²) and physical inactivity (descriptive norms and walkability influence cardiometabolic risk trajectory through individual-level physical activity. Efforts to reduce population cardiometabolic risk should consider the extent of local-area unhealthful behavioral norms and walkability in tailoring strategies to improve physical activity.

  17. Does Physical Activity Mediate the Associations between Local-Area Descriptive Norms, Built Environment Walkability, and Glycosylated Hemoglobin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. Such indirect effects have rarely been tested. This study assessed whether individual-level self-reported physical activity mediated the influence of local-area descriptive norms and objectively expressed walkability on 10-year change in HbA1c. HbA1c was assessed three times for adults in a 10-year population-based biomedical cohort (n = 4056). Local-area norms specific to each participant were calculated, aggregating responses from a separate statewide surveillance survey for 1600 m road-network buffers centered on participant addresses (local prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and physical inactivity (descriptive norms and walkability influence cardiometabolic risk trajectory through individual-level physical activity. Efforts to reduce population cardiometabolic risk should consider the extent of local-area unhealthful behavioral norms and walkability in tailoring strategies to improve physical activity. PMID:28832552

  18. 可持续发展背景下的居住区环境设计%Environment Design of Residential Area Under The Background of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠雯

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems existing in the environmental design of residential area at pres-ent, the environment design of residential area is sketched under the background of environmen-tal sustainability and sustainable design to explore a new direction of the environmental design of residential area. The "people - oriented" concept, humanization design, environmental re-sources recycling and so on are implanted in the environmental design of residential area. The practices accordingly improve the residential environment design status.%分析了当今居住区环境设计中存在的问题。探讨了居住区环境设计的新方向。认为将“以人为本”的理念、人性化设计,资源环境的循环利用等植入居住区的环境设计当中,才能有针对性地改善当今居住区环境设计的现状。

  19. WIDE-AREA BASED ON COORDINATED TUNING OF FUZZY PSS AND FACTS CONTROLLER IN MULTI-MACHINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Ebrahimian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper coordination of fuzzy power system stabilizer (FPSS and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS have been considered in a multi-machine power system. The proposed model, has been applied for a wide-area power system. The proposed FPSS presented with local, nonlinear feedbacks, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. For this model, in fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Also, the parameters of FACTS controller have been evaluated by improved honey bee mating optimization (IHBMO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been applied over two case studies of single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB and two areas four machine (TAFM Kundur’s power system. The obtained results demonstrate the superiority of proposed strategy.

  20. Recommendations for practical measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment in three areas of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarzan Legović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the severity and extent of aquaculture impact and the estimation of sustainable carrying capacity were undertaken in three areas of the Philippines - Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan, (brackishwater and Taal Lake (freshwater. This paper describes the potential mitigating measures that could be taken to reduce nutrient release from aquaculture, increase nutrient uptake using extractive species, and possible early warning systems for critical states of the tide when there is reduced flushing.

  1. Waste Disposal and Pollution Management in Urban Areas: A Workable Remedy for the Environment in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Awomeso, J. A.; A. M. Taiwo; A. M. Gbadebo; A. O. Arimoro

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Both wastes and the crude disposal techniques have created subtle and yet serious environmental pollution havoc in many developing countries. This has lead to the degradation of abiotic and biotic components of these nations ecological systems. Poor industrial waste disposal systems as well as the indiscriminate and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habit have been identified and proved to be basic features in rural settlements, semi-urban areas and urban centers of th...

  2. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  3. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Iturmendi, A; Mastral, A M

    2013-12-01

    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010-January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R(2) = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed.

  4. Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its

  5. Burned area mapping in Mediterranean environment using medium-resolution multi-spectral data and a neuro-fuzzy classifier

    OpenAIRE

    MITRAKIS NIKOLAOS; Mallinis, Giorgos; Koutsias, Nikos; Theocharis, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assess the performance of a self-organising neuro-fuzzy classifier for burned area mapping using multi-spectral satellite data. The proposed neuro-fuzzy model incorporates a multi-layered structure consisting of two types of nodes. The first type is a generic fuzzy neuron classifier (FNCs), whereas the second is solely a decision fusion operator. The Group Method of Data Handling algorithm is used for structure learning providing the model with self-organising attributes and...

  6. State of the environment in the arrangement area of the enterprises for repairing and utilization of nuclear-powered submarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha; Bychenkov; Blekher; Belyaev; Krupkin; Kovygin; Puzikov; Ryabchikov; Stepanov; Toropov

    2001-01-01

    The influence of nuclear-powered utilization (disjunction) upon the state of health of the soil, vegetation and atmospheric air was studied. It was stated that the concentration of hazardous metals in the air of an industrial site did not exceed the permissible levels. In the residential area the cases of increased concentrations of manganese and chromium were noted. The major pollutants of vegetation are manganese, titanium, copper and nickel. The authors propose a complex of anthropogenic factors to be the cause of the environmental contamination by hard metals. The volume activity of radioactive aerosols in the studied site is confined to the local hum.

  7. Natural versus anthropogenic dispersion of metals to the environment in the Wulik River area, western Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Hudson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead-silver mineral deposits in the Wulik River region, Alaska, contain an enormous accumulation of Zn. In addition to the giant deposits at Red Dog, at least nine other deposits are known. Natural weathering of these deposits has dispersed metals over a wide region over a long period of time (c. 10 000 years) through transport by stream and groundwater, stream sediments, formation of soils, and perhaps wind-blown atmospheric deposition from weathering of naturally enriched Pb-Zn surface deposits. Anthropogenic input also contributes metals to the environment. Mining of the Red Dog deposit, which began in 1989, produces fine-grained galena and sphalerite concentrates that are transported from the mine site by truck to a storage port facility. Wind-blown dispersion of concentrate dust along the road and around the port facility has been a source of local metal-rich surficial materials. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics provide a means of distinguishing the natural versus anthropogenic metal sources. Soils over deposits have patterns of increasing metal contents with depth and proximity to the metal-bearing source, whereas ore concentrate dust is localized at the surface. The acidity produced by weathering of the sulphide deposits creates an environment in which elements such as Se and Mo are stable whereas Ca is not. Consequently, high Mo (up to 29 ppm) and Se (up to 17 ppm) and low Ca (<0.4%) concentrations characterize surficial materials near natural deposits. Acidic conditions also yield high Pb-Zn ratios (up to 70) because sphalerite is preferentially dissolved and Zn is mobilized during chemical weathering. In natural materials, secondary jarosite and anglesite are developed, and minor galena is etched and rounded due to a history of chemical and mechanical weathering. In contrast, dust-bearing samples have Pb/Zn ratios that are 0.4 or less, Ca contents are higher (0.2 to 3.6%), and Mo (<10 ppm) and Se (not detected) concentrations are low

  8. sUAS Position Estimation and Fusion in GPS-Degraded and GPS-Denied Environments using an ADS-B Transponder and Local Area Multilateration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert Sherman

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and a manned aircraft are tracked using ADS-B transponders and the Local Area Multilateration System (LAMS) in simulated GPS-degraded and GPS-denied environments. Several position estimation and fusion algorithms are developed for use with the Autonomous Flight Systems Laboratory (AFSL) TRansponder based Position Information System (TRAPIS) software. At the lowest level, these estimation and fusion algorithms use raw information from ADS-B and LAMS data streams to provide aircraft position estimates to the ground station user. At the highest level, aircraft position is estimated using a discrete time Kalman filter with real-time covariance updates and fusion involving weighted averaging of ADS-B and LAMS positions. Simulation and flight test results are provided, demonstrating the feasibility of incorporating an ADS-B transponder on a commercially-available UAS and maintaining situational awareness of aircraft positions in GPS-degraded and GPS-denied environments.

  9. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the upper part of Dalan and Kangan Formations in the Kuh-e Surmeh area, Folded Zagros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhossein Adabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Dallan and Kangan formations (Permian-Triassic, are located in the Kuh-e Surmeh area in folded Zagros Basin with a thickness of 325 m overlying by Nar evaporite member and underlying by Dashtak Formation. Dominant lithology of these formations are limestone and dolomite. Our purpose in this study is to identify microfacieses, sedimentary environment and diagenetic proceses. To overcome this aim, thin sections petrographic studies, leaded to identify 12 microfacieses related to 4 facieses belt: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment. Based on petrographic studies, the important diagenetic processes in these formations consist of: micritization, dolomitization, cementation, stilolitization and chemical and physical compactions. Burial diagenesis is dominated diagenetic event. The observed porosities in this section are primary and secondary such as fenestral, vuggy, fracture, moldic, interparticle, intraparticle and channel

  10. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  11. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  12. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition are associated with better potential spatial access to the ground-truthed food environment in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about spatial inequalities and potential access to the food environment in rural areas. In this study, we assessed the food environment in a 6-county rural region of Texas (11,567 km2) through ground-truthed methods that included direct observation and on-site Global Positioning System technology to examine the relationship between neighborhood inequalities (e.g., socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition) and network distance from all 101 rural neighborhoods to the nearest food store (FS). Neighborhood deprivation was determined from socioeconomic characteristics using 2000 census block group (CBG) data. Network distances were calculated from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supermarket, grocery, convenience, and discount store. Multiple regression models examined associations among deprivation, minority composition, population density, and network distance to the nearest FS. The median distance to the nearest supermarket was 14.9 km one way (range 0.12 to 54.0 km). The distance decreased with increasing deprivation, minority composition, and population density. The worst deprived neighborhoods with the greatest minority composition had better potential spatial access to the nearest FS. For >20% of all rural residents, their neighborhoods were at least 17.7 km from the nearest supermarket or full-line grocery or 7.6 km from the nearest convenience store. This makes food shopping a challenge, especially in rural areas that lack public transportation and where many have no vehicular access. Knowledge of potential access to the food environment is essential for combining environmental approaches and health interventions so that families, especially those in rural areas, can make healthier food choices.

  13. 兖州矿区环境友好模式研究%Research on environment-friendly developing mode in Yanzhou mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继贤; 张雁秋

    2012-01-01

    为促进煤炭企业转变经济发展方式,调整产业结构,发展循环经济,推动环境友好矿区建设,本文首先对兖州矿区环境保护和能源消耗结构现状进行分析,在此基础上,提出了环境友好矿区内涵,并提炼出了兖州矿区环境友好模式.该模式由环境方针、目标指标体系和实现目标指标体系的三大支撑体系构成,三大支撑体系包括管控创新体系、产业结构优化体系和技术支撑体系.%In order to promote the shifting of the economic mode and the industrial structure,as well as to develop recycle economic and accelerate the construction of environment-friendly developing mode in mining aera,this paper analyzed the environmental protection situation and the energy structure in Yanzhou mining area,The connotation of the environmentl-friendly mining area was discussed and the environment-friendly mode in Yanzhou coal mining area was put forward. This mode was composed of the environment guidelines, the objective indicators and the three assistant systems including the management &. innovation system,the industrial-structure optimization system and the technical-supporting system.

  14. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  15. Evaluation of Using Caged Clams to Monitor Contaminated Groundwater Exposure in the Near-Shore Environment of the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B.; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.

    2008-01-31

    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) has been identified as an indicator species for locating and monitoring contaminated groundwater in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a field study to explore the use of caged Asiatic clams to monitor contaminated groundwater upwelling in the 300 Area near-shore environment and assess seasonal differences in uranium uptake in relation to seasonal flow regimes of the Columbia River. Additional objectives included examining the potential effects of uranium accumulation on growth, survival, and tissue condition of the clams. This report documents the field conditions and procedures, laboratory procedures, and statistical analyses used in collecting samples and processing the data. Detailed results are presented and illustrated, followed by a discussion comparing uranium concentrations in Asiatic clams collected at the 300 Area and describing the relationship between river discharge, groundwater indicators, and uranium in clams. Growth and survival, histology, and other sources of environmental variation also are discussed.

  16. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin--A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Huai-liang; Zhu Bo; Chen Guo-jie; Gao Mei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biomass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biomass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  17. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin——A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHuai-liang; ZhuBo; ChenGuo-jie; GaoMei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biornass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biornass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  18. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  19. Where does blue water go in the semi-arid area of northern China under changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Yuan, F.; Yong, B.; Jiang, S.; Yang, X.; Gong, L.; Ma, M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.

    2014-09-01

    River flow regimes in the semi-arid region of northern China show a decreasing trend in terms of quantity. River runoff (i.e. blue water) reduction within the Laohahe catchment, the source area of the Liaohe River basin, manifests the aridity that exists widely in northern China. According to the water balance equation, during the past half-century, observed streamflow records in the Laohahe catchment show that blue water was re-directed to green water flow (i.e. evapotranspiration) over annual and decadal time scales, whereas precipitation did not vary much. Human activities and land-use/land-cover changes are the fundamental reasons for such runoff change. In the studied catchment, extensive land reclamation for agriculture, water withdrawal from streams, and abstraction from aquifers for irrigation are the direct and main causes leading to the decrease in observed blue water. These factors further demonstrate that a land-use decision is also a decision about water. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated modelling framework to intrinsically link climate, hydrological, and agricultural models with social and economic analyses.

  20. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  1. Where does blue water go in the semi-arid area of northern China under changing environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes in the semi-arid region of northern China show a decreasing trend in terms of quantity. River runoff (i.e. blue water reduction within the Laohahe catchment, the source area of the Liaohe River basin, manifests the aridity that exists widely in northern China. According to the water balance equation, during the past half-century, observed streamflow records in the Laohahe catchment show that blue water was re-directed to green water flow (i.e. evapotranspiration over annual and decadal time scales, whereas precipitation did not vary much. Human activities and land-use/land-cover changes are the fundamental reasons for such runoff change. In the studied catchment, extensive land reclamation for agriculture, water withdrawal from streams, and abstraction from aquifers for irrigation are the direct and main causes leading to the decrease in observed blue water. These factors further demonstrate that a land-use decision is also a decision about water. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated modelling framework to intrinsically link climate, hydrological, and agricultural models with social and economic analyses.

  2. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in agricultural and water environments in the Qinghai area of China by IFT and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqing; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Cai, Qigang; Karanis, Gabriele; Wang, Geping; Wang, Guanghua; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiuping; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-09-01

    Qinghai Province in northwest China is strongly influenced by agricultural activities and is an important source of food and drinking water. Here, we present findings regarding the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species based on a large-scale investigation of areas of Qinghai Province. The diagnosis and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was carried out using immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT), whereas nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal smears and water samples was used for the detection and molecular characterization of the species. In total, 561 samples (260 water samples and 301 fecal samples from animals) were collected and analyzed. Of the 260 water samples, 66 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 71 samples were positive by nested PCR; in addition, 39 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 40 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of the 301 fecal samples from animals, 98 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 61 samples were positive by nested PCR, whereas 52 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 31 samples were positive by nested PCR. We showed that the water supplies and animals investigated contained Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Thus, we recommend that the Chinese Government and Chinese health authorities undertake control measures to protect the food and drinking water sources in Qinghai from these pathogenic protozoa.

  3. A statistical approach for determining the envi-ronment impact of surface sediments from the Dongting Lake area, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhigang; BAO Zhengyu; ZHOU Lifa; GAO Pu

    2009-01-01

    The Dongting Lake, the second biggest freshwater lake in China, consists of three wetlands of national importance, namely the East Dongting Lake, the South Dongting Lake, and the West Dongting Lake. Surface sedi-ments were sampled from 57 locations across the lake. Nutrient concentrations [total organic carbon (TOC), total N (TN) and total P (TP)] and 16 element concentrations (Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) in the sediments were measured to investigate the impact of industrialization along the lake's coastline and sev-eral tributaries on the profiles of nutrients and heavy metals in the lake's surface sediments. R-mode cluster analysis (CA) was used to integrate geochemical data. The result showed that euthophication of the Dongting Lake resulted mainly from TN and TOC. The main polluting trace metals are Hg, As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn, which are largely ad-sorbed on clay minerals or Fe/Mn oxides, or deposited as carbonates. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the source of micropollutants. The worst affected district by heavy metals is the East Dongting Lake, the pollution sources may originate mainly from the Xiangjiang drainage area. The results demonstrated that multivariate methods are the potentially great tools for the interpretation of the environmental data on lake sediments.

  4. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  5. Simultaneous determination of silver and other heavy metals in aquatic environment receiving wastewater from industrial area, applying an enrichment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, silver (Ag, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, cobalt (Co and lead (Pb were simultaneously determined in water samples of fresh water canal receiving untreated effluents from an industrial area, of Sindh Pakistan. The analytes in the water sample were determined by CPE using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC as a complexing agent and then entrapped in non-ionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114. The surfactant rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps such as pH of sample solution, concentration of oxine and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. The validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of a certified reference sample of water (CRM1634e. Reliability of the proposed method was also checked by the standard addition method in a real sample at three concentration levels of all metals. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration of 10 mL sample solutions, allowed preconcentration factor of 20-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained for Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb was 0.42, 0.48, 0.92, 0.62, and 1.42 μg L−1, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to waste and fresh water samples for simultaneous determination of different metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb has shown a decreased trend from 46.5–6.96, 23.0–8.92, 30.2–12.8, 14.2–4.45 and 15.3–5.32 μg L−1, respectively from initial entrance of waste water along the downstream of canal.

  6. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Aeromonas recovered from the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain): diseases spectrum and prevalence in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Giménez, M J

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas infections are rare in Europe and often related to traveller's diarrhoea. A total of 185 Aeromonas isolates from river water, fish and clinical sources, recovered during a 1-year period, were used to investigate the disease spectrum and impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. They were all identified by biochemical tests and 25% of them were also identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 antimicrobials were determined for all isolates by broth microdilution/E-strips methods, and susceptibility was assessed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Strains pathogenicity was determined by using Swiss Webster mice as the animal model. Aeromonas diseases had an incidence of around 20 cases/million inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Valencia (Spain). Acute gastroenteritis in children with no history of travel abroad was the main pathology. These cases were related to A. caviae, A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila and A. dhakensis. A significant incidence of A. caviae in humans was found, while the other species were equally present in clinical and environmental origins. A. jandaei, A. bestiarum and A. media had mainly an environmental distribution. The prevalence of MDR Aeromonas was maximal in clinical samples, and resistance phenotypes were significantly related to this source. 7.2% of environmental Aeromonas was resistant to at least five drugs; most of them were moderately virulent for mice and, in addition, belonged to clinically significant species. The present study demonstrates a diseases spectrum similar to that reported in tropical countries, and also that pathogenic and heavily MDR Aeromonas are present in environmental reservoirs. MDR Aeromonas from any source analysed were susceptible to aztreonam, netilmicin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime and fluoroquinolones.

  7. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

  8. Comparison between lead levels in dandelions grown in an ultra-clean lab environment (baseline) and those collected from the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojero, J.; Odigie, K. O.; Hibdon, S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study is aimed at establishing the baseline (natural) levels of lead in dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) grown in an ultra-clean environment. Dandelions have been used extensively as biomonitors of environmental lead levels since their distribution is global and they can be easily collected. However, industrial lead contamination is so pervasive that even dandelions from the most remote areas in the world may be contaminated with industrial lead. Therefore, this work will test the hypothesis that "natural" lead levels in dandelions are lower than any previously published values - by growing them in a HEPA filtered air (Class 100) trace metal clean room with high purity (18 MΩ cm) water. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of lead in the clean-room grown dandelions will be compared to values in literature and to those of lead in dandelions collected from San Francisco Bay Area. Lead is a dense, ductile, and highly malleable metal that is found naturally in our environment. Due to its properties it is currently highly used in building construction, in ceramic glazes, lead chromate and in PVC plastic used to coat electrical cords. The uses of lead have included paint, leather tanning, and being used as an additive to gasoline prior to the mid 1970's, as well as others. Due to its many uses, humans are susceptible to lead regularly through various means of exposure from air, water and soil, often leading to lead toxicity.

  9. Design and Applications of Land Resources and Ecological Environment Information System:A Case Study of Zigui County in the Three Gorges Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The design and applications of a land information system built upon ARC/INFO and ArcView arepresented. The proposed system not only maintains all the advantages of the more conventional implemen-tations but also enhances them in the following ways: 1) the application program interfaces (API) are usedto transmit data and messages among different parts of the system; 2) the integrated system can supportstudies on land evaluations and ecological analyses by efficient management of attribute and spatial dataand 3) correspondingly, spatial records and attributive records are linked by the same identifiers (ID). Acase study application in Zigui County of the Three Gorges Area in China demonstrates that the systemcould employ land-use maps and land property data to predicate and analyze the land utilization changes inthe past, present and future. The ecological environment analysis can be carried out with the data of land,economics and terrain map used, showing that the system can be widely applied, especially to survey landand environment resources in the countryside area.

  10. The morphological development of newly inundated intertidal areas: the mechanisms driving the early evolution of an estuarine environment designed and constructed by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan; Burgess, Heidi; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Intertidal saltmarsh and mudflat habitats are of global importance due to the ecosystem, economic and cultural services they provide. These services include wildlife habitat provision and species diversity, immobilisation of pollutants and protection from coastal flooding. Saltmarsh and mudflat environments are, however, being lost and degraded due to erosion caused by rising sea levels and increased storminess. These losses are exacerbated by anthropogenic influences including land reclamation, increased coastal development and the construction of coastal flood defences which prevent the landwards migration of saltmarsh and mudflat environments, resulting in coastal squeeze. To compensate for saltmarsh and mudflat losses areas of the coastal hinterland are being inundated by breaching defences and constructing new defences inland, thus extending or constructing new estuarine environments; a processes known as de-embankment or managed realignment. Morphological engineering and landscaping within managed realignment sites prior to site inundation varies depending on the aims of the scheme. However, there is a shortage of data on the morphological evolution within these sites post site inundation impeding the ability of coastal engineers to effectively design and construct future sites. To date there has been a focus on the colonisation of marine macro fauna and flora within newly inundated managed realignment sites, which can be relatively rapid and easily quantified. Little is known of the morphological evolution in response to altered sedimentary processes, its driving mechanisms and therefore the success and ecological sustainability of these sites. This study evaluates the post-inundation morphological development of the largest open coast managed realignment site in Europe, at Medmerry on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Inundated in September 2013, the Medmerry Managed Realignment Site consists of a mosaic of former agricultural land and areas of lower

  11. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu Julia [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca; Zhang Chengxiao [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Duan Qingbo [Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L{sup -1} for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g{sup -1} for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g{sup -1} for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g{sup -1} for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT FEATURE OF BREEDING AREA AND ENDANGERED FACTORS OF RED-CROWNED CRANE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Jun-bao

    2001-01-01

    [1]CHEN Wei-lie, 1995. Wetland vegetation types, distribution and protection in China[A]. In: CHEN Yi-yu(ed. ). Study of Wetland in China [C]. Changchun: Jilin Sciences Technology Press, 55-62. (in Chinese)[2]DING Wen-ning, ZHOU Fu-zhang, 1982. The wintering area distribution of Crane in China[J] . Chinese Journal of Zoology, 17(6): 13-14. (in Chinese).[3]DUAN Wen-mi, DU Xiang-dong, 1987. The record of Red-crowned Crane breeding in Dalai Nur[J]. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 22(3): 15. (in Chinese)[4]FENG Kc-min , LI Jin-lu, 1985. The aerial survey of rare wader of Red-crowned Crane, etc. [J]. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 13(1): 81-87. (in Chinese)[5]GAO Zhong-xin, MA Zhan, YU Yue-ming, 1993. The many theoretical problems of migration about birds[J]. Chinese Wildlife, (5): 6-9. (in Chinese)[6]JIM Harris, 1997. A future for China′s cranes[J]. The ICF Bugle, 23(3): 1-3.[7]LI Jin-lu, CHENG Cai-yun, 1987. Study of breeding area distribution of Red-crowned Crane[J]. Chinese Wildlife, (2):11-14. (in Chinese)[8]LI Jin-lu, FENG Ke-rmin, 1985. Research of Red-crowned Crane and White Crane in winter[J]. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 13(3): 135-142. (in Chinese)[9]LI Xiao-wni, ZHANG Yu-zhu, 1985. The breeding of Red-crowned Crane under condition of raising[J]. Chinese Wildlife,(5):32-34. (in Chinese)[10]MA Yi-qing, 1996. The Research of China′s Crane[M].Harbin: Heilongjiang Education Publishing House, 1-133.(in Chinese)[11]MA Yi-qing, JIN Long-rong, JIN Ai-ling et al., 1987. The aerial survey report of rare wader of Red-crowned Crane, etc, in Wuyuer River valley, Heilongjiang Province[J]. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 33(2): 187-190. (in Chinese)[12]MA Yi-qing, 1987. The amount and distribution of Red-crowned Crane in Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province[J]. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 33(1): 82-87. (in Chinese)[13]MA Yi-qing , LI Xiao-min, 1990. The present situation of Red-crowned Crane resource in China

  13. Investigation on deposition condition, sedimentary environment and genesis of Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits, Dehdasht area, Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province: using mineralogical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits are located 40 km northeast of Dehdasht in Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province in the Zagros simply folded belt. The deposits were formed in the oldest rocks of the area of late Cretaceous age. The bauxite horizon is situated between Sarvak and Ilam formations. The aim of this study is to determine the mineralogy and texture relations of the deposits in order to determine the environment and status of bauxite mineralization. In this way, samples were selected from these bauxite deposits for mineralogical studies based on microscopic and XRD techniques. The bauxite horizon in the Mandan deposit consists of white, gray, black, pisolitic, red and yellow bauxites. The sequence was repeated in the Deh-Now without black and gray bauxites. Mineralogy is similar in all bauxitic layers and the main textures are pisolitic-ooide, ooide-spheroid, pisolitic, pelitomorphic and pseoudomorphic. Bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and calcite are the most important minerals in both bauxitic layers of the Mandan and Deh-Now deposits. Due to bohmite mineralization in the study area, erosional and intense weathering environment in the Touronian-Cenomanian could be suggested for the deposition of bauxite in these deposits. Existence of interclasts in the pisolites and ooides indicate that these bauxites were transformed from the primary in situ environment to karstic sedimentary basin as authigenic origin. These studies indicate that there are two mineralized facies with different environmental status: (1 oxidation facies with bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and hematite minerals and (2 reduced facies with pyrite, diaspore and chlorite mineralization. The lack of reduced condition at the Deh-Now deposit shows that the deposit formed only in oxidation status.

  14. Numerical simulation of wind environment in the urban areas%基于数值模拟的城市中心区风环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐地; 李念平; 苏林; 李靖; 魏小清

    2012-01-01

    利用CFD软件对长沙市中心区典型区域的风环境进行了三维数值模拟研究.结果表明,城市建筑群布局不当会造成多方面不利影响:如建筑群内局部地区气流不畅,污染物难以扩散,影响市民身体健康;街道峡谷风使得行人行动不便,冬季热舒适感差;复杂的风环境可能造成建筑构件的损坏乃至脱落,对地面行人的安全造成威胁;建筑围护结构渗透风增加造成建筑能耗的增加.在城市规划和建设中,中心区风环境状况要引起足够的重视,在建设之前要进行风环境模拟与评估.%In this paper, we would like to introduce a numerical simulated model of a typical area of City Changsha established based on the real data statistics made by the corresponding departments. As we know from our daily experience, the wind environment has been becoming more and more complicated as a result of setting up more and more high-rises. To some extent, it has made our urban living environment more and more unpredictable with the consequence unknown. The situation has pushed us to accomplish our 3-dimensional numerical study of the wind environment by means of computational fluid dynamics software. The results of our simulation help us to disclose the fact that unreasonable layout of the architectural complex has a harmful effect in many ways. As it can be seen, the wind flow of some areas in the architectural complex is sluggish due to circuitous and narrow streets, and diffusion of contaminants becomes more and more serious. With the ever increasing concentration of the high-rises, the velocity of the wind becomes higher due to the serious reduction of the wind-flowing space. In some areas of narrow streets, when the wind flows into the streets, the high blowing velocity of the wind has resulted in the street-canyon wind, which makes the pedestrians on the streets feel unpleasant and discomfort particularly in the cold winter days. There would also suddenly

  15. Phlebotominae fauna in a recent deforested area with American tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina): seasonal distribution in domestic and peridomestic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Lestani, Eduardo Ariel; Cavia, Regino; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies have been involved as vectors of Leishmania. In Argentina, Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani are involved as the main vectors of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). In the northeastern border of the country, an outbreak of ATL during 2004-2005 was associated with deforestation and subsequent settlement of farmers close to the edge of the forest. The aim of this work was to study the community composition of sand flies along time in farms located near primary and secondary forest in two environments: houses and pigsties. The association of abundance with temperature and precipitation was also evaluated for the most prevalent species. A total of 23,659 Phlebotominae belonging to the genera Nyssomyia, Migonemyia, Pintomyia, Evandromyia, Micropygomyia, Sciopemyia, Dampfomyia, Psathyromyia and Brumptomyia were captured. Ny. whitmani, which was the most abundant species, and Migonemyia migonei, which was the second most abundant species, were present throughout the year. Both species were positively associated with temperature, mostly up to 31-47 days, and with precipitation at 31 days before the sampling day. The abundance was higher in pigsties than in houses, but the time pattern was positively associated between both environments. These results confirm that Ny. whitmani is the dominant species in the study area and its presence throughout the year indicates a potential long period of ATL transmission. The presence of Mg. migonei as the second species in abundance is relevant, because it has been described as a secondary vector of the parasites of ATL and a putative vector of the agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. We discuss the role of the pigsty as the environment that attract more sandflies, taking into account the number of sand flies captured there, the distance from the home, and the association of sand fly abundance with each of the two environments.

  16. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS: a new tool to analyse the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bonamano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena, as expected by Marine Strategy Directive, which is focused on the achievement of Good Environmental Status (GES by all Member States by 2020. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia, where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS, implemented in the current configuration, includes various modules that provide integrated information to be used in different fields of the environmental research. The long term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated by in situ surveys, periodically carried out for the monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column and marine sediments, as well as of the benthic biota. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM, are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow analyses and forecasting of the dynamics of conservative and non-conservative particles under different conditions. As examples of C-CEMS applications, two case studies are reported in this work: (1 the analysis of faecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment and, (2 the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulations results are combined with Posidonia oceanica distribution and bathing areas presence in order to resolve the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities and sensitivity areas management.

  17. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  18. Analysis of the Escherichia coli dynamics in Civitavecchia bathing areas using the multi-platform coastal observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Borsellino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Caruso, Gabriella; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are strongly affected by episodes of fecal contamination due to polluted water inflows from inadequately treated sewages that can cause a loss of resilience of the coastal ecosystems and also an alteration of their functioning. With the aim to provide an useful tool to assess the effects of such phenomena a big effort has been undertaken to the realization of a multi-platform monitoring observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System) in the coastal zone of Civitavecchia (Northern Latium, Italy), which collect a large amount of data by fixed stations, periodic in-situ samplings and remote observations and use them to feed the mathematical models in order to forecast the paths of the polluted substances in the marine environment. This work is focused on the analysis of the dispersion of Escherichia coli in Civitavecchia bathing areas during the summer 2012. Four daily field surveys under different meteomarine conditions were performed to detect the E. coli concentration at the discharge points and the control stations located in the bathing areas. The collected samples were analysed through the Culture-Based technique (CB) and the Fluorescent Antibody (FA) method in order to estimate both the viable culturable cells and the total E.coli population. The comparison between bacterial concentrations obtained by the two methods shows that the quantitative discrepancy between the culture and microscopical counts increases as the distance to the discharge point grows, underlining the occurrence of a high percentage of non viable cells, which are detected by FA only, at the control stations. Microbiological datasets integrated with C-CEMS measures were used to feed and validate the hydrodynamical (Delft3d-Flow and Swan) and bacterial dispersion (Delft3d-Waq) models. In order to analyze the contribute of physical (transport induced by marine currents) and biological processes (cells decay connected to solar radiation, temperature

  19. Land Use Change and Its Effect on Environment Based on Farmers' Behaviors: A Case Study in Agricultural Areas of Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; YAN Yan; ZENG Yun-ying; ZHONG Xiang-hao

    2005-01-01

    In the case study in Agricultural Area of Tibet, the process and characteristics of farmers' land use were surveyed by semi-structural interview questionnaire. By comparing the change of land covers and farmers' land decision in two periods, the spatial connection of them was obtained. And the relations among farmers' land decision, land use change and environment were examined by calculating emergy and value flow. The results show that: hunting the maximal profits is the primary aim of farmers' land decision; farmers' land decision is incompatible with sustainable land use presently; farmers' land decision and land cover can be embodied spatially by each other; the change of farmers' land decision can be monitored by observing the change of land cover, and the sustainability of farmers' land decision can be appraised by calculating emergy and value flow.

  20. 居住区户外环境的适老化设计%Outdoor Environment Design for the Aged in Residential Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕珉; 刘佳燕

    2013-01-01

    From angle of developer, designer and purchaser, this paper makes analysis of the design problems for the aged in present residential area. According to the demands of outdoor activities for the aged, it proposes the design principle for outdoor environment and the main points of design for different type of activities space, outdoor facilities and garden factors.%从开发商、设计师、购房者等不同主体方面分析目前居住区在适老化设计方面的问题成因和表现,结合老年人户外活动的需求,提出面向适老化的户外环境设计原则,及关于户外环境不同类型的活动空间、户外设施及园林要素的设计要点.

  1. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Santibañez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of suitability for plant species in a given environment. Moringa oleifera Lam. species, native from India, was chosen considering its rusticity and the increasing interest on this species due to its multiple uses, nutritional value, and medicinal properties. The first phase of this work was a compilation of data from climatic downscaling (WorldClim, University of East Anglia database (CRU, FAO database, and an historic datasets from Chilean meteorological stations. This information was used to test two different models to compare bioclimatic profiles, considering relevant climatic variables for plant adaptation: maximum and minimum temperatures, accumulated degree days, frost regime, and air humidity. The first approach, based on climatic analogy, was to compare each of these variables between Chilean and foreign localities, and the second, based on bioclimatic suitability, focus on the degree of meeting the minimum bioclimatic requirements by the species in each locality. This paper provides some tools to make this kind of comparisons. Both approaches were tested using M. oleifera as target. Both approaches were complementary and prove to be useful for identifying potential areas where the species could be cultivated. The use of these approaches suggested the existence of some bioclimatic suitability for this species in the coastal areas with mild winters and frosts, from 27° to 37° S lat.

  2. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  3. 未知环境下多UAV搜索的区域再入%Area Re-entry for Multi-UAV Search in Unknown Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜继永; 张凤鸣; 毛红保; 杨骥; 张超

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses a cooperative search problem where a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) seeks to reduce uncertainty in an unknown environment.The gird-based representation of search environment is established,and a UAV dynamic model and a predictive model of UAV systems are presented.Taking into account the practical tactical requirements,an area re-enter model is formulated,considering some maneuverability constraints.The corresponding shortest re-enter path is formulated.We develop a cooperative search strategy based on "retractable" mechanism,which can enhance adaptability to unknown environments.We also propose a global information base to make full use of the real-time local environmental information detected by the UAVs,and generate the search path on-line in a rolling style.Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the main feature of the proposed method.%针对未知环境下多无人机(unmanned aerial vehicles,UAV)协同搜索问题展开研究,通过网格化的环境规则描述,给出了UAV的运动规则及UAV系统的预测模型.考虑实际战术需求,建立了满足UAV机动性能约束的区域再次进入数学模型,给出了最短再入路径的求解方法.引入了“伸缩式”协同搜索机制,增加对未知环境的适应性,同时设计了系统的全局信息库,从而充分利用UAV实时探测的环境信息,实施在线滚动规划.通过仿真验证了方法的有效性.

  4. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongqing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Julia; Zhang, Chengxiao; Duan, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7ngL(-1) for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0ngg(-1) for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7ngg(-1) for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74ngg(-1) for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area.

  5. Does exposure to the food environment differ by socioeconomic position? Comparing area-based and person-centred metrics in the Fenland Study, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Penney, Tarra L; Forouhi, Nita G; Monsivais, Pablo

    2017-09-06

    Retail food environments (foodscapes) are a recognised determinant of eating behaviours and may contribute to inequalities in diet. However, findings from studies measuring socioeconomic inequality in the foodscape have been mixed, which may be due to methodological differences. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare exposure to the foodscape by socioeconomic position using different measures, to test whether the presence, direction or amplitude of differences was sensitive to the choice of foodscape metric or socioeconomic indicator. A sample of 10,429 adults aged 30-64 years with valid home address data were obtained from the Fenland Study, UK. Of this sample, 7270 participants also had valid work location data. The sample was linked to data on food outlets obtained from local government records. Foodscape metrics included count, density and proximity of takeaway outlets and supermarkets, and the percentage of takeaway outlets relative to all food outlets. Exposure metrics were area-based (lower super output areas), and person-centred (proximity to nearest; Euclidean and Network buffers at 800 m, 1 km, and 1 mile). Person-centred buffers were constructed using home and work locations. Socioeconomic status was measured at the area-level (2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation) and the individual-level (highest educational attainment; equivalised household income). Participants were classified into socioeconomic groups and average exposures estimated. Results were analysed using the statistical and percent differences between the highest and lowest socioeconomic groups. In area-based measures, the most deprived areas contained higher takeaway outlet densities (p < 0.001). However, in person-centred metrics lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower exposure to takeaway outlets and supermarkets (all home-based exposures p < 0.001) and socioeconomic differences were greatest at the smallest buffer sizes. Socioeconomic differences in

  6. The Yenshanian—type Twin Granite Belts in Intracontinental Compression—subduction Environments in the Northern Part of East Qinlin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志宏; 胡受奚; 等

    1990-01-01

    Calc-alkaline granites (excluding A-and M-type) could be divided into two petrogenic series,I,e,the syntexis series and the transformation series according to their genetic mechanisms.In the light of this classification we found that granites of these two series often aligne in paired zones parallel to contemporaneous B-type or intracontinental compression-subduction zones within ascended slabs,re-sulting in a regular zonal pattern together with subduction zones.Thus,they are defined as twin granite belts.According to the spatial relations between the granite belts and the subduction zones,the twin granite belts could be classified as A, AB and B-type .The zonation of granites of the two series in the northern part of the East Qinlin area could be cited as a typical example of A-type twin granite belts related to the Yenshanian intracontinenta compression-subduction movement in the area.In this paper the tectonic settings and petrogenic features of the twin granites belts in East Qinlin are systematically described,and a tectonic model for granitic magma genesis in intracontinental compression-subduction environments has been proposed.In this model the forma-tion of A-type twin granite belts is closely connected with tectonic movements in terms of the prince-ple,rule and dynamics of material differentiation in the lithosphere.

  7. Concentrations and δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 in a less-urbanized environment: Are they different from large metropolitan areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childree, P.; FENG, W.; Thieme, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon isotope compositions (δ13C values) and CO2 concentrations were measured for seventy-four atmospheric samples collected in the city of Valdosta to evaluate the sources of CO2 input in a less developed urban environment. The results are compared to studies conducted in larger metropolitan areas to evaluate possible difference in sources and concentrations. Sixty-one of the samples were collected at four "outdoor" sites within a ~100 km2 area around the city, while thirteen "indoor" samples were collected in classrooms on the Valdosta State University campus, located north of downtown. Four sample collection trips were made from March to April of 2012. The samples were collected from 5 AM to 6 PM to encompass possible diurnal changes in atmospheric CO2. The thirteen indoor air samples had concentrations ranging from 429 to 681 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -14.0 to -10.3 ‰. The sixty-one outdoor samples ranged from 397 to 539 ppmV with δ13C values ranging from -13.0 to -7.0 ‰. The higher outdoor CO2 concentrations (> 450 ppmV) correspond to lower δ13C values and are for samples collected during prolonged calm periods (wind speed Mexico) were carried into the region, which led to decreased CO2 levels and increased δ13C values. Therefore, the elevated CO2 readings likely reflected influx of locally produced CO2. On a diagram of δ13C vs.104/CO2 (Keeling plot), the domain occupied by the Valdosta samples is mostly located within the boundaries of two endmember mixing lines: 1) mixing between global atmospheric background and petroleum burning; 2) mixing between global atmospheric background and natural gas burning. Results are compared to those from a Dallas, Texas study that showed more contribution of CO2 from soil respiration and petroleum burning. This study suggests that even in a smaller urban area, fossil fuel consumptions are still the main source of the CO2 input. Furthermore, significant amounts of CO2 may be introduced into the

  8. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  9. Energy-Efficient Routing Control Algorithm in Large-Scale WSN for Water Environment Monitoring with Application to Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  10. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher J; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust, and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu= 1000 mg kg(-1)), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu= 68,000 mg kg(-1)). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings.

  11. The Evaluation and Optimization of Satisfaction with the Rural Living Environment in the Southern Terraced Area: A Case Study of the Ziquejie Terrace in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yijian; LUO; Peng; WANG; Yanfeng; WANG; Baogang; ZHOU; Cheng; TIAN

    2013-01-01

    Rural living environment is an important part of the habitat environment science, but there is the serious phenomenon of "favoring city" in current researches on the habitat environment. There is not enough attention paid to the deteriorating rural environment. Taking the case of Ziquejie, coupled with the heritage-abased community characteristics of the rural living environment, we establish the evaluation indicator system of satisfaction with the quality of rural living environment, and use fuzzy analysis method to analyze and process the data obtained from the questionnaire survey, to initially derive the development status and general law of evolution of the rural living environment in Ziquejie. Based on these, we put forth the relevant recommendations for promoting the sustainable development of the rural living environment in Ziquejie.

  12. 试论农村的法治环境建设--以哈尔滨市周边农村为例%Development of Legal Environment in Rural Areas a Case Study of Rural Areas at Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛凯

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues are special in rural areas owing to factors of natural and historical development. As a whole, countryside enjoys sound legal environment, but some problems relating to land, property, marriage and remuneration are urgent to be tackled with. Following actions can be made to improve the legal environment in the countryside. First based on local realities, we should intensify publicity efforts;second, we should synergize relevant agencies and higher education institutions to build capacities of farmers' using laws and regulations;third we should set up a special department to protect lawful rights and interests of farmers;fourth we should balance development of soft and hard means;fifth we should make village officials play their parts to constrain negative forces;sixth we should improve related legisla-tion to protect lawful rights and interests of farmers to the most extent.%当今农村受到自然和历史发展等因素的影响,其存在的法律问题呈现出特殊的一面。农村的法治环境建设总体发展良好,但仍存在土地、财产、婚姻、劳动报酬等方面的问题亟待解决。为完善农村法制环境建设,应加强对农村的法律宣传,不应流于形式,而应贴近当地实际;司法部门协调,高校积极参与,提高农民法律识别能力;成立专门机构,为农民维权;软硬件设施相协调;发挥村干部积极作用,约束消极作用;进一步完善立法,使村民们的合法权益得到最大限度地保障。

  13. Automated Image Intelligence Adaptive Sensor Management System for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a Dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Young

    The problem we investigate deals with an Image Intelligence (IMINT) sensor allocation schedule for High Altitude Long Endurance UAVs in a dynamic and Anti-Access Area Denial (A2AD) environment. The objective is to maximize the Situational Awareness (SA) of decision makers. The value of SA can be improved in two different ways. First, if a sensor allocated to an Areas of Interest (AOI) detects target activity, then the SA value will be increased. Second, the SA value increases if an AOI is monitored for a certain period of time, regardless of target detections. These values are functions of the sensor allocation time, sensor type and mode. Relatively few studies in the archival literature have been devoted to an analytic, detailed explanation of the target detection process, and AOI monitoring value dynamics. These two values are the fundamental criteria used to choose the most judicious sensor allocation schedule. This research presents mathematical expressions for target detection processes, and shows the monitoring value dynamics. Furthermore, the dynamics of target detection is the result of combined processes between belligerent behavior (target activity) and friendly behavior (sensor allocation). We investigate these combined processes and derive mathematical expressions for simplified cases. These closed form mathematical models can be used for Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs), i.e., target activity detection to evaluate sensor allocation schedules. We also verify these models with discrete event simulations which can also be used to describe more complex systems. We introduce several methodologies to achieve a judicious sensor allocation schedule focusing on the AOI monitoring value. The first methodology is a discrete time integer programming model which provides an optimal solution but is impractical for real world scenarios due to its computation time. Thus, it is necessary to trade off the quality of solution with computation time. The Myopic Greedy

  14. Bioavailability of iodine in the UK-Peak District environment and its human bioaccessibility: an assessment of the causes of historical goitre in this area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, A; Saikat, S Q; Carter, J E

    2014-02-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its deficiency causes a number of functional and developmental abnormalities such as goitre. The limestone region of Derbyshire, UK was goitre-endemic until it declined from the 1930s and the reason for this has escaped a conclusive explanation. The present study investigates the cause(s) of goitre in the UK-Peak District area through an assessment of iodine in terms of its environmental mobility, bioavailability, uptake into the food chain and human bioaccessibility. The goitre-endemic limestone area is compared with the background millstone grit area of the UK-Peak District. The findings of this study show that 'total' environmental iodine is not linked to goitre in the limestone area, but the governing factors include iodine mobility, bioavailability and bioaccessibility. Compared with the millstone grit area, higher soil pH and calcium content of the limestone area restrict iodine mobility in this area, also soil organic carbon in the limestone area is influential in binding the iodine to the soil. Higher calcium content in the limestone area is an important factor in terms of strongly fixing the iodine to the soil. Higher iodine bioaccessibility in the millstone grit than the limestone area suggests that its oral bioaccessibility is restricted in the limestone area. Iodine taken up by plant roots is transported freely into the aerial plant parts in the millstone grit area unlike the limestone area, thus providing higher iodine into the human food chain in the millstone grit area through grazing animals unlike the goitre-prevalent limestone area.

  15. 通化市矿产资源集中开采区矿山地质环境分区研究%Mining geological environment partition of mineral resources exploration area in Tonghua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张以晨; 汪茜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the detailed survey of mining geological environment of mineral resources exploration area in Tonghua City, 9 evaluation factors about resources destruction, geological hazards, environmental pollution have been selected to build multi-level fuzzy evaluation method to divide the risk grades of mining geological environment. Research results show that the percentage of low-grade area of mining geological environment problem is above 60%, at the same time, the serious area of mining geological environment problem is mainly distribute in the northeast and the east part of Tonghua City.%在对通化市矿产资源集中开采区矿山地质环境进行详细调研基础上,从资源破坏、地质灾害、环境污染等方面选取9个评价因子,建立模糊多层次评判方法,对矿山地质环境进行危险性分区。研究结果表明:超过60%的评价区域属地质环境问题较轻区域,地质环境问题严重地区集中分布在通化市东北部及东部地区。

  16. Eco_environment of Settlement and Ecologic Construction Program in Changdu Hengduan Mountains Area, Tibet%西藏昌都横断山区聚落生态环境与生态建设方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邵权; 陈国阶

    2001-01-01

    Settlement is a highly concentrated area of energy, matter, fundand information in human ecosystem, and a relatively stable function unity of complex ecosystem which is formed by the influence and action of nature, society and economy through long time. Ecologic construction of settlement is a kind of practice for controling, rehabilitating and rebuilding the eco_environment of settlement based on principles of settlement ecology. On the eco_ environment of settlements in Changdu Hengduan Mountains Area, there are these major problems of the primary environment and the secondary environment, such as the varied local diseases and natural focal diseases, the intense relation between population and land resulting from the low benefit on resources utilization, the sandy and pebbly desertification in grassland, the negative evolution of vegetation and the debris flow. Based on a case study of Raojin settlement of Zuogong County, authors set forth the planning case which incorporates the prevention and control of local diseases, the resources utilization and the harnessing of environment into the ecologic construction of settlement through the construction of infrastructures for the improvement of eco_environment in the area.%在对聚落生态建设进行理论阐述的基础上,针对昌都横断山区聚落的现实状况,分析其原生环境与次生环境问题,并以左贡县绕金聚落为例,阐述地方病防治、资源合理利用与环境治理相结合的聚落生态建设案例,以此作为昌都横断山区聚落生态建设的示范,为改善该区域生态环境服务。

  17. Quality Assessment of Soil Environment around Tailing Areas in a Uranium Mine%某铀矿尾矿区周边土壤环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花明; 陈润羊

    2011-01-01

    The quality assessment of soil environment of tailing areas could provide a scientific basis for the tailings management and the remediation of contaminated soil in uranium mines.Taking a uranium tailing areas in China as a research object,the quality assessment of soil environment around the tailing areas was carried out by applying N.L.Nemerow model and using such six kinds of heavy metals as Cd,Pb,Ni,Zn,Cu,Cr as the evaluation factors.The results showed that Cd index of soil around the uranium tailings area is far beyond the standard,the quality index of soil overall environment in the uranium tailings area has exceeded the alert level,and the soil environment has been polluted by heavy metals,however,the uranium tailings pond basically did not cause pollution on the surrounding soil.%进行铀矿尾矿区周边土壤环境质量评价可为铀矿尾矿区治理和污染土壤修复提供科学依据。以我国某铀矿尾矿区为研究对象,在采样监测的基础上,应用内梅罗(N.L.Nemerow)模型,以Cd、Pb、Ni、Zn、Cu、Cr等6种重金属作为评价因子,对铀矿尾矿周边土壤进行了环境质量评价。结果表明,该铀矿尾矿区周边土壤中Cd严重超标,整体尾矿区周边土壤环境质量已超过警戒级的水平,受到了重金属污染,但铀尾矿库对周边土壤基本上没有造成污染。

  18. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  19. Determination of the site of CO₂ sensing in poplar: is the area-based N content and anatomy of new leaves determined by their immediate CO₂ environment or by the CO₂ environment of mature leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Warren, Charles R; Turpin, David H; Livingston, Nigel J

    2011-05-01

    Exposure to an elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) generally decreases leaf N content per unit area (N(area)) and stomatal density, and increases leaf thickness. Mature leaves can 'sense' elevated [CO(2)] and this regulates stomatal development of expanding leaves (systemic regulation). It is unclear if systemic regulation is involved in determination of leaf thickness and N(area)-traits that are significantly correlated with photosynthetic capacity. A cuvette system was used whereby [CO(2)] around mature leaves was controlled separately from that around expanding leaves. Expanding leaves of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×P. deltoides) seedlings were exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (720 μmol mol(-1)) while the remaining mature leaves inside the cuvette were under ambient [CO(2)] of 360 μmol mol(-1). Reverse treatments were performed. Exposure of newly developing leaves to elevated [CO(2)] increased their thickness, but when mature leaves were exposed to elevated [CO(2)] the increase in thickness of new leaves was less pronounced. The largest response to [CO(2)] was reflected in the palisade tissue thickness (as opposed to the spongy tissue) of new leaves. The N(area) of new leaves was unaffected by the local [CO(2)] where the new leaves developed, but decreased following the exposure of mature leaves to elevated [CO(2)]. The volume fraction of mesophyll cells compared with total leaf and the mesophyll cell density changed in a manner similar to the response of N(area). These results suggest that N(area) is controlled independently of the leaf thickness, and suggest that N(area) is under systemic regulation by [CO(2)] signals from mature leaves that control mesophyll cell division.

  20. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley in Mediterranean areas. I. Individual grain weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltas, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Sombrero, A.; Lafarga, A.; Igartua, E.; Romagosa, I.

    1999-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type environments, grain weight of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is influenced by the presence of terminal abiotic stresses such as drought or elevated temperature. The relative importance of these climatic constraints acting together prior to and after anthesis, as well as the specif

  1. AoA Region: The regional organization for the protection of the marine environment/regional commission for fisheries (ROPME/RECOFI) area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Area on the basis of reports provided by the Contracting States and the competent international or regional organizations. The report was updated in 2000 and 2003. As decided by the ROPME Council, one of the major objectives of this report...

  2. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  4. Developing a Geoinformatic-engineering Stability Modeling Method, using Field Data and GIS Environment: A Case Study from Al Qarara Area in Wadi Musa, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammmad Al Farajat; Abdullah Diabat; Hussein Al Hassanat; Mohammad Ibweni; Jamal Shawaqfeh

    2015-01-01

    DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.1.1-21By applying detailed geological field surveys, the spatial factors affecting geo-engineering stability were used to develop a geo-engineering stability modeling method to identify areas under potential threat of landsliding. The factors affecting geo-engineering stability in Al Qarara area in Petra-Jordan were studied and given assumed rates of importance, where optimization process was run by lag iterations; the produced spatial layers of the different factors were ...

  5. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio

    2017-03-01

    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  6. 莆田南日岛鲍鱼养殖区环境变化评价%Environment Change Evaluation in Abalone Cultivation Area at Nanri Island of Putian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金媛娟

    2012-01-01

    根据2009-2011年13个站位的监测数据,采用富营养化评价法和内梅罗综合污染指数法对鲍鱼养殖区进行了三年的纵向数据对比,得出该区环境正在日趋恶化,通过2011年鲍鱼区、藻类区及码头区监测数据的横向对比,发现藻类养殖的开展,对鲍鱼区的海洋环境有所改善,但由于布局的不科学不合理,未能够完全发挥藻类对环境的修复作用,甚至于可能给鲍鱼造成一定时间段的不良影响。因此提出建议:应合理规划藻类区和鲍鱼区的产业布局。%According to the monitoring data of thirteen stations from2009 to 2011, this paper makes three years longitudinal data contrast for the abalone cultivation area based on the eutrophication evaluation and Nemerow pollution index. The result indicates that the environment of thearea becomes worsen. Moreover, the monitoring data compared among abalone areas, alga areas and wharfareas in 2011 shows that the development of alga cultivation makes some improvement for the marine environment of abalone areas. However, because of the unscientific and unreasonable distribution, the effects of algas on environment are notfully satisfied. Conversely, it may have harm effect onabalones for some time. So it is suggest that the industrial layout of alga areas and abalone areas should be planned reasonably.

  7. Study on management of resource and environment in poverty areas. Examples of agriculture and water use in bangladesh; Hinkon chiiki ni okeru shigen to kankyo no kanri ni kansuru kenkyu. Banguradeshu no nogyo to mizu riyo wo rei to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1998-12-16

    This paper describes the main features of flood plains and fish production related to agriculture in the vast inland water areas of Bangladesh. The inland fisheries have been an important source of animal protein and provided employment opportunities for rural Bangladeshies. Generally the fishermen's economic conditions are below the poverty line in this country. Fishi production in the inland water areas are not met to the basic needs of the people on a sustainable basis. While inland fishery is important for business as well as for people's livelihood, it is not usually managed appropriately for resource conservation and environment. Fishery policies and planning have to be undertaken for comprehensive long-term perspective in order that agricultural and other sectors would not contaminate the environment. (author)

  8. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  9. The Combined Use of Airborne Remote Sensing Techniques within a GIS Environment for the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Urban Areas: An Operational Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costanzo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the topographic features, the building properties, and the road infrastructure settings are relevant operational tasks for managing post-crisis events, restoration activities, and for supporting search and rescue operations. Within such a framework, airborne remote sensing tools have demonstrated to be powerful instruments, whose joint use can provide meaningful analyses to support the risk assessment of urban environments. Based on this rationale, in this study, the operational benefits obtained by combining airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral measurements are shown. Terrain and surface digital models are gathered by using LiDAR data. Information about roads and roof materials are provided through the supervised classification of hyperspectral images. The objective is to combine such products within a geographic information system (GIS providing value-added maps to be used for the seismic vulnerability assessment of urban environments. Experimental results are gathered for the city of Cosenza, Italy.

  10. Evaluation of winter food quality and its variability for red deer in forest environment: overwintering enclosures vs. free-ranging areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holá Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Populations of European ungulates have grown substantially over recent decades, resulting in considerable environmental and socio-economic impacts. Availability and quality of natural and supplemental food sources are among the main factors driving their population dynamics. Detailed knowledge of food quality of management-targeted species is therefore of primary importance for their successful management. The main aim of this study was to evaluate winter food quality and its variability for an important ungulate species in the Czech Republic - i.e. red deer, using faecal indices (faecal nitrogen, faecal acid detergent fibre, faecal neutral detergent fibre and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. We compared food quality for red deer and its possible differences between overwintering enclosures (i.e. fenced areas where red deer spend harsh winter conditions and neighbouring unfenced free-ranging areas within two study areas. The results obtained showed that winter food quality and its variability for red deer are of different quality and variability in the overwintering enclosure and neighbouring free-ranging area. The observed differences in concentrations and amounts of variation of faecal indices are most probably related to animal densities at individual study areas. Wildlife managers should therefore keep animals in overwintering enclosures at moderate densities and to provide high quality forage to all individuals in order to balance nutrition of both the individuals inside and outside the enclosures. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to provide deeper knowledge on red deer food quality and its variability in space and time.

  11. 基于环境心理学原理的幼儿区域活动环境创设%The Creation of Environment for Area Activities in Nursery Schools:An Environmental Psychology Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰晓燕

    2016-01-01

    区域活动作为幼儿集体教学的有效补充,以其“隐形课程”的特点,对促进幼儿发展有着积极的作用。从环境心理学原理出发,阐述了环境心理学对区域环境创设的意义以及如何从环境空间行为理论、感知认知理论、环境超负荷理论、人与环境交互作用模型理论来创设幼儿园区域活动环境,从而进一步提升区域活动的价值。%As an implicit curriculum, area activities are an effective supplement to collective teaching activities at kindergartens. This paper expounds the significance of creating appropriate environment for area activities based on the theories of environmental psychology such as spatial behavior theory, perceptive and cognitive theory, theory of overloaded environment and the theory of interaction between human and environment so that the value of area activities can be promoted.

  12. Landscape morphology metrics for urban areas: analysis of the role of vegetation in the management of the quality of urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marques de Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has the objective to demonstrate the applicability of landscape metric analysis undertaken in fragments of urban land use. More specifically, it focuses in low vegetation cover, arboreal and shrubbery vegetation and their distribution on land use. Differences of vegetation cover in dense urban areas are explained. It also discusses briefly the state-of-the-art Landscape Ecology and landscape metrics. It develops, as an example, a case study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this study, it selects the use of the area’s metrics, the relation between area, perimeter, core, and circumscribed circle. From this analysis, this paper proposes the definition of priority areas for conservation, urban parks, free spaces of common land, linear parks and green corridors. It is demonstrated that, in order to design urban landscape, studies of two-dimension landscape representations are still interesting, but should consider the systemic relation between different factors related to shape and land use.

  13. Analysis on Spatial Gradients Pattern of Thermal Environment Landscape in Changsha Metropolitan Area%长沙都市区热力景观空间格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少青; 陈学业; 莫宏伟

    2012-01-01

    热环境是城市生态系统的重要组成部分,将分形几何学的基本理论引入地表热力景观格局研究,可以量化评价城市热环境状况.以长沙都市区为例,利用TM热波段反演得到地表温度,并将其分为强热岛、弱热岛、常温区、弱冷岛和强冷岛5种热力景观类型,分别采用standard法和moving window法分析了都市区热力景观空间格局,然后用边界维数D和稳定指数SK定量化地描述了热力景观格局的复杂度与稳定性.结果显示:常温区是热力景观基质,而热岛景观已是春季城市热场重要特征;景观梯度变化在南北和东西两条样带上均呈现由市区向乡村骤变的特征,并伴有不同幅度的波动;热力景观边界维数D复杂度排序为:常温区>弱热岛>弱冷岛>强热岛>强冷岛,稳定性指数SK排序与之相反.%Thermal environment is a very important composition of urban ecosystem. This paper integrates some theories of fractal and quantitative methods into the study on thermal environment issues, and the spatial gradients pattern of thermal environment landscape in Changsha metropolitan area. As retrieving land surface temperature (LST) using single-channel algorithms from LANDSAT TM data in 2009,and dividing LST into five thermal environment landscape types,that is,strong heat island,weak heat island,normal temperature areas, weak cool island and strong cool island With the support of ArcGIS.aims to analyze complete landscape patterns and its spatial differences within the whole basin through standard methods and moving window analysis of Fragstats,the spatial gradients patterns of thermal environment landscape in Changsha metropolitan area of class level and landscape level are calculated. It's showed the results as followings:1)normal temperature areas compose a major part in Changsha metropolitan area on 2009,and the landscape of heat island (including strong heat island and weak heat island),accounting for

  14. Developing a Geoinformatic-engineering Stability Modeling Method, using Field Data and GIS Environment: A Case Study from Al Qarara Area in Wadi Musa, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammmad Al Farajat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.1.1-21By applying detailed geological field surveys, the spatial factors affecting geo-engineering stability were used to develop a geo-engineering stability modeling method to identify areas under potential threat of landsliding. The factors affecting geo-engineering stability in Al Qarara area in Petra-Jordan were studied and given assumed rates of importance, where optimization process was run by lag iterations; the produced spatial layers of the different factors were gathered and modeled using GIS; a final stability map was produced using an optimized equation. The produced map was validated qualitatively and quantitatively, where a comparison was made between the reality in the field and several maps of different equation. The modeling method which was developed in the context of this study proved to be suitable to produce micro-zonation maps of areas having landslide risk. Further applications on the method in other areas suffering landslides will further improve it.

  15. The Study on the Optimization of the Growth Environment of the Left-behind Children in Rural Areas%农村留守儿童健康成长的环境优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和建花

    2015-01-01

    农村留守儿童成长宏观环境可以归纳为以下四类:即国家和政府层面的有关留守儿童的法律政策环境;人口迁移流动背景下留守儿童减量化措施所构成的制度和发展规划性环境;新农村建设和“三农”问题解决背景下农村儿童工作特别是社区工作所构成的农村社区儿童工作环境;留守儿童问题及工作相关媒体宣传倡导所构成的传媒环境。针对上述4类环境及其优化进行分析并提出对策建议具有重要意义。%The macrocosmic growth environment of the left-behind children in rural areas could be catego-rized into four kinds as follows:the first one is the legal and policy environment concerning the left-behind children in rural areas supported by the government; the second is the systematical and developmental envi-ronment composed by the reduction measures of these kinds of children in the background of population migra-tion;the third one is the community service environment for the left-behind children in rural areas in the background of new rural construction and solving the problems in the issues of agriculture, farmer and rural area;the fourth one is the media environment concerning the media publicity of the issue of the left-behind children.This thesis tries to analyze the four environments above and their optimizations respectively in order to put forward some suggestions and solutions.

  16. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  17. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  18. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

    2013-06-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities.

  19. The impact on the landscape, environment and society of new productive chains in a mountain area: strategies, analysis and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rainis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zootechnical farms enhance the preservation and valorization of the environmental value of the surroundings in marginal areas, such as the mountains of Friuli Venezia Giulia. An important tool for relaunching mountain animal husbandry can be the promotion of an appropriate policy to maintain and develop local food chains, supporting typical products, tightly related to the peculiarity of the agro-ecosystem. The aim of the chain Carne della Montagna Friulana-Carne di Qualità is to create a cooperation among primary producers, transformation companies, sellers and research institutes, in order to develop innovative pathways throughout the production of meat in Carnia (UD. The project was designed in 2007/08 but it was operative from 2010, with a first batch of animals. The stakeholders subscribed a chain agreement, adopting production guidelines and a commercial trademark. Since the meat is not yet ready, the present paper is, in part, an analysis of the preliminary modification of the operative context and, in part, a previsional examination of the possible effect of the activation of this production chain on the area. The results investigated economic, social, landscape, technical and technological (related to food safety elements. It can be observed, by an introductive evaluation, that this productive circuit may valorize the resources of this mountain area and can enhance zootechnics in mountain areas. The guidelines allow a vertical integration throughout the production path, coordinating all the operators. This type of production can be considered a niche product, related to the territory, with the maximum guarantee for the consumers. The environmental worthiness is the recovering and the improving of these marginal, agricultural areas. Actually, an overall evaluation can be done only from the summer of 2011, when data such as the organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, selling prices, level of appreciation by the customers and

  20. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M.; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

  1. The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, J.; Brouwer, J.; Barker, A. P.; Gaze, S. R.; Valentine, C.

    1997-11-01

    The surface hydrology of a semi-arid area of patterned vegetation in south-west Niger is described. In this region alternating bands of vegetation and bare ground aligned along the contours of a gently sloping terrain give rise to a phenomenon known as `brousse tigrée' (tiger bush). At the selected study site the vegetation bands are 10-30 m wide, separated by 50-100-m-wide bands of bare ground. Five species of shrub dominate, Guiera senegalensis, Combretum micranthum, C. nigricans, Acacia ataxacantha and A. macrostachya. Herbaceous vegetation is generally limited to the upslope edges of vegetation bands. A comprehensive field programme was undertaken to investigate the hydrology. Topographic, vegetation and surface feature surveys were carried out in conjunction with the measurement of rainfall, surface and subsurface hydraulic conductivity, particle size and soil moisture content. Four types of vegetation class are recognised, each tending to occupy a constant position relative to the others and to the regional slope. In a downslope direction the classes are: bare ground, grassy open bush, closed bush, bare open bush, bare ground etc. The nature of the ground surface is closely linked to the vegetation class. Over the bare, bare open and grassy open classes various types of surface crust are present with each type of crust tending to occupy a constant position on the regional slope relative to the vegetation class and other crust types. Below closed bush crusts are generally absent. The typical downslope sequence from the downslope boundary of a vegetation band is: structural (sieving) crust→erosion crust→(gravel crust)→sedimentation crust→microphytic sedimentation crust→no crust→sieving crust, etc. It is also shown that these crust types are dynamic and evolve from one to the other as hydrological conditions change. Hydraulic conductivities of surface crusts are low, typically falling within the range 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1. The presence of large

  2. The environment can explain differences in adolescents' daily physical activity levels living in a deprived urban area: cross-sectional study using accelerometry, GPS, and focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Helen Joy; Nixon, Catherine A; Lake, Amelia A; Douthwaite, Wayne; O'Malley, Claire L; Pedley, Claire L; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Routen, Ashley C

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that many contemporary urban environments do not support healthy lifestyle choices and are implicated in the obesity pandemic. Middlesbrough, in the northeast of England is one such environment and a prime target for investigation. To measure physical activity (PA) levels in a sample of 28 adolescents (aged 11 to 14 years) and describe the environmental context of their activity and explore where they are most and least active over a 7-day period, accelerometry and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology were used. Twenty-five of these participants also took part in focus groups about their experiences and perceptions of PA engagement. Findings indicated that all participants were relatively inactive throughout the observed period although bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were identified in 4 contexts: school, home, street, and rural/urban green spaces, with MVPA levels highest in the school setting. Providing access to local facilities and services (such as leisure centers) is not in itself sufficient to engage adolescents in MVPA. Factors influencing engagement in MVPA were identified within and across contexts, including 'time' as both a facilitator and barrier, perceptions of 'gendered' PA, and the social influences of peer groups and family members.

  3. A Discussion of the Interactive Relationship between Population and Environment in Guizhou Karst Mountainous Area%贵州喀斯特山区人口与环境互动关系探析1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴荣

    2014-01-01

    The configuration of karst mountainous area is complex, and the population in such area quality is low. The way of life is backward. These are reasons of the formidable ecological environment and complex ecological environmental problems. The article, based on relationship between society and environment,dis-cuss interactive relationship between population and the fragile environment in Guizhou karst mountainous area. It alse explore the methods and measures to resolve contradiction between Population and the environ-ment,in order to promote the regional economic development and social sustainable development.%贵州喀斯特山区地势崎岖、地质地貌情况复杂,闭塞的环境导致当地人口接受教育的机会少,人口素质偏低,依山靠山的生产生活方式原始粗放,从而导致这一区域自然生态环境恶劣,生态环境问题多且复杂。文章以人地关系为基础,探讨山区人口与脆弱、敏感的生存环境之间相互影响,相互制约的关系,以及解决这一特定区域人口与环境矛盾的方法与措施,以期促进该区域经济发展及社会的可持续发展。

  4. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed th...

  5. Untethered Operations: Rapid Mobility and Forward Basing Are Keys to Airpower’s Success in the Antiaccess/Area-Denial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Germans had learned early that when logistically sustained near the target area, aviation was, more often than not, the decisive element in the...outcome of a battle.12 FARP in the Air Force emerged from lessons learned in 1980 during Operation Eagle Claw, the attempt to rescue hostages held in Iran...Air Forces in Europe, Ramstein Air Base, Ger - many. In this position, the general devises and implements policy, obtains re- sources, and develops

  6. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study.

  7. 内蒙古乌兰察布市集宁区生态环境建设分析%Analysis of Ecological Environment Construction in Jining Area of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉枝; 郝晓慧

    2012-01-01

      To realize the sustainable development of the human society and establish the harmonious relationship between the human and ecological environment, the ecological environment construction was supported by the government of jining area. The environmental indexes in jining area, about atmospheric dust deposition, PM10, transformation rate of sulphate and ambient noise, was investigated from a comparative analysis aspects. The results of analysis indicated that the ecological environment construction of jining area improved the urban environment. The vegetation planted not only make the environment greening and beautifying but also cut down the amount of atmospheric dust deposition and control dust storms. At the same time, the plants can absorb atmospheric pollutant like sulphide and attenuate ambient noise. Developing the greening of the city is the significant task to upgrade the unban quality and improve the the living environment. We should make every effort to achieve the unity of ecological, social and economic benefits in the process of people getting along with the natural.%  为了实现人类社会的可持续发展,建立人类与生态环境之间的和谐关系,集宁区政府积极进行城市生态环境建设。本文对集宁区近年大气降尘、PM10、硫酸盐化速率和噪声等环境指标的变化趋势进行了对比分析,结果表明,集宁区生态建设显著改善了该区的生态环境,栽种的大量植被不仅美化了居民生活环境,而且有效地削减了大气降尘,实现了沙尘暴的有效防治,同时能够有效的吸收环境中硫化物等污染物,降低了城市环境噪声。积极发展城市绿化,建设生态城市,是提高城市品位和改善城市生存环境的重要内容,努力实现生态效益、社会效益和经济效益的统一,实现人类与自然的和谐相处

  8. 黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性的变化趋势1)%Ecology Environment Vulnerability Change Trend of State-owned Forest Area in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝洪; 王雪霞

    2016-01-01

    在定位生态环境脆弱性内涵基础上,设置了国有林区生态环境脆弱性的评价指标体系,利用主成分分析方法对生态环境脆弱性指标进行赋权,利用灰色关联分析法监测黑龙江省国有林区2004—2014年的生态环境脆弱性变化趋势。结果表明:黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性的驱动因子,排在前10位的依次为森林火灾受害率、森林病虫鼠害受害率、营林投资力度、林业法律法规健全度、废水排放达标率、降水量、积温、水资源总量、过熟林比例、无林地比例;黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性,表现出逐年降低的趋势。%After positioning the ecology environment vulnerability connotation of state-owned forest area , we set up ecology envi-ronment vulnerability evaluation index system of state-owned forest area .We used factor analysis to calculate indictor weight and gray relational analysis to monitor ecology environment vulnerability change trend of state -owned forest area in Heilongjiang Province from 2004 to 2014.The top ten ecology environment vulnerability driving factors of state-owned forest area in Heilongjiang Province were forest fires victimization rate , forest pest and rodent victimization rate , forestry invest-ment, forestry laws soundness , wastewater discharge compliance rate , rainfall, accumulated temperature , total water re-sources, over mature forest rate, and non-forest land rate.The ecological environment vulnerability of state-owned forest in Heilongjiang Province showed constantly decreasing trend year by year .

  9. Molecular Characterization of Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria from Aquatic Environments in Buruli Ulcer Non-Endemic Areas in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Marcellin B.; Dassi, Christelle; Mosi, Lydia; Koussémon, Marina; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), particularly mycolactone producing mycobacteria (MPM), are bacteria found in aquatic environments causing skin diseases in humans like Buruli ulcer (BU). Although the causative agent for BU, Mycobacterium ulcerans has been identified and associated with slow-moving water bodies, the real transmission route is still unknown. This study aimed to characterize MPMs from environmental aquatic samples collected in a BU non-endemic community, Adiopodoumé, in Côte d’Ivoire. Sixty samples were collected in four types of matrices (plant biofilms, water filtrate residues, plant detritus and soils) from three water bodies frequently used by the population. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), MPMs were screened for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mycobacterial gene, the IS2404 insertion sequence, and MPM enoyl reductase (ER) gene. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing with loci 6, 19, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 1 (MIRU1) and sequence type 1(ST1) was performed to discriminate between different MPMs. Our findings showed 66.7%, 57.5% and 43.5% of positivity respectively for 16S rRNA, IS2404 and ER. MPM discrimination using VNTR typing did not show any positivity and therefore did not allow precise MPM distinction. Nevertheless, the observed contamination of some water bodies in a BU non-endemic community by MPMs suggests the possibility of pathogen dissemination and transmission to humans. These aquatic environments could also serve as reservoirs that should be considered during control and prevention strategies. PMID:28208653

  10. Monitoring and Control of Human Effects on the Water Quality in Special Environment Protection Areas (SEPA), Fethiye-Gocek Measurements in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ahmet; Alp, Emre; Duzgun, Sebnem; Orek, Hasan; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet

    2010-05-01

    Fethiye-Göcek region, the unique marine area having numerous calm bays for safe and enjoyable navigation, sailing and yachting is one of those Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Göcek Bay, which has a remarkable tourism potential has became one of the most important destinations of the both Turkish and International blue voyagers. The bays of Göcek are used by significant number of yachts during summer season (May-September). Göcek Bay is the nearest bay having marinas for serving those yachts using the nearby bays. The increase in tourism capacity resulted in increase in economical activities as well as environmental problems. The pollution level of the area is affected by the uncontrolled waste disposals from the yachts, the circulation pattern and ecological characteristics of the area. In a previously conducted study, in order to develop proper management strategies, the number of yachts using Göcek Bay area has been determined. The research project involves the development of state-of-the-art remote sensing tools that will be used in the operational monitoring of the ecosystem and was funded by the Turkish Governmental Agency EPASA and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara. There are two general objectives of the project; (i) the development of an operational environmental surveillance system that makes regular use of optical remote sensing images backed with regularly collected in-situ ground truth data (ii) to characterize the chemical nature of the pollutants through in-situ measurements and design and build a water collection, treatment and discharge system for the domestic and bilge waters of the boats. Seawater samples were collected at 3 locations representing different pollution levels in Göcek Bay. One of the locations is in open sea which represents low pollution level (almost clean water). The concentrations of the measured parameters in seawater are below the limit values indicated in Water Pollution and Control Regulation and

  11. Environment impact of heavy metals on urban soil in the vicinity of industrial area of Baoji city, P.R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Chunchang

    2007-08-01

    Heavy metals in soils are of great environmental concern, in order to evaluate heavy metal contents and their relationships in the surface soil of industrial area of Baoji city, and also to investigate their influence on the soils. Soil samples were collected from 50 sites, and the concentration of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni heavy metals and the contents of characteristics in soil from industrial area of Baoji city were determined with X-ray fluorescence method. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in the investigated soils reached the amount of 2,682.00-76,979.42, 169.30-8,288.58, 62.24-242.36, 91.96-110.54 and 36.14-179.28 mg kg-1, respectively. The major element Pb contents of the topsoils were determined. to highlight the influence of ‘anthropic’ features on the heavy metal concentrations and their distributions. To compare, all values of elements were much higher than those of unpolluted soils in the middle of Shaanxi province that average 16.0-26.5, 67.1-120.0, 17.8-57.0, 46.9-65.6 and 24.7-34.6 mg kg-1 for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. An ensemble of basic and relativity analysis was performed to reduce the precipitate of Pb in soil was extremely high and greatly relativity with other elements. Meanwhile, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni heavy metals were typical elements of anthropic activities sources, so it was easy to infer to the tracers of anthropic pollutions from the factorial analysis, which was coming from the storage battery manufactory pollutions. The pollutant distributions were constructed for the urban area which identified storage battery manufactory soot precipitate as the main source of diffuse pollution and also showed the contribution of the topsoils of industrial area of Baoji city as the source point of pollution. Consequently, the impact of heavy metals on soil was proposed and discussed. These results highlight the need for instituting a systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and other forms of pollutants in Baoji city to

  12. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention.

  13. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  14. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  15. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  16. Application of Natural Cold to Maintain the Environment in Cold Area%应用"天然冷"维护寒区环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔广心

    2004-01-01

    The changes of frozen ground caused by the rising temperature will destroy the heat balance of frozen ground and then damage the roadbeds and foundations in cold area. It is a new idea to collect and store the "natural cold" as a resource and apply it to keep the frozen ground frozen permanently and regulate the summer temperature in cities. This paper introduces the principles and systems used in collecting, storing and transmitting the natural cold , analyses the techniques which keep the frozen ground unchanged and protect the roadbed. The paper also studies the systems and techniques by which the natural cold is used for temperature regulation in cities. And the theories involved in this subject and the prospect of industrializing those techniques are presented as well by the author.

  17. Effects of a wireless local area network (LAN) system, a telemetry system, and electrosurgical devices on medical devices in a hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K S; Hinberg, I

    2000-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about interference of wireless local area network (LAN) systems and telemetry systems with medical devices in hospitals. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of 65 electromedical devices to a wireless LAN system and a telemetry system in preselected areas of a hospital. Testing was based on the American National Standards Institute Standard C63.18. The wireless LAN system operated at 2.42 GHz with an output power of 100 mW. The telemetry system operated at 466 MHz with an output power of 4 mW. Of the 65 devices tested, only two hand-held Doppler units, a Mini Doppler Model D900 (Huntleigh Healthcare Ltd) and a Ultrasonic Doppler Model 811 (Parks Medical Electronics, Inc.), were affected by the LAN system. Placed within 10 cm of the LAN system in standby mode, both units emitted periodic high-pitched beating sounds, which could be misinterpreted as normal beating sounds from the patient. These changed to random static noise during data transmission by the LAN. Under normal conditions of use, a LAN system would never be placed this close to a medical device. The quality of data transmission from the LAN system changed from "good" to "acceptable" in the colonoscopy room. This deterioration in transmission quality could have been caused by the lead shielding in the room. Electrosurgical devices operating at 0.5 to 1 MHz did not affect the LAN system at distances up to 3 m. None of the devices was affected by the telemetry system. These findings suggest that wireless LAN systems and telemetry systems can be acceptable for use in hospitals. Nevertheless, other systems should be tested on potentially susceptible devices by the hospital before use.

  18. An example of aerosol pattern variability over bright surface using high resolution MODIS MAIAC: The eastern and western areas of the Dead Sea and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Lee; Alpert, Pinhas; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Chudnovsky, Alexandra

    2017-09-01

    The extreme rate of evaporation of the Dead Sea (DS) has serious implications for the surrounding area, including atmospheric conditions. This study analyzes the aerosol properties over the western and eastern parts of the DS during the year 2013, using MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction) for MODIS, which retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) data at a resolution of 1 km. The main goal of the study is to evaluate MAIAC over the study area and determine, for the first time, the prevailing aerosol spatial patterns. First, the MAIAC-derived AOD data was compared with data from three nearby AERONET sites (Nes Ziona - an urban site, and Sede Boker and Masada - two arid sites), and with the conventional Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) retrievals for the same days and locations, on a monthly basis throughout 2013. For the urban site, the correlation coefficient (r) for DT/DB products showed better performance than MAIAC (r = 0.80, 0.75, and 0.64 respectively) year-round. However, in the arid zones, MAIAC showed better correspondence to AERONET sites than the conventional retrievals (r = 0.58-0.60 and 0.48-0.50 respectively). We investigated the difference in AOD levels, and its variability, between the Dead Sea coasts on a seasonal basis and calculated monthly/seasonal AOD averages for presenting AOD patterns over arid zones. Thus, we demonstrated that aerosol concentrations show a strong preference for the western coast, particularly during the summer season. This preference, is most likely a result of local anthropogenic emissions combined with the typical seasonal synoptic conditions, the Mediterranean Sea breeze, and the region complex topography. Our results also indicate that a large industrial zone showed higher AOD levels compared to an adjacent reference-site, i.e., 13% during the winter season.

  19. The assessment of droughts in Northern China and Mongolian areas Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index(PDSI) and relevant large-scale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, I. G.; Park, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed drought conditions in northern China and Mongolian areas using the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI). Droughts in this area were being intensified throughout all seasons. In particular, this intensifying trend was pronounced in the summer and autumn. In the summer, the PDSI showed an overall increase from the early 1990s to the late 1900s, and then, it rapidly decreased after the late 1990s. Therefore, this study focused on summer droughts and analyzed mean differences before the late 1990s (9098) and after the late 1990s (9905). Regarding differences in 850 hPa stream flows between the two periods, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in northern China and Mongolia that showed strong negative anomalies in the PDSI. These anomalous anticyclones were formed as a positive North Atlantic Oscillation pattern formed in the European region spread eastward in the form of wave trains. The anomalous antcyclones formed in northern China and Mongolia were led to reduced total cloud cover. As a result, this region exhibied high sensible heat net fluxes. Consequently, warm and dry anticyclones may have recently been strengthened in this region, thereby intensifying droughts. As this shows, recently strengthened warm and dry anticyclones in northern China and Mongolia were associated with recently reduced snow depths in this region during the preceding spring. In recent years, the frequency of Asian dust has also increased due to warm and dry air conditions. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Development and application of technology for weather forecast" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  20. Environment Zoning of Geological Hazards Development of Road Flood Based on Fuzzy Probability Method in Aba Area%基于模糊概率的阿坝州公路洪灾孕灾环境分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红梅; 廖学海; 陈洪凯

    2014-01-01

    公路洪灾孕灾环境的合理分区可从理论上为公路洪灾的防治工作提供指导。以四川阿坝州为研究对象,根据公路洪灾致灾原理,遴选出公路沿线历史地质灾害发育、地貌条件、岩土体性质、年均降雨量、人口密度、植被覆盖度和地质构造7个因子,依据专家系统分为4级后赋值构成评价指标体系。综合层次分析法和专家效度法得到各指标的相对权重,并结合模糊理论给出模糊权重。采用模糊概率综合评价模型将公路洪灾孕灾环境分成低易发区、中易发区、高易发区和危险区4个危险等级。分区结果显示:阿坝州公路洪灾孕灾环境发展较为充分,以县为单位分成了高易发区、中易发区和低易发区,分别占全州面积的38.1%、39.4%和22.5%,研究成果对于该区公路洪灾的防治具有积极意义。%A fit environment zoning of geological hazards developing of road flood can provide theoretical ref-erences for the road flood prevention engineering.The road flood in Aba area,Sichuan province is studied.Ac-cording to the road flood causing principles,seven indexes are selected,such as historical geological hazards along the road,landforms,natures of rock and soil,average annual rainfall,population density,vegetation coverage and geological conditions,which are divided into four grades based on expert system,and then the comprehensive eval-uation model of environment zoning of geological hazards development is established after assessment.Each index is calculated by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)and Expert Scoring Method,and then got the fuzzy weights combined fuzzy theory.According to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of probability,the environment zoning of geological hazards development is divided into low easy-happening area,medium easy-happening area,high easy-happening area and dangerous area.The result shows that Aba area have sufficient environmental

  1. 新疆干旱区绿洲特征分析及生态保护对策研究%Ecological environment protection study and analysis on feature of arid area of oasis in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the resource characteristics of oasis in arid areas in Xinjiang , using the methods of literature and statistical analysis ,for different ecological problems existing in different categories of the arid area of Xinjiang oasis , we should suit one's measures to local conditions and put forward the corresponding countermeasures to strengthen the protection of natural resources and ecological environment of oasis in arid area . At the time of giving full play to the advantages of Xinjiang oasis resources characteristic , we must pay great attention to the ecological environment of the vulnerability of the effective protection .This is the basic requirement for the development of Xinjiang economy and protection of ecological environment , and is also the transformation of economic growth from extensive to intensive management mode in the meaning of the title .%在对新疆干旱区绿洲资源特征进行归纳分析的基础上,运用文献资料法和统计分析法,针对新疆干旱区不同类别的绿洲资源在利用过程中存在的不同生态问题,因地制宜提出相应的对策以便加强对干旱区绿洲资源生态环境的保护。在充分发挥新疆绿洲资源优势特色的同时,要十分注意对具有脆弱性的生态环境进行有效的保护,这是发展新疆经济与保护生态环境的基本要求,也是经济发展由粗放经营向集约经营方式转变的题中之意。

  2. The tourist area life cycle: its application to the Spanish Costa del Sol and its environment; El ciclo de vida de un area turistica: su aplicacion a la Costa del Sol espanola y su medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.L.

    2012-07-01

    The Theory of a Tourism Area Life Cycle, formulated by Richard W. Butler, has seven phases of evolution, which are applied to the tourism destination. In this concept, the location is treated as if it were a living organism. That is to say, it is born, it flourishes, if it develops an illness, it may die or in accordance with its particular reality it may be reborn. This theory may also stipulate the sustainability of a tourism destination, as its carrying capacity, or multiple capacities, may only be analyzed within its position in the cycle. This is the first time the theory has been applied to the Spanish Costa del Sol and it is determined, that this destination does not fit completely in any one phase. Therefore, it is necessary to create its own series, by designating it, as that of pre-stagnation. Also, it is concluded, that, at present, given the distortion between its aquatic environmental carrying capacity, due to the consumption of this resource, by the golf courses and its consequential negative social carrying capacity, it is an unsustainable tourism destination. Though, it does have the capacity to overcome this situation, by recycling the water used for irrigating these courses. (Author)

  3. Analyzing the Influence of Constructing Daxi Passenger Transport Railway Line on Water Environment of Lancun Spring-feeding Area%大西客运专线建设对兰村泉域水环境影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珊

    2012-01-01

    从站点给排水、隧道建设、桥梁建设、路基建设、站场建设、电气化建设和铁路运营等几个方面分析大西客专施工与运营对兰村泉域水环境的影响。%The paper analyzes the influence of constructing Daxi passenger transport railway line on water environment of Lancun spring-feeding area from several aspects: railway station drainage,tunnel construction,bridge construction,railway base construction,station construction,electrification construction and railway operation.

  4. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones' Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk Area in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as 'good', 'fair,' or 'poor' by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region.

  5. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO FOOD CONTAMINANTS ON EDIBLE FISH, CLAMS AND CRUSTACEANS IN A COASTAL ENVIRONMENT FACING A MINING AND INDUSTRIAL AREA IN SARDINIA (SULCIS-IGLESIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Piras

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk assessment following exposure of the local population to the consumption of fishery products caught in the Boi Cerbus lagoon, located in country of Portoscuso (Sardinia, followed the phase of sampling, analysis and data-collection “site-specific”. Overall, the fishery products samples are part of the following zoological groups: fish (grey mullets, soles and gobies, bivalve (cockles and crustaceans (crabs. It was also agreed that further investigation were implemented in a targeted way, directing attention to critical issues that emerged from the first phase, represented by heavy metals such as Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and the (metalloid Arsenic that, for the purposes of food safety, are still contaminants with high concern for the potential impact on human health. For the risk analysis through food intake, three different procedures for exposure assessment were considered: the regulation by law, the assessment according to US-EPA approach and the assessment according to EU harmonized method. For a wider opportunity for exposure assessment through ingestion of food from contaminated areas, also for their risk management, a single approach to the risk analysis is not be considered sufficient.

  6. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  7. How quickly do High Arctic coastal environments respond to rapid deglaciation and the paraglacial transformation of proglacial areas? - Answers from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Matt; Long, Antony; Lloyd, Jerry; Zagórski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most important storage systems for sediments that are eroded and transported by rivers, wind and slope processes from deglacierised valleys and proglacial areas before reaching their final sediment sink (fjords or the open sea. The Svalbard archipelago provides an excellent location to quantify how High Arctic coasts are responding to climate warming and the associated paraglacial landscape transformations. In this paper we summarize the results of several coastal surveys carried out by our research teams along the paraglacial coasts of Spitsbergen during the last decade. We reconstruct the post-Little Ice Age development of selected coastlines in Spitsbergen to illustrate the variable coastal response to paraglacial and periglacial processes activated following the recent retreat of glaciers. Our surveys use aerial photogrammetric and GIS analyses, sedimentological classification of coastal deposits and field-based geomorphological mapping in Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Bellsund, Hornsund and Sørkappland. Our results document dramatic changes in sediment flux and coastal response under intervals characterized by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and thawing permafrost. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of the controls on High Arctic coastal geomorphology, especially given the potential for future accelerated warming and sea-level rise.

  8. 电力企业局域网络运行环境的优化%Optimization of operation environment for local area network of power enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of frequent interruption of local area network(LAN) in power enter- prise, adopts the measures of double modular fault-tolerant mode, installation protection tool from the computer virus, seting up the control of the network flux and system safety, successfully solves the problem of LAN frequent interruption. The application result shows that: the optimized LAN can change information fluency, ensure system safety and provide effective healthy platform for production of power enterprise.%针对电力企业局域网络中断频繁的问题,采用双机容错方式、安装计算机病毒防护工具、进行网络流量控制和系统安全控制等措施,解决了中断频繁的问题。应用结果表明:经过优化后的局域网信息交换流畅,系统安全得到保障,为电力企业生产、办公的正常、有序进行提供了有效平台。

  9. Relationship between the specific surface area of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel in a wet-dry acid corrosion environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-he; Li, Shuan-zhu

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the specific surface area (SSA) of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel under wet-dry acid corrosion conditions was investigated. The results showed that the corrosion current density first increased and then decreased with increasing SSA of the rust during the corrosion process. The structure of the rust changed from single-layer to double-layer, and the γ-FeOOH content decreased in the inner layer of the rust with increasing corrosion time; by contrast, the γ-FeOOH content in the outer layer was constant. When the SSA of the rust was lower than the critical SSA corresponding to the relative humidity during the drying period, condensed water in the micropores of the rust could evaporate, which prompted the diffusion of O2 into the rust and the following formation process of γ-FeOOH, leading to an increase of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time. However, when the SSA of the rust reached or exceeded the critical SSA, condensate water in the micro-pores of the inner layer of the rust could not evaporate which inhibited the diffusion of O2 and decreased the γ-FeOOH content in the inner rust, leading to a decrease of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time.

  10. Life-course socioeconomic environment and health risk behaviours. A multilevel small-area analysis of young-old persons in an urban neighbourhood in Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaz, Sarah; Taffé, Patrick; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2009-03-01

    With a life expectancy at the age of 65 of around 20 years, damaging health risk behaviours of young-old adults have become a target for preventive actions. Such risk factors necessitate an accurate understanding of the present and past socioeconomic conditions associated with health risk behaviours. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of certain life events as well as economic and environmental factors on health risk behaviours. We included 1309 participants of the Lausanne Cohort Lc65+ aged 65-70 years and employed logistic regression analyses, with individuals nested within areas. The results illustrate the influences of socioeconomic factors from childhood to young-old age. Life experiences in adulthood and economic resources in young-old age are both associated with unfavourable health behaviours. Neighbourhood is a modest determinant as well, particularly regarding alcohol consumption. Therefore, prevention against health risk behaviours should focus on population subgroups defined on the basis of their socioeconomic and living contexts.

  11. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones’ Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk area in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasini Banneheke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobili­zation and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka.Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographicdata, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were clas­sified as `good ', `fair,' or `poor' by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data.Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good.Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes.  While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and be­haviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program plan­ners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region.

  12. Sources and fate of perfluorinated compounds in the aqueous environment and in drinking water of a highly urbanized and industrialized area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Valsecchi, Sara; Polesello, Stefano; Rusconi, Marianna; Melis, Manuela; Palmiotto, Marinella; Manenti, Angela; Davoli, Enrico; Zuccato, Ettore

    2015-01-23

    Perfluorinated substances are listed among emerging contaminants because they are globally distributed, environmentally persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially harmful. In a three-year monitoring campaign (2010-2013) we investigated the occurrence, sources and fate of nine perfluoroalkylcarboxylic acids and three perfluoroalkylsulfonic acids, in the most industrialized region of Italy. Composite samples were collected in influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in the main rivers flowing through the basin, and in raw groundwater and finished drinking water. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorinated substances were not removed in WWTPs and those receiving industrial wastes discharged up to 50 times the loads of WWTPs receiving municipal wastes. The mass balance of the emissions in the River Lambro basin showed continuously increasing contamination from north to south and differences in the composition of homologues in the west and east sides of the basin. Ground and drinking water were contaminated in industrial areas, but these substances were removed well in Milan. Contamination from industrial sources was prevalent over urban sources, contributing to 90% of the loads measured at the closure of the basin. The River Lambro was confirmed as one of the main sources of contamination in the Po River.

  13. Evaluation of resource-environment base in arid area:a case of Xinjiang%干旱区发展的资源环境基础评价:以新疆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 杨波; 程晓凌

    2011-01-01

    Owned an area of 1.66x106 km , Xinjiang is the largest province in China, and more than a half of its territorial is desert or gobi. With a rapid growth in economy and a great change in both cultural and education, more and more concerns on local environment and ecology have occurred since the Western Development Strategy announced in 1999. Meanwhile, during the last twenty years the population growth rate in Xinjiang was significantly higher than that of the national average. All these changes made Xinjiang had to face a greater challenge in the development of man - land relationship. Nature resources and environment play an irreplaceable role in the course of development of human society. As an arid area with a harsh environment and fragile ecology, regional development of Xinjiang in both social and economic is strongly obedient to the local resource - environment base. As the key area and a major energy base of West China, a sustainable development in Xinjiang is highly significant for the process of West China and the whole country. Our paper shows, in terms of the calculation analysis of value of regional resource - environment base (RREB) , that Xinjiang has a fragile resource - environment base with an unstable factor's composition and an uneven spatial combination. The population gravity center and economic gravity center of Xinjiang diverge from the geometric center. Furthermore, local ecological system still faces serious problems such as the shortage of forest resources and arable land, uneven distribution of grassland and arable land, and the continuous deterioration of the ecological environment. Therefore, the most essential task for the sustainable development of Xinjiang in the future is to maintain the stability of the resource - environment base and correctly understand the function orientation of Northern, Southern and Eastern Xinjiang. In these three regions, Northern and Southern Xinjiang are the heartland of human activities, and Eastern

  14. 东北寒冷地区城市环境色彩控制与规划理念%The Color Control and Planning of Urban Environment in Northeast Cold Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐伟民; 王晓辉; 高月秋

    2012-01-01

    本文立足东北寒冷地区城市视觉环境与色彩规划的研究视角,从色彩控制的角度为寒地城市环境的发展开拓新的思路,促进色彩理论研究与城市建设实践相结合,充分利用寒地资源,塑造富有特色的寒地城市色彩形象,以进一步提升城市品位.%This paper based on the northeast cold area visual environment and city color planning research, it aims at developing the new concept from the perspective of color control for cold city environment, promoting the combina-tion of color theory and the practice of city construction, making full use of the resources in the cold area, and build-ing characteristic city image with vivid color, as a result to enhance the taste of the city.

  15. A node localization algorithm for WSN in reservoir area environment monitoring%一种用于库区环境监测的WSN节点定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小辉; 何景; 陈晨

    2012-01-01

    Makes the research of the environment monitor in the complex reservoir area.By building a wireless sensor network monitoring system for the specific environment of the reservoir area,the paper mainly studies on the node localization precision and service life,and considering the nodes energy consumption,the paper uses the improved least square algorithm to improve the node localization precision.The simulation in MATLAB proves that the improved simplify LSM can not only improve the localization precision effectively,but also reduce the node energy consumption;the accurate localization of early warning can be effective achieved.%针对库区复杂的环境监测进行研究。在构建适用于库区特定环境的无线传感器网络监控系统下,针对节点定位精度和使用寿命的要求,采用改进后的最小二乘法对节点坐标进行求精,在保证定位精度的同时降低节点能耗。仿真结果表明,本算法能够有效的保证定位精度,实现预警位置的精确定位。

  16. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  17. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6, concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%; most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  18. Coal mining area environment impact assessment of site monitoring and analysis of the problem%煤矿矿区环境影响评价中的现场监测问题与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽梅; 王颖

    2012-01-01

      Environmental impact assessment based on environment monitoring based, when a construction project on environmental impact assessment, first to the project's construction to environment factor monitoring analysis. The environment in coal ecological fragile, so for the mining construction projects in the environmental impact assessment to more cautious and fine. Based on environmental impact assessment of the mining area environment monitoring will be a must be treated carefully. So in monitoring of the process as much as possible to avoid human errors and reduce the error of the objective. This paper will be of the coal mine mining area of the atmosphere, surface water and ground water, mine water, mining area of various environmental noise elements of the environmental monitoring analysis of one discussion.%  环境影响评价是以环境监测为基础的,当一个建设项目进行环境影响评价的时候,首先要对该项目建设地的环境要素进行监测分析。煤矿矿区的环境生态脆弱,所以对于在矿区进行的建设项目的环境影响评价要更加谨慎细致。基于环境影响评价的矿区环境监测也就成为一个必须要认真细致对待的问题。所以在监测过程当中要尽可能的避免人为的过失和减少客观的误差。本文将对煤矿矿区的大气、地表水、地下水、矿井水、矿区噪声的各种环境要素的环境监测进行逐一的分析讨论

  19. 新常态下农村环境污染现状及防治对策研究%Present Situation and Countermeasures of Environment Pollution in Rural Area under the New Normal research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景泽

    2015-01-01

    本文针对目前农村环境污染的现状及存在的问题,从加强农村饮用水源地保护、做好土壤和畜禽养殖污染防治、深化农村生态示范创建工作、开展农村环境连片综合整治、建设农村环境保护监管体系等方面进行了研究分析,并提出了新常态下农村环境污染防治工作的对策与措施。%In view of the present status and problems of environment pollution problems in rural area,the analysis are made in the aspects of strengthening the protection of rural source of drinking water,the prevention of soil pollution from livestock and poultry farming,deepening rural ecological demonstration,carrying out the comprehensive improvement of the rural environment shall,constructing rural environment protection supervision system,and the new normal countermeasures and measures of the rural environmental pollution prevention and control work.are put forward.

  20. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  1. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT OF DAYE MINING AREA IN SOUTHEASTERN HUBEI PROVINCE%鄂东南大冶矿区地质环境影响性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锋; 柴波; 周爱国

    2015-01-01

    在我国,矿业城市的地质环境问题日趋严重,需要探索一套适合于区域矿山地质环境影响性评价的技术方法,以指导矿业城市或重点矿区的矿产资源开发和环境保护。以鄂东南大冶矿区(即大冶市)为例,以遥感调查数据为基础,建立了由地质环境背景、已有地质环境问题和矿山开采活动三方面组成的区域矿山地质环境影响性评价指标体系,采用传统的模糊综合评价方法,分别对自然状态下矿区的地质灾害易发性和采矿状态下的矿区地质环境影响性进行了定量评价。结果表明:(1)自然状态下,大冶矿区地质灾害高易发区、较高易发区、较低易发区及低易发区分别占评价总面积的3.29%、12.55%、24.53%及59.62%;(2)采矿状态下,大冶矿区地质环境影响性严重区、较严重区、一般、轻微区分别占评价总面积的13.63%、22.96%、33.95%及24.96%。评价结果可作为大冶矿区矿产开发规划和综合性地质环境治理的重要依据。%Geo-environmental problems of mining cities have been increasing in China.It is necessary to assess mine geo-environment impact(MGEI)in these mining cities for instructing the mine development and protecting environment.RS data is adopted to assess MGEI in the Daye mining area in southeastern Hubei Province.A MGEI index system is established by considering geo-environment background,geo-environment problems and mining activities.The fussy comprehensive assessment method is employed to assess the geo-hazard susceptibility before mining and the MGEI after mining respectively.The result indicates that:(1)Under the natural state,the high, medium,relatively low and low easy-happening areas of geological hazard take up 3.29%,12.55%,24.53% and 59.62%,respectively.(2)Under the mining state,the severely,less severely,relatively slightly and slightly impacted areas of mine geo-environment

  2. Evaluating impervious surface growth and its impacts on water environment in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area%京津唐城市群不透水地表增长对水环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    @@%The impervious surface area (ISA) at the regional scale is one of the important environmental factors for examining the interaction and mechanism of Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC)-ecosystem processes-climate change under the interactions of urbanization and global environmental change.Timely and accurate extraction of ISA from remotely sensed data at the regional scale is challenging.This study explored the ISA extraction based on MODIS and DMSP-OLS data and the incorporation of China's land use/cover data.ISA datasets in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Metropolitan Area (BTTMA) in 2000 and 2008 at a spatial resolution of 250 m were developed,their spatiotemporal changes were analyzed,and their impacts on water quality were then evaluated.The results indicated that ISA in BTTMA increased rapidly along urban fringe,transportation corridors and coastal belt both in intensity and extents from 2000 to 2008.Three cities (Tangshan,Langfang and Qinhuangdao) in Hebei Province had higher ISA growth rates than Beijing due to the pressure of population-resources-environments in the city resulting in increasingly transferring industries to the nearby areas.The dense ISA distribution in BTTMA has serious impacts on water quality in the Haihe River watershed.Meanwhile,the proportion of ISA in sub-watersheds has significantly linear relationships with the densities of river COD and NH3-N.

  3. 留守环境对农村独生子女心理健康状况的影响%Impact of Left-home Environment in Rural Area on Mental Health Status of the Only Child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽华; 陈登峰; 傅文青; 阙墨春; 杨凤池; 徐美才

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨留守环境对农村独生子女心理健康状况的影响.方法:采用中国中学生心理健康量表,对安徽省望江县某乡镇初级中学进行整群调查.结果:留守状况与独生状况在中学生强迫、抑郁因子上的交互作用显著(P<0.05),在B类留守儿童组,独生子女的得分高于非独生子女;留守环境可解释独生子女心理健康状况2.2%的方差变异(P=0.049),其中,以单亲外出的留守环境影响作用较大(β=0.225);留守环境对非独生子女心理健康状况的影响无统计学意义.结论:留守环境对独生子女心理健康状况的影响较为显著,以单亲外出的影响较大.%Objective: To study the impact of left-home environment in rural area on mental health status of the only child. Methods: Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students(MMHI-60) was adopted to investigate a whole junior middle school in a town of Wangjiang county in Anhui province. Results: The interaction effect on obsessive-compulsive and depression of left-home status and only child was significant (P<0.05); the only child scored higher than the non-only child in the group of one-parent-left-for-work students; left-home environment could explain 2.2% of the variation of mental health status of only child (p=0.049), thereinto, "one parent left for work" had more effects(β=0.225). Conclusion: Left-home environment in rural area has significant impact on the only child in mental health status, of which one-parent-left-for-work environment is more.

  4. Dynamic assessment and prediction on quality of agricultural eco-environment in county area%县域农业生态环境质量动态评价及预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高奇; 师学义; 张琛; 张美荣; 马桦薇

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, economy, and human progress, human activities have had increasingly significant effects on the agricultural eco-environment. Evaluating the regional quality of the agricultural eco-environment comprehensively and making a reasonable judgment of its development trends are significant for the maintenance of sustainable agriculture development and ecological balance. The research about agricultural eco-environment has shown widespread concern by scholars at home and abroad, and numerous studying methods and models have been applied to this field. However, most current studies have been focused on fixed times and areas, and are lacking in analysis of the dynamic changes of agricultural eco-environment quality and prediction of its developing trends. The Yaodu District of Linfen City was selected as the study area in this report, where the impact of human activities on the agricultural eco-environment has become increasingly evident with the acceleration of urbanization, indicating that study area is relatively representative in North China. Based on the related data of the quality of the agricultural eco-environment in this area from 2001 to 2010, this study constructed an evaluating index system of agricultural eco-environmental quality from three aspects which were agricultural natural environmental conditions, agricultural production inputs, and agricultural eco-environmental responses. The principal component analysis method was used to filter evaluation indicators, the entropy method was selected to determine the weight of each index, and the GM (1, 1) grey system theory model was applied to predict the evolution trend of agricultural eco-environment. Selecting the township as the basic evaluation unit, spatial and temporal variability of agricultural eco-environment quality were analyzed according to above evaluation methods. The results were as follows:1) The comprehensive index of agricultural eco-environmental quality generally

  5. Area Environment and Health in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Hooijdonk (Carolien)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Geographical differences in health are becoming an increasingly important theme in the field of public health. Studies focusing on health differences between countries, or regions within countries, or even at a smaller geographical scale, provide evidence for geographic

  6. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Paddy; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Roozeboom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnet

  7. 康定地区附加阳光间式住宅冬季热环境测试%Thermal Environment Measurement for the Sunspaces-attaching Passive House in Kangding Area in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩倩; 何泉; 杨柳

    2015-01-01

    康定地区太阳能资源比较丰富,现有民居对其利用程度多为南向设置大面积外窗和设置封闭、透明的阳光房,形成事实上的直接受益式太阳房和被动式阳光间。选取了新建建筑中比较常见的附加阳光间式住宅作为研究对象,对其室内热环境和室外气象条件进行了测试,得知附加阳光间对改善相邻房间的室内热环境具有显著的作用,阳光间室内的最高温度基本达到人体舒适范围的下限,可通过设置蓄热体来达到稳定、舒适的室内热环境。%There is abundant solar energy in Kangding area, and for the current dwellings, the pri-mary using way is setting big shape external window, closed or transparent sun space to the south, which are direct-gain solar house or passive solar space in fact. As studying the sunspaces-attaching passive house which are common in new buildings, measuring its interior thermal environment and outdoor meteoro-logical, it is shown that the sunspaces-attaching passive house play a prominent role in improving the inte-rior thermal environment of the adjacent room, the maximal range of temperature in the sun space largely lived up to the floor level of the comfortable range for the human, and we can get a steady and comfortable interior thermal environment through setting heat retainers.

  8. Discussion on the Geological Environment Comprehensive Management of Abandoned Quarries in Shenzhen Area%关于深圳地区废弃石场地质环境综合治理的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      深圳市经过30年的高速发展,形成逾70余处的花岗岩石场坑口。其中约30处石场坑口已陆续规划为建设用地或公园,但仍有约40处成了废弃的坑口。这些废弃坑口不仅影响深圳的城市环境,还存在严重的地质灾害隐患。为美化深圳地质环境,消除地质灾害隐患,缓解深圳市的土地资源,因此,对深圳废弃石场进行地质环境综合治理的探讨很有必要和意义。%After 30 years of rapid development, Shenzhen fo-rmatted more than 70 of the granite quarry pit. About 30 of t-hem at the quarry pit has been planning for construction land or park, but there are stil about 40 into the waste pit. These ab-andoned pits not only affect the Shenzhen city environment, but also has the hidden danger of serious geological disaster. For the beautification of Shenzhen geological environment, el-iminating the potential geological disaster, relieving Shenzhen city land resources, therefore, it is necessary and significance to explore the geological environment comprehensive manage-ment of abandoned quarries in Shenzhen area.

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry used to assess the dispersion of metals within mining environments; Aplicacion de la tecnica de espectrometria de fluorescencia de rayos-X en el estudio de la dispersion de metales en areas mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margui, E.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, O.; Hidalgo, M.; Pardini, G.; Queralt, I.

    2011-07-01

    One critical factor for success in characterizing metals polluting mining environments so as to be able to eliminate them and subsequently recover these areas depends upon a speedy and correct response in the analysis of samples. Rapid, simultaneous, multi-element analysis can be undertaken using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, a versatile, non-destructive analytical technique commonly employed to identify both major and minor elements in samples related to environmental studies. An additional advantage of this technique is the possibility of conducting the analysis directly on solid samples, which is extremely convenient when dealing with environmental samples that are difficult to dissolve, such as soils, sediments and mining wastes. Moreover, in recent years the development of spectrometers equipped with digital-signal processors combined with enlarged X-ray production, using better designs for excitation-detection, has contributed to an improvement in instrumental sensitivity, thus allowing us to detect important polluting elements such as Cd and Pb at trace levels. In this paper the authors describe, on the basis of their own experience, some interesting applications of XRF spectrometry for the analysis of several types of environmental samples related to the study of the dispersion of metals within mining environments: (A) analysis of mining wastes, soils and sediments; (B) analysis of samples of vegetation used as bio indicators or related to phyto remediation studies; and (C) analysis of water samples related to mining operations. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Two decision-support tools for assessing the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources as part of the Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area interactive energy atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Ignizio, Drew A.; Babel, Nils C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey project—Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA)—has developed a set of virtual tools in the form of an online interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The interactive energy atlas currently (2014) consists of three components: (1) a series of interactive maps; (2) downloadable geospatial datasets; and (3) decison-support tools, including two maps related to hydrologic resources discussed in this report. The hydrologic-resource maps can be used to examine the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources with respect to (1) groundwater vulnerability, by using the depth to water, recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer (DRASTIC) model, and (2) landscape erosion potential, by using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). The DRASTIC aquifer vulnerability index value for the two-State area ranges from 48 to 199. Higher values, indicating greater relative aquifer vulnerability, are centered in south-central Colorado, areas in southeastern New Mexico, and along riparian corridors in both States—all areas where the water table is relatively close to the land surface and the aquifer is more susceptible to surface influences. As calculated by the RUSLE model, potential mean annual erosion, as soil loss in units of tons per acre per year, ranges from 0 to 12,576 over the two-State area. The RUSLE model calculated low erosion potential over most of Colorado and New Mexico, with predictions of highest erosion potential largely confined to areas of mountains or escarpments. An example is presented of how a fully interactive RUSLE model could be further used as a decision-support tool to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of energy development on a

  11. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  12. 江苏沿海地区城镇化的生态效应研究%An Analysis of Coordinated Development between Urbanization and Eco-environment in Jiangsu Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云峰

    2012-01-01

    There is an objective interrelation between urbanization and eco-environment. According to the statistical data from 2000 to 2009 in Jiangsu coastal areas (Nantong city, Yancheng city, and Lianyungang city), a comprehensive evaluation system integrating urbanization and eco- environment was set up, containing four aspects of urbanization (population, economy, space and society) and three aspects of eco-environment (pressure, status and response ). The model of coordinated development was used in quantitative analysis and their evolution trend was evaluated based on the index of coordinated development. The following three conclusions are arrived at after above analysis and evaluation. Firstly, urbanization index was constantly upgraded and took on linear growth process; urbanization entered rapid development period. Secondly, eco-environment index had different variation characteristics and took on fluctuating upward tendency; the quality of eco-environment witnessed growing improvement. Thirdly, the index of coordination development reflected diversification of rank types. When urbanization development reached a certain stage, eco-environment pressure will be increased accordingly; in the meantime, a distinct increase in public awareness of environmental protection, and interrelation between urbanization and eco-environment can be gradually adapted and coordinated.%城镇化与生态环境之间存在着客观的动态耦合关系。以江苏省沿海地区(南通市、盐城市、连云港市)2000—2008年的统计数据为基础,构建了城镇化与生态环境协调发展的综合评价指标体系,利用协调发展模型对其演化趋势进行了量化分析。结果表明:(1)城镇化指数逐步提高,呈线性增长趋势,进入城镇化快速发展时期;(2)生态环境指数具有不同的变化特征,表现为波动上升趋势,生态环境质量不断得到改善;(3)城镇化与生态环境协调发展度指数表现

  13. Visão de profissionais e estudantes da área de saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente View of health area professionals on the interface between health and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviamar Camponogara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a visão de profissionais e estudantes da área da saúde sobre a interface saúde e meio ambiente. Estudo de abordagem qualitativa, descritivo, desenvolvidos com diferentes atores sociais que integram o processo de formação profissional e laboral da área da saúde em um município do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com questões norteadoras sobre o objeto de estudo, feita com trabalhadores hospitalares, enfermeiros, docentes, acadêmicos da área da saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde. Cada subprojeto foi analisado individualmente, com base no referencial sobre análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciam que os sujeitos possuem visões dicotômicas sobre meio ambiente e reconhecem os efeitos prejudiciais da atual crise ambiental, alegando que o ser humano é o principal causador. Os sujeitos do estudo entendem que há estreita interface entre saúde e meio ambiente, sendo as populações menos privilegiadas economicamente as mais afetadas pelos danos ambientais. Conclui-se que o aprofundamento do debate sobre o tema no processo de formação e prática profissional em saúde é fundamental no sentido de se buscar a efetiva responsabilidade socioambiental por parte dos atores sociais atuantes no setor.This article presents the view health area professionals and students have concerning the interface between health and the environment. It is a qualitative, descriptive study undertaken with different social players that are part of the vocational training process in the health care area in a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected through a semistructured interview comprising gui-ding questions on the study subject and carried out among hospital workers, nurses, health care professors and students, and community health agents. Each subproject was analyzed individually based on the content analysis framework. The results show that the

  14. Built Environment And Public Health Review And Planning In North American Metropolitan Areas%北美都市区建成环境与公共健康关系的研究述评及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄斌; 杨家文

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have fundamentaly changed the built environment of cities, and caused negative efects such as environmental polution and physical diseases. Improving physical activities and health is the new concept of overseas built environment planning. There has been abundant study on the relationship of “built environment-public health” in North America metropolitan areas. The paper discusses the impact of land use, transportation system on public health, learns experience from North America, and provides reference for Chinese healthy built environment development.%我国工业化、城市化和机动化的快速发展显著改变了城市建成环境的特征,带来居民体力活动缺乏和环境污染等问题,导致肥胖、心血管等慢性疾病的增加。建成环境作为城市规划建设在空间上的反映,是影响居民体力活动和健康的重要载体。从建成环境规划与优化的视角来鼓励公众体力活动、提升健康水平,成为国外城市规划新的理念。北美都市区对“建成环境—公共健康”互动关系的研究已有丰富成果,并实施应对健康问题的体力活动建议导则与建成环境规划设计策略。研究重点论述土地利用、交通系统等建成环境因素对体力活动和健康的影响作用机制,进而借鉴北美都市区的公共健康问题的规划应对,为缓解我国城市健康问题和推进健康城市建成环境规划提供借鉴。

  15. Cooperative area search algorithm for multi-UAVs in uncertainty environment%不确定环境下多无人机协同区域搜索算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符小卫; 魏广伟; 高晓光

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the impact of communication constraints on cooperative area search for multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs)in uncertainty environment,a novel method of multi-UAVs cooperative area search algorithm is presented,which is based on the thoughts of predictive and control.Firstly,the UAV dy-namic model and the cooperative search model are established based on the behavior rules of multi-UAVs coo-perative search.Secondly,the impact of communication constraints on the multi-UAVs cooperative area search is analyzed.Combined with the predictive and control thoughts,multi-UAVs must consider both the current search cost and future search cost when they carry out the cooperative search mission to improve the cooperative search efficiency of multi-UAVs.The Monte Carlo method is employed to validate the impact of different com-munication distances and angles on the multi-UAVs cooperative area search.The simulation results show the rationality and validity of the multi-UAVs cooperative area search algorithm.%针对通信约束在不确定环境下对多无人机协同区域搜索问题的影响,提出了一种基于预测控制思想的多无人机协同区域搜索算法,研究各种通信约束对多无人机协同区域搜索效能的影响。首先,根据多无人机协同搜索的行为准则建立了无人机运动模型和搜索模型。其次,分析了通信约束对于多无人机协同搜索的影响,结合预测控制思想,使多无人机在执行区域搜索任务时同时考虑当前搜索代价和长期搜索代价,提高了多无人机的协同搜索效能。使用蒙特卡罗方法对各种情况进行仿真,仿真结果验证了基于预测控制的多无人机协同区域搜索算法的合理性和有效性。

  16. CLASIFICACION MÚLTIPLE DE ITEMS Y LAS REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES SOBRE AMBIENTE EN PROFESORES RURALES (MULTIPLE ITEM CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE AND TEACHERS’ SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS CONCERNING THE ENVIRONMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obregoso Rodríguez Yolima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo se deriva del proyecto de investigación: «Transformación de las representaciones sociales sobre el ambiente en relación con las prácticas y experiencias pedagógicas de maestros rurales de Sumapaz y Ciudad Bolívar », con el cual se pretenden identificar algunas representaciones sociales, en torno al ambiente, de dos grupos de profesores rurales de Bogotá D.C., Colombia. Se desarrolló en dos Instituciones Educativas Rurales: Gimnasio del Campo Juan de la Cruz Varela (Sumapaz y Colegio Rural Quiba Alta (Ciudad Bolívar, y se utilizó una entrevista de tipo semiestructurada, desarrollada mediante la técnica Clasificación Múltiple de Ítems (CMI. El análisis se efectuó a través de categorías previas, tomadas de las tipologías de ambiente propuestas por Sauvé y Orellana (2002. A partir de lo anterior, se pudieron identificar categorías comunes y particulares para cada grupo de profesores. Fueron comunes: ambiente como medio de vida y naturaleza; y, particulares: contexto, paisaje, biosfera, proyecto comunitario —para Sumapaz—, sistema y territorio —para Ciudad Bolívar—. En conclusión, se evidenció que los profesores tienen una tendencia analítica sobre el ambiente; que existen diversas representaciones sociales de ambiente, las cuales guardan relación con su quehacer profesional, su cotidianidad y su contexto; que hay convergencias en las categorías, ya que se identifica el ambiente como medio de subsistencia y medio natural que les rodea. Es por esto que, posiblemente, tienen dificultades para interrelacionar diferentes elementos del ambiente.Abstract:This article derives from the research project: "Transformation of Social Representations concerning the Environment, in relation to Teachers’ Pedagogical and Practical Experiences in Rural Areas of Sumapaz and Ciudad Bolivar". By means of such a project, it is intended to identify some social representations concerning the environment of two

  17. 鄱阳湖地区城市资源环境与经济协调发展评价%Assesment of Harmonious Development between Resource, Environment and Urban Economy in Poyang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宜庆; 翁异静

    2012-01-01

    During the rapid development of economy and urbanization in Poyang Lake Area in Jiangxi Province, resource environment begins to play a more and more important role in promoting the economy. Establishing Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone is a major measure to promote the development of Jiangxi Province and to protect ecological resource environment in this area. Based on this background, this paper has established a comprehensive appraisement index system of resource environment quality and urban economic development level. It has evaluated the quality of resource environment and the urban economic development in 6 cities (Nanchang, Jingdezhen, Jiujiang, Xinyu, Yingtan and Fuzhou) in Poyang Lake Area by using principal component weighting method and fuzzy subjection function method. All of the data came from Jiangxi Province’s Statistical Yearbook and Statistical Bulletin on National Economy and Social Development of City in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Besides, this paper has introduced computation models of harmonious degree and harmonious development degree to better evaluate resource environment and urban economic development in those 6 cities. The results show that there is a big difference in harmony between them. Nanchang belongs to the type with well harmonious development but lagged resources. Xinyu belongs to the type with barely harmonious development and lagged resources. Jingdezhen and Jiujiang belong to the type with barely harmonious development and lagged economy. Yingtan and Fuzhou belong to the type with damaged economy and moderately-uncoordinated decline. According to the above conclusions, we put forward the following suggestions to promote the development of urban resource environment and economy in Poyang Lake Area: Nanchang, as the core of regional ecological economy, should strengthen its leading role; Xinyu should adjust the development model to build ecological industry which cannot sacrifice resources and environment; Jingdezhen

  18. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  19. 火墙对严寒地区村镇住宅热环境的影响研究%Influences of Hot-wall on Rural Residential Thermal Environment in Severe Cold Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西平; 张鹏; 周铁钢

    2016-01-01

    The hot -wall is a common traditional heating facility in north chilling region. In this paper, the present situation investigation and field testing of hot -wall are taken on rural residences in severe cold areas. The effect of hot-wall on indoor thermal environment in winter was analyzed in the two aspects of its heating effect and heat dissipating performance. The results show that the thermal environment of the hot-wall room basically meets the requirements of comfort. Some conditions are found, such as the temperature is volatile, and the distributions of temperature and wall temperature are not uniform. In view of the defects, the corresponding improvement measures and design method are proposed to make hot-wall meeting higher comfort and energy-saving requirements after improvement.%火墙是北方寒地常用的传统采暖设施。通过对严寒地区村镇住宅火墙的现状调查与实地测试,从火墙的采暖效果和散热性能两方面分析其在冬季对室内热环境的影响。结果表明火墙房间的热环境基本满足舒适性要求。但也发现火墙供暖房间室温波动较大、室温及壁面温度分布不均等现象,并针对此缺陷提出了相应的改进措施和设计方法,使改进后的火墙更能满足舒适和节能要求。

  20. 北京某区域分布式能源规划环境效益及环境问题分析%Environment Benefit and Problem Analysis about Distributed Generation Layout of One Area in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春花

    2014-01-01

    It is important to optimize energy structure and increase the proportion of clear energy in the total electrici-ty,such as nuclear power,wind power and so on,to meet the needs of fast increase of power load. This is also where distributed energy comes into the picture. Combining the example of distributed generation layout of one area in Bei-jing,this paper analyzed the environment benefit and discussed its possible environment problems. Conducted with the project example,the environmental impact assessment of project was carried out and the appropriate pollution control and quality improve schemes was put forward. The problem needed to notice when the power plant built in Beijing was put forward too. It can provide references for the similar projects in the future.%为满足电力负荷增长的需求,需调整能源结构,提高其他能源发电量所占的比例。因此,除了核电、风电等其他能源电站外,分布式能源应运而生。结合北京某区域分布式能源电站的规划项目,对分布式能源电站可能产生的环境污染问题进行阐述,综合分析其所具有的环境效益,最终提出治理方案,为在北京建设分布式能源电站提供了有价值的参考。

  1. 滩涂贝类养殖区底质硫化物的去除及修复%Study on Restoration of Sulfide in Sediment Environment of Shellfish Mudflat Culture Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛俊翔; 蒋玫; 李磊; 袁骐; 吴庆元; 许高鹏; 沈新强

    2013-01-01

    以滩涂现场实验与室内模拟实验相结合的途径,运用物理修复方法(翻耕、压沙加翻耕)和投放双齿围沙蚕(Perinereis aibuhitensis)的生物修复方法开展滩涂文蛤(Meretrix meretrix)养殖底质中硫化物的去除修复实验.结果表明,现场和室内物理修复实验中,翻耕和压沙加翻耕处理去除硫化物效果均达到显著水平(P<0.05),其中压沙加翻耕修复效果优于翻耕,室内翻耕30 cm修复效果优于翻耕20cm.室内生物修复实验中,各沙蚕处理组较对照组均表现出了较好的硫化物修复效果,且硫化物的去除效果随沙蚕投放密度的适量增加而增强,其中0.14 kg·m-2和0.21 kg·m-2沙蚕组的修复效果达到显著水平(P<0.05),而当增加沙蚕投放密度至0.28 kg·m-2时,硫化物的去除效果反而减弱,表明最佳沙蚕修复效果有一个适宜的密度投放值.%The sulfide in mariculture environments could not only influence directly the seawater environmental qualities,but also induce the pollution of sediment environments and result in impairments of the shellfish cultured.In this study,laboratory experiment and field experiment were used to investigate the restoration of sulfide in sediment environment of shellfish mudflat culture areas.And two methods on restoration of sediment environment were involved,one was bioremediation(the densities of Perinereis aibuhitensis were 0.07 kg· m-2,0.14kg· m-2,0.21 kg· m-2 and 0.28 kg· m-2 respectively),and the other was physical way(only beach ploughing,both covering sand and beach ploughing).The results indicated that two physical ways had achieved significant results in both laboratory experiment and field experiment (P<0.05),and the result of both covering sand and beach ploughing was better than only beach ploughing in both two experiments,and the effect of ploughed 30cm was better than ploughed 20 cm in laboratory experiment.Compared with the control group of bioremediation,all density

  2. Storage effect of combat readiness instrument packages in southern coastal areas under natural environment%南部沿海地区自然环境下战备器械包储存效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪莹; 邱素红; 高玉华; 侯军华

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the storage effect of different packing materials of combat readiness instrument packages under hot and humid environment of Hainan area .METHODS In Feb ,2013 ,totally 3 types of commonly used packing materials of combat readiness instrument packages (n=145) were included in the study and were re‐spectively sterilized for 5 to 95 days ,each 3 of the instrument packages were randomly extracted every 5 days for the detection of bacterial colony counts ,the indoor temperature and humidity of the combat readiness warehouse were monitored ,and the air was sampled and cultured .RESULTS After the sterilization for 10 days ,1 cotton pack‐aging sterilization package was cultured positive ,with the positive rate of 0 .7% .On day 65 of the sterilization ,2 non‐woven packaging sterilization packages were cultured positive ,with the positive rate of 1 .4% .On day 95 of the sterilization ,2 paper‐plastic sealing bag packaging sterilization packages were cultured positive ,with the posi‐tive rate of 1 .4% .CONCLUSION The validity period of preservation of the sterile combat readiness instrument packages is relatively shortened under the hot and humid natural environment .The storage environment and pack‐aging material have great impact on the storage effect .The bacteria isolated from the combat readiness instrument packages are originated from the natural environment .The validity period of the sterile packages can be extended if the storage environment is effectively controlled and the appropriate packaging materials are chosen .%目的:探讨采用不同包装材料的战备器械包存放在海南地区湿热自然环境下的储存效果。方法2013年2月准备3种常用材料包装的战备器械包共145个,分别于灭菌后5~95 d ,每5 d随机取不同包装材料器械包各3个进行细菌计数检测,同时对战备物资仓库室内温湿度进行监控,并对空气进行采样培养。结果灭菌后10 d,有1个棉

  3. Evolution Forecast of Rich Aluminum Soil in Wuyi Mountain Area Under Warming Environment%在升温环境下武夷山地区富铝土演化预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Rich aluminum soil is the main soil type in China tropical and subtropical area ,different water hot status and different ratio decided that soil had different physico-chemical nature.Rich aluminum soil evolution of Wuyi Mountain area was forecasted under warming environment ,it was conducive to exploit the soil resources ,and had great and far-reaching significance for the protection of world natural and cultural heritage of Wuyi Mountain.By field practice investigation and indoor test analysis ,we got physico-chemical nature data of Wuyi Mountain aluminum soil.By finishing related meteorological information about years average temperature of Nanping and Wuyishan City ,compared with organic matter content and pH value of rich aluminum soil-a layer at different time stage ,evolution situation of Wuyi Mountain aluminum soil was forecasted under warming environment. The results were as following:①temperature around Wuyi Mountain area had warming trend;②soil organic matter content were declining in red ,yellow red,brown of yellow red,and yellow. The pH value was increasing to weak acid direction;③red soil,yellow-red soil and yellow soil of Wuyi Mountain area would separately evolute to latosol red soil ,red soil and yellow soil;④latosol red soil would appear.%富铝土是我国热带、亚热带地区主要的土壤类型,不同的水热状况及其配比不同,决定土壤具有不同的理化性质,对在升温环境下武夷山地区富铝土演化进行预测,有利于更好地开发利用该地土壤资源,对于保护武夷山世界自然和文化遗产有着重要而深远的意义。通过对武夷山富铝土的野外实习考察与室内试验分析,得到武夷山富铝土的理化性质数据,并通过整理南平市、武夷山市的年平均气温的相关气象资料,在对比不同时间阶段富铝土A层的有机质含量和pH值的基础上,预测在升温环境下武夷山富铝土的演化情况,结果表明:①武

  4. Survival Environment and Development Measures for Small Loan Companies in Rural Areas%农村小额贷款公司生存与发展亟需解决的瓶颈问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2013-01-01

    As a kind of new financial institutions, the small loan companies operated between the established formal loan institution and the informal private borrowing activities have shown certain advantages to help the economic development of vast rural areas, but several disadvantages make them in a rather weak competitive position, some measures are needed to create a favorable economic and legal environment for their development.%作为服务于“三农”一类新生机构,小额贷款公司灵活游走于官方借贷与民间借贷之间,其“短小快”的特点为“三农”经济发展起到了很好的促进作用,但是其“只贷不存”的特点及缺少财税支持等瓶颈决定了其在竞争中的弱势地位,需要为其发展寻求有利的经济与法律环境。

  5. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterizations on new Fe sulphoarsenate hilarionite (Fe2(III)(SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O): Implications for arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of mine area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, LiLe; Dong, Faqin; Frost, Ray L.

    2017-01-01

    Hilarionite (Fe2 (SO4)(AsO4)(OH)·6H2O) is a new Fe sulphoarsenates mineral, which recently is found in the famous Lavrion ore district, Atliki Prefecture, Greece. The spectroscopic study of hilarionite enriches the data of arsenic mineralogy in supergene environment of a mine area. The infrared and Raman means are used to characterize the molecular structure of this mineral. The IR bands at 875 and 905 cm- 1 are assigned to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of AsO43 -. The IR bands at 1021, 1086 and 1136 cm- 1 correspond to the possible antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of SO42 -. The Raman bands at 807, 843 and 875 cm- 1 clearly show that arsenate components in the mineral structure, which are assigned to the symmetric stretching vibrations (ν1) of AsO43 - (807 and 843 cm- 1) and the antisymmetric vibration (ν3) (875 cm- 1). IR bands provide more sulfate information than Raman, which can be used as the basis to distinguish hilarionite from kaňkite. The powder XRD data shows that hilarionite has obvious differences with the mineral structure of kaňkite. The thermoanalysis and SEM-EDX results show that hilarionite has more sulfate than arsenate.

  6. Benefit Analysis of Environment Investment in Jianghuai Areas of Anhui Province%安徽省江淮地区环境投资效益分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙晶晶

    2014-01-01

    指出了资源与环境是人类赖以生存的基本条件,但随着人口激增和经济发展,资源匮乏与环境污染问题越来越严重。以安徽省江淮地区为对象,在大量缜密调查数据的基础上进行了分析评估,提出了污染防治与生态保护对策。%Resources and environment are the basic conditions for human survival ,but along with the population increase and economic development ,lack of resources and environmental pollution problems are becoming more and more serious .Taking the Jianghuai Areas of Anhui Province which are located between the Yangtze River and Huai River as the object ,this article analyzes the situations of environmental protection and evaluates the environmental investment benefits based on a large amount of investigation data ,and proposes countermeasure for pollution control and ecological protection .

  7. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  8. Research on Summer Thermal Environment Test in the University Classroom of Zhengzhou Area%郑州地区高校教室夏季热环境测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧卿; 冯丙玉

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the summer thermal environment in university classroom, taking a university classroom of Zhengzhou area as an example, through measuring some indoor environmental parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and wall temperature, the subjective feelings of participants are investigated in the form of a questionnaire, and the relationships between thermal parameters and the thermal sensation of participants are found. Then, the conclusions are obtained as follows:the fitted equa-tion of the predicted mean vote PMV and indoor air temperature ta is obtained, and the predicted thermal neutral temperature is 24. 5 ℃, the acceptable temperature range is 22. 5~26. 4℃;the fitted equation of the mean thermal sensation vote MTS and indoor air tempera-ture ta is obtained, and the actual thermal neutral temperature is 26. 7 ℃, the acceptable range is 24. 6~28. 8 ℃, which have in-creased by comparing with the predicted thermal neutral temperature; the acceptance rate of subjects to the environment is 73. 9%, which shows most of the participants on the environment are acceptable, but 19% of the participants feel hot, so the university class-room thermal environment needs to be improved.%为研究高校教室夏季热环境,通过对郑州地区某高校教室进行调研,测试其空气温度、相对湿度、风速、壁面温度等环境参数的同时,采用问卷的形式调查受试者的主观感受,探索教室热环境参数与受试者热感觉之间的关系.得到了预测平均评价PMV与室内空气温度ta的拟合方程,预测热中性温度为24.5℃,可接受温度范围为22.5~26.4℃;得到了热感觉投票均值MTS与室内空气温度ta的拟合方程,实际受试者的热中性温度为26.7℃,可接受范围为24.6~28.8℃,与预测热中性温度相比都有升高;受试者对测试环境的接受程度为73.9%,表示大多数受试者对所处环境可以接受,但表示"热"的受试者有19%,说明高

  9. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss......This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...

  10. 面向三峡库区水环境监测的分区多跳LEACH算法%An Partition Multi-Hop LEACH Algorithm Facing Water Environment Monitoring of Three-Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲元昌; 徐保桂; 郭开林; 周冬芹

    2011-01-01

    针对无线传感器网络节点能量受限的问题,结合三峡库区水环境的具体应用环境,提出一种基于LEACH算法的改进型无线传感器网络节能路由算法-LEACH-PM.该算法将整个网络划分为若干个区城,各个分区内按轮进行建立分簇和传输数据.在簇建立阶段,考虑了节点的剩余能量;在数据传输阶段,采用单跳与多跳相结合的方式以降低网络的能耗.应用MATLAB对LEACH-PM算法与已有的LEACH算法进行仿真比较.实脸结果显示,LEACH-M算法能更好平衡网络节点能耗,降低簇头节点能耗,延长整个网络的生存期.%For solving the problem of the restriction on energy in WSN, combined with the specific application environment of Three-Gorges Reservoir Area's water environment monitoring, an improved LEACH algorithm, named LEACH-PM ( Partition Multi-Hop LEACH ), is proposed. The entire network is divided into several zones by this algorithm. Clusters in zones are set up in order,with data transferred. In the setup phase, the residual energy of nodes is taken into account. In the data transferred phase, the single hop and multi-hop are combined in order to reduce the energy consumption of the network. The performance of LEACH-PM is simulated by MATLAB. The results show that the energy consumption of nodes is balanced;the energy consumption of cluster head nodes is reduced;and the lifetime of the network is extended.

  11. 城市不同遮阴环境下光强和光质特征%Characteristics of light intensity and light quality in different types of shade environments in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于盈盈; 胡聃; 王晓琳; 李元征; 韩风森

    2015-01-01

    城市的发展伴随着大量高层建筑的出现,城市建筑作为人工构筑物,形成了与自然环境不同的人工遮阴环境,这种人工环境可能会对其下生长的植物产生一定的影响。为了研究人工建筑遮阴与自然遮阴环境之间的差异,北京市典型高层建筑遮阴和冠层遮阴光环境进行了测量,发现建筑和冠层显著改变其遮阴微环境的光强和光质。两种遮阴下光合有效辐射分别为天空自然辐射的9.09%和5.50%,遮阴处的光合有效辐射均小于200μmol m-2 s-1,低于多数城市植物的光饱和点。与天空自然辐射相比,建筑遮阴处蓝光在光合有效辐射中所占比例(B/P)、蓝光与红光的比例(B/R)以及蓝光与远红光的比例(B/FR)升高,且高于冠层遮阴,红光与远红光的比例( R/FR)没有显著变化,而冠层遮阴下R/FR则低于天空自然辐射。建筑遮阴下光质的改变可能会对植物的光合产生积极作用,并可能影响到植物的形态及生理反应。窄波段和宽波段两种不同积分方法对R/FR没有显著影响,采用宽波段积分得到的B/R低于窄波段,但降低幅度很小,在植物光合生理研究方面两种积分方法可以通用。%Many high-rise buildings were erected during the urban development of China and many other countries. Considering that artificial structures and buildings have special morphology, with different materials and distribution patterns, they might form artificial shade environment different from natural shade formed by trees. To study the differences between artificial and natural shade in urban area, we measured light environment of typical artificial shade created by urban buildings and canopy shade created by trees in August with a portable fiber optic spectroscope ( ULS2048XL, Avantes Inc., The Netherlands). The results showed that buildings and tree canopy alter the shade microenvironment at different levels. Both types of shade caused attenuation of light

  12. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  13. 开滦矿区煤岩动力灾害的构造应力环境%Tectonic stress environment of coal and rock dynamic hazard in Kailuan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军; 梁冰; 张宏伟; 朱志洁; 荣海; 张普田; 梁和平

    2013-01-01

    Using hollow inclusion method measure the in-situ stress of Kailuan mining area.In-situ stress field types,interaction behavior and the relationship between regional structure was systematically analyzed.Based on this,the inner relationship between in-situ stress field and coal and gas outburst,rockburst,water inrush and other coal and rock dynamic disaster was analyzed.Studies show that in-situ stress field in Kailuan mining area belongs to the Earth dynamical field,the horizontal tectonic stress is dominant,and it belongs to the high stress zone.In-situ stress magnitude and orientation is controlled by Kaiping syncline.Stress value is the highest in Kaiping synclinal axis section.As far away from the axis,the stress value decreases gradually.The maximum principal stress orientation and axis trend of Kaiping synclinal is approximate vertical.At the same time tectonic stress field controls coal structure,coal gas parameters,permeability and so on.In the Kailuan mining area,coal and gas outburst and rock burst occurred in synclinal axis section of Kaiping where stress value is highest,water inrush occurred in the Kaiping syncline wing where stress value is the lowest.Coal and rock dynamic disaster in Kailuan mining area is in the unified tectonic stress environment.%运用空心包体地应力测量方法进行了开滦矿区地应力测试,系统分析了开滦矿区地应力场的类型、作用特征及其与区域构造的关系,在此基础上分析了开滦矿区煤与瓦斯突出、冲击地压和底板突水等煤岩动力灾害与矿区地应力场之间的内在关系.研究表明开滦矿区地应力场属于大地动力场,地应力以水平构造应力为主导,且属于高应力区.矿区地应力场的量值和方位受开平向斜的控制,开平向斜轴部区域应力值最高,随着远离轴部,应力值逐渐降低;最大主应力方位与开平向斜轴部走向近似垂直.构造应力场对开滦矿区煤体结构、瓦斯参数、煤体渗

  14. 某铀矿富集区及其周围环境放射性现状调查%An Environment Radioactivity Survey in and around a Uranium Enrichment Area in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙功明; 李冠超; 白书明; 杨波; 林健

    2015-01-01

    A survey of environment radioactivity in and around a uranium enrichment area of approximately 700 km 2 in Guangdong Province has been made .The result shows that the gamma radiation dose rate is far higher than the provincial natural radioactivity level . 238 U , 232 Th , 226 Ra in some soil samples are more concen-trated than the background in Guangdong .There is a river with too higher content of radionuclide ,of which U is 15 .7 times than the reported value for Beijiang River in the province .The U concentration in effluents from some uranium ore occurrences and a hydrometallurgy factory exceeds the nuclear industrial limit .%介绍了广东省某铀矿富集区及其周边约700 km 2范围环境放射性现状调查。调查结果表明:该铀矿富集区的γ辐射剂量率明显高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;部分地区土壤样品中238 U 、232 Th 、226 Ra 含量高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;地表水体中有一条河流的放射性核素偏高,其铀浓度是广东省北江水系报告值的15.7倍;部分铀矿点和水冶厂的水体铀浓度超过核工业控制标准限值。

  15. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  16. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  17. Study on impact of human activities for natural environment in Changbai Mountain of typical area%人类活动对长白山典型区域自然环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建军; 张洪岩; 王野乔; 乔志和; 候光雷

    2011-01-01

    以1977年MSS、1993年TM和2007年TM三个时期遥感影像为数据基础,借助遥感和GIS技术以及景观生态学分析方法,对长白山30年来土地利用/覆被和景观格局动态时空规律进行了定量分析,并探讨了人类活动对其产生的影响程度.结果表明:建设用地、耕地、未利用地、其他植被和林地在30年里都发生了很大的变化.1977-1993年间,林地和水域呈现减少趋势,耕地、建设用地、未利用地和其他植被呈明显增加趋势;1993-2007年林地和耕地面积呈减少趋势,其他土地覆被类型还呈增加趋势.建设用地、未利用地和其他植被一直处于增加状态,虽然1993年之后增加趋势有所减慢,但是其范围蔓延到更高海拔地区.在景观水平上和类型水平上都发生了很大变化,景观破碎化严重,人类活动对研究区土地覆被变化带来了很大的负面效应,并且在短时期内很难恢复.%The main purpose of this paper is to analyze quantitatively in the land use/cover change and landscape patterns of Changbai Mountain region in the past 30 years, observe the characteristics and evolution,investigate the relationships between the human activities of the two countries and LUCC and landscape patterns,reveal the law of its dynamic evolution and ecological-environmental benefits from a macroscopic point of view, and provide scientific basis for environmental and ecological protection and the sustainable use of natural resources. In this paper,the surrounding area of Changbai Mountain Centrum around 7 854 km2 was chosen as an study area on LUCC and its ecological environment effect. Based on remote sensing data of MSS in 1977 and TM in 1993 and 2007 of the area,the LUCC and landscape pattern changes in the past 30 years were analyzed through remote sensing and GIS technology combining with the methods of Landscape ecology. Studied the date of three periods of land use and landscape patterns in Changbai Mountain region

  18. Nanotechnology and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Serrano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This book intends to present a comprehensive overview of recent progress with regard to different aspects of nanomaterials research and development that are closely related to their manufacture process, through to their release to the environment, identifying the critical areas undergoing further research.

  19. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  20. Picturing the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis Scott

    2011-01-01

    Around Scout Island Education Center, a site used by schools in Fresno County to explore the area's natural environment, a total of 200 cylinder-shaped concrete stools display tiles representing small mammals, flying insects, birds, wildflowers, and more. Twenty sets have been created by elementary, middle, and high-school art students as part of…

  1. Pollution and Potential Environment Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Sewage Irrigation Area%长期污灌农田土壤重金属污染及潜在环境风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 常庆瑞; 刘京; 刘钊; 刘海飞

    2012-01-01

    In a typical sewage irrigation area, 52 surface soil samples were collected to determine total concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmi-um(Cd), chromium(Cr), copper(Cu), mercury(Hg), nickel(Ni), lead(Pb) and zinc(Zn). The Nemero Synthesis Index and Hakanson's Environment Risk Index of soil heavy metals were evaluated and compared at different wastewater irrigation histories and distances from irrigation canal. The results showed that some soil heavy metals had been enriched in the topsoil due to long-term sewage irrigation. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were 9.88 mg·kg-1, 1.45 mg·kg-1, 88.41 mg·kg-1, 52.24 mg·kg-1, 1.38 mg·kg-1, 34.14 mg·kg-1, 55.01 mg·kg-1 and 151.16 mg·kg-1, respectively. In nearly half of samples, Cd and Hg concentrations have exceeded the pollution levels based on Chinese Environment Quality Standard for Soils, which have exhibited a very serious pollution trend. Based on the pollution index of eight elements, they followed: Cd>Hg>Ni>Cu>Zn>As>Cr>Pb. In addition, there existed extremely strong comprehensive environment risks for soil heavy metals, in which slight-strong ecological risk for Cd and strong ecological risk for Hg. The risk order of soil heavy metals is Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Ni>Cr>Zn. The comprehensive pollution index and ecological risk index of heavy metal increased with the increasing sewage irrigation histories and decreasing distances from irrigation canal. It is concluded that long-term wastewater irrigation was harmful to the ecological environment of farmland soils. In order to protect agricultural production safety and promote soil resource sustainable utilization, some necessary measures against soil heavy metal pollution in sewage irrigation farmland should be taken as soon as possible.%以西安市某典型污灌区农田土壤为研究对象,分析长期污水灌溉对表层土壤重金属含量及富集状况的影响,采用内梅罗指数法和Hakanson潜在生态危害指数法对其污

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contamination in aquatic environments adjacent to areas of multiple uses: to whom is that environmental liability?; Contaminacao por hidrocarbonetos aromaticos policiclicos (HPAS) em ambientes aquaticos adjacentes a areas de multiplos usos: a quem corresponde esse passivo ambiental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marina R.D.; Mirlean, Nicolai; Machado, Maria Isabel C.S. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil); Caramao, Elina B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Contamination often can be related to different activities, especially in areas with multiple uses. In these cases, studies are necessary to correctly evaluate the origin of contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds that have two main sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic processes. In Rio Grande City, located at the margins of Patos Lagoon estuary, south Brazil, there are several navigation and industrial activities. This work has the objective to determinate the origins of PAHs and to evaluate the contribution of different sources to the aquatic contamination. The sampling stations were classified according to three main types: industrial effluent, sewage and runoff. We collected sediments from the bottom of effluent channels and from the respective estuarine environments. The material was sieved (0,063 mm), dried, extracted in soxhlet apparatus with methylene chloride and GC-MS analyzed. The results showed that pyrolytic compounds were predominant, indicating the contribution of diffuse sources. This type of study was successful in relating PAHs with their sources, confirming the role of urban and other industries activities in this case of contamination, superimposed to the midstream e downstream activities of petroleum industry. (author)

  3. 城市大气环境下绿化植物叶片比叶重和光合色素含量%Leaf mass per area and photosynthetic pigments of greening plant species under different urban atmospheric environment.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会霞; 石辉; 李秧秧

    2011-01-01

    The contents of Pb, Cd, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll (a+b) and carotenoid) and leaf mass per area (LMA) of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Ligustrum quihoui Carr. Under different urban atmospheric environment were measured. The correlations between the contents of Pb, Cd in leaves and photosynthetic pigments, LMA were analyzed as well. The two plants showed significant differences in their absorption of Pb and Cd, photosynthetic pigments, and LMA under different urban environmental conditions. There were four classes of sampling sites: serious pollution areas (SP), medium level pollution areas (MLP), light pollution areas (LP) and comparatively pollution-free area (CPF). The general trend of contents of Pb, Cd, carotenoid in leaves and LMA was: SP > MLP > LP >CPF. Chla, Chlb, Chl (a+b) also significantly differred among the sampling sites, however, they showed a reverse trend. The absorption of Pb and Cd reduced the contents of Chi a, Chlb and Chl (a+b) in leaves, and significantly negative correlations (P0.05) were found between them. The contents of Cd in leaves increased the contents of carotenoid, but the effect of Pb was dependent on plant species. The absorption of Pb and Cd increased LMA of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. But for Ligustrum quihoui Carr., the effects of Pb and Cd were different LMA increased in parallel to the increasing contents of Pb in leaves. However, no obvious change in LMA of the effect of Cd was observed. Therefore, LMA, Chla/Chl b and the contents of Chla, Chlb, Chl (a+b) in leaves appeared to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban air environmental quality.%研究了大叶女贞Ligustrum lucidum Ait.)和小叶女贞(Ligustrum quihoui Carr.)在不同大气环境条件下叶片中Pb、Cd、叶绿素a(Ch1 a)、叶绿素b(Ch1 b)、类胡萝卜素(Car)的含量及比叶重(LMA),分析了因素之间的相互关系.不同环境条件下叶片中Pb、Cd、Ch1a、Ch1b、Ch1(a+b)、Car的含量及LMA具有显著

  4. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  5. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  6. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  7. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  8. Safe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  9. A case study on a typical environment pollution process in autumn over Tianjin area%天津市秋季典型环境污染过程个例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓云; 郭虎; 易笑园; 张广泉; 汪靖

    2012-01-01

    选择天津市秋季典型PM10污染过程2010年10月3—12日环境空气质量监测资料和常规气象资料、探空资料及NCEP资料,研究大气环境天气背景场、大气层结稳定度的特征及其对污染过程的影响。结果表明:高低空环流背景场与污染过程密切相关。在污染上升阶段,层结稳定度迅速增加,500 hPa高空处于槽前,地面在华北地形槽中,高低空风速辐合;在污染峰值阶段,层结稳定,逆温层加强,环流场稳定少变,地面风力微弱;在污染下降阶段,层结稳定程度骤降,地面冷锋和高空槽过境,降水出现,高低空偏北风增大。同时,PM10污染过程与多项层结稳定度参数显著相关,与对流凝结高度单相关系数为0.84,因此,高低空环流背景场的配置和层结稳定度变化是PM10污染出现的主要原因。%Based on the environmental air quality monitoring data,the conventional meteorological data,the sounding data and the NCEP reanalysis data,a typical pollution process in Tianjin during October 3-12,2010 was analyzed.The synoptic background field of atmospheric environment,the atmospheric stratification stability and its effect on the pollution process were discussed.The results indicate that the pollution process is closely relative to the upper and lower environmental background fields.During the increasing stage of pollution concentration,the stratification stability increases rapidly,and the upper level situation field at 500 hPa is located in the front of the trough,the surface situation field is in the topographic trough of North China,and the upper and lower wind speed converges.During the stage of pollution concentration summit,the atmospheric stratification and the environmental background are stable,the inversion layer is strong,and the surface wind is weak.During the decreasing stage of pollution concentration,atmospheric stratification becomes unstable quickly;the surface cold front and upper trough pass over

  10. Environment Debate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    resource diversity, environmental variability and global influences on local ... these relationship has moved from the biased technocratic objective assessment of ... The environment of a particular human group includes both cultural ... and analysis using a livelihood approach that incorporates local knowledge, perceptions, ...

  11. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  12. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    , as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found......, ultimately, the epistemic and ontic effects of fact-making in the heart of neoliberal capitalism....

  13. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec

  14. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  15. Learning to use our environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of the space environment, the earth environment, induced environments, the effects of pollution on the environment, reliability environments, contamination control and education in environmental sciences. Specific topics include the reflectance characteristics of solar absorbers, infrared remote sensing of environmental problems, aerodynamic design to reduce vehicle fuel consumption, desert environmental testing, intense noise testing, electromagnetic compatibility analysis, weapon structural and thermal testing, the digital processing of vibration data, and the environmental requirements of photovoltaic arrays. Attention is also given to the environmental effects of land use strategies, atmospheric visibility measurements, the environmental impact of alternate energy technologies, the relation of atmospheric carbon dioxide to climate, the pathological effects of nitrogen dioxide, the socioeconomic impacts of energy alternatives, water quality management, environment impact assessment procedures, combined environment reliability testing, clean room contamination control, and training in environmental health.

  16. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...... level. This paper thus inquires into the emergence of a European environmental policy from a diffusion of ideas perspective. Rather than focusing on multi-level policy making it seeks to trace the diffusion of environmental ideas from the level of international organizations to the European Communities...

  17. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  18. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    on the means by which architecture can enact places through socio-technical relationships. The architecture stands out as dynamic and open and carries emergent affects that facilitate interaction in a new configuration between objects and subjects. By crossing social and technological networks between flows...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  19. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  20. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  1. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  2. Environmental protection and antitrust laws. Principles of the law on competition in the area of environment-protection-related corporate communication in the Single European Market. Umweltschutz und Wettbewerbsrecht. Wettbewerbsrechtliche Prinzipien umweltbezogener Unternehmenskommunikation im europaeischen Binnenmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federhoff-Rink, G.

    1994-01-01

    The idea of environment protection has become a dominating motif in advertising. As yet there are no guiding principles in antitrust law which might provide some orientation in assessing environment-protection-related advertising. The purpose of the present book is to systematise this environmental advertising by creating case groups distinguished by legally relevant characteristics and set up principles of antitrust law for these case groups. The author presents a holistic communicational approach new to antitrust law which for the first time permits incorporating environmental sponsoring in this sphere of law. The informational duties on which this work centers are in harmony with the specific information principle of European environmental policies and promote the convergence of different prevailing trends in international commercial law. (orig.)

  3. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  4. Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

  5. Global environment outlook 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Part 1 describes the environmental impact of social and economic issues such as population, development, poverty, trade, tourism, industry and agriculture. Part 2 reviews the state of the environment based on recent assessments made by international institutions and regional collaborating centres. Global issues such as ozone, climate change, El Nino, and nitrogen loading, and universal issues of natural disasters, forest fires, land and food, forests, biodiversity, freshwater, marine and coastal areas, air and urban areas are discussed. Part 3 describes the broad range of policy instruments and responses available, the difficulties of compliance, implementation and assessment and sets out the major global and regional policy responses. Part 4 presents the results of a GEO 2000 SCOPE survey identifying key areas for further action and reports on the alternative policy studies undertaken by the collaborating centres. It concludes with suggestions for alternative policy action.

  6. Tibetan Dressing And Adornment In Yamzhog Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAMXUBAGONJORYUNDAIN

    2003-01-01

    The dressing of the people in Yamzhog (in the Nangarze County) is affected deeply by such areas as Lhasa and Xigaze (Xigaze area), and it has unique features because of the unique historical and geological environments in Yamzhog.

  7. Discovery of a large area of ice-wedge networks in Ordos:Implications for the southern boundary of permafrost in the north of China as well as for the environment in the latest 20 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhijiu; YANG Jianqiang; ZHANG Wei; ZHAO Liang; XIE Youyu

    2004-01-01

    The delineation of the southern boundary of the latitudinal permafrost in the north of China in the period of late Pleistocene, i.e. the last glaciation maximum (LGM), has been hampered for two reasons. Firstly, previous studies were limited to the eastern part of the north of China, and, secondly, the ages of the permafrost had not been determined systematically. In this paper, we suggest that the southern boundary of the high latitudinal permafrost in the north of China is bounded by approximately 38-40°N (eastern part) and 37-39°N (western part) lines of latitude based on our interpretation of periglacial phenomena and their implication to the environment during the late Pleistocene, and this southern boundary is plotted for the first time. Also, we reconstruct the migration of the southern latitudinal permafrost boundary and the environment after LGM. It is proposed that two cold stages occurred in the LGM at 26 kaBP and 23-13 kaBP, when the annual mean temperature was 8-12℃ lower than at present.

  8. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  9. 7. The Flemish Health and Environment Study (FLHES): area of residence is associate with significant differences in HPRT mutant frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women aged 50-65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Both exposure and effect biomarkers were measured in residents of Wilrijk and Hoboken, industrial suburbs of the big city of Antwerp, and in residents of Peer, a rural municipality with intensive agriculture (14,622 inha-bitants, 70 km east of Antwerp). Persons with known occupational exposures, or working in a region with pollution levels clearly different from the area of residence or commuting over long

  10. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect per...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas.......This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...

  11. ANALISIS KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN BERDASARKAN KOMUNITAS MEIOBENTOS DAN KUALITAS SEDIMEN DI PANTAI DAN AREA PERTAMBAKAN, PESISIR SRIWULAN KABUPATEN DEMAK (The Quality Analysis of Aquatic Environment based on Meiobentos Community and Sediment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhandis Sidqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tujuan studi ini meliputi (1 menentukan kualitas lingkungan daerah pesisir dan tambak ikan, kualitas sedimen, dan komunitas meiobentos, (2 menemukan hubungan antara kualitas sedimen dan meiobentos, dan (3 menentukan tingkat produktivitas peikampungan tambak ikan berdasarkan jarak, tingkat polusi dan destruksi. Parameter kualitas air dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif, sedangkan parameter sedimen dianalisis menggunakan PCA (Principal Component Analisys untuk menentukan distribusi spasial pada setiap stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Komunitas meiobentos diperiksa dengan menggunakan CA (Factorial Correspondence Analysis untuk mendeteksi tingkat distribusi spasial yang juga berdasarkan stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan korelasi dan regresi untuk memahami pengaruh parameter bebas terhadap produktivitas tambak ikan. Kemudian tes statistik non parametric dari Kruskall Wallis digunakan untuk membedakan produktivitas pada 3 desa berdasarkan jarak terhadap sumber pencemaran dan tingkat destruksi tambak ikan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa nilai parameter kualitas air (muddy, TSS NH3, NO2, beyond threshold level, negative redox potential (Eh sediment value/reduction zone, and IMLP adalah moderat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi air di daerah penelitian tidak stabil. Penelitian juga menunjukkan nilai indeks diversitas yang rendah, dominasi organisme meiobentos tertentu, dan konformitas antar komunitas bentos. Hasil tes statistik Kruskall Wallis menunjukkan adanya signifikansi antara produktivitas tambak ikan dengan factor jarak dan tingkat destruksi diantara 3 desa dalam daerah penelitian yaitu Bedono, Sriwulan. Purwosari yaitu dengan nilai produktivitas 0.65,0.56, 0.41 ton/hektar/tahun.   ABSTRACT The objective of this study area to determine the environmental quality of coastal area and fish ponds which are on water quality, sediment quality, and Meiobentos

  12. 40 CFR 258.15 - Unstable areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unstable areas. 258.15 Section 258.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL...) Karst terranes means areas where karst topography, with its characteristic surface and subterranean...

  13. 40 CFR 258.13 - Fault areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault areas. 258.13 Section 258.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.13 Fault areas. (a) New MSWLF units and...

  14. Urbanization Impact on Water Resources and Water Environment in Shijiazhuang's Urban Areas%城市化对石家庄城区水环境水资源的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳芹

    2013-01-01

    With the developm ent of urbanization, a series of hydrological effects are triggered like change of normal hydrological cycle, deteriora-tion of water environment,urban waterlogging and more outstanding gap between supply and demand of water resources. In this paper, we have analyzedandresearchedonurbanizationimpactonwaterresourcesandwaterenvironmentalinShijiazhuang'surbanareas,whichcanprovideref-erence for the protection and rational utilization of the city's water resources.%城市化的发展引发了一系列的水文效应:正常的水文循环发生改变、水环境恶化、城市内涝、水资源供需矛盾更加突出等问题。现通过城市化对石家庄城区水资源与水环境的影响的分析研究,为保护和合理利用城市水资源提供了参考。

  15. Revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of a crystalline rock environment, Whiteshell Research Area, Southeastern Manitoba, Canada; Modele hydrogeologique conceptual revise d`un milieu de roche cristalline, aire de recherche de whiteshell, sud-est du manitoba au canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D.R.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    A revised conceptual hydrogeologic model of regional groundwater flow in the crystalline rocks of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) has been developed by a team of AECL geoscientists. The boundaries of the revised conceptual model were selected to coincide with the natural hydraulic boundaries assumed for the regional groundwater flow systems in the WRA. The rocks of the modeled region were divided on the basis of fracture characteristics into three categories: fractured zones (FZs); moderately fractured rock (MFR); and sparsely fractured rock (SFR). The hydraulic properties of the revised conceptual model were modified during an interative process of mathematical model calibration and conceptual model revision. This process included sensitivity analysis and matching of equivalent fresh water hydraulic head and groundwater flux values calculated by the mathematical model and comparison with the field measurements.

  16. The Monitoring of Urban Environments and Built-Up Structures in a Seismic Area: Web-Based GIS Mapping and 3D Visualization Tools for the Assessment of the Urban Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Antonio; Costanzo, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Pannaccione Apa, Maria Ilaria; Gervasi, Anna; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo; Minasi, Mario; Stramondo, Salvatore; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Doumaz, Fawzi; Musacchio, Massimo; Casula, Giuseppe; Caserta, Arrigo; Speranza, Fabio; Bianchi, Maria Giovanna; Guerra, Ignazio; Porco, Giacinto; Compagnone, Letizia; Cuomo, Massimo; De Marco, Michele

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a non-invasive infrastructural system called MASSIMO is presented for the monitoring and the seismic vulnerability mitigation of cultural heritages. It integrates ground-based, airborne and space-borne remote sensing tools with geophysical and in situ surveys to provide a multi-spatial (regional, urban and building scales) and multi-temporal (long- term, short-term and near-real-time scales) monitoring of test areas and buildings. The measurements are integrated through web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) and 3-dimensional visual platforms to support decision-making stakeholders involved in urban and structural requalification planning. An application of this system is presented over the Calabria region for the town of Cosenza and a test historical complex.

  17. 民用飞机典型腐蚀环境区域的聚类及差异性研究%Cluster Analysis for Typical Ground Environment Areas of Civil Airports and Regional Difference Analysis for Corrosion of Civil Aircrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏景新; 张春晓; 徐天杰

    2012-01-01

    收集百余架某系列民航飞机近十年的腐蚀损伤数据,及其过夜停放的16个基地机场的气象环境指标数据,利用动态聚类分析方法,对基地机场的腐蚀环境区域进行了划分,得到对该系列飞机的腐蚀行为影响规律具有相似性的4类腐蚀环境区域。其次应用方差分析方法,对在不同类型机场环境区域的腐蚀频率进行了差异性研究。结果表明,不同机场环境区域的飞机结构腐蚀频率有显著的差异。研究成果对编制民用机场环境谱和进行腐蚀加速试验选取参数有重要的参考价值。%Based on the corrosion data of a series of aircraft for recent 10 years, meteorological and environmental indicators of aircraft base airports, using dynamic clustering method, the environmental areas of aircraft base airports were divided firstly, and then four types of corrosion environment area for corrosion behavior of this series aircraft were got out with similar affecting laws. Secondly, the corrosion frequency of different types of airport environment was investigated by analysis of variance. The results show that the aircraft corrosion frequency in different airport environments varied as region varied. This research provides an important reference for working out a civil airport environment spectrum and selecting the parameters for the acceleraed corrosion testing.

  18. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    Inhabitants in smart environments are often authenticated when they enter the smart environment, e.g., through biometrics or smart-/swipe-card systems. It may sometimes be necessary to re-authenticate when an inhabitant wishes to enter a restricted area or access ambient services or location based...... will not be installed unless it is absolutely necessary. The cost of installing and maintaining an authentication infrastructure and the inconvenience of repeatedly authenticating toward different location based service providers mean that new models of authentication are needed in smart environments. This paper...... defines a persistent authentication model for a smart environment, which tracks inhabitants in the smart environment from the point of authentication to the protected resource, thus rendering authentication persistent by correlating the initial authentication event with the access control request. We...

  19. Constitution Protects The Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a maglev train route linking Shanghai and Hangzhou,Zhejiang Province, worth over 35 billion yuan ($4.61 billion), and a 10-billion yuan ($1.32 billion) paraxylene producing factory in Xiamen,Fujian Province, were both ordered to suspend operations in May, in response to local residents’ outcries for further assessments on their environmental impacts. Cai Dingjian, professor at China University of Political Science and Law, says in an article published in Nanfang Daily on June 19 that a deteriorating environment ruins not only nature and the ecology, but also endangers the health of people living in the area.Since the right to survive is basic for human beings, a more scientific decision-making procedure is called for to endow the citizens living in surrounding areas of the projects more rights and respect.

  20. 乡村民居被动式太阳能设计与热环境分析%Practice and thermal environment analysis of passive solar house for rural areas in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 梁锐; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    The main problems of rural buildings in Ningxia Hui autonomous region are low thermal comfortableness, high consumption of energy and lack efficient use of solar and other renewable resource.By questionnaires to the existing dwelling defects, use modern building technologies, combine with solar fruitful energy resources, put forward the appropriate technologies of passive solar house on the basis of local economy and technology, and carry out the technologies in Jianfuqiao village demonstration projects. By comparing with old dwellings, testing thermal environment and analysis, verify the effectiveness of the passive solar energy in the northwest of the village dwellings, demonstrate the air temperature can be warmed up by attached solar house, and the coal consumption can be reduced.%宁夏地区乡村民居存在的主要问题是冬季室内温度低、舒适性差、采暖能耗高、太阳能等可再生资源缺乏有效利用.针对问题,通过问卷与入户调研掌握民居现存缺陷,立足太阳能富集特点,利用现代建筑技术,提出适合地方特点的太阳能被动利用设计方案,并在碱富桥村生态民居设计中进行了实践探索.通过比较分析,证明了太阳能被动利用技术在西北地区乡村民居中可以提高冬季室内温度,减少煤炭消耗,在经济与技术上具有可行性.

  1. Are in vitro methods for the detection of endocrine potentials in the aquatic environment predictive for in vivo effects? Outcomes of the Projects SchussenAktiv and SchussenAktivplus in the Lake Constance Area, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Henneberg

    Full Text Available Many studies about endocrine pollution in the aquatic environment reveal changes in the reproduction system of biota. We analysed endocrine activities in two rivers in Southern Germany using three approaches: (1 chemical analyses, (2 in vitro bioassays, and (3 in vivo investigations in fish and snails. Chemical analyses were based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For in vitro analyses of endocrine potentials in water, sediment, and waste water samples, we used the E-screen assay (human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and reporter gene assays (human cell line HeLa-9903 and MDA-kb2. In addition, we performed reproduction tests with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to analyse water and sediment samples. We exposed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario to water downstream of a wastewater outfall (Schussen River or to water from a reference site (Argen River to investigate the vitellogenin production. Furthermore, two feral fish species, chub (Leuciscus cephalus and spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus, were caught in both rivers to determine their gonadal maturity and the gonadosomatic index. Chemical analyses provided only little information about endocrine active substances, whereas the in vitro assays revealed endocrine potentials in most of the samples. In addition to endocrine potentials, we also observed toxic potentials (E-screen/reproduction test in waste water samples, which could interfere with and camouflage endocrine effects. The results of our in vivo tests were mostly in line with the results of the in vitro assays and revealed a consistent reproduction-disrupting (reproduction tests and an occasional endocrine action (vitellogenin levels in both investigated rivers, with more pronounced effects for the Schussen river (e.g. a lower gonadosomatic index. We were able to show that biological in vitro assays for endocrine potentials in natural stream water reasonably reflect reproduction and endocrine

  2. Under the Environment of High Temperature Easy Damage Area Analysis of Human Movement%高强度体育运动中人体运动的易损伤区域研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵希记

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析高强度体育运动中人体运动的易损伤区域.方法:进行不同的测试.结果:高强度运动组受试者心率明显升高,和正常运动组相比,具有显著性差异,而高强度运动组、正常运动组受试者的体温、收缩压及舒张压指标无显著性差异.高强度运动下能够使受试者血清SOD和MDA含量以及血清HPS70显著增加,和正常运动组相比具有显著性差异.高强度运动组和平常运动组受试者的IgA和IgG含量没有很大的变化.高强度运动使血清PRL含量和血清GH含量显著增加,与正常运动组相比具有非常显著性差异,血清皮质醇含量也显著增加,与正常运动组相比具有显著性差异.结论:高强度运动能够使人体运动的易损伤区域各相关指标发生显著的变化.%Objective: to analyse the high intensity sports human movement is easy to damage in the area. Methods:different test. Results: the heart rate increased significantly, the high intensity exercise groups compared with normal group, with significant difference, and the high intensity exercise group, normal group of subjects' body temperature,systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure index there was no significant difference. High intensity exercise can make patients serum SOD and MDA content and serum HPS70 increased significantly, compared with normal group with significant difference. High intensity exercise group and normal group of IgA and IgG levels have no big change. High intensity exercise makes the content of serum PRL and serum GH levels increased significantly, very significant difference compared with normal group, the serum cortisol content also increased significantly, with significant difference compared with normal group. Conclusion: high intensity exercise can make human body movement is easy to damage area of the significant changes in the relevant indicators.

  3. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L.; Birkmose, T. [The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO{sub 3} per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N{sub 2}O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs.

  4. 寒冷地区农村住宅冬季室内热环境研究*%Indoor Heat Environment for Rural Residential of Cold Areas in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 赵云兵

    2013-01-01

    DesignBuilder software analyzed the indoor thermal environment of the bedroom and living room of the rural typical residen-tial pattern and optimized scheme under the conditions with meteorological parameters in Beijing, Jinan, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Kashi, and Lhasa. The existing rural residential winter indoor average temperature is 7.4 ℃ and average relative humidity is 33.7%, room Fanger PMV value is-3.0. The average temperature of optimized scheme has increased by 6.5 ℃ to 13.9 ℃ than the existing typical rural residence; relative hu-midity decreased 10.1%, to 23.6%; indoor Fanger PMV value increased 1.8, indoor Fanger PMV value increased to -1.2. In cold regions, the sun space which be set in southward of dwelling house can averagely increase temperature 4.5 ℃, Fanger PMV value can be increased by 1.1;Suspended kang can averagely increase indoor temperature 2.8 ℃, improve the Fanger PMV 0.6.%  使用DesignBuilder分析了农村典型住宅与优化方案两种居住模式在北京、济南、西安、兰州、喀什以及拉萨气象参数条件下卧室和客厅的室内热环境,得出:寒冷地区现有农村住宅冬季的室内平均温度为7.4℃,平均相对湿度为33.7%,房格尔PMV值为-3.0;优化方案相对现有典型农村住宅,室内平均温度提高了6.5℃,达到13.9℃;相对湿度降低了10.1%,降至23.6%;房格尔PMV值提高了1.8,提高至-1.2;在寒冷地区保温性能良好的住宅南向设置阳光间可平均提高相邻房间的室温4.5℃,房格尔PMV值可提高1.1;设置吊炕可平均提高室内温度2.8℃,提高房格尔PMV值0.6。

  5. Phytolith characteristics and their significance of environment in surface soils from wetlands of Changbai Shan area%长白山区湿地表土植硅体特征及其环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅娥; 李楠楠; 介冬梅; 葛勇; 王婷; 李荣麟; 王刘奎; 王培明; 刘洪妍; 刘利丹

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands play an important role in the global environmental change, and phytolith analysis in surface soil of wetlands is a basis for reconstructing the palaeoenvironment in the Quaternary. In this paper, surface soil phytoliths were analyzed in six wetlands from Huanan to Hani in Changbai Shan area. The results show that the phytolith assemblages in all wetlands surface soil samples except for Shalan are similar. Elongate, crenate, rondel and point-shaped phytoliths are dominant, which reveals the cold climate. PCA and cluster analysis are used to find the environmental significance of the phytoliths assemblages in different wetlands surface soils. The results indicate that temperature is the chief factor to control the otherness of phytoliths assemblages in wetlands in Changbai Shan area, at the same time, the types and percentages of phytoliths are closely related to the plants, humidity and elevation in the sample sites. Combining difference analysis with the change trend analysis in phytolith dimension, we can find that the width and length of bicrenate, polycrenate and crenate sinuate as well as the length of elongate psilate, the length of ridge and the height in rondel hipped and width of the point-shaped phytoliths exist significant difference and increase with the temperature. In sum, the phytolith morphotypes in all the sites are similar, but differences in the warm index and the size of the phytoliths are obvious. The result reveals that the phytolith assemblages and the size are sensitive to temperature change.%湿地在全球环境变化中扮演着十分重要的角色,湿地表土中的植硅体分析是恢复第四纪古环境的重要途径.文中选取长白山区的桦南到哈尼一线的6处湿地表土,并采用PCA和CA分析植硅体组合的环境指示意义,结果显示:温度因子是造成长白山不同湿地表土植硅体组合差异的第1环境因子,且植硅体的种类和含量与采样点上覆植被、湿度与海拔等环境

  6. 禄丰基地烤烟生态环境和烟叶质量分析%Evaluation of Ecological Environment and Flue- cured Tobacco Quality in Tobacco -growing Areas of Lufeng Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    招启柏; 冯柱安; 周兴华; 胡钟胜; 杨佳雄

    2012-01-01

    利用云南省楚雄州江苏中烟禄丰烤烟生产基地的气候观测数据、土壤理化分析结果,分析了当地烤烟种植的气候适生性、气候相似性和土壤适宜性,通过分析禄丰基地烟叶外观质量、化学成分与感官质量,对烟叶质量作了综合评价.结果表明:(1)禄丰基地气候适生性指数(Climate Feasibility Index,CFI)为100%,为烟叶最适宜种植区;与国内烟区的气候相似性距离分布在0.50~0.99,与国外烟区的气候相似性距离分布在0.75~0.88,都达到高级相似.(2)禄丰基地的土壤适宜性指数(SFI)为0.73,达到2级水平,接近1级,土壤适宜于种植烤烟.(3)禄丰基地烟叶香型指数(K值)为0.26,为典型的清香型烟叶;烟叶成熟度好,叶片结构疏松,香气质较好,杂气和刺激性相对较小.%Based on the meteorological data and physicochemical properties of soil in Lufeng base of China tobacco Jiangsu industrial Co. , Ltd . , climate feasibility, climate similarity and soil feasibility were analyzed. By analyzing tobacco appearance, chemical components and sensory, comprehensive quality of tobacco leaves were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) climate feasibility index (CFI) of Lufeng base was 100%. Lufeng base was the most suitable planting area of tobacco. The similarity of the climatic conditions of flue-tobacco for other tobacco-growing areas reached the higher degree. The value of similarity ranged from 0. 50 to 0. 99. (2) Soil feasibility index of Lufeng base was 0. 73. SFI reached 2 class levels, close to 1 class levels, which suggested soil of the region was suitable for planting flue-cured tobacco. ( 3 ) By analyzing meteorological data of Lufeng base, tobacco flavor index ( K value) was 0. 26. Tobacco leaves were typical of clear scent. Tobacco leaf structure osteoporosis maturity were better. Quality of aroma was high, undesirable taste and biting taste were small.

  7. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  8. Evolution of soils and natural environment in the south area of the east european forest-steppe (on example investigation of the hill-forts located in Kharkov oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Koloda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to soil and archaeological investigations of hill forts located in the southern part of the Central Russian Upland forest-steppes, which made it possible to identify directions and stages of the Late Holocene evolution of plant cover within river valley parts of watersheds. Two types of hill forts were studied: those referring to the same historical epoch (Scythian and Saltov-Mayatsk ones and those having many layers. Paleoecological reconstructions have been carried out on the basis of comparative analysis of modern and ancient soils, buried under the defensive ramparts of the hill forts. In Scythian time, the watersheds adjacent to river valleys were open grasslands surrounded by forest vegetation. In the second half of the 1st millennium BC, these watershed lands were fully occupied by forests, which had displaced the steppe. The oscillatory nature of climate change in the Late Holocene influenced the spatial-temporal dynamics of vegetation and soil fertility. At the beginning of the Holocene Sub-Atlantic period 2800–2500 years ago, climate moistening favoured the expansion of woods along the slopes of river valleys and gorges to watersheds. Subsequent climate aridization (2500–1700 years ago stopped this process. A new stage of watershed covering with forests started no earlier than 1700 years ago – after new climate moistening. Episodes of climate aridization and steppe areas expansion in the Late Holocene favoured soil fertility growth in the territory of hill forts and around them. The expansion of woods related to climate moistening decreased soil fertility and negatively influenced grain farming capabilities.

  9. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  10. 西秦岭同仁隆务峡蛇绿岩矿物成分特征及构造环境%Mineral characteristics and tectonic environment of Longwuxia Gorge ophiolite in Tongren, West Qinling area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绘清; 朱云海; 林启祥; 李益龙

    2009-01-01

    Located in Tongren of Qinghai Province, the Longwuxia Gorge ophiolite lies at the juncture between West Qinling and Middle Qilian orogenic belts and is composed of mantle peridotite (dunite, serpentinized dunite), ultramafic cumulate units (clinopyroxene-peridotites, olivine-pyroxenites), mafic cumulate units (olivine-bearing gabbro, gabbro etc.) and diabases. All these units are in contact with faults and have been weakly altered. Polarized light microscope studies of thin sections reveal that the crystallization sequences is Ol→Cpx→(Opx)→Pl, consistent well with the marked SSZ-type ophiolite crystallization sequence. EPMA analyses of the minerals show that olivines belong to the chrysolite family, and clinopyroxenes mostly have the composition similar to that of augite and diopside. Discrimination diagrams based on clinopyroxene geochemical data indicate that ophiolite originated in a compression tectonic background related closely to volcanic-arc. REE concentrations of most samples assume the chondrite-normalized distribution pattern with weak LREE enrichment, which is very different from the pattern of MORB. The enrichment of large ion lithophile trace elements (e.g., Ba, Rb and Sr) and the depletion of Nb, P are similar to things of the subduction zone components. High field strength elements discrimination diagrams also prove the above conclusion. In addition, the ophiolite is supposed to have been derived from a mature island arc tectonic environment, with the participation of some continental crust materials during the formation process.%同仁隆务峡蛇绿岩大地构造位置位于西秦岭造山带与中祁连带结合部,其组成为:地幔橄榄岩(纯橄岩、蛇纹石化纯橄岩)、超镁铁质堆晶单元(单辉橄榄岩、橄榄辉石岩)、镁铁质堆晶单元(含橄榄石辉长岩、辉长岩等)及少量辉绿岩,各单元均以断层接触,弱蚀变.镜下研究发现其岩浆结晶序列为橄榄石-单斜辉石-(斜方辉石)-

  11. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  12. Exploring 24/7 environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Wendy; Klaasen, Ina

    2007-01-01

    24/7 environments – those areas where one can shop, eat out, find entertainment, etc., 24 hours a day and seven days a week – can be seen as underpinning urban vitality. But the question arises why they exist in some cities and seemingly not in comparable others. Finding that directly relevant

  13. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Onkar Ambekar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  14. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  15. RESEARCH ON THE LANDSCAPE OF RURAL RESIDENTIAL AREAS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT ENVIRONMENT SUITABILITY EVALUATION IN THREE GORGES TYPICAL REGIONS%三峡典型区农村居民点格局及人居环境适宜性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亮; 吴炳方; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    与我国平原区农村居民点呈团簇状分布不同,三峡库区农村居民点规模小、密度大、分布散乱,呈现出"满天星"状的分布格局.以渝北、万州和秭归移民区作为三峡典型区,利用面向对象分类和监督分类相结合的方法从高分辨率遥感影像提取了农村居民点.在此基础上利用GIS技术对农村居民点空间分布规律特征和制约农村居民点分布的要素如海拔、坡度、坡向、道路、水源等进行了分析;借鉴农用地评价方法,利用评价中的多指标综合评价法,结合层次分析法(AHP)生成人居环境适宜性评价图.研究结果表明,三峡农村居民点受到海拔、坡度、坡向等因子的影响呈现出较明显的空间分布规律.三峡典型区农村居民点格局及人居环境适宜性评价结果为农村居民点布局的合理规划提供了参考和依据.%Most rural residential areas in plain are centralized in China. Different with those rural residential areas, the rural residential areas in Three Gorges reservoir area are small-scale, high-density and very scattered,which form the unique landscape just like stars in sky. The emigration areas of Yubei, Wanzhou and Zigui were chosen as the typical regions of Three Gorges. The method that combines Object-oriented classification and supervised classification was used in the paper to extract the information of rural residential areas from high-resolution remote sensing data. On the basis of the classification result, the paper made use of geographic information system (GIS) technique to analyze rural residential areas distribution characteristics and the factors that can affect rural residential areas distribution such as elevation, slope, aspect, road, water source, etc. Moreover, the paper learned from rural land evaluation method, and made use of multi-index integral evaluation method combing with analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get the human settlement environment

  16. Monitoring and analysis of asbestos concentration in working environment of different asbestos-producing technologies in a certain area%某地区不同石棉生产方法作业环境中石棉水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋兆强; 陈钧强; 楼建林; 苗超; 邵迪初; 张幸

    2015-01-01

    ,brake production,and asbestos board production in Zhejiang Province were collected in the local CDC.A total of 766 TWA copies of mass concentration were collected,and 1233 copies of MAC data.Asbestos mass concentration and fibre counting concentration of 29 points of family hand spinning operation were parallel determinated in the same time and the same sampling point.Raw asesbtos materials and dust composition of local asbestos processing corporations were collected and analyzed using X-ray diffraction method.Results Raw materials of asbestos used between 1984 and 2010 in this area were chrysotile from Sichuan,Qinghai,Xinjiang,Russia,Zimbabwe,and some were mixed with SiO2,CaCO3 and other impurities.Raw materials used in asbestos board production were blue asbestos.Dust concentration between 1960s and 1980s in asbestos processing plants far exceeded the national standard.After then the dust concentration decreased significantly,but still higher than the national standard.95.2% of air dust concentrations in the workplaces of asbestos factories exceeded the standard,and dust concentrations of workplaces of raw material,spinning,weaving,carding and labor insurance were above 90% in which carding work had the highest median concentration.37.9% of dust mass concentrations in hand spinning work exceeded the standard where textile machinery side had the highest value.Beating job in asbestos board manufacturing and grinding job in brake production had higher concentrations.Conclusions Most of production technologies in asbestos processing industry exceed the standard level,indicating that the workers were at risk for malignant mesothelioma and other asbestos related diseases,which should draw high attention.

  17. 开展郑州航空港经济综合实验区综合地质环境工作的必要性%The Necessity of Carrying Out Comprehensive Geological Environment Work in Economic Comprehensive Experimental Area in Zhengzhou Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕志涛; 古艳艳; 邢会; 狄艳松

    2013-01-01

    本文以科学发展观为指导,采用现代地学勘查技术和信息技术,开展郑州航空港经济综合实验区综合地质环境调查。查明影响城市发展的资源、环境地质背景,为郑州航空港经济综合实验区的可持续发展规划和建设提供地质科学依据。综合评价城市发展的地质安全、资源保障能力和环境承载力,为郑州航空港经济综合实验区可持续发展规划、建设与管理及社会公众信息需求提供地质科学依据。%Guided?by?the?Scientific?Outlook?on?Development,?and?using?modern?geological?exploration?technology?and?information?technology,?we?have?carried?out?a?comprehensive?geological?environment?survey?in?economic?comprehensive?experimental?area?in?Zhengzhou?Airport.?We?have?found?out?resource?and?environment?geological?background?effecting?urban?development,?providing?geological?science?basis?for?the?sustainable?development,?planning?and?construction?of?economic?comprehensive?experimental?area?in?Zhengzhou?Airport.?What’s?more,?we’ve?conduct?a?comprehensive?evaluation?of?geological?safety,?resource?support?ability?and?environmental?carrying?capacity?of?urban?development,?providing?a?geological?science?basis?for?the?sustainable?development,?planning,?construction?and?management?of?economic?comprehensive?experimental?area?in?Zhengzhou?Airport?as?well?as?the?social?public?information?demand.

  18. 城市居住区景观绿化格局改善热环境变化的遥感监测分析%Plant landscape patterns improvement of the thermal environment based on remote sensing in the urban residential areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 秦俊; 胡永红

    2012-01-01

    This study took the independent residential areas as objectives in Shanghai central area to model and analyze the thermal environment based on remote sensing. The relative thermal environmental factors had residential area, building floor area ratio, green rate, arbor proportion and the plaque broken rate. Main results: Under the regional average temperature of 35 ℃, the temperature would decrease 0.15℃ when residential area green coverage increased 10%; the temperature would decrease 0.17 ℃when proportion of green arbor increased 10%; the temperature would decrease 0.1℃ when residential average plaque area increased 100 m2. Generally, the heat island effect decreases with the increase of the three indicators of green rate, arbor proportion and the green average plaque size, and there were significant negative correlations between them. The residential thermal environment index is built based on the above three indicators, which provides the possibility to get residential thermal environment condition by the use of aerial photograph.%以上海中心区域同地段的独立小区为研究对象,利用遥感技术对影响居住区内热环境改善方面的几个主要关键因子(居住区面积、建筑容积率、绿化覆盖率、乔木配置和斑块破碎率)进行了分析模拟,以期为解决居住区热环境状况,提供准确、有效的科学数据.结果表明,在区域平均气温达35℃时,居住区绿化覆盖率每增加10%,可降温0.15℃;居住区乔木面积比每增加10%,可降温0.17℃;居住区平均斑块面积每增加100m2,可降温0.1℃.总体上,居住区的热岛效应随着绿化率、乔木比例和平均斑块面积的增加而降低,居住区温度与着绿化率、乔木比例和平均斑块面积之间存在显著的负相关,通过这3个指标拟合建立的居住区“热环境指数”,可以为航片拍摄获取每个居住区的热环境状况而成为可能.

  19. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  20. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  1. 基于少数民族视角的新型城镇化与生态环境保护协同发展探究--以重庆渝东南为例%Research on Cooperative Development between New Urbanization and Ecological Environment protection Based on the perspective of Minority Nationality---A case study of Chongqing Southeast Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章君; 李俊峰

    2015-01-01

    与传统的城镇化相比,新型城镇化更强调以人为本,以农民工的市民化为核心。农民工与原城镇居民享有同等的社会福利水平,生活质量逐渐提高,城市精神、城市文明日益进步以及城市生态环境在城镇化进程中亦得到不断改善、协同发展。重庆渝东南地区在“土地城镇化”的传统模式下,生态环境面临着巨大压力和挑战,城镇化与生态环境保护之间的矛盾日趋加剧。因此,选择新型城镇化之路是适合渝东南民族地区经济和社会发展的最佳选择,坚持城镇化与生态环境协同共进,最终实现城镇化与资源环境保护的良性互动、共赢发展。%Compared with the traditional urbanization,the new urbanization pays more emphasis on the principle of peo-ple_oriented,with the core citizenization of the migrant workers. Migrant workers and urban residents enjoy the identi-cal social welfare,quality of life improved gradually,city spirit,city civilization progress day by day and urban ecologi-cal environment in the urbanization process has also been continuously improving and coordinating with development. The ecological environment in Chongqing southeast region under the traditional pattern of land urbanization is facing e-normous pressure and challenges,and the contradiction between urbanization and ecological environment protection is becoming more and more intensified. Therefore,to choose the path of new urbanization is the best choice of economic and social development of ethnic minority area in Southeast Chongqing;adhere to the cooperative development of urbani-zation and ecological environment,and eventually realize the virtuous interaction and win_win development of urbaniza-tion and the protection of resources and environment.

  2. Urban Areas--Partial Creators of Their Own Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotz, Glen A.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes typical urban-rural atmospheric differences, focuses on heat islands as an example of observable alternation-response effects, and briefly describes some simple exercises which are intended to illustrate the reason for such temperature differences. (Author/DE)

  3. Individual Differences in Military Training Environments: Four Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-30

    and Caylor, J.S. (1971). Effects of aptitude (AFQT). job experience, and literacy on job performance: Summary of HUMRRO work units utility and...Review of Psychology, 35, 519-55!. Williams, R.J. and Rimland, B. (1977). Individuality. In Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychoanalysis . New

  4. 水上赛事对风景区水域水环境的影响——以黄山太平湖风景区全国摩托艇锦标赛为例%The Impact of Aquatic Competition Games on the Water Environment in Tourism Areas——A Case Study of Motorboat Tournament in the Huangshan Scenic Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 祁红; 付蕾

    2011-01-01

    在文献资料法,实地考察法和典型案例研究法的研究基础上,采用水环境监测的方法,分析在旅游风景区举办摩托艇赛事对水环境的影响。发现该赛事对风景区开放水域产生了轻度污染,特别是重金属类、石油类、氨氮总量等对水体产生的污染较大。针对摩托艇赛事对风景区水域水环境的影响提出一系列该赛事的环保对策,以期有利于摩托艇赛事和基于摩托艇运动的体育旅游业的发展。%This paper reports evidence on how motorboat racing affects the water environment in tourism areas based on the method of water environment monitoring,literature review,on-field survey and case study.It finds that there is an evidence of light pollution in open water due to motorboat racing,especially the pollution related to heavy metals,petroleum,and ammonia nitrogen.Several measures are proposed to protect water environment from undesirable impact of motorboat racing,which will help the development of motorboat racing events and sport tourism attractions based on the event in the future.

  5. 武陵山片区企业经营环境与发展战略研究--以湘西州为例%The Study of Business Environment and Development Strategy in Wuling Mountain Area---Taking Xiangxi Prefecture as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玲; 贾宇杨; 丁聪; 姚明; 李甫; 任鑫

    2014-01-01

    改善企业经营环境,进行恰当的战略选择,已成为武陵山片区促进企业稳步发展,带动经济增长的关键问题。课题组通过对武陵山片区的湘西州企业发展的现状进行调查,立足于企业发展的内外部经营环境的分析,运用战略地位和行动评估矩阵SPACE分析法对湘西州企业发展的基本战略进行定位。%Improving the operating environment of the enterprise and selecting the appropriate strategy have become the key issue of promoting the enterprise developing steadily and spurring economic growth in Wuling Mountain Area.By investigating present situation of enterprise development in Xiangxi prefecture,based on analysis of the internal and external business environment,the research group use strategic position and action matrix SPACE analysis method to develop the basic strategy of localization for enterprise development in Xiangxi prefecture.

  6. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  7. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  8. Quality assessment of urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere - urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  9. Collaborative design in virtual environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) are multi-user virtual realities which actively support communication and co-operation. This book offers a comprehensive reference volume to the state-of-the-art in the area of design studies in CVEs. It is an excellent mix of contributions from over 25 leading researcher/experts in multiple disciplines from academia and industry, providing up-to-date insight into the current research topics in this field as well as the latest technological advancements and the best working examples. Many of these results and ideas are also applicable to other areas su

  10. On the urban-rural differences in classroom environment in compulsory education in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China%中国东部沿海地区义务教育阶段城乡课堂环境差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芙蓉; 谢利民

    2008-01-01

    运用对中国东部沿海发达地区的上海、温州和鳌江三地的小学、中学总计18个学校789名学生进行了调查,结果表明在新课程改革现阶段,东部沿海发达地区课堂环境现实状况是:(1)学生满意度是中等偏上,教师的支持与投入高于学生的合作、课堂秩序和学生的学习参与.(2)存在显著的城乡差异,在合作、教师参与和教师支持方面都是大城市好于中等城市,中等城市好于乡镇;在秩序和学生参与方面,大城市好于乡镇,乡镇好于中等城市.(3)可以分成高值、中值和低值三种类型,三种类型在地区上的分布为大城市、中等城市和乡镇.f4)地区人均GDP是影响课堂环境的一个主要因素.%Totally 789 students from 18 schools (9 primary schools and 9 junior high schools) at a medium managed level from Shanghai,Wenzhou,and Aojiang,which are located in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China were investigated with the questionnaire of Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale in this study.The result indicates that the actual classroom environment in the Eastern coastal developed areas at the present stage of curriculum reform is as follows.(1) The satisfaction of the students is above the average.Teachers' involvement and support are higher than collaboration,classroom order and the student involvement.(2) There are significant differences between urban and rural areas.The big cities are better than the middle-sized cities,while the latter are better than the counties in the aspects of collaboration,teacher involvement and support.The big cities are better than counties,but the counties are better than the middle-sized cities in the aspects of classroom order and student involvement.(3) The three main types of the actual classroom environment are high,middle and low ones,which distribute in a descending way in big cities,middle-sized cities and counties.(4) Per capita GDP of a region is a main factor affecting classroom

  11. Lixões inativos na região carbonífera de Santa Catarina: análise dos riscos à saúde pública e ao meio ambiente Inactive dumps in Santa Catarina´s carboniferous area: analysis of risks to the public health and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pagani Possamai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A existência de lixões inativos aumenta consideravelmente o assim denominado "passivo ambiental"; tanto que a destinação final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos ocupa lugar primordial na pauta das questões ambientais das sociedades¹. No estado de Santa Catarina, pode-se afirmar que, atualmente, é formalmente desconhecido o estado real em que se encontram os "depósitos de destinação final" ou, mais simplesmente, os lixões inativos. Isto é talvez mais evidente na região carbonífera do estado, já tão sacrificada pelos impactos ambientais da mineração do carvão. Este trabalho buscou realizar um levantamento dos lixões inativos na região carbonífera de Santa Catarina, analisando os riscos que estes representam à saúde pública e ao meio ambiente. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, dos onze municípios pertencentes à região carbonífera, nove possuem lixões inativos. Nesses nove municípios, há onze lixões inativos que, segundo a presente avaliação, apresentam grande risco à saúde da população e ao meio ambiente quando considerados os parâmetros analisados.The existence of inactive dumps considerably increases the so-called "environmental liability"; so much so that the final destination of urban solid residues takes a prominent place on the list of environmental issues of societies¹. In the state of Santa Catarina, it can be said that, currently, the real conditions of the "final destination deposits", or simply the inactive dumps, is officially unknown. This is maybe most evident in the carboniferous area of the state that already suffers from the environmental impact of coal mining. This study attempts to make a survey of the inactive dumps in the carboniferous area of Santa Catarina, analysing the risks they represent to public health and to the environment. The results gathered show that, of the eleven municipal districts in the carboniferous area, nine have inactive dumps. In these nine districts, there are

  12. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  13. Physical chemistry and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ``Physical Chemistry and the Environment`` was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community.

  14. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  15. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  16. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  17. Model for a Healthy Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice.

  18. The concurrent common Lisp development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the Concurrent Common Lisp Development Environment on the iNTEL Personal Super Computer (iPSC) is presented. The advent of AI based engineering design tools has lead to a need for increased performance of computational facilities which support those tools. Gold Hill has approached this problem by directing its efforts to the creation of a concurrent, distributed AI development environment. This discussion focuses on the development tools aspect of the CCLISP environment. The future direction of Gold Hill in the area of distributed AI support environments is also presented.

  19. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  20. Investigating Changes in Coastal Environment Using Internet-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Changes in Coastal Environment Using Internet-Based ... of the coastal areas was modified from water body to residential areas, 1.10% from ... of the people (marine, tourism and fishing activities) has been adversely affected.

  1. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf nu

  2. 基于生态环境约束的三峡库区移民后扶工作的新思路%Constraint-based ecological environment new ideas on after-immigration help in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范乔希

    2011-01-01

    Taking the restriction of " ecological environment" in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area as the starting point, the ideas of after-immigration help were rearranged and reconstructed. Multifunctional agriculture was arranged as the priority areas of after-immigration help to develop so as to resolve the following key issues, such as the weak support of traditional industries, the little improvement of emerging industries, the lack dependence of immigration employment and the lack surface treatment of ecological environment. The agricultural output should develop towards the high-end products of appropriate scale, and abandon the repeated and low-end staple crop, in order to present the "famous high quality" characteristics of mountainous agriculture in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. However, eco-environmental effects of agriculture should be as much as possible combination with the rich tourism resources of the reservoir basin. Thus, a beautiful environment was provided for "scenic, tourist attractions and fine line". At the same time, combination between the output of the multi-functional agriculture and the development of reservoir tourism resources would occur. Consequently, rural leisure travel was developed and strapping industrial chain was extended. Namely, the output of the "famous high quality" agricultural products was created for unique tourism products with mountain characteristics through the introduction of new industries.%以三峡库区“生态环境”的约束为切入点,对移民后扶工作的思路进行重新安排和重构.将多功能农业视为移民后扶的重点领域加以发展,以解决传统产业支撑乏力、新兴产业起色不大、移民就业缺乏依托和生态缺乏面上治理等关键问题.农业的产出功能可以向适度规模的高端产品发展,摒弃重复低端的大宗作物,尽显库区山地农业的“名特优”特征,而农业的生态环境效应则尽可能地与库区流域丰富的旅游资源结

  3. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    comparadas con base en estimaciones de la diversidad para medir la riqueza, dominancia y análisis de varianza (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 31.134 formas inmaduras de mosquitos en las bromelias, distribuidas en siete géneros y 37 especies. El ambiente urbano registró mayor abundancia, 14.575 individuos, seguido del periurbano con 10.987, y la selva virgen, con el menor número de ejemplares, 5.572. Fueron colectadas 30 especies en el habitat urbano, 32 en el periurbano y 33 en la selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus en los ambientes urbano y perirurbano, y Culex ocellatus en la selva. De acuerdo con el test de ANOVA la frecuencia de mosquitos en bromelias no fue diferente entre los ambientes investigados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. La diversidad de especies en la selva fue mayor, y semejante entre el periurbano y el urbano. CONCLUSIONES: La composición específica de culícidos en bromelias de suelo se mostró diversificada, siendo mayor en aquellas de ambientes de selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJECTIVE: To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens, followed by the periurban (10,987 and then the forest environment (5,572. There were collected 30 species

  4. Rock-forming and Ore-forming Ages as well as Formation Environments of Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits in Beishan Area, Inner Mongolia%内蒙古北山地区斑岩型钼矿的成岩成矿时代和形成环境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨岳清; 赵金花; 孟贵祥; 严加永; 吕博; 王守光; 贾玲珑; 韩建刚

    2013-01-01

    A nearly EW-trending molybdenum (copper) ore belt was found in Beishan area of Inner Mongolia. The relatively large deposits in this belt include Liushashan molybdenum deposit, Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit and Xiaohulishan molybdenum deposit., Re-Os isotope dating of molybdenite samples from these three deposits yielded isochron ages of (260±10) Ma (Middle Permian), 332.0 Ma (Early Carboniferous) and 220 Ma (Late Triassic) respectively. Obviously, different metallogenic epochs reflect different environments for the formation of these deposits. Based on new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age data of the porphyry related to mineralization as well as basic rock and ore geochemical work, the authors revealed the formation environments of the three deposits from the angle of regional crustal evolution. In the Early Paleozoic, the three deposits were in Kazakhstan plate, and in the Late Paleozoic, due to the development of Hongshishan-Baiheshan-Pengboshan area from rift valley to ocean basin, the position of the Liushashan molybdenum deposit was split into the Tarim plate. Due to the difference in subduction mechanism and underlying basement, tectono-magmatic activities were somewhat different in two island arcs. In active marginal belt of north Tarim plate, magmatic activity was unusually strong and lasted from Carboniferous to the end of Permian. In the early stage, mineralization was dominated mainly by iron, and molybdenum (copper) deposits were formed in the late stage. Magmatic activity of the marginal belt in south Kazakhstan plate was a bit weaker than that in the northern marginal belt of Tarim plate, and the magmatic activity was mainly concentrated in Carboniferous; in such an environment, the Elegenwulanwula molybdenum deposit was formed. At the end of Permian, the split plate of Beishan area became a unified plate again through collage. From that time on, Beishan area entered into an environment of intra-continental crustal activity, and stretching

  5. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  6. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  7. Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2006-01-01

    How to protect the environment becomes one of the biggest problems in the world.Rubbish not only pollutes our environment,but also harms people’s health, so we shouldn’t scatter litter.Some factories

  8. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  9. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  10. THE RIGHT TO ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica Paraschivescu; Carmen Elena Radu

    2011-01-01

    This study refers to the fundamental right of the human being to have a healthy, ecologically balanced environment as well as to the necessity of recognizing and guaranteeing this right. We analyze the major components of the human being environment protection, the right to water, the right to fresh air, the right to the environment of the human settlements, the relationship: health – environment. A special attention is given to the integration of the sustainable development in the EU policie...

  11. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  12. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  13. The Community Succession of Sarcosaphagous Insects on Pig Carcasses in Summer Indoor and Outdoor Environment in Shenzhen Area%深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上嗜尸性昆虫的群落演替

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓钧; 马孟云; 周晖; 赖跃; 王江峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:根据深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要嗜尸性昆虫的生长发育和群落演替规律来推断死亡时间(PMI)。方法从2013年5月初到8月初,在深圳市公安局法医检验中心模拟的室内、外场地分别放置成年猪尸体两头,观察尸体腐败的过程和猪尸体上出现主要昆虫的种类,记录猪尸体腐败各阶段的历期,以及主要昆虫在尸体上的群落演替。结果室内、外的猪尸体分别经历了412.5 h和325 h进入白骨化阶段。主要的嗜尸性昆虫,蝇类以大头金蝇、绯颜裸金蝇、星岛金蝇,甲虫类以大隐翅甲、赤颈郭公甲、丽腐阎甲、白腹皮蠹为优势代表性种类。室外猪尸体在较多雨水的影响下,优势蝇群明显产生二代,室内的猪尸体上未见较大规模二代产生。结论深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要昆虫的群落演替有规律性,7种代表性昆虫及其幼虫整体的活动规律对推断PMI有较大的意义。%Objective To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcos-aphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Methods From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Med-ical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposi-tion process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. Results The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously

  14. 我国中西部地区产业R & D环境满意度实证研究--以IT产业为例%An Empirical Research on Industrial R & D Environment Satisfaction in China’s Midwest Area---A case of IT Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢乐斌; 徐雁南

    2015-01-01

    policy are the main influ‐ence factors that significant positive correlation with IT industrial R&D environment satisfaction .Finally ,we proposed countermeasures and advices for improving IT Industrial R&D environment in China's Midwest area and boosting regional technology innovation ability .

  15. [Environment and rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  16. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  17. Analysis on Land Use Dynamic Change and Its Impact on the Water Environment in Dianchi Lake Drainage Area%滇池流域土地利用动态变化及对流域水环境的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪; 黎海林; 陈震

    2012-01-01

    interpretation technology to generate the distribution situation of land use at four time points.The ArcMAP module in the ArcGIS was used to conduct a map overlapping analysis,the transition matrix of land use spatial dynamic change was established according to Markov model and 2 indices of land use area variation rate and land use dynamic state were used to quantitatively analyze the land use structural change in the study area,in which the unit root test and cointegration test were adopted to analyze the simulation of land use and water environment change in the drainage area.On the basis before that,Markov forecast model was used and both the land use results in the later period and the effect on the water environment were forecast with the Matlab software.The results showed that: ① the land use situation in the Dianchi Lake basin in the past 30 years had significantly changed,in which the changes of the arable land,construction land and other similar changes were extremely great,while the changes of the water body and forestland were not so obvious;② the results of Markov model forecast showed that the land for construction in the study area further increases through 2015 to 2030,while the woodland,water body and other types of land further decreases,but the rate of decrease is gradually becoming smaller and the cultivated land area continues to decrease as well;③the correlativity existing between TP and BOD under 5% significant level and COD under 20% significant level can be obtained;④the indices of water pollution have a tendency of continuous deterioration over the years.

  18. Indoor Environment Program. 1992 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.

  19. 40 CFR 160.49 - Laboratory operation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laboratory operation areas. 160.49 Section 160.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 160.49 Laboratory operation areas. Separate...

  20. Microfacies and Environment Analysis of the Carboniferous Carbonates in Jiangyou-Guangyuan Area, Sichuan Province%四川江油—广元地区上石炭统碳酸盐岩微相及其沉积环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦龙; 贾志海; 王伟; 罗雷; 李俊青

    2012-01-01

    micrite ooids ( MF11 ), Bioclastic-Oncoid grainstones ( MF12-1 ), On- coid grainstones (MF12-2), Aggregate-grain grainstones (MF13), Conglomerates grainstones (MF14), Crystal powder secondary dolomites (MF15-1) and Fine secondary dolomites (MF15-2). Based on these microfacies in the features of the vertical and horizontal combination , four sedimentary facies belts can be summarized according to the microfacies combination as winnowed platform edge sands (FZ6), open platforms (FZ7), restricted platforms (FZ8) and platform evaporates (FZ9). The combination characteristics of the depositional facies belts indicate that several transgression to regression occurred during the late Carboniferous and the maximum transgression occurred the late Huanglong Formation with Carbonate deposit in the northwest Sichuan and eastern Sichuan. The studied special layer in Jiangyou-Guangyuan area have shown that four storm layers and storm sedimentary combi- nations are formed in the upper shelf environment as proximal storms rocks in Huanglong Formation, such as storm shell limestones, storm calcirudites, storm nodular limestones, storm calcarenites, scouting structures, graded beddings, knotty- like structures, scale beddings, horizontal beddings, current beddings, bioturbate structures and so on. ICP-MS is used to determine REE contents of oncolite carbonate rocks of the Chuanshan Formatiom in these are- a. The analyses of the REEs are related to their depositional environments, especially EREE, LREE, HREE, ~Ce, 8Eu and Y/Ho are displayed regularly. The LREE patterns are a little rightward heeling, and the HREE patterns are fiat. ~Ce vary from 0.43 to 0.74, and the average of all samples is 0.59. They all have obviously negative ~Ce anom- alies, as indicated strong Oxidation environments during the Chuanshan Stage. Some samples have negative ~Eu a- nomalies and some have positive ~Eu anomalies. As indicate that REE characteristics are affected by ancient climate cycles (glacial-in%四川

  1. Methodology and application of sustainable environment concepts for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artuso, Luisa; Nijkamp, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The paper takes for granted that urban areas - and hence the built environment - may play a catalytic role for effective environmental policy. This position is based on the fact that most residential, production and transportation activities in the developed world take place in urban areas. A major

  2. Saúde e ambiente em sua relação com o consumo de agrotóxicos em um pólo agrícola do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Health, environment, and pesticide use in a farming area in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Peres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agrotóxicos na lavoura é uma realidade nacional, assim como é do tamanho de nosso país a dimensão dos problemas relacionados a este uso. Sua ampla e crescente utilização no processo de produção agropecuária, entre outras aplicações, tem gerado uma série de transtornos e modificações para o ambiente, seja através da contaminação das comunidades de seres vivos que o compõem, seja através da sua acumulação nos segmentos bióticos e abióticos dos ecossistemas (biota, água, ar, solo, sedimentos etc.. Também se apresenta como determinante de uma série de doenças e agravos à saúde das populações humanas. O presente trabalho discute algumas implicações do uso de agrotóxicos para a saúde humana e o ambiente da região serrana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, importante pólo agrícola estadual. Para tanto, apresenta resultados de estudos realizados na região, apontando para os possíveis determinantes do quadro ora vigente na região e alguns dos principais desafios de superação do problema.Pesticide use in agriculture is a nationwide phenomenon in Brazil, and the problem is proportional to this vast country. The widespread and growing use of pesticides for crops and cattle-raising, among other applications, has caused a number of environmental changes and problems, both by contaminating the communities of living beings that comprise the environment and by accumulating in the biotic and abiotic segments of ecosystems (biota, water, air, soil, sediments etc.. Pesticides also cause a number of diseases and health problems in human populations. The current article discusses several pesticide-related implications for human health and the environment in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, an important farming center. The article presents the results of research in the area, identifying possible determinants of the current situation and some of the main challenges for dealing with the problem.

  3. Analysis and simulation of land cover and thermal environment in mining area based on remote sensing data and CA_Markov model%基于遥感和CA_Markov模型的煤矿区热环境与土地覆盖变化模拟评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培; 杜培军; 逄云峰

    2012-01-01

    针对遥感影像在定量描述土地覆盖和热环境分布方面的优越性,利用支持向量机(SVM)分类器对遥感影像进行分类,获取土地覆盖图,利用单窗算法反演获取地表温度。通过将元胞自动机和马尔科夫模型结合,构建CA_Markov模型对土地覆盖和热环境时空格局进行模拟与分析。采用定量景观指数和土地利用转移矩阵进一步挖掘了研究区空间信息,综合模拟与预测了土地覆盖和热环境时空变化特征。实验结果表明:利用遥感影像定量反演热环境特征时空分布与预测是可行的,CA_Markov模型能够有效地揭示和预测矿区土地覆盖变化和热环境演变趋势。%According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and thermal environment, multi-objective information processing was employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover and thermal environment in mining areas. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify remote sensing images and derive regional land cover maps, mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve land surface temperature from thermal infrared images. And land cover change and thermal environmental trends were simulated by CA_Markov mod- el. Quality landscape indexes and land use and land cover transfer matrixes were selected to analysis and assess the dynamic changes trend of different land cover types as well. The results demonstrate that it is signification and suitable to retrieval thermal environmental, evaluate and analyze its distribution and trend using remote sensing methods. CA_ Markov model is able to predict land cover and thermal environmental trends with good performance.

  4. The Ragnarok Software Development Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    1999-01-01

    Ragnarok is an experimental software development environment that focuses on enhanced support for managerial activities in large scale software development taking the daily work of the software developer as its point of departure. The main emphasis is support in three areas: management, navigation......, and collaboration. The leitmotif is the software architecture, which is extended to handle managerial data in addition to source code; this extended software architecture is put under tight version- and configuration management control and furthermore used as basis for visualisation. Preliminary results of using...

  5. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  6. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  7. Characterizing environment friendly tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Reinsberg, Cicilie; Vinje, Linn Therese

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of sustainable tourism research today is to find tourists that have a low environmental impact on destinations, which can also be defined as environment friendly tourists. The majority of earlier studies on this topic have focused on characteristics of ecotourists, assuming that these are the only tourists that are environment friendly. Few have tried to identify characteristics of environment friendly tourists using a sample from the general tourist population....

  8. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs.

  9. Man & Sound Environment 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings to the conference "Man and Sound Environment 2010" arranged by The sound Envirnment Center at Lund university. Ulf Landström, Swedish Noise Research Network & Frans Mossberg The Sound Environment Centre at Lund university. CONTENTS: Preface – Symposium “Man and Sound Environment 2010” The prevalence of noise problems. Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway Effects of ...

  10. Artificial neural network for multifunctional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fagarazzi, Claudio; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to the appropriate planning of the territory are particularly pronounced in highly inhabited areas (urban areas), where in addition to protecting the environment, it is important to consider an anthropogenic (urban) development placed in the context of sustainable growth. This work aims at mathematically simulating the changes in the land use, by implementing an artificial neural network (ANN) model. More specifically, it will analyze how the increase of urban areas will develop and whether this development would impact on areas with particular socioeconomic and environmental value, defined as multifunctional areas. The simulation is applied to the Chianti Area, located in the province of Florence, in Italy. Chianti is an area with a unique landscape, and its territorial planning requires a careful examination of the territory in which it is inserted.

  11. Analysis on Management of Entrepreneurial Environment for Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YANG

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial behavior of returning migrant workers plays a significant role in development of rural areas. Management of entrepreneurial environment can stimulate enthusiasm of migrant workers for entrepreneurial activities,reducing their entrepreneurial costs,and increasing the probability of their success in entrepreneurial activities. Management of entrepreneurial environment includes management of financing,system,technology,and social network environment. It is recommended to improve fitting and mutual adaptation of different types of environment through consolidating various types of environment,and make overall environment management from the entrepreneurial process of migrant workers,so as to improve enthusiasm of migrant workers for entrepreneurial activities and increase the probability of successful entrepreneurial activities.

  12. Water environment and zooplankton community structures in surface and bottom layer seawater in mari-culture area in Dapeng Cove coastal water%大鹏澳养殖海域表底层水环境及浮游动物群落结构的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓邦平; 杨宇峰

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal changes in water environment culture and zooplankton community between the sea surface layer and the bottom layer in fish fanning area, shellfish farming area and control area in Dapeng Cove were studied during May 2007- Apr. 2008. The results showed that the difference of DO level between the two layers were significant (p <0.01), the annual average concentrations of DO in the sea surface layer were 5.46,7.26 and 8.10 mg/L, respectively. The highest annual average concentrations of TN ,TP, PO4-P, SiO3 -Si, TIN and the lowest value of pH were all recorded in the fish fanning area. 82 species of zooplankton were recorded during the survey period. The similarity of the species composition between the sea surface layer and the bottom layer were 85.37%. Protozoans and nauplii are the most dominant component, accounting for 93.63% ,91.64% ,81.69% in the sea surface layer and 92.04% , 90.33% ,82.83% in the bottom layer of the total zooplankton abundance,respectively. The difference of the densities of zooplankton between the two layers were significant (p <0.05). The densities of zooplankton were higher in the sea surface layer than in the bottom layer. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton ( <0.2 mm) was higher in the sea surface layer (0.533) than in the bottom layer (0.367 ) .the frequency of micro-zooplankton ( <0.3 mm) was higher in the mariculture area (0.785) than in the control area (0.540).The small-sized zooplankton was dominant in the mariculture area in Dapeng Cove.%2007年5月~2008年4月对大鹏澳鱼类养殖区、贝类养殖区、自然海区(对照区)进行了每月一次的调查,分析比较了不同站点表底层水环境因子和浮游动物种类组成、数量变动的季节差异.结果表明:3个站点表层溶解氧年均值分别为5.46、7.26和8.10 mg/L,表层高于底层,表底层差异极显著(p<0.01);总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、活性磷酸盐(PO4-P)、活性硅酸盐(SiO3-Si

  13. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  14. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, O. T. S.; Saito, K.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island.

  15. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  16. An Engaging Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…

  17. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  18. SMashup Personal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatti, Mohamed; Jarke, Matthias; Wang, Zhaohui; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Chatti, M. A., Jarke, M., Wang, Z., & Specht, M. (2009). SMashup Personal Learning Environments. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  19. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  20. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cochrane; Laurent Antonczak

    2015-01-01

    Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  1. Quantum Robots and Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes a quantum computer and needed ancillary systems on board. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activities include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase and possible recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes of neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. To each task is associated a unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics. T = T_{a}+T_{c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step ...

  2. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run........ In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...

  3. Ubiquitous Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Carl Gustaf

    This chapter presents the Ubiquitous Working Environments, a vision for the work environments of the future and how this vision is manifested in current experimental environments and projects at KTH. Building upon the Ubiquitous Computing paradigm, our research targets environments, which support collaborating mobile workers in a seamless way, providing work support anywhere and anytime. In our design work so far, we have been particularly interested in the following three design aspects: First, context aware, proactive, and adaptive services; second, ad hoc configuration and synchronization of available resources, including both devices and services; third, new ways of sharing and using resources in a work environment. The systems we design comprise both devices, services, and their interfaces.

  4. Genesis Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  5. Environment Assumptions for Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Jobstmann, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis problem asks to construct a reactive finite-state system from an $\\omega$-regular specification. Initial specifications are often unrealizable, which means that there is no system that implements the specification. A common reason for unrealizability is that assumptions on the environment of the system are incomplete. We study the problem of correcting an unrealizable specification $\\phi$ by computing an environment assumption $\\psi$ such that the new specification $\\psi\\to\\phi$ is realizable. Our aim is to construct an assumption $\\psi$ that constrains only the environment and is as weak as possible. We present a two-step algorithm for computing assumptions. The algorithm operates on the game graph that is used to answer the realizability question. First, we compute a safety assumption that removes a minimal set of environment edges from the graph. Second, we compute a liveness assumption that puts fairness conditions on some of the remaining environment edges. We show that the problem of findi...

  6. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth....... In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  7. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  8. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  9. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  10. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  11. Islam and Environment: Education Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Fathil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Muslim views that nature belongs to God and human beings must show that they are grateful by learning how to use and manage it well so that it can provide benefits to the mankind. Exploiting nature taught by Islam is based on the utilization of responsibility that provides benefits not only for its content but also its intact and sustainable opportunities to cultivate and for rehabilitation or to help speed up its recovery. Humans are required to have certain characters towards nature, which means dealing with nature by maintaining sustainability. Therefore, God gives cues to enable people to control themselves in exploitation of the natural resources which causes defection that can harm and even destroy human life. For that reason, Islam forbids destructing or harming the environment ranging from very small actions and trivial such as prohibiting throwing human faces under a fruit tree, in the river, on the road, or in the shelter areas. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH is also very concerned about the preservation of wildlife, as described in the Hadith narrated by Abu Dawood. Even Prophet never reprimanded one of his companions during the Hijrah period to take the chicks out of the nest. Similarly, Islam cares about the environment created by God which human beings are mandated to maintain nature properly and responsibly. Keywords: Concept of Islam, the environment, education.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  12. Energy Utilization by Guinan Households in a Resettlement Area of "Three-River-Source" and Its Effect on the Ecological Environment%三江源移民安置区农户能源利用及对生态环境影响——以贵南县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵庆文; 张永勋; 赵贵根

    2012-01-01

    三江源地区是长江、黄河、澜沧江三大河流的发源地,是我国重要水源涵养区,由于其生态系统十分脆弱,生态地位特殊,受到广泛的关注。本研究从三江源移民安置区农户能源利用对三江源生态系统影响的角度,使用问卷调查法、半开放式访谈法和生态系统服务功能评价法,对三江源移民安置区农户能源利用现状、农户对现有能源满意度和农户能源环保认知对三江源生态系统服务功能价值影响进行研究,结果表明:①三江源移民安置区种植农户能源利用结构较多样,以畜粪和秸秆为主要能源,放牧农户能源利用结构单一,基本依靠畜粪;②农户普遍对能源现状满意度低,放牧农户满意度低于种植农户;③农户倾向于使用环保能源,但对能源环保认知度较低,阻碍了清洁能源的广泛使用;④农户使用生物质能源导致生态系统服务功能价值每年损失约23.6737亿元。%The Sanjiangyuan area in Qinghai Province contains the headwaters of the Yangtze,Yellow and Lancang Rivers and is an important water conservation zone.The Sanjiangyuan Area is a key ecological and environmental protection area in China since any changes there will directly relate to the ecological safety of the broader country,and possibly the world.Unreasonable production modes,such as burning dung,reclaiming grassland and excessive herding are harmful to the ecosystems in this area.Energy utilization in rural areas typically relies on direct consumption from biomass and there are many impacts from burning of cattle dung and crop wastage by local households for cooking,boiling water and heating in winter.Recently,with increasing population pressure,the relationship between rural energy resources and the natural environment has presented severe problems.Here,we selected Guinan county in the Sanjiangyuan Area as our focal site and conducted questionnaire surveys,semi structured interviews and used

  13. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  14. Introduction. Population and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J; Zaba, B

    1992-01-01

    The complexity of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental concerns is often obscured when the global picture is presented. The variety and complexity of population-environment associations varies with spatial aggregation; analysis is needed at all levels. Of the many organizations involved in researching and discussing these associations, the International Social Science Council established a working committee on population and the environment, which held a symposium in January 1991. 9 papers were the topic of discussions and are summarized in this article. Attention was focused on pollution emissions and population growth by the environmental scientist Paul Harrison. The increased demand for water was discussed as it related to rapid urbanization and changes in agricultural production and industrial development policies. David Noin's paper was on the increased occurrence of natural disasters and mortality, i.e., cyclones and floods. The population densities surrounding areas of natural disasters excluding droughts have increased and contributed to greater impacts. Alina Potrykowska and Roger Bivend provided information on the trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. Mortality increases have appeared during the course of industrialization. Data for Poland on environmental variables such as dust and gas emissions, volume of untreated waste, and hazardous waste are available for 49 voivodships. The most polluted areas show a statistically significant relationships with high morality. Ken Wilson presented his views on the contradiction that African famines did not cause population decline. The possible interpretations are misinterpretation of data, inappropriate scales of measurement, and a misspecification that social, economic, and political changes will improve the population environment links. Matthew Lockwood presented his findings on northern Nigeria that migration is an important cause of high density population, and that

  15. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  16. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  17. ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH TO URBAN ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIFFMAN, BERNARD M.

    OUR POPULATION HAS BEEN SHIFTING FROM RURAL TO URBAN CENTERS FOR SEVENTY YEARS, REFLECTED BY THE FACT THAT IN 1900, 78 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION LIVED IN RURAL AREAS, IN CONTRAST TO 33 PERCENT IN 1960. THESE STATISTICS REVEAL THAT ALL PEOPLE, AND ESPECIALLY RURAL YOUTH, MUST LEARN TO LIVE IN A CHANGING URBAN ENVIRONMENT. IT IS A MISTAKE TO…

  18. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  19. Estratigrafía, ambientes deposicionales e icnología del Paleozoico inferior en el área de Azul Pampa, provincia de Jujuy Stratigraphy, Depositional Environments and Ichnology of the Lower Paleozoic in the Azul Pampa Area - Jujuy Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Such

    2007-09-01

    bioturbación en los ambientes de alta energía, un incremento en la icnodiversidad a lo largo de gradientes de salinidad, la abundancia de substratos firmes en los ambientes marinos marginales cámbricos y un incremento en el grado y profundidad de bioturbación a traves del Ordovícico Temprano.Cambrian-Ordovician deposits are widely represented in the Azul Pampa area, Cordillera Oriental, Jujuy Province. The stratigraphic column begins with the Mesón Group (Lower to Middle Cambrian which records shallow-marine sedimentation in a tide-dominated environment. The Mesón Group includes the Lizoite, Campanario and Chalhualmayoc formations. The Lizoite and Chalhualmayoc formations contain subtidal sandbar deposits similar to those farther south in the Quebrada de Humahuaca region and surrounding areas. The Campanario Formation includes intertidal flat and channels deposits, representing the regressive maximum of the Mesón Group. Overlying the Mesón Group is an Upper Cambrian to Arenigian succession previously referred to as the Casayok Sandstones and Azul Pampa Formation. Integrated sedimentologic, paleontologic and sequence-stratigraphic studies indicate that these units are lithologically similar and temporarily equivalent to the Santa Rosita Formation (Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian and the Acoite Formation (Arenigian, respectively, which are widely accepted in adjacent areas. Thus, the Casayok Sandstones and Azul Pampa Formation nomenclature can be abandoned. The lower interval of the Santa Rosita Formation is represented by tide-dominated estuarine deposits of the Pico de Halcón Member, while the upper interval is included in the Alfarcito Member and consists of wave-dominated shallow-marine deposits, ranging from the upper shoreface to the lower offshore and displaying a series of transgressive-regressive cycles. The Acoite Formation records a basinwide maximum transgressive episode and is dominated by shelf deposits with subordinate offshore deposits. There is an

  20. 珠江在广州城区河段的演变及其对城市生态环境的影响%Evolution of the Pearl River Course in Urban Area of Guangzhou and Its Influence on Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫清华; 袁少雄; 陈波

    2013-01-01

    珠江河道广州城区段的演变在广州城市生态环境演变,特别是在城市防洪减灾中起着至关重要的作用。本文融合珠江在广州城区河段(珠江隧道-海印桥)古代、近代、现代的地图资料、遥感资料和文献资料,选取典型断面数据,建立了各断面不同时段的岸线图谱,定量反映珠江该段河道的时空演变特征,根据近年来人类工程活动等相关研究成果,推演珠江河道的演变趋势,分析河道演变对于城市生态环境和城市防洪减灾产生的影响。结果显示:20世纪50年代以前,珠江河道以0.6~0.8m/a的速度逐步缩窄;50年代以后,随着珠江堤围系统的完善,河道平面形态总体趋于稳定,局部断面仍在缩窄,最后讨论珠江河道缩窄对城市洪涝灾害、水环境污染、生物多样性等几个方面的影响。研究成果可为城市发展及水环境保护决策提供理论和现实依据。%Evolution of the Pearl River course in Guangzhou has a crucial impact on ecological environment. This paper integrated the data from ancient maps, historical records and modern remote sensing to build a graphic library for the representative river section of the Pearl River in urban area of Guangzhou, which quantitatively reflected the evolution characteristics of the urban river course. Combining the results from other relevant researches, the paper also deduced the evolution trend of the river channel. The results showed that the Pearl River channel narrowed with a rate of 0.6-0.8 m/a before the 1950s. Since then the whole section shape tended to be stable except parts of the course that changed greatly. At last, the paper discussed the influence of the river course evolution on urban ecological environment.

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  2. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment......, measured as ‘psychosocial well-being’, were found at workplaces managed in accordance with democratic principles....

  3. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  4. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  5. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  6. More with thermal energy storage. Report 7. Interference. Effects of thermal energy storage systems on the environment. Modelling of large-scale implementation in urban areas. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 7. Interferentie. Effecten van bodemenergiesystemen op hun omgeving. Modellering grootschalige inpassing in stedelijke gebieden. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oostrom, N.; Bakr, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-06-29

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The objective of this report is to gain insight in the mutual influencing of heat and cold storage systems in areas where several such systems occur close to each other. This insight might contribute to a policy and/or model approach to interference [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en

  7. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  8. Quantum Robots Plus Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Benioff, P

    1998-01-01

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system including an on bord quantum computer and ancillary systems, that interact with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include carrying out measurements and physical experiments on the environment. Environments considered so far in the literature: oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are shown to be special cases of environments considered here. It is noted that quantum robots should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of computation and action phases, is described by a unitary step operator. Overall system dynamics is described in terms of a Feynman sum over paths of completed computation and action phases. A simple task example, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D space lattice, with quantum phase path and time duration dispersion present, is analyzed.

  9. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations...

  10. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  11. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  12. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  13. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  14. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  15. Business Game Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Valcke, Martin; Van Vilsteren, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Valcke, M., & Van Vilsteren, P. (1997) Business Game Learning Environment. Design and development of a competency-based distance education business curriculum at the Open University of the Netherlands.

  16. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  17. 粤北覆盖区复杂环境隐伏铅锌矿探测技术集成有效性研究%Effective research of detection technology integration in concealed lead-zinc mine under complex environment in covered area,north Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆一敢; 李学彪; 曾高福; 乔小芳; 敬荣中; 周奇明

    2014-01-01

    凡口铅锌矿是粤北地区超大型铅锌矿床,发育独特的覆盖区复杂地质环境。本文以凡口铅锌矿为例,在前人研究的基础上,应用高精度磁法、可控源音频大地电磁法、土壤电吸附、氡气、吸附烃-汞气体测量、及导电率等多种物化探勘查技术。通过对凡口矿床及外围进行对比分析和研究,建立凡口矿区有效探测技术集成,优选方法组合为高精度磁法、CSAMT、土壤吸附烃-汞气体及氡气测量,CSAMT中低阻异常、烃-汞正异常重叠区域、在构造有利部位是矿体的主要赋矿部位。结合矿区资料,预测在212剖面线(120~140)号间,宽度约700~800m,62剖面线(60~80)号间,宽度约800m 存在两处有利的赋矿异常,为凡口铅锌矿深部找矿预测研究提供切实可行的勘查技术与方法。%Fankou Pb-Zn ore deposit is a superscale lead-zinc deposit in northern area of Guangdong with cov-erage soil and unique complex geological environment.Taking Fankou Lead-zinc deposit for an example,it is based on the previous research for application of high precision magnetic method,controlled source audio fre-quency magnetotelluric method,soil electric adsorption,radon,adsorption hydrocarbon-mercury gas meas-urement,and the conductivity and other geophysical and geochemical exploration technology.The compara-tive analysis and research of Fankou lead-zinc ore deposit and its periphery area are carried out to establish ef-fective detection technology integration,optimization method for high precision magnetic method,CSAMT, soil adsorption hydrocarbon-mercury gas and radon measurement,CSAMT low resistance anomaly,hydro-carbon and mercury anomaly overlap region for that the construction site is the main advantage of orebody mine site.Based on these data,ore forecast along No.212 profile (120 ~ 140 dots)are carried out in the width of about 700~800 meters,while ore forecast along No.62 profile (60~80 dots)are also carried out in the width

  18. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  19. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  20. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...